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Sample records for airborne microorganisms laboratory

  1. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  2. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2) Dete

  3. Airborne microorganisms in Lascaux Cave (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Martin-Sanchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lascaux Cave in France contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings. The importance of the paintings, one of the finest examples of European rock art paintings, was recognized shortly after their discovery in 1940. In the 60’s of the past century the cave received a huge number of visitors and suffered a microbial crisis due to the impact of massive tourism and the previous adaptation works carried out to facilitate visits. In 1963, the cave was closed due to the damage produced by visitors’ breath, lighting and algal growth on the paintings. In 2001, an outbreak of the fungus Fusarium solani covered the walls and sediments. Later, black stains, produced by the growth of the fungus Ochroconis lascauxensis, appeared on the walls. In 2006, the extensive black stains constituted the third major microbial crisis. In an attempt to know the dispersion of microorganisms inside the cave, aerobiological and microclimate studies were carried out in two different seasons, when a climate system for preventing condensation of water vapor on the walls was active (September 2010 or inactive (February 2010. The data showed that in September the convection currents created by the climate system evacuated the airborne microorganisms whereas in February they remained in suspension which explained the high concentrations of bacteria and fungi found in the air. This double aerobiological and microclimate study inLascauxCave can help to understand the dispersion of microorganisms and to adopt measures for a correct cave management.

  4. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

      Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the spread of diseases between farms, and the relationship between microorganisms and dust remain unclear. In order to better understand airborne transmission and to set up effective control techniques, this s...

  5. Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A method of characterization of airborne micro-organisms in a given location involves (1) large-volume filtration of air onto glass-fiber filters; (2) accelerated extraction of membrane lipids of the collected micro-organisms by use of pressurized hot liquid; and (3) identification and quantitation of the lipids by use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This method is suitable for use in both outdoor and indoor environments; for example, it can be used to measure airborne microbial contamination in buildings ("sick-building syndrome"). The classical approach to analysis of airborne micro-organisms is based on the growth of cultureable micro-organisms and does not provide an account of viable but noncultureable micro-organisms, which typically amount to more than 90 percent of the micro-organisms present. In contrast, the present method provides an account of all micro-organisms, including cultureable, noncultureable, aerobic, and anaerobic ones. The analysis of lipids according to this method makes it possible to estimate the number of viable airborne micro-organisms present in the sampled air and to obtain a quantitative profile of the general types of micro-organisms present along with some information about their physiological statuses.

  6. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

      Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the spread

  7. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  8. The Efficient Method for Simultaneous Monitoring of the Culturable as Well as Nonculturable Airborne Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation-based microbiological methods are a gold standard for monitoring of airborne micro-organisms to determine the occupational exposure levels or transmission paths of a particular infectious agent. Some highly contagious microorganisms are not easily culturable but it is becoming evident that cultivation and molecular methods are complementary and in these cases highly relevant. We report a simple and efficient method for sampling and analyzing airborne bacteria with an impactor-type...

  9. Removal of airborne microorganisms emitted from a wastewater treatment oxidation ditch by adsorption on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Gao, Min; Liu, Junxin; Guo, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosol emissions from wastewater and wastewater treatment processes are a significant subgroup of atmospheric aerosols. Most previous work has focused on the evaluation of their biological risks. In this study, however, the adsorption method was applied to reduce airborne microorganisms generated from a pilot scale wastewater treatment facility with oxidation ditch. Results showed adsorption on granule activated carbon (GAC) was an efficient method for the purification of airborne microorganisms. The GAC itself had a maximum adsorption capacity of 2217 CFU/g for airborne bacteria and 225 CFU/g for fungi with a flow rate of 1.50 m3/hr. Over 85% of airborne bacteria and fungi emitted from the oxidation ditch were adsorbed within 80 hr of continuous operation mode. Most of them had a particle size of 0.65-4.7 microm. Those airborne microorganisms with small particle size were apt to be adsorbed. The SEM/EDAX, BET and Boehm's titration methods were applied to analyse the physicochemical characteristics of the GAC. Relationships between GAC surface characteristics and its adsorption performance demonstrated that porous structure, large surface area, and hydrophobicity rendered GAC an effective absorber of airborne microorganisms. Two regenerate methods, ultraviolet irradiation and high pressure vapor, were compared for the regeneration of used activated carbon. High pressure vapor was an effective technique as it totally destroyed the microorganisms adhered to the activated carbon. Microscopic observation was also carried out to investigate original and used adsorbents.

  10. Characterization of Airborne Microorganisms at Nationaltheatret Subway Station

    OpenAIRE

    Valen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosols containing pathogenic microorganisms can have health implications when respired. Of special concern are potential bioterrorism attacks conducted by deliberate aerosolization of hazardous toxins or pathogenic microorganisms. Investigation aiming at understanding the normal state of the bioaerosol environment is essential to facilitate detection of biological threat agents and deviations from the normal background. This MSc thesis presents a pilot study for investigation of the bioa...

  11. Airborne and laboratory studies of interstellar PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Hudgins, D. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of the observations which have led to the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are the carriers of the widespread interstellar emission features near 3050, 1615, '1300' and 890 cm(exp -1) (3.29, 6.2, '7.7', and 11.2 mu m) is presented. The central role of airborne spectroscopy is stressed. The principal reason for the assignment to PAH's was the resemblance of the interstellar emission spectrum to the laboratory absorption spectra of PAH's and PAH-like materials. Since precious little information was available on the properties of PAH's in the forms that are thought to exist under interstellar conditions -isolated and ionized in the emission zones, with the smallest PAH's being dehydrogenated- there was a need for a spectral data base on PAH's taken in these states. Here, the relevant infrared spectroscopic properties of PAH's will be reviewed. These laboratory spectra show that relative band intensities are severely altered and that band frequencies shift. It is shown that these new data alleviate several of the spectroscopic criticisms previously leveled at the hypothesis.

  12. Removal of airborne microorganisms emitted from a wastewater treatment oxidation ditch by adsorption on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Min Gao; Junxin Liu; Xuesong Guo

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosol emissions from wastewater and wastewater treatment processes are a significant subgroup of atmospheric aerosols.Most previous work has focused on the evaluation of their biological risks.In this study, however, the adsorption method was applied to reduce airborne microorganisms generated from a pilot scale wastewater treatment facility with oxidation ditch.Results showed adsorption on granule activated carbon (GAC) was an efficient method for the purification of airborne microorganisms.The GAC itself had a maximum adsorption capacity of 2217 CFU/g for airborne bacteria and 225 CFU/g for fungi with a flow rate of 1.50 m3/hr.Over 85%of airborne bacteria and fungi emitted from thc oxidation ditch were adsorbed within 80 hr of continuous operation mode.Most of them had a particle size of 0.65-4.7 μm.Those airborne microorganisms with small particle size were apt to be adsorbed.The SEM/EDAX,BET and Boehm's titration methods were applied to analyse the physicochemical characteristics of the GAC.Relationships between GAC surface characteristics and its adsorption performance demonstrated that porous structure, large surface area, and hydrophobicity rendered GAC an effective absorber of airborne microorganisms.Two regenerate methods, ultraviolet irradiation and high pressure vapor, were compared for the regeneration of used activated carbon.High pressure vapor was an effective technique as it totally destroyed the microorganisms adhered to the activated carbon.Microscopic observation was also carried out to investigate original and used adsorbents.

  13. Toward Understanding Prevalence of Airborne Microorganisms in a Hot-Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hameed A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine prevalence of microorganisms in the air state and those associated particulate matter (PM in a hot arid environment (Makkah city, Saudi Arabia in relation to time of the day, PM concentration and meteorological conditions during the period between July and September 2014. PM and black smoke samples were collected on cellulose nitrate membrane filters during the daytime (8.00 am - 20.00 pm and the nighttime (20.00 pm - 8.00 am. PMs, filters were eluted in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soya agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes associated PM, respectively. Airborne microorganisms were collected using an Andersen two stage impactor sampler equipped with Petri plates containing the previously mentioned agar media. The Andersen two-stage viable cascade impactor sampler separates particles into coarse (≥8 µm and fine (≤8 µm size fractions. Airborne microorganisms were taken at three day time-scales: in the morning (8 am - 10 am, at the afternoon (13.00 pm - 16.00 pm and in the evening (22.00 pm - 1.00 am. The average concentrations of PM (149.5 µg/m3 and smoke (57.03 µg/m3 were higher in the daytime and nighttime, respectively. The greatest concentrations of microorganisms associated PM were found in the daytime, however the peak concentration of airborne microorganisms was found in the evening time. Fine microbial fraction constituted ~60% - 75.9% of the total microbial concentrations. Positive correlations were found between bacteria with PM concentration in the daytime and meteorological conditions at the nighttime. Temperature and relative humidity positively affected survivability of microorganisms associated PM at the nighttime and airborne fungi as well. This study helps understand distribution pattern of microorganisms in the atmosphere of a hot-arid environment.

  14. Concentrations and emissions of airborne endotoxins and microorganisms in livestock buildings in Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seedorf, J.; Hartung, J.; Schröder, M.; Linkert, K.H.; Metz, J.H.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Uenk, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of airborne endotoxins and microorganisms in livestock buildings (cattle, pig, poultry) was surveyed in four European countries (England, The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany). Measurements were made during the day and night. The endotoxin concentrations were determined from dust s

  15. Concentrations of airborne endotoxin and microorganisms at a 10,000 cow open-freestall dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined animal production systems produce elevated bioaerosol concentrations, which are a potential respiratory health risk to individuals on site and downwind. In this study, airborne endotoxin and microorganisms were collected during the spring, summer, and fall at a large open-freestall dairy i...

  16. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  17. Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-11-01

    Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

  18. Airborne microorganisms associated with waste management and recovery: biomonitoring methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Coccia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from a year-long indoor bioaerosol monitoring performed in three working environments of a municipal composting facility treating green and organic waste. Composting, whereby organic matter is stabilized through aerobic decomposition, requires aeration, causing the dispersion of microbial particles (microorganisms and associated toxins. Waste can, therefore, become a potential source of biological hazard. Bioaerosol samples were collected on a monthly basis. Through a comparison of results obtained using two samplers - the Surface Air System DUO SAS 360 and the BioSampler - the study aimed at assessing the presence of biological pollutants, and at contributing to the definition of standard sampling methods for bioaerosols leading, eventually, to the establishment of exposure limits for these occupational pollutants.

  19. Real-time detection of an airborne microorganism using inertial impaction and mini-fluorescent microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Sang Soo; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2014-01-07

    To achieve successful real-time detection of airborne pathogenic microorganisms, the problem must be considered in terms of their physical size and biological characteristics. We developed an airborne microorganism detection chip to realize the detection of microorganisms, ensuring compactness, sensitivity, cost-efficiency, and portability, using three key components: an inertial impaction system, a cartridge-type impaction plate, and a mini-fluorescent microscope. The inertial impaction system was used to separate microorganisms in terms of their aerodynamic particle size, and was fabricated with three impaction stages. Numerical analysis was performed to design the system; the calculated cutoff diameter at each impaction stage was 2.02 (first stage), 0.88 (second stage), and 0.54 μm (third stage). The measured cutoff diameters were 2.24, 0.91, and 0.49 μm, respectively. A cartridge-type impaction plate was used, composed of molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and an actual impaction region made of a SYBR green I dye-stained agar plate. A mini-fluorescent microscope was used to distinguish microbes from non-biological particles. Images of the microorganisms deposited at the impaction zone were obtained via mini-fluorescent microscopy, and fluorescent intensities of the images were calculated using in-house image-processing software. The results showed that the developed system successfully identified aerosolized biological particles from non-biological particles in real time.

  20. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  1. Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2006-08-01

    Samples from soil and leaf litter were obtained at a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza; 25.0°S, 31.5°E) and their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) were measured using the out-of-plane scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Diffuser Calibration Facility (DCaF). BRDF was measured using P and S incident polarized light over a range of incident and scatter angles. A monochromator-based broadband light source was used in the ultraviolet (uv) and visible (vis) spectral ranges. The diffuse scattered light was collected using an uv-enhanced silicon photodiode detector with output fed to a computer-controlled lock-in amplifier. Typical measurement uncertainties of the reported laboratory BRDF measurements are found to be less than 1% (k=1). These laboratory results were compared with airborne measurements of BRDF from NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) instrument over the same general site where the samples were obtained. This study presents preliminary results of the comparison between these laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements and identifies areas for future laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements. This paper presents initial results in a study to try to understand BRDF measurements from laboratory, airborne, and satellite measurements in an attempt to improve the consistency of remote sensing models.

  2. The efficient method for simultaneous monitoring of the culturable as well as nonculturable airborne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubad, Barbara; Lapanje, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation-based microbiological methods are a gold standard for monitoring of airborne micro-organisms to determine the occupational exposure levels or transmission paths of a particular infectious agent. Some highly contagious microorganisms are not easily culturable but it is becoming evident that cultivation and molecular methods are complementary and in these cases highly relevant. We report a simple and efficient method for sampling and analyzing airborne bacteria with an impactor-type high-flow-rate portable air sampler, currently used for monitoring culturable bacteria or fungi. A method is reported for extraction of nucleic acids from impacted cells without prior cultivation and using agarose as a sampling matrix. The DNA extraction efficiency was determined in spiked samples and, samples taken from a wastewater treatment plant and an alpine area. The abundance, diversity and quantity of total bacteria were analysed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and by construction and analysis of clone libraries. The method does not interfere with downstream PCR analysis and can cover the gap between traditional culture and molecular techniques of bioaerosol monitoring.

  3. CNR LARA project, Italy: Airborne laboratory for environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fiumi, L.; Marino, C. M.; Pignatti, S.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing interest for the environmental problems and the study of the impact on the environment due to antropic activity produced an enhancement of remote sensing applications. The Italian National Research Council (CNR) established a new laboratory for airborne hyperspectral imaging, the LARA Project (Laboratorio Aero per Ricerche Ambientali - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Research), equipping its airborne laboratory, a CASA-212, mainly with the Daedalus AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. MIVIS's channels, spectral bandwidths, and locations are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. MIVIS can make significant contributions to solving problems in many diverse areas such as geologic exploration, land use studies, mineralogy, agricultural crop studies, energy loss analysis, pollution assessment, volcanology, forest fire management and others. The broad spectral range and the many discrete narrow channels of MIVIS provide a fine quantization of spectral information that permits accurate definition of absorption features from a variety of materials, allowing the extraction of chemical and physical information of our environment. The availability of such a hyperspectral imager, that will operate mainly in the Mediterranean area, at the present represents a unique opportunity for those who are involved in environmental studies and land-management to collect systematically large-scale and high spectral-spatial resolution data of this part of the world. Nevertheless, MIVIS deployments will touch other parts of the world, where a major interest from the international scientific community is present.

  4. Scrubber capabilities to remove airborne microorganisms and other aerial pollutants from the exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Zhao, Y.; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess the efficiency of air scrubbers to reduce airborne microorganisms in the exhaust air from animal houses. First, in a field study, the effects of a bio-scrubber and an acid scrubber on total bacterial counts were assessed. Higher bacterial counts were found in the

  5. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  6. Portable automatic bioaerosol sampling system for rapid on-site detection of targeted airborne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Pankova, Anna V; Rafailova, Elina A; Pyankov, Oleg V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-10-26

    Bioaerosols could cause various severe human and animal diseases and their opportune and qualitative precise detection and control is becoming a significant scientific and technological topic for consideration. Over the last few decades bioaerosol detection has become an important bio-defense related issue. Many types of portable and stationary bioaerosol samplers have been developed and, in some cases, integrated into automated detection systems utilizing various microbiological techniques for analysis of collected microbes. This paper describes a personal sampler used in conjunction with a portable real-time PCR technique. It was found that a single fluorescent dye could be successfully used in multiplex format for qualitative detection of numerous targeted bioaerosols in one PCR tube making the suggested technology a reliable "first alert" device. This approach has been specifically developed and successfully verified for rapid detection of targeted microorganisms by portable PCR devices, which is especially important under field conditions, where the number of microorganisms of interest usually exceeds the number of available PCR reaction tubes. The approach allows detecting targeted microorganisms and triggering some corresponding sanitary and quarantine procedures to localize possible spread of dangerous infections. Following detailed analysis of the sample under controlled laboratory conditions could be used to exactly identify which particular microorganism out of a targeted group has been rapidly detected in the field. It was also found that the personal sampler has a collection efficiency higher than 90% even for small-sized viruses (>20 nm) and stable performance over extended operating periods. In addition, it was found that for microorganisms used in this project (bacteriophages MS2 and T4) elimination of nucleic acids isolation and purification steps during sample preparation does not lead to the system sensitivity reduction, which is extremely

  7. Determination of emitted airborne microorganisms from a BIO-PAK wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska, E; Filipkowska, Z; Gotkowska-Płachta, A; Janczukowicz, W; Dixon, B; Czułowska, M

    2009-06-01

    Results of a study conducted to assess the degree of airborne microbial contamination generated by a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with bioreactor "BIO-PAK" closed treatment system and evaluation of the dispersion of potential pathogens are described. Over the year aerosol samples were collected simultaneously with sedimentation and impact methods from several plant sites and the surroundings. External upwind sites were used as control. Total colony-forming counts of heterotrophic psychrophilic, psychrotrophic, mesophilic, haemolytic bacteria, as well as members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas genera, actinomycetes and fungi (moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi) were determined. Their highest concentrations ranged up to 10(1)-10(3)CFU/m(3) (with the exception of moulds exceeding 2x10(4)) were determined in air sampled inside the bioreactor, its vicinity, and near the grate chamber. Higher species diversity of the family Enterobacteriaceae (including Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae ozaenae) in the air sampled inside or near the bioreactor may imply a health risk for staff exposed for longer periods of time. Notwithstanding, no increased emission of the analysed groups of microorganisms, including faecal bacteria, were found outside the WWTP.

  8. Distribution and identification of culturable airborne microorganisms in a Swiss milk processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Helmut; Fricker-Feer, Claudia; Ziegler, Dominik; Mandal, Jyotshna; Stephan, Roger; Lehner, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Airborne communities (mainly bacteria) were sampled and characterized (concentration levels and diversity) at 1 outdoor and 6 indoor sites within a Swiss dairy production facility. Air samples were collected on 2 sampling dates in different seasons, one in February and one in July 2012 using impaction bioaerosol samplers. After cultivation, isolates were identified by mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight) and molecular (sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes) methods. In general, total airborne particle loads and total bacterial counts were higher in winter than in summer, but remained constant within each indoor sampling site at both sampling times (February and July). Bacterial numbers were generally very low (airborne microflora, with Bacillus and Staphylococcus being the most frequent genera identified. Overall, the culturable microflora community showed a composition typical and representative for the specific location. Bacterial counts were highly correlated with total airborne particles in the size range 1 to 5 µm, indicating that a simple surveillance system based upon counting of airborne particles could be implemented. The data generated in this study could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the dairy plant's sanitation program and to identify potential sources of airborne contamination, resulting in increased food safety.

  9. Particle Size Distribution of Airborne Microorganisms and Pathogens during an Intense African Dust Event in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Background The distribution of microorganisms, and especially pathogens, over airborne particles of different sizes has been ignored to a large extent, but it could have significant implications regarding the dispersion of these microorganisms across the planet, thus affecting human health. Objectives We examined the microbial quality of the aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region during an African storm to determine the size distribution of microorganisms in the air. Methods We used a five-stage cascade impactor for bioaerosol collection in a coastal city on the eastern Mediterranean Sea during a north African dust storm. Bacterial communities associated with aerosol particles of six different size ranges were characterized following molecular culture–independent methods, regardless of the cell culturability (analysis of 16S rRNA genes). Results All 16S rDNA clone libraries were diverse, including sequences commonly found in soil and marine ecosystems. Spore-forming bacteria such as Firmicutes dominated large particle sizes (> 3.3 μm), whereas clones affiliated with Actinobacteria (found commonly in soil) and Bacteroidetes (widely distributed in the environment) gradually increased their abundance in aerosol particles of reduced size (< 3.3 μm). A large portion of the clones detected at respiratory particle sizes (< 3.3 μm) were phylogenetic neighbors to human pathogens that have been linked to several diseases. Conclusions The presence of aerosolized bacteria in small size particles may have significant implications to human health via intercontinental transportation of pathogens. PMID:18335093

  10. Observations on the use of membrane filtration and liquid impingement to collect airborne microorganisms in various atmospheric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Gonzalez, C.; Teigell, N.; Petrosky, T.; Northup, D.E.; Lyles, M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sample-collection-time on the recovery of culturable airborne microorganisms using a low-flow-rate membrane-filtration unit and a high-flow-rate liquid impinger were investigated. Differences in recoveries were investigated in four different atmospheric environments, one mid-oceanic at an altitude of ~10.0 m, one on a mountain top at an altitude of ~3,000.0 m, one at ~1.0 m altitude in Tallahassee, Florida, and one at ~1.0 m above ground in a subterranean-cave. Regarding use of membrane filtration, a common trend was observed: the shorter the collection period, the higher the recovery of culturable bacteria and fungi. These data also demonstrated that lower culturable counts were common in the more remote mid-oceanic and mountain-top atmospheric environments with bacteria, fungi, and total numbers averaging (by sample time or method categories) filtration for aeromicrobiology studies if start-up costs are not an issue and temperature permits use; (2) although membrane filtration is more cost friendly and has a 'typically' wider operational range, its limits include loss of cell viability with increased sample time and issues with effectively extracting nucleic acids for community-based analyses; (3) the ability to recover culturable microorganisms is limited in 'extreme' atmospheric environments and thus the use of a 'limited' methodology in these environments must be taken into account; and (4) the atmosphere culls, i.e., everything is not everywhere. ?? 2010 US Government.

  11. Laboratory experiments on membrane filter sampling of airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys atra corda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Nikulin, M.; Tuomainen, M.; Berg, S.; Parikka, P.; Hintikka, E.-L.

    A membrane filter method for sampling of airborne stachybotrystoxins was studied in the laboratory. Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra on wallpaper, grain, hay and straw were used as toxin sources in the experiments. Air samples were collected on cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate membrane filters at air flow rates of 10-20 ℓ min -1. After the filter sampling, the air was passed through methanol. The results showed that stachybotrystoxins (trichothecenes) were concentrated in airborne fungal propagules, and thus can be collected on filters. Polycarbonate filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm collected the highest percentage of toxic samples. The laboratory experiments indicated that polycarbonate filter sampling for the collection of airborne mycotoxins is a promising method for extension to field measurements.

  12. Collection and survival of airborne microorganisms in fibrous filters; Abscheidung und Ueberlebensrate von luftgetragenen Mikroorganismen in technischen Tiefenfiltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik; Goppelsroeder, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik; Umhauer, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik

    1997-02-01

    Experimental studies revealed that coarse dust filter media employed for general ventilation purposes do not show high fractional efficiencies (<80%) for airborne microorganisms and pollens. Only fine dust filter media showed sufficiently high efficiencies that guarantee ample protection from biological contaminants (bacteria, mold spores). Microbiological in vitro test showed that no fiber materials of unused filter media (synthetic and glass fibers) served as nutrients for microbial growth. In addition no growth could be detected in used and unused filter media while challenged with air flow. However, the viability of hardy species (bacterial and mold spores) was unaffected in trials up to 5 days. (orig.) [Deutsch] In experimentellen Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass insbesondere Grobstaubfilter der Klassen G1 bis G4 relative niedrige Trenngrade (kleiner 80%) fuer luftgetragene Mikroorganismen und Pollen besitzen. Lediglich Filtermedien, die mindestens der Filterklasse F7 zuzuordnen sind, wiesen hohe Trenngrade (groesser 80%) fuer biologische Partikeln auf. Daher kann davon ausgegangen werden, dass nur Feinstaub- oder Schwebstoffiltermedien einen wirksamen Schutz vor luftgetragenen biologischen Partikeln (Bakterien, Schimmelpilzsporen, Pollen) gewaehrleisten. Untersuchungen zum Ueberlebensverhalten von Mikroorganismen in neuwertigen Filtermedien zeigten, dass die in der Filtertechnik ueblichen Fasermaterialien (Glas- und Synthetikfasern) nicht als Naehrstoffquelle dienen. Ebenso konnte in durchstroemten neuwertigen und gebrauchten Filtermedien kein mikrobielles Wachstum nachgewiesen werden. Widerstandsfaehige Formen zeigten auch hier in Zeitraeumen bis zu 5 Tagen keine Beeintraechtigung in ihrer Vitalitaet. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of airborne microorganism contamination in an industrial area characterized by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisoli, Pietro; Rodolfi, Marinella; Villani, Simona; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Berri, Angelo; Picco, Anna Maria; Dacarro, Cesare

    2009-02-01

    In order to assess the potential exposure hazard to workers and people living in the immediate surroundings of an area characterized by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant, a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of airborne microorganisms were carried out. Air sampling was performed once a week for four consecutive weeks in summer and winter. Six sites were selected as air sampling sites: one was upwind at approximately 40 m from the facilities; the other five were downwind at increasing distances from the facilities, with the furthest at 100 m away. Monitoring permitted us to verify the influence that the composting activities and wastewater treatment had on the bacterial and fungal contamination of the air. The results obtained have been expressed by means of contamination indexes that have already been used in previous works: a major microbiological contamination near the plants was evidenced. Near the facilities, mesophilic bacteria, psychrophilic bacteria and microfungi showed the highest median concentrations, respectively, of 307.5, 327.5 and 257.5 CFU/m(3). Moreover, the season generally influenced the concentration of the bacteria as well as of the fungi; higher in summer than in winter. The contamination index global index of microbial contamination (GIMC/m(3)) showed mean values of 4058.9 in summer and 439.7 in winter and the contamination index-amplification index (AI) showed values of 4.5 and 1.1 in the same seasons, respectively. Controlling the seasonal effect, mesophilic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae showed a significant decline in concentration with respect to upwind air samples and with increasing distance. Both GIMC and AI showed a significant decline with respect to upwind air samples by increasing the distance from facilities after adjusting for the seasonal effect. In conclusion, even if these plants do not represent a potential risk for nearby populations, they may pose a potential health risk

  14. Proposição de um reator fotocatalítico para destruição de microrganismos em ambientes interiores Proposition of a photocatalytic reactor to inactivate airborne microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The TiO2/UV photocatalytic reactor was investigated as an alternative system to inactivate airborne microorganisms. The experiments performed in the absence of the catalyst showed that direct photolysis was not efficient to destruct microorganisms, with only 30% of inactivation. Similar inactivation percentage was obtained using TiO2 in absence of UV radiation. The destruction of microorganisms present in a contaminated indoor atmosphere, using the combination of TiO2/UV was very efficient, r...

  15. Laboratory and Field Evidence for Long-Term Starvation Survival of Microorganisms in Subsurface Terrestrial Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, T.L. [Biology Dept., New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Murphy, E.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Amy, P.S.; Haldeman, D.L. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringelberg, D. B. [Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND NUTRIENT FLUX IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS INDICATES THAT INHABITANT MICROORGANISMS EXPERIENCE SEVERE NUTRIENT LIMITATION. USING LABORATORY AND FIELD METHODS, WE HAVE BEEN TESTING STARVATION SURVIVAL IN SUBSURFACE MICROORGANISMS. IN MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS, WE HAVE SHOWN THAT STRAINS OF TWO COMMONLY ISOLATED SUBSURFACE GENERA, ARTHROBACTER AND PSEUDOMONAS, ARE ABLE TO MAINTAIN VIABILITY IN LOW-NUTRIENT, NATURAL SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FOR OVER ONE YEAR. THESE NON-SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA UNDERGO RAPID INITIAL MINIATURIZATION FOLLOWED BY A STABILIZATION OF CELL SIZE. MEMBRANE LIPID PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID (PLFA) PROFILES OF THE PSEUDOMONAS ARE CONSISTENT WITH ADAPTATION TO NUTRIENT STRESS; ARTHROBACTER APPARENTLY RESPONDS TO NUTRIENT DEPRIVATION WITHOUT ALTERING MEMBRANE PLFA. TO TEST SURVIVABILITY OF MICROORGANISMS OVER A GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE, WE CHARACTERIZED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN A SEQUENCE OF UNSATURATED SEDIMENTS RANGING IN AGE FROM MODEM TO {gt}780,000 years. Sediments were relatively uniform silts in Eastern Washington State. Porewater ages at depth (measured by the chloride mass-balance approach) were as old as 3,600 years. Microbial abundance, biomass, and activities (measured by direct counts, culture counts, total PLFAs, and radiorespirometry) declined with sediment age. The pattern is consistent with laboratory microcosm studies of Microbial survival: rapid short-term change followed by long-term survival of a proportion of cells. Even the oldest sediments evinced a small but viable Microbial community. Microbial survival appeared to be a function of sediment age. Porewater age appeared to influence the markup of surviving communities, as indicated by PLFA profiles. Sites with different Porewater recharge rates and patterns of Pleistocene flooding had different communities.

  16. Effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system for control of airborne microorganisms in meat processing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Serratia marcescens and lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were used to artificiall...

  17. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  18. Airborne microorganisms in the African desert dust corridor over the mid-Atlantic ridge, Ocean Drilling Program, Leg 209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Gray, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance our understanding of the fate and trans-Atlantic transport of dustborne microorganisms from Northern Africa to the Caribbean and Americas, and more specifically to determine if culturable populations could be detected at a mid-ocean site, closer to the source of dust relative to land-based Caribbean sites, during the early summer months of May and June. Between the dates of 22 May and 30 June 2003, daily air samples were collected and evaluated for the presence of culturable bacterial and fungal colony-forming units (CFU). Here we report a statistically significant correlation between daily atmospheric CFU counts at a mid-ocean research site (???15??N, 45??W) and daily desert dust concentrations as determined by the U.S. Navy's Naval Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) Global Aerosol Model (Honrath et al. (2004). Journal of Geophysical Research, 109; Johnson et al. (2003). Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17, 1063; Reid et al. (2004). Geophysical Research Letters, 31; Schollaert, Yoder, Westphal, & O'Reilly (2003). Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 3191). ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  19. Evaluation of historical beryllium abundance in soils, airborne particulates and facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Bibby, Richard K; Eppich, Gary R; Lee, Steven; Lindvall, Rachel E; Wilson, Kent; Esser, Bradley K

    2012-10-15

    Beryllium has been historically machined, handled and stored in facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since the 1950s. Additionally, outdoor testing of beryllium-containing components has been performed at LLNL's Site 300 facility. Beryllium levels in local soils and atmospheric particulates have been measured over three decades and are comparable to those found elsewhere in the natural environment. While localized areas of beryllium contamination have been identified, laboratory operations do not appear to have increased the concentration of beryllium in local air or water. Variation in airborne beryllium correlates to local weather patterns, PM10 levels, normal sources (such as resuspension of soil and emissions from coal power stations) but not to LLNL activities. Regional and national atmospheric beryllium levels have decreased since the implementation of the EPA's 1990 Clean-Air-Act. Multi-element analysis of local soil and air samples allowed for the determination of comparative ratios for beryllium with over 50 other metals to distinguish between natural beryllium and process-induced contamination. Ten comparative elemental markers (Al, Cs, Eu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Tl) that were selected to ensure background variations in other metals did not collectively interfere with the determination of beryllium sources in work-place samples at LLNL. Multi-element analysis and comparative evaluation are recommended for all workplace and environmental samples suspected of beryllium contamination. The multi-element analyses of soils and surface dusts were helpful in differentiating between beryllium of environmental origin and beryllium from laboratory operations. Some surfaces can act as "sinks" for particulate matter, including carpet, which retains entrained insoluble material even after liquid based cleaning. At LLNL, most facility carpets had beryllium concentrations at or below the upper tolerance limit determined by sampling facilities

  20. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  1. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  2. Laboratory scale bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by indigenous microorganisms and added Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain Spet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamalidis, A K; Evangelou, A C; Karabika, E; Koukkou, A I; Drainas, C; Voudrias, E A

    2010-08-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil was investigated at laboratory scale, using three different approaches. The first approach comprised biostimulation of indigenous microorganisms. The second approach involved combination of biostimulation of indigenous microorganisms and bioaugmentation by inoculation with free cells of petroleum degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain Spet. The third was a variation of the second, in which inoculation with encapsulated cells in starch and sodium alginate of P. aeruginosa strain Spet was applied. The bioremediation of the original hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (3.5% dry weight) and that of diluted with clean natural soil at 1:1 w/w were investigated. By providing sufficient moisture, nutrients and aeration by stirring in the original contaminated soil, total concentration of n-alkanes was reduced by 94% after 191 days of treatment and total concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic compounds by 79%, while for the 1:1 diluted soils biodegradation reached 89% and 79%, respectively. The results showed that bioaugmentation with free or encapsulated P. aeruginosa cells and/or soil dilution had no significant effect on biodegradation.

  3. Integrated Line-of-Sight Modeling of the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    compensator. The PID coefficients were adjusted to match the measured behavior. The measured and tuned results are shown in Fig. 6. Measured Tuned ...strain energy in the bond between them. As with the measured data, this mode is destabilized in the tuned model as shown in Figure 6 with the PID ...uncertainty with model tuning based on available experimental measurements was examined for one flight condition. 2. INTRODUCTION The Airborne Aero

  4. Identification and Characterization of Early Mission Phase Microorganisms Residing on the Mars Science Laboratory and Assessment of Their Potential to Survive Mars-like Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A.; Benardini, James N., III; Anderl, David; Ford, Matt; Wear, Emmaleen; Schrader, Michael; Schubert, Wayne; DeVeaux, Linda; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Childers, Susan E.

    2017-03-01

    Planetary protection is governed by the Outer Space Treaty and includes the practice of protecting planetary bodies from contamination by Earth life. Although studies are constantly expanding our knowledge about life in extreme environments, it is still unclear what the probability is for terrestrial organisms to survive and grow on Mars. Having this knowledge is paramount to addressing whether microorganisms transported from Earth could negatively impact future space exploration. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivable microorganisms collected from the surface of the Mars Science Laboratory, to distinguish which of the cultivable microorganisms can utilize energy sources potentially available on Mars, and to determine the survival of the cultivable microorganisms upon exposure to physiological stresses present on the martian surface. Approximately 66% (237) of the 358 microorganisms identified are related to members of the Bacillus genus, although surprisingly, 22% of all isolates belong to non-spore-forming genera. A small number could grow by reduction of potential growth substrates found on Mars, such as perchlorate and sulfate, and many were resistant to desiccation and ultraviolet radiation (UVC). While most isolates either grew in media containing ≥10% NaCl or at 4°C, many grew when multiple physiological stresses were applied. The study yields details about the microorganisms that inhabit the surfaces of spacecraft after microbial reduction measures, information that will help gauge whether microorganisms from Earth pose a forward contamination risk that could impact future planetary protection policy.

  5. Bioremediation of oily contamination by free and immobilized microorganisms on laboratory-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Gong, Y.; Li, Y. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao (China). Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education; Jiang, G. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying (China). College of Petroleum Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a component immobilization system formed using sodium alginate and active carbon. Two oil-degrading bacterial strains were then isolated from oil-contaminated water samples from an oilfield in China. The Rhosococcus sp and Bacillus cereus sp bacterial strains were studied in order to determine their growth behaviour in the laboratory. Optimal growth conditions were 35 degrees C with a pH of 8 and salinity levels ranging from 2 to 4 per cent. Optimal degradation conditions were similar to optimal growth conditions. Oil degradation rates of the strains ranged between 34.6 and 45.3 per cent after a period of 5 days. A sodium alginate carrier containing active carbon was then used to optimize the microbial immobilization method. Additional experiments showed that the improved immobilization method degraded between 66.3 and 75 per cent of the standard oil samples after a period of 5 days. It was concluded that the immobilized bacteria acted as a bulking agent to facilitate the transfer of oxygen, nutrition, and metabolism needed for rapid hydrocarbon degradation, and increased biological stability. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Measurement of airborne radon concentrations at several sites in a radioactivity research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Anzai, I

    1999-06-01

    Radon-222 is a natural, gaseous, radioactive nuclide released from the ground and building materials into the air. Radon and its daughter nuclides can be an important disturbance factor for the measurement of environmental radioactivity. Radon concentrations in air in a radiation laboratory were measured with PICO-RAD detectors, which directly adsorb radon gas on activated charcoal. Generally, radon concentration increased in the absence of ventilation; a high concentration was observed in a radioisotope storage room without ventilation. Concentrations were low in other rooms used for experiments and measurement, which suggests that the radiation control practice in this laboratory is satisfactory and that the influence of natural radon gas on the measurement of radioactivity is negligible.

  7. Distribution of airborne microorganism and its influential factors in sub-way of a city%某市轨道交通空气微生物浓度及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙金照; 朱杰辉; 黄璐; 杨永光; 郗园林

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查某市地铁站空气微生物浓度及分布状况,并对其影响因素进行分析。方法:依据《公共场所卫生检验方法》,随机抽取该市的5个地铁站,对其空气微生物分布状况、温度、湿度、人流量进行调查,并对空气微生物种类进行鉴定分析。结果:站台、站厅、车厢细菌总数合格率均为100%,细菌总数分布表现为车厢、站厅>站台>地面。站台、站厅、车厢真菌总数合格率分别为72%、60%、50%,真菌总数分布表现为地铁内部(站台、站厅、车厢)菌落总数都大于地面。细菌总数、真菌总数与人流量的相关系数分别为0.719、0.344(P <0.05)。细菌中优势菌为葡萄球菌属,真菌中优势菌为曲霉菌属和青霉菌属。结论:该市地铁内部细菌污染程度较轻,但真菌污染程度较严重,且空气微生物浓度与人流量密切相关。%Aim: To investigate the concentration and distribution of airborne microorganism and its influential factors in subway station in a city.Methods: According to examination methods for public places , five subway stations were randomly selected and the distribution of airborne microorganism , temperature, relative humidity, number of passengers were moni -tored.Results: The qualification rates of total of bacterial in platform , lobby and carriage were all 100%.The highest for to-tal of bacterial was carriage and lobby , the higher was platform, and the lowest was outdoors.The qualification rates of total of fungi for platform, lobby and carriage were 72%, 60%, and 50%, respectively.Total of fungi in platform, lobby and car-riage was higher than outdoors.The Spearman′s correlation coefficient between total of bacterial and fungi and number of pas -sengers was 0.719, 0.344, respectively (P <0.05).It is observed that the dominant genus in bacteria was staphylococcus , and the dominant genus in fungi was Aspergillus spp and

  8. Association of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms withbuilding-related symptoms and water damage in 100 U.S. office buildings:Analyses of the U.S. EPA BASE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Lei, Quanhong; Cozen, Myrna O.; Shendell, DerekG.; Macher, Janet M.; Tsai, Feng C.

    2003-10-01

    Metrics of culturable airborne microorganisms for either total organisms or suspected harmful subgroups have generally not been associated with symptoms among building occupants. However, the visible presence of moisture damage or mold in residences and other buildings has consistently been associated with respiratory symptoms and other health effects. This relationship is presumably caused by adverse but uncharacterized exposures to moisture-related microbiological growth. In order to assess this hypothesis, we studied relationships in U.S. office buildings between the prevalence of respiratory and irritant symptoms, the concentrations of airborne microorganisms that require moist surfaces on which to grow, and the presence of visible water damage. For these analyses we used data on buildings, indoor environments, and occupants collected from a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (EPA BASE) study. We created 19 alternate metrics, using scales ranging from 3-10 units, that summarized the concentrations of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms (AMIMOs) as indicators of moisture in buildings. Two were constructed to resemble a metric previously reported to be associated with lung function changes in building occupants; the others were based on another metric from the same group of Finnish researchers, concentration cutpoints from other studies, and professional judgment. We assessed three types of associations: between AMIMO metrics and symptoms in office workers, between evidence of water damage and symptoms, and between water damage and AMIMO metrics. We estimated (as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals) the unadjusted and adjusted associations between the 19 metrics and two types of weekly, work-related symptoms--lower respiratory and mucous membrane--using logistic regression models. Analyses used the original AMIMO metrics and were

  9. Airborne Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — AFRL's Airborne Evaluation Facility (AEF) utilizes Air Force Aero Club resources to conduct test and evaluation of a variety of equipment and concepts. Twin engine...

  10. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  11. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of six strongly fractionating microorganisms is not affected by growth temperature under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penger, Jörn; Conrad, Ralf; Blaser, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Temperature is the major driving force for many biological as well as chemical reactions and may impact the fractionation of stable carbon isotopes. Thus, a good correlation between temperature and fractionation is observed in many chemical systems that are controlled by an equilibrium isotope effect. In contrast, biological systems that are usually controlled by a kinetic isotope effect are less well studied with respect to temperature effects and have shown contrasting results. We studied three different biological pathways (methylotrophic methanogenesis, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, acetogenesis by the acetyl-CoA pathway) which are characterized by very strong carbon isotope enrichment factors (-50‰ to -83‰). The microorganisms (Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanolobus zinderi, Methanothermobacter marburgensis, Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus, Thermoanaerobacter kivui) exhibiting these pathways were grown at different temperatures ranging between 25 and 68 °C, and the fractionation factors were determined from 13C/12C isotope discrimination during substrate depletion and product formation. Our experiments showed that the fractionation factors were different for the different metabolic pathways but were not much affected by the different growth temperatures. Slight variations were well within the standard errors of replication and regression analysis. Our results showed that temperature had no significant effect on the fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during anaerobic microbial metabolism with relatively strong isotope fractionation.

  12. 医疗器械生产企业微生物实验室设计与监管实例%Design of Microorganism Laboratories in Medical Instrument Enterprises and Examples of Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦彦超

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the requirements of design and regulations about microorganism laboratories for medical instrument quality control were discussed. According the examples of supervision, the problems existed were analyzed so as to design legal and useful microorganism laboratory.%本文探讨了用于医疗器械产品检验的微生物试验室的法规要求和设计要求,并对监管中存在的问题进行分析,以设计合法又实用的微生物实验室。

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Canister Retrieval Test. Microorganisms in buffer from the Canister Retrieval Test - numbers and metabolic diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    'Canister Retrieval Test' (CRT) is an experiment that started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) 2000. CRT is a part of the investigations which evaluate a possible KBS-3 storage of nuclear waste. The primary aim was to see whether it is possible or not to retrieve a copper canister after storage under authentic KBS-3 conditions. However, CRT also provided a unique opportunity to investigate if bacteria survived in the bentonite buffer during storage. Therefore, in connection to the retrieval of the canister microbiological samples were extracted from the bentonite buffer and the bacterial composition was studied. In this report, microbiological analyses of a total of 66 samples at the C2, R10, R9 and R6 levels in the bentonite from CRT are presented and discussed. By culturing bacteria from the bentonite in specific media the following bacterial parameters were investigated: The total amount of culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria, and bacteria that produce the organic compound acetate (acetogens). The biovolume in the bentonite was determined by detection of the ATP content. In addition, bacteria from the bentonite were cultured in different sulphate-reducing media. In these cultures, the presence of the biotic compounds sulphide and acetate was investigated, since these have potentially negative effect on the copper canister in a KBS-3 repository. The results were to some extent compared to density, water content, and temperature data provided by Clay Technology AB. The results showed that 100-102 viable sulphate-reducing and acetogenic bacteria and 102-104 heterotrophic aerobic bacteria g-1 bentonite were present after five years of storage in the rock. Bacteria with several morphologies could be found in the cultures with bentonite. The most bacteria were detected in the bentonite buffer close to the rock but in a few samples also in bentonite close to the copper canister. When the presence of bacteria in the

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases, and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The prototype repository (hereafter, 'Prototype') is an international project to build and study a fullscale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. However, the Prototype differs from a real storage in that it is drained, which makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype than in a real storage facility. The heat from the radioactive decay is simulated by electrical heaters. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and a specific aim is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside the Prototype in 2010. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed at the following sampling points in the Prototype: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10008, and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e. the biovolume), culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). The pore water collected from the Prototype was subject to as many chemical analyses as the amount of water allowed. Chemical analyses were also performed on pore water from two additional sampling points, KBU10005 and KBU10006. Chemical data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype were compared with the pore water chemistry. The improved sampling and analysis protocols introduced in 2007 worked very well. The International Progress Report (IPR) 08-01 (Eriksson 2008) revealed that many of the hydrochemical sampling points differ greatly from each other. The 16 sampling points were

  15. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype Repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The Prototype repository is an international project to build and study a full-scale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The Prototype repository differs from a real storage in that it is drained. For example, this makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype repository compared with a real storage. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and one of the specific aims is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype repository. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside and outside the Prototype in 2009. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed in the following sampling points in the Prototype repository: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10006, KBU10008, KFA01 and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e., the biovolume), cultivable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), autotrophic acetogens (AA) and in some cases iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). Cultivation methods were also compared with qPCR molecular techniques to evaluate these before next year's decommission of the Prototype repository. The collected pore water from the Prototype repository was subject to chemistry analysis (as many analyses were conducted as the amount of water allowed). In addition, groundwater from two borehole sections in the rock surrounding the Prototype was analysed regarding its gas composition, microbiology and redox. Chemistry data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype repository were compared with the pore water

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases, and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The prototype repository (hereafter, 'Prototype') is an international project to build and study a fullscale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. However, the Prototype differs from a real storage in that it is drained, which makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype than in a real storage facility. The heat from the radioactive decay is simulated by electrical heaters. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and a specific aim is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside the Prototype in 2010. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed at the following sampling points in the Prototype: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10008, and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e. the biovolume), culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). The pore water collected from the Prototype was subject to as many chemical analyses as the amount of water allowed. Chemical analyses were also performed on pore water from two additional sampling points, KBU10005 and KBU10006. Chemical data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype were compared with the pore water chemistry. The improved sampling and analysis protocols introduced in 2007 worked very well. The International Progress Report (IPR) 08-01 (Eriksson 2008) revealed that many of the hydrochemical sampling points differ greatly from each other. The 16 sampling points were

  17. 4个桂花品种叶片挥发物成分及其对空气微生物的影响%Volatile organic compounds in leaves of Osmanthus fragrans and their effect on airborne microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林富平; 周帅; 马楠; 张汝民; 高岩

    2013-01-01

    采用动态顶空气体循环吸附法和热脱附-气相色谱-质谱(TDS-GC-MS)联用技术,分析了近自然状态下金桂Osmanthus fragrans‘Thunbergii,,银桂O.fragrans‘Odoratus’,丹桂O.fragrans ‘Aurantiacus’和四季桂O.fragrans‘ Semperflorens’叶片挥发物(VOCs)的组分和含量;同时采用自然沉降法,调查了4个桂花品种林地空气中微生物(细菌、真菌和放线菌)的数量.结果表明:金桂叶片VOCs中主要成分为(Z)-乙酸-3-己烯酯、己醛、辛醛、壬醛、癸醛、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮和3-己烯醇;四季桂主要成分为(Z)-乙酸-3-己烯酯、己醛、苯甲醛、壬醛、癸醛、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮和壬烷;银桂和丹桂主要成分为(Z)-乙酸-3-己烯酯、己醛、辛醛、壬醛、癸醛、壬烯、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮和3-己烯醇.金桂林地中细菌数量在3,5,7,9和11月比对照分别降低46.6%,48.3%,67.6%,34.6%和26.0% (P<0.01),其他3个桂花品种林地中细菌数量在不同月份与对照相比均有不同程度的降低;金桂林在3,7和9月对真菌抑制作用极显著(P<0.01),比对照分别降低33.5%,38.8%和34.1%;4个桂花品种林对放线菌也具有明显的抑制作用.上述结果说明:4个桂花品种树木可以降低林地空气中微生物的数量,对改善空气质量具有显著的作用.%To clarify the functions of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on bacteriostasis and air decontamination , composition and content of VOCs in leaves of four cultivars of Osmanthus fragrans : 'Thunbergii', 'Odoratus', ' Aurantiacus' and ' Semperflorens' were analyzed under near-natural conditions using the thermal -desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer technique. The airborne microorganism count (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) for the four cultivars and a control of open ground were determined for March, May, July, September, and November in 2011 using natural sedimentation. Results showed that the

  18. Microorganism Billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Colin; Spagnolie, Saverio E; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that certain types of microorganisms "reflect" off of a flat surface at a critical angle of departure, independent of the angle of incidence. The nature of the reflection may be active (cell and flagellar contact with the surface) or passive (hydrodynamic) interactions. We explore the billiard-like motion of such a body inside a regular polygon and show that the dynamics can settle on a stable periodic orbit, or can be chaotic, depending on the swimmer's departure angle and the domain geometry. The dynamics are often found to be robust to the introduction of weak random fluctuations. The Lyapunov exponent of swimmer trajectories can be positive or negative, can have extremal values, and can have discontinuities depending on the degree of the polygon. A passive sorting device is proposed that traps swimmers of different departure angles into separate bins. We also study the external problem of a microorganism swimming in a patterned environment of square ...

  19. Microorganism billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Wahl, Colin; Lukasik, Joseph; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2017-02-01

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that certain types of microorganisms "reflect" off of a flat surface at a critical angle of departure, independent of the angle of incidence. The nature of the reflection may be active (cell and flagellar contact with the surface) or passive (hydrodynamic) interactions. We explore the billiard-like motion of a body with this empirical reflection law inside a regular polygon and show that the dynamics can settle on a stable periodic orbit or can be chaotic, depending on the swimmer's departure angle and the domain geometry. The dynamics are often found to be robust to the introduction of weak random fluctuations. The Lyapunov exponent of swimmer trajectories can be positive or negative, can have extremal values, and can have discontinuities depending on the degree of the polygon. A passive sorting device is proposed that traps swimmers of different departure angles into separate bins. We also study the external problem of a microorganism swimming in a patterned environment of square obstacles, where the departure angle dictates the possibility of trapping or diffusive trajectories.

  20. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  1. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  2. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, H.

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  3. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  4. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  5. Concentration, spatial and size distribution of airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria in broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adell, E.; Moset, V.; Yang Zhao, Yang; Cerisuelo, A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2011-01-01

    In livestock houses, particulate matter (PM) and airborne microorganism are two of the most relevant air pollutants. Particulate matter may carry microorganisms, the inhalation of which can cause detrimental health effects. The aim of this study was to study the spatial distribution of airborne aero

  6. 上海市普陀区病原微生物实验室医疗废物管理现状%Investigation on medical waste management in pathogenic microorganism laboratories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超群; 李真; 沈月; 张昭; 刘晔翔

    2016-01-01

    Objective To learn medical waste management status of pathogenic microorganism laboratories in Putuo District, and provide evidence for laboratory medical waste and laboratory biosafety management. Methods 57 laboratories which generate medical waste were investigated and analyzed through questionnaire and on-site supervision and inspection. Results There were differences in the medical waste management system in units with different nature and levels of the laboratories.Medical waste disposal facilities in the laboratory of non-medical and health units were deficient.Centralized disposal capacity of medical waste could not meet the demands of small medical institutions and non-medical health units. Conclusion The management of the weak link for the pathogenic microorganism laboratories needs to be strengthened; the medical waste management system needs to be improved; new work concept of pre-trial in laboratory construction needs to be introduced; and contradictions between medical waste disposal demand and disposal capacity needs to be resolved.It is also suggested that laboratoriesshould be under classified administration according to the different nature of their affiliated institutions.%目的:了解普陀区病原微生物实验室医疗废物管理现状,为实验室医疗废物管理和实验室生物安全管理提供依据。方法通过问卷调查和现场监督检查对57个产生医疗废物的实验室进行调查分析。结果不同性质单位和不同级别实验室的医疗废物管理制度全面性有差异,非医疗卫生单位实验室的医疗废物处置设备设施有欠缺,医疗废物集中处置能力不能满足小型医疗机构和非医疗卫生单位的医疗废物处理需求。结论病原微生物实验室的薄弱环节需加强管理,要完善医疗废物管理制度,引入实验室建筑预审工作理念,着力解决医疗废物处置需求与处置能力间的矛盾,并建议根据实验室所属机构性质分类管理。

  7. Classifying Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the coexistence of two systems for classifying organisms and species: a dominant genetic system and an older naturalist system. The former classifies species and traces their evolution on the basis of genetic characteristics, while the latter employs physiological characteris......This paper describes the coexistence of two systems for classifying organisms and species: a dominant genetic system and an older naturalist system. The former classifies species and traces their evolution on the basis of genetic characteristics, while the latter employs physiological...... and integration possible, the field of molecular biology seems to be overwhelmingly homogeneous, and in need of heterogeneity and conflict to add drive and momentum to the work being carried out. The paper is based on observations of daily life in a molecular microbiology laboratory at the Technical University...

  8. Field-based and laboratory stable isotope probing surveys of the identities of both aerobic and anaerobic benzene-metabolizing microorganisms in freshwater sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J S-C; Derito, C M; Madsen, E L

    2008-08-01

    Laboratory incubations of coal-tar waste-contaminated sediment microbial communities under relatively controlled physiological conditions were used to interpret results of a field-based stable isotope probing (SIP) assay. Biodegradation activity of 13C-benzene was examined by GC/MS determination of net 13CO2 production and by GC headspace analysis of benzene loss. Key experimental variables were: the site of the assays (laboratory serum-bottle incubations and in situ field sediments), benzene concentration (10, 36 or 200 p.p.m. in laboratory assays), and physiological conditions (anaerobic with or without sulfate or nitrate additions versus aerobic headspace or the uncontrolled field). In anaerobic laboratory incubations of benzene at 10 p.p.m., greater than 60% of the substrate was eliminated within 15 days. During anaerobic incubations of 200 p.p.m. benzene (70 days), 0.9% benzene mineralization occurred. When benzene (36 p.p.m.) was added to sediment with air in the serum-bottle headspace, 14% of the initial 13C was mineralized to 13CO2 in 2.5 days. In the field experiment (178 microg 13C-benzene dosed to undisturbed sediments), net 13CO2 production reached 0.3% within 8.5 h. After isopycnic separation of 13C (heavy)-labelled DNA from the above biodegradation assays, sequencing of 13C-DNA clone libraries revealed a broad diversity of taxa involved in benzene metabolism and distinctive libraries for each biodegradation treatment. Perhaps most importantly, in the field SIP experiment the clone libraries produced were dominated by Pelomonas (betaproteobacteria) sequences similar to those found in the anaerobic 10 p.p.m. benzene laboratory experiment. These data indicate that the physiological conditions that prevail and govern in situ biodegradation of pollutants in the field may be interpreted by knowing the physiological preferences of potentially active populations.

  9. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  10. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  11. Field-based and laboratory stable isotope probing surveys of the identities of both aerobic and anaerobic benzene-metabolizing microorganisms in freshwater sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, J.S.C.; DeRito, C.M.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2008-08-15

    Laboratory incubations of coal-tar waste-contaminated sediment microbial communities under relatively controlled physiological conditions were used to interpret results of a field-based stable isotope probing (SIP) assay. Biodegradation activity of {sub 13}C-benzene was examined by GC/MS determination of net (CO{sub 2})-{sub 13}C production and by GC headspace analysis of benzene loss. In anaerobic laboratory incubations of benzene at 10 p.p.m., greater than 60% of the substrate was eliminated within 15 days. During anaerobic incubations of 200 p.p.m. benzene (70 days), 0.9% benzene mineralization occurred. When benzene (36 p.p.m.) was added to sediment with air in the serum-bottle headspace, 14% of the initial C-13 was mineralized to (CO{sub 2})-{sub 13}C in 2.5 days. In the field experiment (178 {mu} g {sub 13}C-benzene dosed to undisturbed sediments), net (CO{sub 2})-{sub 13}C production reached 0.3% within 8.5 h. After isopycnic separation of {sub 13}C (heavy)-labelled DNA from the above biodegradation assays, sequencing of {sub 13}C-DNA clone libraries revealed a broad diversity of taxa involved in benzene metabolism and distinctive libraries for each biodegradation treatment. Perhaps most importantly, in the field SIP experiment the clone libraries produced were dominated by Pelomonas (betaproteobacteria) sequences similar to those found in the anaerobic 10 p.p.m. benzene laboratory experiment. These data indicate that the physiological conditions that prevail and govern in situ biodegradation of pollutants in the field may be interpreted by knowing the physiological preferences of potentially active populations.

  12. For geological investigations with airborne thermal infrared multispectral images: Transfer of calibration from laboratory spectrometer to TIMS as alternative for removing atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Anderson, Donald L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical method to correct TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data for atmospheric effects by transferring calibration from a laboratory thermal emission spectrometer to the TIMS multispectral image. The method does so by comparing the laboratory spectra of samples gathered in the field with TIMS 6-point spectra for pixels at the location of field sampling sites. The transference of calibration also makes it possible to use spectra from the laboratory as endmembers in unmixing studies of TIMS data.

  13. Biofouling of marbles by oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Zeki; Öztürk, Ayten; Çolak, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms disfigure the surfaces of different types of stone. Stone structure is damaged by the activity of photoautotrophic and other microorganisms. However, to date few, investigations have been undertaken into the relationship between microorganisms and the properties of different types of marble. In this study, biological activity of photoautotrophic microorganisms on three types of marble (Yatagan White, Giallo Anticato and Afyon White) was investigated under laboratory conditions over a short period of time. The three types of marble supported the growth of phototrophic microbial communities on their outer and inner layers, turning their original colour from white to a yellowish green colour. The porosity of the marble types facilitated filamentous microbial growth in the presence of water. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the accumulation of aggregates such as small spherical, fibrillar, calcified globular bodies on the inner surfaces of the marbles. This suggests that the microscopic characteristics of particular marble types may stimulate the growth of certain types of microorganisms.

  14. SURVEY OF CULTURABLE AIRBORNE BACTERIA AT FOUR DIVERSE LOCATIONS IN OREGON: URBAN, RURAL, FOREST, AND COASTAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the risks of microbial air pollution from microorganisms used for pesticides and bioremediation, or emanating from composting, fermentation tanks, or other agricultural and urban sources, airborne microbial levels must be evaluated. This study surveyed the atmospheri...

  15. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  16. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, t...

  17. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes a w...

  18. Airborne microorganisms associated with packaging glass sorting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marta Jorge de Vasconcelos; Veiga, José Miguel; Fernandes, Paulo; Ramos, Carla; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Velho, Maria Manuela Lemos Vaz; Guerreiro, Joana Santos

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, efforts have been undertaken to reduce the volume of residual waste through sorting and recycling. The waste management and recycling sector is thriving and the number of workers there is increasing. In this context, prior knowledge of the risks to which workers may be exposed is of crucial importance, and preventive measures need to be put in place to accurately identify and quantify those risks. This study aimed to assess occupational risk of exposure to biological agents (viable bacteria and fungi) in a Portuguese waste packaging glass sorting plant. Air samples were collected from selected locations in waste sorting cabins (critical area, CA), administrative services (noncritical area, NCA) and outdoors (control point, CP). Duplicate air samples were collected through an impaction method. The investigation was carried out over an 8-mo period with two collection periods, autumn/winter (AW) and spring/summer (SS), in order to access the influence of any seasonal variation. In the 36 air samples collected, 319 bacterial and 196 mold identifications were performed. Air samples revealed existence of high environmental contamination by bacteria (1.6 × 10(4) colony forming units [cfu]/m(3)) and fungi (1.5 × 10(4) cfu/m(3)). The predominant bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) with values ranging from 29.6 to 60% of the total count of bacteria. Genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) were also present at all sampling sites, regardless of the season. However, the counts of these genera, in the CA, were higher in warmer seasons. The genus Penicillium was the most frequent genus present with an approximate value of 95% of total fungal count in the CA. Seasonal variation was a significant factor for total bacteria and fungi, except for NCA versus CP. Overall, the highest levels of bacterial and fungal species (10(4) cfu/m(3)) were found in the waste sorting cabin (CA). These results highlight the importance of proper design and risk evaluation when planning a new waste facility, such that working conditions minimize proliferation of biological agents in the workplace.

  19. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  20. Estimating fire radiative power obscuration by tree canopies through laboratory experiments: Estimating fire radiative energy in a longleaf pine forest from airborne thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, William

    Remote sensing has been proven as a useful tool in characterizing the effects of fire on a landscape scale. The radiant energy released during biomass burning can be measured remotely, and is directly related to the rate biomass consumed from the fire. This is an important measurement as it can characterize fire effects on the ground along with provide important information about the amount of gases produced by the fire. One source of error associated with estimating the fire radiative energy (FRE) remotely is the obscuration of the signal by the forest canopy. We quantify the relationship between canopy cover and the amount of energy observed by a sensor rom laboratory experiments. A prescribed fire was conducted in northwestern Florida and a suite of pre-, active, and post-fire measurements were taken by an interdisciplinary team. From those data we measured the amount of biomass consumed by the fire FRE estimates.

  1. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  2. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  3. Rumen microorganisms and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Castillo-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rumen consists of a complex ecosystem where nutrients consumed by ruminants are digested by fermentation process, which is executed by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. A symbiotic relationship is found among different groups of microorganisms due to the diverse nature of these microbial species and their adaptability and interactions also coexist. The ruminant provides the necessary environment for the establishment of such microorganisms, while the microorganisms obtain energy from the host animal from microbial fermentation end products. Within the ruminal ecosystem, the microorganisms coexist in a reduced environment and pH remains close to neutral. Rumen microorganisms are involved in the fermentation of substrates contained in thedietof the animals (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, the fermentation process is not 100% effective because there are energy losses mainly in the form of methane gas (CH4, which is a problem for the environment since it is a greenhouse gas. In order to improve the efficiency of ruminant production systems, nutritional strategies that aim to manipulate ruminal fermentation using additives in the diet such as monensin, tallow, buffers, nitrogen compounds, probiotics, and others have been used. These additives allow changing the ruminal fermentation process in ways that produce better growth efficiency while decreasing energy loss. The purpose of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the fermentation processes taking place in the rumen, providing information that can be applied in the development of new nutritional strategies for the improvement of the digestion process to achieve maximum production.

  4. Microorganisms in Food--Their Significance and Methods of Enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S.

    1980-01-01

    Described are laboratory methods for enumerating microorganisms in food. These methods are utilized to determine if foods are potentially hazardous to the consumer due to high concentrations of microorganisms. Discussed are indicator organisms, including coliforms, interococci, yeasts, and molds; food poisoning organisms (staphylococci and…

  5. Multifunctional hybrid porous filters with hierarchical structures for simultaneous removal of indoor VOCs, dusts and microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Low, Ze-Xian; Feng, Shasha; Zhong, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yong; Yao, Zhong

    2017-02-23

    Air purification often requires multiple layers of filters with different functions to remove various air pollutants, which lead to high pressure drop, high air flow path and frequent filter replacement. In this work, a novel multifunctional Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 hybrid filter with a depth-type hierarchical structure for simultaneous removal of fine particles, microorganisms and VOCs was designed and fabricated. The novel hybrid air filter showed leading air purification performances to date, achieving 82.24% degradation of formaldehyde at room temperature, 99.99% formaldehyde degradation at 55 °C and complete retention of indoor airborne microorganisms. The complete particle retention rate (100% retention) based on the most penetrating particle size (MPPS, aerodynamic diameter ≦300 nm) of Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 was achieved at an only 35.60% pressure drop compared with the pristine Al2O3 filter, leading to the highest quality factor (Qf) ever reported. Furthermore, the Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 hybrid filter showed excellent water repellency (water contact angle of 139.6 ± 2.9°), prolonging the service life of the filters and improving the air purification efficiency. The novel Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 hybrid filter exhibits remarkable air purification performance in both laboratory synthetic conditions as well as in the "real world" and shows great promise as an effective single replacement for multiple layers of air purifying filters.

  6. Elastohydrodynamics of flagellated microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo

    2016-11-01

    The swimming motion of many microorganisms and cells are achieved by the waving deformation of their cilia and flagella. The typical structure of flagella and cilia contains nine doublets of parallel microtubules in a cylindrical arrangement surrounding one pair of microtubules in the center. The dynein molecular motors internally drive the sliding motion between the neighboring microtubules and cause the bending motion of the flagella and cilia and drive the microorganism swimming motion. In this work, we develop a numerical model for a microorganism swimming by an internally self-driven filament. Our numerical method captures the interaction between the elasticity of the flagellum and the surround fluid. The no-slip boundary conditions are satisfied by an iterative distributed Lagrangian multiplier method. We also investigate the effects of the non-Newtonian fluid rheology on the motion of an elastic flagellum near a wall.

  7. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...

  8. Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Thermal, anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material are a potential source of novel cellulolytic bacteria. Samples collected from geothermal aquifers in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were used to select for cellulolytic thermophiles. Laboratory enrichments on dilute-acid pretreated plant biomass (switchgrass, Populus), and crystalline cellulose (Avicel) resulted in the isolation of 247 environmental clones. The majority of individual clones were affiliated with the cellulolytic bacteria of phylum Firmicutes, followed by xylanolytic and saccharolytic members of the phylum Dictyoglomi. Among the Firmicutes, the clones were affiliated with the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (54.4%), Caloramator (11.5%), Thermoanaerobacter (8.8%), Thermovenabulum (4.1%), and Clostridium (2.0%). From established anaerobic thermophilic enrichments a total of 81 single strains of the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (57%) and Thermoanaerobacter (43%) were isolated. With continuous flow enrichment on Avicel, increases in the relative abundance of Caloramator sp. was observed over clones detected from the Caldicellulosiruptor. Complex communities of interacting microorganisms bring about cellulose decomposition in nature, therefore using up-to-date approaches may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms with high activity and a rapid rate of biomass conversion to biofuels.

  9. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  10. Modelling microorganisms in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Gerwen, van S.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the growth and behaviour of microorganisms in food has long been an aim in food microbiology research. In recent years, microbial models have evolved to become more exact and the discipline of quantitative microbial ecology has gained increasing importance for food safety management, part

  11. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  12. Informative communication of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kremenchutskу

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroorganism in combination with microbiota is considered as a “superorganism”. Microorganisms, belonging to the microbiota, are in dynamic equilibrium with a macroorganism. This balance is achieved through a molecular “language” of communication between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Molecular communication between cells leads to positive and negative results. A large number of metabolites of microorganisms that carry the information load: autoinducers is revealed. Autoinducer affect on the immune systems, and variety of metabolic processes. This affects on practically all organs and systems of maсroorganism. Studied metabolites of aerococci affect on the immune system, regenerative cycles and other processes of macroorganism. The problem of informative communication between prokaryotes and eukaryotes provides new insights about vital functions of “superorganisms”.

  13. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  14. Indoor airborne infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne infection from person to person is an indoor phenomenon. The infectious organisms are atomized by coughing, sneezing, singing, and even talking. The smallest droplets evaporate to droplet nuclei and disperse rapidly and randomly throughout the air of enclosed spaces. Droplet nuclei have negligible settling velocity and travel wherever the air goes. Outdoors, dilution is so rapid that the chance of inhaling an infectious droplet nucleus is minimal. Measles and other childhood contagions, the common respiratory virus infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and Legionnaires' Disease are typically airborne indoors. In analyzing a measles outbreak, the probability that a susceptible person would breathe a randomly distributed quantum of airborne infection during one generation of an outbreak was expressed mathematically. Estimates of the rate of production of infectious droplet nuclei ranged between 93 and 8 per min, and the concentration in the air produced by the index case was about 1 quantum per 5 m/sup 3/ of air. Infectious aiborne particles are thus few and far between. Control of indoor airborne infection can be approached through immunization, therapeutic medication, and air disinfection with ultraviolet radiation.

  15. Airborne Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Jakobsen, Henrik Byrial; Paulsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted f...

  16. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    development of such requirements, useful guidelines are provided for test and evaluation of airborne laser systems including laboratory, ground and flight test activities.

  17. Airborne microbial flora in a cattle feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S C; Morrow-Tesch, J; Straus, D C; Cooley, J D; Wong, W C; Mitlöhner, F M; McGlone, J J

    2002-07-01

    A total of 1,408 cattle held in eight commercial feedlot pens were used to examine the quantity and diversity of microorganisms in cattle feedlot air. The effect of two feeding patterns on the generation of airborne dust and the total numbers of microorganisms was also examined (four feedlot pens/treatment). Microbial samples were collected, and dust particles that were 2.5 microm or less in diameter were measured with a Dustrak monitor during the evening dust peak for 4 days at sites both upwind and downwind of the feedlot pens. An Andersen biological cascade sampler was employed with different medium and incubation combinations for the capture and identification of bacteria and fungi. The results showed that when bacteria were considered, only nonpathogenic gram-positive organisms were recovered. However, gram-negative bacteria may have been present in a viable but nonculturable state. Fungi were recovered in smaller numbers than bacteria, and none of the fungi were pathogenic. The Dustrak results showed that one feeding pattern resulted in cattle behavior that generated levels of downwind dust lower (P = 0.04) than the levels generated by the behavior resulting from the other feeding pattern. However, the Andersen sampler results showed that there were no differences between feeding patterns with regard to the total number or diversity of microorganisms. The disparity may have been due to the different operating principles of the two systems. The overall numbers of microorganisms recovered were lower than those reported in studies of intensively housed farm animals in which similar recovery techniques were used.

  18. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  19. [Metagenomics as a Tool for the Investigation of Uncultured Microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, N V; Mardanova, A V; Skryabin, K G

    2015-05-01

    Uncultured microorganisms represent a significant part of the Earth's biodiversity. Natural ecosystems contain less than 0.1-1% of the microorganisms that can be cultured in the laboratory. Therefore, new methodological approaches are required for the identification and description of uncultured microorganisms, for studies of their genetic diversity and the structure of microbial associations, and for an understanding of their ecological importance in the biosphere. Metagenomics, a method of analyzing the collective genome.of a microbial community without cultivation, makes it possible to unravel fundamental matters of the microbiology and ecology of microorganisms. Another efficient method of analysis of uncultured forms of microorganisms is "single cell genomics," which involves the isolation of single cells from microbial communities and the sequencing of their genomes. Developed in the last decade, the high throughput technologies of next-generation sequencing provide important input into the investigation of genome reconstruction for all of the microorganisms residing and interacting within ecosystems. This review describes the major methodological approaches used in metagenomic analysis of microbial communities, as well as accomplishments in the search for new uncultured microorganism, the unraveling of their genomes, and an elucidation of their role in ecosystems.

  20. Latest improvements in CIEF: from proteins to microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Kubesová, Anna; Horká, Marie

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, characterization and identification of microorganisms has become very important in different fields of human activity. Conventional laboratory methods are time consuming, laborious, and they may provide both false positive or negative results, especially for closely related microorganisms. On that account, new methods for fast and reliable microbial characterization are of great interest. In particular, capillary electrophoretic techniques have a great potential for characterization of microorganisms due to their unique surface properties. Cell surface proteins play a key role in this respect. Since CIEF represents one of the most efficient techniques for protein separation, it was consequently applied to the analysis of microbial cells. This review describes, after a brief introduction to CIEF of proteins, recent developments in CIEF of diverse microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, and fungi). Possible application schemes in human and veterinary medicine as well as in plant protection and in biosecurity are outlined.

  1. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms.

  2. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  3. Assessment of airborne and impact noise from neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that airborne and impact noise from neighbours are evaluated in approximately the same way. For both types of noise was found that the interval between 20% and 80% annoyed corresponded to a level difference of 16 dB. 50% of the subjects felt annoyed by the noise ...

  4. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  5. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  6. Airborne field strength monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bredemeyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  7. Practical Tips for the Safe Handling of Micro-organisms in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, G.

    1974-01-01

    Outlines safe laboratory procedures for the handling of micro-organisms including aseptic technique, manipulation of cultures, and treatment of contaminated equipment. Identifies the principal hazard as the microbial aerosol, explains its possible effects, and describes the appropriate precautions. (GS)

  8. Compositae dermatitis from airborne parthenolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    -allergic patients and (ii) re-assess the role of PHL and other SQLs in airborne contact allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Feverfew-allergic patients were patch tested with extracts and fractions containing volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as well as extracts of airborne particles from flowering feverfew plants......, whether they were oxidized or not. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical results have proved that some feverfew-allergic patients are sensitive to airborne particles released from the plant, and isolation of PHL from the particle-containing HIVAS extract in allergenic amounts is strong evidence of PHL......BACKGROUND: Compositae dermatitis confined to exposed skin has often been considered on clinical grounds to be airborne. Although anecdotal clinical and plant chemical reports suggest true airborne allergy, no proof has been procured. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a European Compositae plant...

  9. Size-selective assessment of airborne particles in swine confinement building with the UVAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Victoria; Ristovski, Zoran; Blackall, Patrick J.; Morawska, Lidia

    The ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) is a novel aerosol counter for real-time monitoring of viable bioaerosols. The previous validation studies on the UVAPS were either laboratory based or were conducted outdoor with the artificially generated aerosols. In this study, the spectrometer was applied to investigate particulate pollution inside a swine confinement building (SCB). Real-time capabilities of the instrument were used to investigate the effect of on-farm-activities, such as an effluent flushing with recycled water, on aerosols load inside the SCB. In addition to the UVAPS, monitoring of viable bioaerosols (bacteria and fungi) was simultaneously conducted with the six-stage Andersen microbial impactor and the AGI-30 impingers. The UVAPS measurements showed that the concentrations of both viable (fluorescent) and total (fluorescent and non-fluorescent) particles inside the SCB were in order of 10 6-10 7 particles m -3. These concentrations were approximately seven times the outside concentrations for total particles and up to 12 times for viable particles. Approximately 95% of both total and viable particles were respirable (fungi ranged from 1.12×10 5 to 5.17×10 5 CFU m -3 and from 1.12×10 3 to 2.79×10 3 CFU m -3, respectively. Approximately 50-80% of airborne particles which carried culturable fungi were within the respirable size range. The concentration of viable particles measured with the UVAPS was at least one order of magnitude higher than the concentration of the culturable microorganisms measured with the AGI-30 impingers. Nevertheless, the trends in the concentration changes of viable bioaerosols measured with the UVAPS followed the trends in the concentration changes of the culturable airborne microorganisms quite adequately. Thus, it was concluded that the UVAPS is an appropriate method for investigating the dynamic of viable bioaerosols in the SCBs. The results obtained in this study assist in advancing an understanding of the

  10. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: potential and challenges for Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, Hebe M; Lozada, Mariana; Olivera, Nelda L

    2012-01-01

    The marine environments of Argentina have a remarkable extension, as well as high biological productivity and biodiversity of both macro- and microorganisms. Despite having a great potential for biotechnological applications, the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain mostly unexplored and unexploited. In this review, we study the research topics and the interactions among Argentinean laboratories, by analyzing current articles published on biotechnology-related marine microbiology by researchers of this country. In addition, we identify the challenges and opportunities for Argentina to take advantage of the genetic potential of its marine microorganisms. Finally, we suggest possible actions that could improve the development of this research field, as well as the utilization of this knowledge to solve societal needs.

  11. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of

  12. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  13. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  14. Airborne laser fish finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Li, Zaiguang; Huang, Houzheng

    1998-05-01

    An experimental airborne laser fish finder has been developed and field trial has been conducted. The Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser output is of 100 HZ pulse repetition rate, 2 MW peak power, 8 ns pulse width. The green light receiving telescope is transmissive with 1400 mm focal length and 200 mm aperture. The varying-gain control of PMT and logarithmic amplifier are used to compress the 105 dynamic range of received signals. The main features of data real-time processing subsystem are of 200 Ms/s sampling rate, 8 bit resolution, adjacent average treatment of return waveforms with high noise, and pseudo-color display of water depth.

  15. Airborne laser bathymetry experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenqiang; Zhu, Xiao; Yang, Kecheng; Li, Zaiguang

    1999-09-01

    An experimental airborne laser bathymetry system has been developed and field trial has been conducted. The Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser output is of 100 HZ pulse repetition rate, 2 MW peak power, 8 ns pulse width. The green light receiving telescope is transmissive with 1400 mm focal length and 200 mm aperture. The varying-gain control of PMT and logarithmic amplifier are used to compress the 105 dynamic range of received signals. The main features of data real-time processing subsystem are of 200 Ms/s sampling rate, 8 bit resolution, adjacent average treatment of return waveforms with high noise, and pseudo-color display of sea depth.

  16. NASA_Airborne_Lidar_Flights

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon beginning in July 1982 and continuing to January 1984. Data in ASCII...

  17. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    epidermidis and Staphylodoccus ’_M. (Table 3). S. saprophyticus was not speciated and would therefore be included with the Staphylococcus M. Preliminary...military concern. The Principal Investigator also spent some time developing a diagnostic test for deep-seated Staphylococcus aureus infections. This latter...for Staphylococcus aureus antibodies. d. Preliminary results suggest that the most common pathogenic streptococci can be "typed" using lectins. e

  18. Meteorological effects on variation of airborne algae in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Roy-Ocotla, Guadalupe; Mosiño, Pedro

    1989-09-01

    Sixteen species of algae were collected from 73.8 m3 of air. Eleven were obtained in Minatitlán and eleven in México City. The data show that similar diversity occurred between the two localities, in spite of the difference in altitude. This suggests that cosmopolitan airborne microorganisms might have been released from different sources. Three major algal divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Chrysophyta) formed the airborne algal group. Also, a large concentration of 2220 algae m-3 was found near sea-level, while lower amounts were recorded at the high altitude of México City. The genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella and Chlorococcum dominated. Striking relationships were noted between the concentration of airborne green and blue-green algae, and meteorological conditions such as rain, vapour pressure, temperature and winds for different altitudes. In Minatitlán a linear relationship was established between concentration of algae and both vapour pressure (mbar) and temperature (° C), while in México City the wind (m s-1) was associated with variations in the algal count.

  19. Airborne & Field Sensors Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC facilities include an 800' x 60' paved UAV operational area, clearapproach/departure zone, concrete pads furnished with 208VAC, 3 phase,200 amp power, 20,000 sq...

  20. Naval Research Laboratory Fact Book 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Biosurveillance 6905 Head, Senior Scientific Staff 6907 Head, Laboratory for Biosensors and Biomaterials 6910 Head, Laboratory for Biomolecular...Modeling of nearshore morphodynamics Geospatial portal design with 2D and 3D interfaces Characterization of the littoral from airborne platforms In

  1. Transformation of the insecticide teflubenzuron by microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkelstein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Golovleva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of teflubenzuron, the active component in the insecticide commercialized as Nomolt, by soil microorganisms was studied. It was shown that microorganisms, belonging to Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera are capable to perform the hydrolytic cleavage of the phen

  2. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hyman; Stephen T. Abedon

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world’s most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain B...

  3. OPPORTUNISTIC MICROORGANISMS IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Gulneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on the role of opportunistic microorganisms (OMs in rheumatic diseases (RDs. OMs are anticipated to be involved as triggers initiating the development of chronic inflammation. Along with this, OMs in autoimmune diseases may play a defensive role through the interaction with Toll-like receptors and the activation of T cells that have suppressor activity. The possible involvement of OMs in the pathogenesis of RDs provides support not only the isolation of microorganisms, but also the detection of antibacterial antibodies of different classes. Of great importance are OMs in the etiology of comorbid infections, the risk of which is due to both the presence of autoimmune RDs and the necessity of using the drugs having immunosuppressive activity. The active clinical introduction of biological agents is followed by a rise in the rate and severity of different infections, including those caused by OMs. Having a marked biological and environmental plasticity, OMs are able to persist long when there are changes in the immune defense of patients with RDs. There is evidence for the higher adhesive properties and persistent potential of the microorganisms that colonize the body of patients with RDs. In the latter, OMs that are distinguished by pronounced antibiotic polyresistance are isolated, making the treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections more difficult in rheumatology. The results of the papers analyzed in the review suggest that the study of OMs in RDs is of practical importance.

  4. PROBIOTICS BASED ON TRANSGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. А. Starovoitova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of recombinant microorganisms creation for obtaining on their basis a new effective biopreparations (probiotics with wider spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties were considered. A lot of attention was focused on the main genera of perspective bacteria for creation of recombinant probiotics particularly: Lactococcus, Bifidobac terium,Bacillus, Escherichia. The main created Ukrainian and foreign gene-modified strains, that are widely used today in creation of effective recombinant biopreparations were characterized. Some fundamental directions and methods of gene-modified strains obtaining, which are used in getting effective biopreparations that used for therapy and prophylactic illness were reported, under which this group of pharmaceutical drugs were not used earlier. The safety matters of probiotics using on basis of genemodified strains were examined. Medical and veterinary biopreparations on basis of recombinant microorganisms could be used directly and effectively for therapy and prophylaxis of different illness, beginning from disbacteriosis up to cardiovascular diseases. It is related with some probiotic microorganisms ability for lowering of serum cholesterol at the host organism.

  5. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  6. Microorganism Reduction Methods in Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    ZÁHOROVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    In Bachelor thesis I deal with a theme of the influences on the reduction of microorganisms of meat products. First, I focused on the characteristics of individual organisms, the factors affecting their growth, incidence of microorganisms in meat, forms of microbial degradation and contamination of meat microorganisms in slaughterhouses. The next section deals with the means to fight against microorganisms and methods which can reduce their presence in meat products. In the end there is menti...

  7. South African Airborne Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne operations entail the delivery of ground troops and their equipment by air to their area of operations. They can also include the subsequent support of these troops and their equipment by air. Historically, and by definition, this would encompass delivery by fixed-wing powered aircraft, by glider, by parachute or by helicopter. Almost any troops can be delivered by most of these means. However, the technical expertise and physical as well as psychological demands required by parachuting have resulted in specialist troops being selected and trained for this role. Some of the material advantages of using parachute troops, or paratroops, are: the enormous strategic reach provided by the long-distance transport aircraft used to convey them; the considerable payload which these aircraft are capable of carrying; the speed with which the parachute force can deploy; and the fact that no infrastructure such as airfields are required for their arrival. Perhaps most attractively to cash-strapped governments, the light equipment scales of parachute units’ makes them economical to establish and maintain. There are also less tangible advantages: the soldiers selected are invariably volunteers with a willingness or even desire to tackle challenges; their selection and training produces tough, confident and aggressive troops, psychologically geared to face superior odds and to function independently from other units; and their initiative and self-reliance combined with a high level of physical fitness makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles.

  8. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  9. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Almeida, S. M.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are thus outside extreme environments, accounting for up to ~10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of archaea in the atmosphere. By means of DNA analysis and Sanger sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA (435 sequences) and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over 1 year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea. The detected archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase in bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly predicted methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands (72 sequences) and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role in the dispersal of archaea, including assumed ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens.

  10. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, accounting for up to ∼10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to Bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of Archaea in the atmosphere. By DNA analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over one year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea. The detected Archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase of bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role for the dispersal of Archaea, including ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens. Also, anthropogenic activities might influence the atmospheric abundance and diversity of Archaea.

  11. Curved PVDF airborne transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Toda, M

    1999-01-01

    In the application of airborne ultrasonic ranging measurement, a partially cylindrical (curved) PVDF transducer can effectively couple ultrasound into the air and generate strong sound pressure. Because of its geometrical features, the ultrasound beam angles of a curved PVDF transducer can be unsymmetrical (i.e., broad horizontally and narrow vertically). This feature is desired in some applications. In this work, a curved PVDF air transducer is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two resonances were observed in this transducer. They are length extensional mode and flexural bending mode. Surface vibration profiles of these two modes were measured by a laser vibrometer. It was found from the experiment that the surface vibration was not uniform along the curvature direction for both vibration modes. Theoretical calculations based on a model developed in this work confirmed the experimental results. Two displacement peaks were found in the piezoelectric active direction of PVDF film for the length extensional mode; three peaks were found for the flexural bending mode. The observed peak positions were in good agreement with the calculation results. Transient surface displacement measurements revealed that vibration peaks were in phase for the length extensional mode and out of phase for the flexural bending mode. Therefore, the length extensional mode can generate a stronger ultrasound wave than the flexural bending mode. The resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the two modes strongly depend on the structure parameters as well as the material properties. For the transducer design, the theoretical model developed in this work can be used to optimize the ultrasound performance.

  12. A preliminary study of airborne microbial biodiversity over Peninsular Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K A; McCartney, H A; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Pearce, D A

    2004-07-01

    This study used PCR-based molecular biological identification techniques to examine the biodiversity of air sampled over Rothera Point (Antarctic Peninsula). 16S rDNA fragments of 132 clones were sequenced and identified to reveal a range of microorganisms, including cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, diatom plastids and other uncultivated bacterial groups. Matches for microorganisms that would be considered evidence of human contamination were not found. The closest matches for many of the sequences were from Antarctic clones already in the databases or from other cold environments. Whilst the majority of the sequences are likely to be of local origin, back trajectory calculations showed that the sampled air may have travelled over the Antarctic Peninsula immediately prior to reaching the sample site. As a result, a proportion of the detected biota may be of non-local origin. Conventional identification methods based on propagule morphology or culture are often inadequate due to poor preservation of characteristic features or loss of viability during airbome transfer. The application of molecular biological techniques in describing airbome microbial biodiversity represents a major step forward in the study of airborne biota over Antarctica and in the distribution of microorganisms and propagules in the natural environment.

  13. Identification of micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.; Zaloguev, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    Manual presents detailed laboratory procedures for identifying aerobic or microaerobic bacteria, yeast or yeastible organisms, and filamentous fungi and conducting other microbiological or immunological evaluations of samples taken from human subjects. Standardized procedures should be useful to researchers and clinicians in laboratories, hospitals and other biological test facilities.

  14. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  15. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  16. On the Atmospheric Correction of Antarctic Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Black

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne hyperspectral campaign in the Antarctic Peninsula region was carried out by the British Antarctic Survey and partners in February 2011. This paper presents an insight into the applicability of currently available radiative transfer modelling and atmospheric correction techniques for processing airborne hyperspectral data in this unique coastal Antarctic environment. Results from the Atmospheric and Topographic Correction version 4 (ATCOR-4 package reveal absolute reflectance values somewhat in line with laboratory measured spectra, with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 5% in the visible near infrared (0.4–1 µm and 8% in the shortwave infrared (1–2.5 µm. Residual noise remains present due to the absorption by atmospheric gases and aerosols, but certain parts of the spectrum match laboratory measured features very well. This study demonstrates that commercially available packages for carrying out atmospheric correction are capable of correcting airborne hyperspectral data in the challenging environment present in Antarctica. However, it is anticipated that future results from atmospheric correction could be improved by measuring in situ atmospheric data to generate atmospheric profiles and aerosol models, or with the use of multiple ground targets for calibration and validation.

  17. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengsheng Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion. Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1 the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2 an (unsurprising bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less

  18. Biocorrosion produced by Thiobacillus-like microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A I; Marín, I; Amils, R

    1994-01-01

    Biocorrosion can be produced by many different microorganisms through diverse mechanisms. The biocorrosion produced by acidophilic microorganisms of the genus Thiobacillus is based on the production of sulfuric acid and ferric ion from pyrites or related mineral structures, as a result of the chemolithotrophic metabolism of these microorganisms. The products of this aerobic respiration are also powerful oxidant elements, which can produce chemical oxidations of other metallic structures. The Tinto River, a very unusual extremophilic habitat (pH around 2, and high concentration of ferric ion), product of the growth of strict chemolithotrophic microorganisms, is discussed as a model case.

  19. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  20. Hand hygiene among laboratory workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Haverkate, D.; Voss, A.

    2006-01-01

    We performed a study to measure the compliance of laboratory personnel with different components of hand hygiene. The level of compliance at the end of duty was 100%; however, 36.7% of subjects wore a ring, 46.9% wore a watch, and 6.1% wore a bracelet. Pathogenic microorganisms were exclusively foun

  1. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  2. Forced-air warming: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leaper

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forced-air-warming (FAW is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room. We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25 in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower’s internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17 and rinsing (n=9 techniques. Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 mm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 mm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers. The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 mm that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site.

  3. Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Remi; Stern, Guillaume; Zahzam, Nassim; Cheinet, Patrick; Battelier, Baptiste; Villing, André; Moron, Frédéric; Lours, Michel; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / \\surdHz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves.

  4. The use of airborne lasers in terrestrial and water environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabill, W. B.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    This document has the objective to provide some information regarding the applications for which an airborne laser system can be utilized. The considered data have been collected with the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), operational since 1977 as a flying laser laboratory. The most basic mode of operation of the AOL involves operation as a profiler. The data collected are similar to those which would be collected by a ground survey party. In the fluorosensing mode, pulsed laser light is used to induce fluorescence in various pigments contained in land and water targets. A capability for reliably mapping bottom geometry in clear ocean water to depths of 10-12 meters was also demonstrated, while other studies are related to the utilization of the AOL for synoptic mapping of surface layer concentrations of chlorophyll and other photopigments contained in phytoplankton.

  5. POTENTIAL OF AIRBORNE IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY AT CZECHGLOBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hanuš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS. Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences. CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy. FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600 that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out

  6. Potential of Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy at Czechglobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Fabiánek, T.; Fajmon, L.

    2016-06-01

    Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS). Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences). CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy). FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600) that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out with all

  7. Airborne microorganisms cultivable on naturally ventilated document repositories of the National Archive of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Perdomo, Ivette

    2016-02-01

    The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials.

  8. Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-25

    Among the possible terrorist activities that might threaten national security is the release of an airborne pathogen such as anthrax. Because the potential damage to human health could be severe, experts consider 1 minute to be an operationally useful time limit for identifying the pathogen and taking action. Many commercial systems can identify airborne pathogenic microbes, but they take days or, at best, hours to produce results. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other U.S. government agencies are interested in finding a faster approach. To answer this national need, a Livermore team, led by scientist Eric Gard, has developed the bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system--the only instrument that can detect and identify spores at low concentrations in less than 1 minute. BAMS can successfully distinguish between two related but different spore species. It can also sort out a single spore from thousands of other particles--biological and nonbiological--with no false positives. The BAMS team won a 2005 R&D 100 Award for developing the system. Livermore's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program funded the biomedical aspects of the BAMS project, and the Department of Defense's Technical Support Working Group and Defense Advanced Research Project Agency funded the biodefense efforts. Developing a detection system that can analyze small samples so quickly has been challenging. Livermore engineer Vincent Riot, who worked on the BAMS project, explains, ''A typical spore weighs approximately one-trillionth of a gram and is dispersed in the atmosphere, which contains naturally occurring particles that could be present at concentrations thousands of times higher. Previous systems also had difficulty separating benign organisms from those that are pathogenic but very similar, which has resulted in false alarms''.

  9. Microorganisms in bioaerosol emissions from wastewater treatment plants during summer at a Mediterranean site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2007-03-01

    Measurements were conducted at a Mediterranean site (latitude 35 degrees 31' north and longitude 24 degrees 03' east) during summer, to study the concentration of microorganisms emitted from a wastewater treatment plant under intensive solar radiation (520-840 W/m2) and at elevated air temperatures (25-31 degrees C). Air samples were taken with the Air Sampler MAS 100 (Merck) at each stage of an activated-sludge wastewater treatment (pretreatment, primary settling tanks, aeration tanks, secondary settling tanks, chlorination, and sludge processors). Cultivation methods based on the viable counts of mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria, as well as of indicator microorganisms of faecal contamination (total and faecal coliforms and enterococci), and fungi were performed. During air sampling, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind speed were measured. The highest concentrations of airborne microorganisms were observed at the aerated grit removal of wastewater at the pretreatment stage. A gradual decrease of bioaerosol emissions was observed during the advanced wastewater treatment from the pretreatment to the primary, secondary and tertiary treatment (97.4% decrease of mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria, and 100% decrease of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci), 95.8% decrease of fungi. The concentration of the airborne microorganisms at the secondary and tertiary treatment of the wastewater was lower than in the outdoor control. At the same time, the reduction of the microbial load at the waste sludge processors was 19.7% for the mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria, 99.4% for the total coliforms, and 100% for the faecal coliforms and the enterococci, 84.2% for the fungi. The current study concludes that the intensive solar radiation, together with high ambient temperatures, as well as optimal wastewater treatment are the most important factors for low numbers of microbes in the air.

  10. Controlling the levels of airborne pollen: can heterogeneous photocatalysis help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2013-10-15

    Airborne pollen is a worldwide problem because is a very important allergenic agent; it can be altered only by certain microorganisms and by some oxidizers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, heterogeneous photocatalysis (HPC) arose as a promising technology for reducing the level of contaminants in the air, based on their degradation by the production of ROS. In this paper, study of the feasibility of HPC to diminish the counts of pollen is undertaken. The research has been carried out at different levels, from solutions to mortar specimens with the evidence that HPC is able to reduce the amount of pollen grains. This is a major breakthrough that opens the door to a whole field of research, already full of gaps, whose implications could be quite controversial.

  11. Airborne Next: Rethinking Airborne Organization and Applying New Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    supported them, both inside and outside of the classroom . The direction of this project was kept on track thanks to Professor Leo Blanken, COL Guy LeMire...the areas of organization, doctrine, technology , and strategy as guiding frames of reference, this thesis recommends updating the organizational... technology , and strategy as guiding frames of reference, this thesis recommends updating the organizational structures of airborne forces to model a

  12. On-site application of air cleaner emitting plasma ion to reduce airborne contaminants in pig building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Man Su; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Ki Youn

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this field study is to evaluate temporal reduction efficiency of air cleaner emitting plasma ion on airborne pollutants emitted from pig building. The operation principle of air cleaner based on plasma ion is that hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions combine to form hydroperoxyl radicals (HOO-), which surround and attach to surface of airborne microorganisms and eliminate them by breaking the hydrogen bond in their protein structure. In gaseous pollutants, it was found that there is no reduction effect of the air cleaner on ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (p > 0.05). In particulate pollutants, the air cleaner showed mean 79%(±6.1) and 78%(±3.0) of reduction efficiency for PM2.5. and PM1, respectively, compared to the control without air cleaner (p 0.05). In biological pollutants, the mean reduction efficiencies for airborne bacteria and fungi by application of air cleaner were 22%(±6.6) and 25%(±8.7), respectively (p effect on PM2.5, PM1, airborne bacteria and airborne fungi among airborne pollutants distributed in pig building while it did not lead to significant reduction of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  13. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  14. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  15. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  16. Microorganisms interacting in a bio filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba-Avila, M. D.; Flores-Tene, F. J.; Moreno-Terrazas, R.; Ramirez-Lopez, E. M.

    2009-07-01

    Biofilm microorganisms developed on a bio filter support media allow the metabolism of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to carbon dioxide and water. VOCs are present in polluted gaseous streams for varied industrial activities. The main objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms present in the biofilm developed on a bio filter support media using molecular biology techniques. (Author)

  17. Microorganisms Resistant to Free-Living Amoebae

    OpenAIRE

    Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoe...

  18. Assessment of indoor airborne contamination in a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Miranda, Sandra; Monteiro, Ricardo A R; Lopes, Filipe V S; Madureira, Joana; Silva, Gabriela V; Pestana, Nazaré; Pinto, Eugénia; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to quantify and characterize the major indoor air contaminants present in different stages of a municipal WWTP, including microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide ammonia, formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In general, the total bacteria concentration was found to vary from 60 to >52,560 colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), and the total fungi concentration ranged from 369 to 14,068 CFU/m(3). Generally, Gram-positive bacteria were observed in higher number than Gram-negative bacteria. CO(2) concentration ranged from 251 to 9,710 ppm, and CO concentration was either not detected or presented a level of 1 ppm. H(2)S concentration ranged from 0.1 to 6.0 ppm. NH(3) concentration was <2 ppm in most samples. Formaldehyde was <0.01 ppm at all sampling sites. The total VOC concentration ranged from 36 to 1,724 μg/m(3). Among the VOCs, toluene presented the highest concentration. Results point to indoor/outdoor ratios higher than one. In general, the highest levels of airborne contaminants were detected at the primary treatment (SEDIPAC 3D), secondary sedimentation, and sludge dehydration. At most sampling sites, the concentrations of airborne contaminants were below the occupational exposure limits (OELs) for all the campaigns. However, a few contaminants were above OELs in some sampling sites.

  19. Inactivation of foodborne microorganisms using engineered water nanostructures (EWNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Vasanthakumar, Archana; Gao, Ya; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Toledo, Eduardo; DeAraujo, Alice; McDevitt, James; Han, Taewon; Mainelis, Gediminas; Mitchell, Ralph; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-03-17

    Foodborne diseases caused by the consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins have very serious economic and public health consequences. Here, we explored the effectiveness of a recently developed intervention method for inactivation of microorganisms on fresh produce, and food production surfaces. This method utilizes Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS) produced by electrospraying of water vapor. EWNS possess unique properties; they are 25 nm in diameter, remain airborne in indoor conditions for hours, contain Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and have very strong surface charge (on average 10 e/structure). Here, their efficacy in inactivating representative foodborne bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria innocua, on stainless steel surfaces and on organic tomatoes, was assessed. The inactivation was facilitated using two different exposure approaches in order to optimize the delivery of EWNS to bacteria: (1) EWNS were delivered on the surfaces by diffusion and (2) a "draw through" Electrostatic Precipitator Exposure System (EPES) was developed and characterized for EWNS delivery to surfaces. Using the diffusion approach and an EWNS concentration of 24,000 #/cm3, the bacterial concentrations on the surfaces were reduced, depending on the bacterium and the surface type, by values ranging between 0.7 to 1.8 logs. Using the EPES approach and for an aerosol concentration of 50,000 #/cm3 at 90 min of exposure, results show a 1.4 log reduction for E. coli on organic tomato surfaces, as compared to the control (same conditions in regards to temperature and Relative Humidity). Furthermore, for L. innocua, the dose-response relationship was demonstrated and found to be a 0.7 and 1.2 logs removal at 12,000 and 23,000 #/cm3, respectively. The results presented here indicate that this novel, chemical-free, and environmentally friendly intervention method holds potential for development and application in the

  20. [Genome editing of industrial microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.

  1. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  2. FUNCTIONAL POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES SYNTHESIZED BY MICROORGANISMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qiang Chen; Qiong Wu; Kai Zhao; Peter H.Yu

    2000-01-01

    Many bacteria have been found to synthesize a family of polyesters termed polyhydroxyalkanoate, abbreviated as PHA. Some interesting physical properties of PHAs such as piezoelectricity, non-linear optical activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability offer promising applications in areas such as degradable packaging, tissue engineering and drug delivery.Over 90 PHAs with various structure variations have been reported and the number is still increasing. The mechanical property of PHAs changes from brittle to flexible to elastic, depending on the side-chainlength of PHA. Many attempts have been made to produce PHAs as biodegradable plastics using various microorganisms obtained from screening natural environments, genetic engineering and mutation. Due to the high production cost, PHAs still can not compete with the nondegradable plastics, such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Various processes have been developed using low cost raw materials for fermentation and an inorganic extraction process for PHA purification. However, a super PHA production strain may play the most critical role for any large-scale PHA production. Our recent study showed that PHA synthesis is a common phenomenon among bacteria inhabiting various locations, especially oil-contaminated soils. This is very important for finding a suitable bacterial strain for PHA production. In fact, PHA production strains capable of rapid growth and rapid PHA synthesis on cheap molasses substrate have been found on molasses contaminated soils. A combination of novel properties and lower cost will allow easier commercialization of PHA for many applications.

  3. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  4. Analysis methods for airborne radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ala-Heikkilä, Jarmo J

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is an analysis method well suitable for monitoring airborne radioactivity. Many of the natural radionuclides and a majority of anthropogenic nuclides are prominent gamma-ray emitters. With gamma-ray spectrometry different radionuclides are readily observed at minute concentrations that are far from health hazards. The gamma-ray spectrometric analyses applied in air monitoring programmes can be divided into particulate measurements and gas measurements. I...

  5. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  6. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology.

  7. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  8. Particle sizing of airborne radioactivity field measurements at Olympic Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Wilkis, M.; O`Brein, R.; Ganakas, G.

    1993-12-01

    On July 1, 1991 the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) commenced a two year project entitled - Particle sizing of airborne radioactivity, funded by a Mining and Quarrying Occupational Health and Safety Committee - grant (submission No. 9138). This study was set out to measure airborne radioactivity size distributions in an underground uranium mine, in order to provide better estimates of the health risks associated with inhalation of airborne radiation in the work place. These measurements included both active and passive measurement of radon gas, continuous and spot sample of radon daughter levels, as well as wire screen diffusion battery measurements of the radon daughter size distributions. The results of measurements at over 50 sites within the mine are reported, together with the calculated dose conversion factors derived from the older dosimetric models and from the new ICRP lung model using the computer code RADEP. The results showed that the ventilation is relatively uniform within the mine and the radon daughter concentrations are kept to less than 20% of the equilibrium concentration. The radon and radon daughter concentrations showed marked variability with both time and position within the mine. It is concluded that the present radiation protection methods and dose conversion factors used in Australia provide a good estimate of the radiation risk for the inhalation of radon progeny. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Experimental Investigations on Airborne Gravimetry Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapeng Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gravity surveys are an important research topic in geophysics and geodynamics. This paper investigates a method for high accuracy large scale gravity anomaly data reconstruction. Based on the airborne gravimetry technology, a flight test was carried out in China with the strap-down airborne gravimeter (SGA-WZ developed by the Laboratory of Inertial Technology of the National University of Defense Technology. Taking into account the sparsity of airborne gravimetry by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT, this paper proposes a method for gravity anomaly data reconstruction using the theory of compressed sensing (CS. The gravity anomaly data reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which can be transformed into a sparse optimization problem. This paper uses the zero-norm as the objective function and presents a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP to solve the corresponding minimization problem. The test results have revealed that the compressed sampling rate is approximately 14%, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by OMP is 0.03 mGal and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is 56.48 dB. In contrast, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by the existing nearest-interpolation method (NIPM is 0.15 mGal and the SNR is 42.29 dB. These results have shown that the OMP algorithm can reconstruct the gravity anomaly data with higher accuracy and fewer measurements.

  10. Experimental investigations on airborne gravimetry based on compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yapeng; Wu, Meiping; Wang, Jinling; Zhang, Kaidong; Cao, Juliang; Cai, Shaokun

    2014-03-18

    Gravity surveys are an important research topic in geophysics and geodynamics. This paper investigates a method for high accuracy large scale gravity anomaly data reconstruction. Based on the airborne gravimetry technology, a flight test was carried out in China with the strap-down airborne gravimeter (SGA-WZ) developed by the Laboratory of Inertial Technology of the National University of Defense Technology. Taking into account the sparsity of airborne gravimetry by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), this paper proposes a method for gravity anomaly data reconstruction using the theory of compressed sensing (CS). The gravity anomaly data reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which can be transformed into a sparse optimization problem. This paper uses the zero-norm as the objective function and presents a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) to solve the corresponding minimization problem. The test results have revealed that the compressed sampling rate is approximately 14%, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by OMP is 0.03 mGal and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 56.48 dB. In contrast, the standard deviation of the reconstruction error by the existing nearest-interpolation method (NIPM) is 0.15 mGal and the SNR is 42.29 dB. These results have shown that the OMP algorithm can reconstruct the gravity anomaly data with higher accuracy and fewer measurements.

  11. Towards a Multi-Mission, Airborne Science Data System Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs

  12. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry ( 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  13. The Perils of Paul: Near Disasters in Airborne Radiochemical Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Beginning with the Trinity test in July 1945, Laboratory radiochemists have collected debris from nuclear tests by various means. At Trinity, two United States Army Sherman tanks were used. Beginning with Operation Crossroads and continuing throughout atmospheric testing, aircraft were used to fly in and around mushroom clouds to collect debris. Paul Guthals, the LASL project leader for sampling operations, flew on many of the B-57 sampling missions. Two such missions, one flown over the Nevada Test and one in the skies near Johnston Atoll, again proved the dangers involved in collecting airborne test debris. The events of these two missions are briefly recounted.

  14. Effect of airborne particle on SO 2-calcite reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Hasan; Göktürk, E. Hale; Caner-Saltık, Emine N.; Demirci, Şahinde

    1999-02-01

    In modern urban atmosphere, sulphur dioxide (SO 2) attacks calcite (CaCO 3) in calcareous stone-producing gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) which forms crust at rain sheltered surfaces and accelerates erosion at areas exposed to rain. The airborne particles collected on stone surfaces have always been considered to enhance the gypsum crust formation and thus it is believed that they should be removed from the surface to decrease the effects of SO 2. In this study, our aim was to investigate this event by carrying out a series of experiments in laboratory using pure calcium carbonate powder to represent calcareous stone. Sodium montmorillonite, activated carbon, ferric oxide, vanadium pentoxide and cupric chloride were mixed in the pure calcium carbonate powder as substitutes of the airborne particles in the polluted atmosphere. The samples have been exposed at nearly 10 ppmv SO 2 concentrations at 90% relative humidity conditions in a reaction chamber for several days. The mineralogical composition of the exposed samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and infrared spectrometer (IR). Sulphation reaction products, calcium sulphite hemihydrate, gypsum and unreacted calcite, were determined quantitatively using IR. Exposed samples have also been investigated morphologically using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experimental results reveal that calcium sulphite hemihydrate is the main reaction product of the SO 2-calcite reaction. It turns out that airborne particles play an important catalytic role in the oxidation of calcium sulphite hemihydrate into gypsum, although their presence does not very significantly affect the extent of sulphation reaction. This behaviour of airborne particles is explained by the presence of liquid film on the calcium carbonate surface where a series of reactions in the gas-liquid-solid interfaces takes place.

  15. Challenges and Successes Managing Airborne Science Data for CARVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, S. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Lee, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission collects detailed measurements of important greenhouse gases on local to regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic and demonstrates new remote sensing and improved modeling capabilities to quantify Arctic carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes. Airborne missions offer a number of challenges when it comes to collecting and processing the science data and CARVE is no different. The biggest challenge relates to the flexibility of the instrument payload. Within the life of the mission, instruments may be removed from or added to the payload, or even reconfigured on a yearly, monthly or daily basis. Although modification of the instrument payload provides a distinct advantage for airborne missions compared to spaceborne missions, it does tend to wreak havoc on the underlying data system when introducing changes to existing data inputs or new data inputs that require modifications to the pipeline for processing the data. In addition to payload flexibility, it is not uncommon to find unsupported files in the field data submission. In the case of CARVE, these include video files, photographs taken during the flight and screen shots from terminal displays. These need to captured, saved and somehow integrated into the data system. The CARVE data system was built on a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This well-tested and proven infrastructure allows the CARVE data system to be easily adapted in order to handle the challenges posed by the CARVE mission and to successfully process, manage and distribute the mission's science data. This

  16. Evaluation of a prereduced anaerobically sterilized medium (PRAS II) system for identification anaerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, C M; Onderdonk, A B

    1982-09-01

    A prereduced, anaerobically sterilized system of tubed media (PRAS II; Scott Laboratories, Fiskeville, R.I.) was evaluated for accuracy in the identification of anerobic microorganisms. PRAS II was found to be a rapid and accurate identification system for obligate anaerobes which does not require the use of gas cannula inoculation or incubation in a special anaerobic environment.

  17. Evaluation of a prereduced anaerobically sterilized medium (PRAS II) system for identification anaerobic microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaucage, C M; Onderdonk, A B

    1982-01-01

    A prereduced, anaerobically sterilized system of tubed media (PRAS II; Scott Laboratories, Fiskeville, R.I.) was evaluated for accuracy in the identification of anerobic microorganisms. PRAS II was found to be a rapid and accurate identification system for obligate anaerobes which does not require the use of gas cannula inoculation or incubation in a special anaerobic environment.

  18. The Viability with Respect to Temperature of Micro-Organisms Incident on the Earth's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Al-Mufti, S.

    Using laboratory measurements of the resistance of E. coli to flash-heating, it is shown that a large fraction of interplanetary micro-organisms in prograde orbits could be added to the Earth without losing viability due to beating by the atmospheric gases.

  19. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  20. Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S J; Hong, J T; Choi, S J; Kim, H S; Park, W K; Han, S T; Park, J Y; Lee, S; Kim, D S; Ahn, Y H

    2014-05-16

    Microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria cause many human diseases and therefore rapid and accurate identification of these substances is essential for effective treatment and prevention of further infections. In particular, contemporary microbial detection technique is limited by the low detection speed which usually extends over a couple of days. Here we demonstrate that metamaterials operating in the terahertz frequency range shows promising potential for use in fabricating the highly sensitive and selective microbial sensors that are capable of high-speed on-site detection of microorganisms in both ambient and aqueous environments. We were able to detect extremely small amounts of the microorganisms, because their sizes are on the same scale as the micro-gaps of the terahertz metamaterials. The resonant frequency shift of the metamaterials was investigated in terms of the number density and the dielectric constants of the microorganisms, which was successfully interpreted by the change in the effective dielectric constant of a gap area.

  1. The Role of Microorganisms in Marine Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-12

    Electrochemical evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement by microorganisms. ’The Electrochemical Society ,’ 175th meeting, Los Angeles, CA. 4. Black, J.P...microbiologically-produced hydrogen permeation through palladium. Journal of the Electrochemical Society . (In Press). INVENTIONS: None TRAINING ACTIVITIES

  2. Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Characterization of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Fenselau, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Advances in instrumentation, proteomics, and bioinformatics have contributed to the successful applications of mass spectrometry (MS) for detection, identification, and classification of microorganisms. These MS applications are based on the detection of organism-specific biomarker molecules, which allow differentiation between organisms to be made. Intact proteins, their proteolytic peptides, and nonribosomal peptides have been successfully utilized as biomarkers. Sequence-specific fragments for biomarkers are generated by tandem MS of intact proteins or proteolytic peptides, obtained after, for instance, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. In combination with proteome database searching, individual biomarker proteins are unambiguously identified from their tandem mass spectra, and from there the source microorganism is also identified. Such top-down or bottom-up proteomics approaches permit rapid, sensitive, and confident characterization of individual microorganisms in mixtures and are reviewed here. Examples of MS-based functional assays for detection of targeted microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus anthracis, in environmental or clinically relevant backgrounds are also reviewed.

  3. Alkaliphilic Micro-organisms and Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Ulukanli, Zeynep

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline environments are typical extreme environments which include naturally occurring soda lakes, deserts, soils and artificially occurring industrial-derived waters. Micro-organisms that occupy extreme pH environments have resulted in the definition of an unusual group, termed alkaliphiles. In this review, the current status of the biodiversity of alkaliphilic micro-organisms in various environments and aspects of their biotechnological potential are summarised briefly.

  4. Reactions of fish to microorganisms in wastewater.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Fish were inoculated with various microorganisms present in wastewater. A threshold concentration was determined over which these microorganisms were recovered from the muscles. The threshold concentrations were different for bacteria, bacteriophages, and polio 1 LSc virus. The threshold values were lower when fish were inoculated than when they were immersed in water containing these organisms. Depuration experiments were efficient when the fish did not contain high concentrations of bacteri...

  5. Ion-Beam Analysis of Airborne Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charles; Gleason, Colin; Schuff, Katie; Battaglia, Maria; Moore, Robert; Turley, Colin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2010-11-01

    An undergraduate laboratory research program in ion-beam analysis (IBA) of atmospheric aerosols is being developed to study pollution in the Capitol District and Adirondack Mountains of New York. The IBA techniques applied in this project include proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA). These methods are well suited for studying air pollution because they are quick, non-destructive, require little to no sample preparation, and capable of investigating microscopic samples. While PIXE spectrometry is used to analyze most elements from silicon to uranium, the other techniques are being applied to measure some of the remaining elements and complement PIXE in the study of aerosols. The airborne particulate matter is collected using nine-stage cascade impactors that separate the particles according to size and the samples are bombarded with proton beams from the Union College 1.1-MV Pelletron Accelerator. The reaction products are measured with SDD X-ray, Ge gamma-ray, and Si surface barrier charged particle detectors. Here we report on the progress we have made on the PIGE, RBS, and PESA analysis of aerosol samples.

  6. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  7. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  8. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  9. First airborne transient em survey in antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Mikucki, J. J.; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2012-01-01

    A first airborne transient electromagnetic survey was flown in Antarctica in December 2011 with the SkyTEM system. This transient airborne EM system has been optimized in Denmark for almost ten years and was specially designed for ground water mapping. The SkyTEM tool is ideal for mapping...

  10. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  11. Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Marthi, B; Shaffer, B. T.; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L

    1991-01-01

    Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

  12. SIMULATION STUDY ON AIRBORNE SAR ECHO SIGNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Houbing; Liu Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Through analyzing the influence on echo signal by factors of kinematical parameters of airborne SAR platform and radar antenna direction, this letter, on the basis of classical SAR echo signal analogue algorithm, puts forward certain airborne SAR echo signal analogue algorithm of distance directional frequency domain pulse coherent accumulation, and goes through simulation. The simulation results have proved the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  13. Inhalable microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants during a severe smog event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing's PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners.

  14. Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, H.; Kume, T.; Takehisa, M.; Iizuka, H.

    The demand for animal feeds in Japan has been increasing with the expansion of the farm animal industry. It is estimated that more than 17 million tons of feedstuffs are used in the breeding of farm animals, and the greater part of them have been imported from foreign countries. However, it has been stated that some amount of feeds and feedstuffs are contaminated by microorganisms or insects, and the damage caused by insects or microorganisms is severe in Japan. Recently, breeding of animals has become large scale in many stud farms, and there is also increasing poisoning by pathogen or fungi. In spite of these poisoning or damage, there have scarcely been reported about contamination by microorganisms in animal feeds on the market. In our laboratory, we had studied disinfectation of animal feeds by radiation, and these results contributed to commercial use of sterilization on laboratory animal diets. We also studied radiation-disinfection of putrefactive moulds on corn and milo. On the basis of these studies, we investigated radiation disinfection of farm animal feeds. In this paper we present the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals on the market, and effect of radiation-inactivation of microorganisms.

  15. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  16. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  17. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  18. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  19. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  20. Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Mangostana on Cariogenic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Sunitha; Girija, A. S. Smiline; Mahendra, Little; Priyadharsini, Vijayashree

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Garcinia mangostana commonly called as Mangosteen fruit has been used as an antibacterial agent since age old times. The mangosteen pericarp has proven to have antibacterial effect, but the effect of the same on cariogenic organisms has not been explored. The present study was an attempt to gain a better understanding of the antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp on the cariogenic bacteria, to unravel the therapeutic potential for the same. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the crude chloroform extract of mangosteen pericarp against cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods The study was done under laboratory settings using an in vitro design. The microorganisms namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were procured from American Type Cell Culture (ATCC) and Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) were revived and lawn cultured. The antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp was tested using agar well diffusion method on Trypticase Soy Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The standard antiplaque agent chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. This cross-sectional, experimental study was done in Central Research laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College for period of eight weeks. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values were determined by microbroth dilution method. Statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean of the zones of inhibition on tested microorganisms. Mann-Whitney test was done to compare the zones of inhibition of mangosteen and chlorhexidine. Results The antibacterial bioassay showed the highest activity for Lactobacillus acidophilus (13.6 mm) and Streptococcus sanguis (13.6 mm), whereas, it showed a medium and low activity for Streptococcus oralis (11.3 mm), Streptococcus mutans (10.6 mm) and Streptococcus

  1. Production of fats and oils by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1987-10-20

    This paper describes the production of fats and oils by microorganisms. Various fat-productive bacteria have been found to produce the fats and oils by microorganisms which are roughly classified into enzyme and filiform fungus. The cells do not proliferate under the conditions adequate for producing the cells with the high content of lipid. A cell with high content of fat belonging to Mortierella filamentas fungi has been recently obtained at high density in the high concentration culture medium. The productivity of the fat similar to cocoa butter seems to be also high. A lot of microorganisms producing various functional fatty acids have been found. The microorganismic production methods of esters of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids and alcohols than C/sub 11/ hardly produced in nature form n-alkane also have been recently developed. Squalene has been able to produce by a cell from the other raw materials than the shark oil. Various sterols exist in microorganisms. The high-productivity manufacturing method of the fats containing gamma-linoleic acid by Mortierella filiform fungi has been developed and commercialized as the first production process of the fat by the microorganism. (5 figs, 7 tabs, 128 refs

  2. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  3. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Mathieu, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols of water contaminated with Legionella bacteria constitute the only mode of exposure for humans. However, the prevention strategy against this pathogenic bacteria risk is managed through the survey of water contamination. No relationship linked the Legionella bacteria water concentration and their airborne abundance. Therefore, new approaches in the field of the metrological aspects of Legionella bioaerosols are required. This study was aimed at testing the main principles for bioaerosol collection (solid impaction, liquid impingement and filtration) and the in situ hybridization (FISH) method, both in laboratory and field assays, with the intention of applying such methodologies for airborne Legionella bacteria detection while showering. An aerosolization chamber was developed to generate controlled and reproducible L. pneumophila aerosols. This tool allowed the identification of the liquid impingement method as the most appropriate one for collecting airborne Legionella bacteria. The culturable fraction of airborne L. pneumophila recovered with the liquid impingement principle was 4 and 700 times higher compared to the impaction and filtration techniques, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of airborne L. pneumophila in the impinger fluid were on average 7.0 x 10(5) FISH-cells m(-3) air with the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method versus 9.0 x 10(4) CFU m(-3) air with the culture method. These results, recorded under well-controlled conditions, were confirmed during the field experiments performed on aerosols generated by hot water showers in health institutions. This new approach may provide a more accurate characterization of aerobiocontamination by Legionella bacteria.

  4. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including the concentration and the characteristics of the infectious agent. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the microorganisms aboard spacecraft is essential in mitigating infectious disease risk to the crew. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The translation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria from the SWAB experiment to nominal operations has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to previous conventional methodology. The incorporation of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) into the capabilities of the laboratory has provided a methodology to track microorganisms between crewmembers and their environment. Both 16S ribosomal DNA

  5. Recovery of germanium from lignite by microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The recovery of Ge from lignite by microorganism includes two stages: (1) the breaking-down of Ge complex of humus in lignite into simple compounds assisted by microorganism; (2) the desorption of Ge compounds from the lignite. The recovery rate of Ge has been enhanced by 14% since the discovery of adsorption and desorption of Ge from coal. The effects of pH, leaching agents, and coal size on the recovery of Ge were experimentally investigated, and the optimized process parameters were obtained. The reaction heat of Ge adsorption and desorption in lignite was determined. It is about 23-53 kJ/mol, which reveals that the adsorption belongs to physical process. The recovery rate of Ge from lignite with direct microorganism leaching can reach about 85%, which is higher than that of 60% reported elsewhere. A potential process for leaching Ge in lignite was suggested.

  6. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  7. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  8. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  9. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review.

  10. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  11. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin

    1999-09-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  12. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...... the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences...

  13. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  14. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  15. [Modern Approaches to the Creation of Industrial Microorganism Strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debabov, V G

    2015-04-01

    Microorganism producer strains are the basis of industrial biotechnology. Their properties determine the economical parameters of the production. Methods of rational design (metabolic engineering) and combinatorial methods of mutagenesis and selection (laboratory evolution, adaptive evolution, protein and genomic shuffling) are used for the construction of microorganism strains. Combination of these methods is frequently used. Modern strains usually do not contain plasmids and markers of drug resistance. All changes are introduced into the chromosome by the methods of homologous and site-specific recombination. The sum of such approaches is called recombineering. Gene expression is carried out at the optimal level under the control of promoters of a certain power (frequently regulated). Knowledge of a complete genomic sequence is almost a mandatory condition for the use of methods of metabolic engineering. Bioinformatics significantly assists in the selection of enzymes and the search for necessary genes and metabolic reactions. Measurement of metabolic fluxes largely assists in the construction of strains. The current level of science makes it possible to construct metabolic pathways de novo in strains for the production of chemicals and biofuel. Carbon dioxide has potential as a raw material for microbiological industry; therefore, the study of CO2 fixation by acetogens and electrogens is a promising direction of studies.

  16. Ocean acidification and marine microorganisms: responses and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Das

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is one of the global issues caused by rising atmospheric CO2. The rising pCO2 and resulting pH decrease has altered ocean carbonate chemistry. Microbes are key components of marine environments involved in nutrient cycles and carbon flow in marine ecosystems. However, these marine microbes and the microbial processes are sensitive to ocean pH shift. Thus, OA affects the microbial diversity, primary productivity and trace gases emission in oceans. Apart from that, it can also manipulate the microbial activities such as quorum sensing, extracellular enzyme activity and nitrogen cycling. Short-term laboratory experiments, mesocosm studies and changing marine diversity scenarios have illustrated undesirable effects of OA on marine microorganisms and ecosystems. However, from the microbial perspective, the current understanding on effect of OA is based mainly on limited experimental studies. It is challenging to predict response of marine microbes based on such experiments for this complex process. To study the response of marine microbes towards OA, multiple approaches should be implemented by using functional genomics, new generation microscopy, small-scale interaction among organisms and/or between organic matter and organisms. This review focuses on the response of marine microorganisms to OA and the experimental approaches to investigate the effect of changing ocean carbonate chemistry on microbial mediated processes.

  17. Modelling Simultaneous transport of Bioreative Solutes and Microorganisms in Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.TAN; LIZHENGAO

    1998-01-01

    Recent years have the development of a number of mathematical models for the descrption of the simultaneous transport of microorganisms and bioreactive solutes in porous media.Most models are based on the advection-dispersion equation,with terms added to account for interactions with the surfaces of the soild matrix ,transformations and microbial activties.Those models based on the advection-dispersion equation have all been shown to represent laboratory experimental data adequately altough various assumption have been made concerning the pore-scale distribution of bacteria.This paper provides an overview o the recent work on modelling the trasport and fate of microorganisms and bioreactive solutes in prous media and examines the different assumptions regarding the pore scale distrbution of microorganisms.

  18. Morphology, chemical composition, and bacterial concentration of airborne particulate matter in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock houses are major sources of airborne particulate matter (PM, which can originate from manure, feed, feathers, skin and bedding and may contain and transport microorganisms. Improved knowledge of particle size, morphology, chemical and microbiological composition of PM in livestock houses can help identify major sources of PM and contribute to the development of appropriate source-specific reduction techniques. In rabbit production systems, however, there is limited information on specific particle characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise airborne PM in rabbit farms in terms of morphology, chemical compositions and bacterial concentration in different size fractions. Size-fractioned PM was sampled in the air of 2 rabbit farms, 1 for fattening rabbits and 1 for reproductive does, using a virtual cascade impactor, which simultaneously collected total suspended PM (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions. Airborne PM samples were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Representative samples from potential sources of PM were also collected and examined. Additionally, a methodology to extract bacteria from the collected samples of airborne PM was developed to determine the bacterial concentration per PM size fraction. Results showed that airborne PM in rabbit farms is highly complex in particle morphology, especially in size. Broken skin flakes, disintegrated particles from feed or faecal material from mechanical fracture are the main sources of airborne PM in rabbit farms. Major elements found in rabbit airborne PM were S, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 1.7×104 to 1.6×106 colony forming units (CFU/m3 (TSP; from 3.6×103 to 3.0×104 CFU/m3 (PM10; and from 3.1×103 to 1.6×104 CFU/m3 (PM2.5. Our results will improve the knowledge on essential particle characteristics necessary to understand PM’s origin in rabbit farms and

  19. Reconfigurable Weather Radar for Airborne Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc (IAI) and its university partner, University of Oklahoma (OU), Norman, propose a forward-looking airborne environment sensor based on...

  20. Photoacoustic study of airborne and model aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebic-Juretic, A.; Zetsch, C.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particulates of either natural or anthropogenic origin constitute a significant portion of atmospheric pollution. Environmental xenobiotics, among which are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, often adsorb to aerosols and as such are transported through the atmosphere w

  1. Airborne Infrared Search and Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared search and track (IRST systems are required for fighter aircraft to enable them to passively search, detect, track, classify, and prioritise multiple airborne targets under all aspects, look-up, look-down, and co-altitude conditions and engage them at as long ranges as possible. While the IRST systems have been proven in performance for ground-based and naval-based platforms, it is still facing some technical problems for airborne applications. These problems arise from uncertainty in target signature, atmospheric effects, background clutter (especially dense and varying clouds, signal and data processing algorithms to detect potential targets at long ranges and some hardware limitations such as large memory requirement to store and process wide field of view data. In this paper, an overview of airborne IRST as a system has been presented with detailed comparative simulation results of different detectionitracking algorithms and the present status of airborne IRSTs

  2. Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes to develop an Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor (AMUGS) based upon two-tone, frequency modulation spectroscopy (TT-FMS). Mesa Photonics has developed...

  3. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  4. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  5. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  6. Airborne Network Optimization with Dynamic Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    AIRBORNE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE THESIS Bradly S. Paul, Capt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-030 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-030 AIRBORNE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE THESIS Presented to the...NETWORK OPTIMIZATION WITH DYNAMIC NETWORK UPDATE Bradly S. Paul, B.S.C.P. Capt, USAF Committee Membership: Maj Thomas E. Dube Chair Dr. Kenneth M. Hopkinson

  7. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  8. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh

    2012-01-01

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on “the history of use”, “traditional food”, or “general recognition of safety”. Authoritative lists of microorganisms...

  9. Biodiversity of deep-sea microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The oceans, with an average depth of 3,800 meters and an average pressure about 38 MPa, cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth. Geological structures under the seawater, such as marine sediments, oceanic crust, hydrothermal vents, and the cold seeps, vary significantly with regard to physical and chemical properties. In combination, these diverse environments contain the largest microbial ecosystem in the world. In deep seawater, the major microorganism groups are Alpha-& Gammaproteobacteria, and Marine Group I. In deep-sea sediments, the abundance of microbes is related to the content of organic matter and distance from land. Methane Oxidizing Archaea (ANME and sulfate reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria are common in deep-sea cold seep environments; while in hydrothermal vents, the richness and dynamics of chemical substances have led to highly diversified archaeal and bacterial groups. In contrast, the oceanic crust is mainly composed of basic and ultrabasic rocks rich in minerals, and as a result houses microorganisms that are mainly autotrophic, utilizing iron, manganese and sulfur. Because more than 99% of deep-sea microorganisms cannot be cultured, an understanding of their diversity, physiological features, and biogeochemical roles remains to be fully achieved. In this article, we review and summarize what is known about the distribution and diversity of deep-sea microorganisms in diverse habitats. It is emphasized that there is much to learn about these microbes.

  10. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    on the diversity of microorganisms from the ikaite columns as well as bioprospecting for enzyme activities using both culture dependent and independent methods. Two cold-active β-galactosidases and one extremely cold-active α-amylase, all related to Clostridia, were characterized in more details....

  11. Attaching substances to micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Leenhouts, Cornelis Johannes; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to surface display of proteins on micro-organisms via the targeting and anchoring of heterologous proteins to the outer surface of cells such as yeast, fungi, mammalian and plant cells, and bacteria. The invention provides a proteinaceous substance comprising a reactive group a

  12. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  13. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.;

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  14. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information confidential in a TERA submission and wishes the same information to remain confidential in a subsequent TERA or MCAN submission, the person must reassert and resubstantiate the claim in the subsequent... under paragraph (a) of this section in any TERA submitted for the microorganism, but subsequently...

  15. Ecophysiology of microorganisms in microbial elctrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croese, E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for improvement of the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been the reduction of the cost of the cathode catalyst. As catalyst at the cathode, microorganisms offer great possibilities. Previous research has shown the principle possibilities for the biocathode for H2 prod

  16. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  17. How Microorganisms Affect Food Safety and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    The main methods of preservation for shelf-stable foods are controlling the water activity or lowering the pH. Factors are often combined, like lowering pH AND using refrigeration. Understanding how food supports the growth of microorganisms can help improve both food safety AND food quality. This guide can help you manipulate your food to create a safe product.

  18. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  19. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  20. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  1. Nature's Helpers: Using Microorganisms to Remove Trichloroethene (TCE) from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A. G.; Krajmlanik-Brown, R.; Fajardo-Williams, D.; Halloum, I.

    2015-12-01

    Organic chlorinated solvents, such as perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), are toxic pollutants threatening ground water quality worldwide and present at many superfund sites. Bioremediation using microorganisms is a promising, green, efficient, and sustainable approach to remove PCE and TCE contamination from soil and groundwater. Under anaerobic conditions, specialized microorganisms (dechlorinators) can reduce these chlorinated ethenes to ethene, an innocuous product, and gain energy for growth by a process known as reductive dechlorination. Dechlorinators are most often present in the environment and in dechlorinating cultures alongside other microbes such as fermenters, methanogens, and acetogens. Fermenters, methanogens, and acetogens syntrophically provide essential nutrients and growth factors to dechlorinators, most specifically to the only members able to reduce TCE all the way to ethene: Dehalococcoides; unfortunately, they also compete with dechlorinators for electron donors. My laboratory devises reductive chlorination platforms to study competition and syntrophy among Dehalococcoides, and other microbes to optimize remediation reactions and transport in the subsurface. We look at competing processes present as part of the natural soil chemistry and microbiology and address these challenges through a combination of enrichment techniques, molecular microbial ecology (deep sequencing), water chemistry, and electron balances. We have applied knowledge gathered in my laboratory to: 1) enrich microbial dechlorinating cultures capable of some of the fastest rates of TCE to ethene dechlorination ever reported, and 2) successfully design and operate three different continuous dechlorinating reactor types. We attribute our successful reactor operations to our multidisciplinary approach which links microbiology and engineering. Our reactors produce robust dechlorinating cultures used for in-situ bioaugmentation of PCE and TCE at contaminated sites

  2. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  3. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 ..mu.. which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  4. Investigation of the bioremediation potential of aerobic zymogenous microorganisms in soil for crude oil biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA ŠOLEVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation potential of the aerobic zymogenous microorganisms in soil (Danube alluvium, Pančevo, Serbia for crude oil biodegradation was investigated. A mixture of paraffinic types of oils was used as the substrate. The laboratory experiment of the simulated oil biodegradation lasted 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days. In parallel, an experiment with a control sample was conducted. Extracts were isolated from the samples with chloroform in a separation funnel. From these extracts, the hydrocarbons were isolated by column chromatography and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. n-Alkanes, isoprenoids, phenanthrene and its derivatives with one and two methyl groups were quantitatively analyzed. The ability and efficiency of zymogenous microorganisms in soil for crude oil bioremediation was assessed by comparison between the composition of samples which were exposed to the microorganisms and the control sample. The investigated microorganisms showed the highest bioremediation potential in the biodegradation of n-alkanes and isoprenoids. A considerably high bioremediation potential was confirmed in the biodegradation of phenanthrene and methyl phenanthrenes. Low bioremediation potential of these microorganisms was proven in the case of polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and triterpane types and dimethyl phenanthrenes.

  5. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA; Ioana Mihaela ALEXE

    2012-01-01

    After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass) structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknes...

  6. Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha A. M. Harper

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and afternoon at each site on each sampling day. The rooms were divided into two groups: Group 1, in which morning sampling was post-cleaning and afternoon sampling was during activity, and Group 2, in which morning sampling was pre-cleaning and afternoon sampling was post-cleaning. The total aerobic bacterial plate counts per m3 and bacterial identification were done using standard microbiological methods. Results: A total of 14 bacterial genera were isolated with the most frequent being Micrococcus spp. followed by species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. There was a significant interaction between location and time for rooms in Group 1 (p=0.0028 but not in Group 2 (p>0.05. Microbial counts for rooms in Group 2 were significantly greater in the mornings than in the afternoon (p=0.0049. The microbial counts were also significantly different between some rooms (p=0.0333. Conclusion: The detection of significantly higher airborne microbial loads in different rooms at different times of the day suggests that the probability of acquiring nosocomial infections is higher at these times and locations.

  7. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  8. Calibration, Sensor Model Improvements and Uncertainty Budget of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueni, A.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed under the PRODEX (PROgramme de Développement d'EXpériences scientifiques) program by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al., 2015). Work on the sensor model has been carried out extensively within the framework of European Metrology Research Program as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The focus has been to improve laboratory calibration procedures in order to reduce uncertainties, to establish a laboratory uncertainty budget and to upgrade the sensor model to compensate for sensor specific biases. The updated sensor model relies largely on data collected during dedicated characterisation experiments in the APEX calibration home base but includes airborne data as well where the simulation of environmental conditions in the given laboratory setup was not feasible. The additions to the model deal with artefacts caused by environmental changes and electronic features, namely the impact of ambient air pressure changes on the radiometry in combination with dichroic coatings, influences of external air temperatures and consequently instrument baffle temperatures on the radiometry, and electronic anomalies causing radiometric errors in the four shortwave infrared detector readout blocks. Many of these resolved issues might be expected to be present in other imaging spectrometers to some degree or in some variation. Consequently, the work clearly shows the difficulties of extending a laboratory-based uncertainty to data collected under in-flight conditions. The results are hence not only of interest to the calibration scientist but also to the spectroscopy end user, in particular when commercial sensor systems are used for data collection and relevant sensor characteristic information tends to be sparse. Schaepman, et al, 2015. Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science

  9. Airborne remote sensing of estuarine intertidal radionuclide concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainey, M.P

    1999-08-01

    The ability to map industrial discharges through remote sensing provides a powerful tool in environmental monitoring. Radionuclide effluents have been discharged, under authorization, into the Irish Sea from BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Pic.) sites at Sellafield and Springfields since 1952. The quantitative mapping of this anthropogenic radioactivity in estuarine intertidal zones is crucial for absolute interpretations of radionuclide transport. The spatial resolutions of traditional approaches e.g. point sampling and airborne gamma surveys are insufficient to support geomorphic interpretations of the fate of radionuclides in estuaries. The research presented in this thesis develops the use of airborne remote sensing to derive high-resolution synoptic data on the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the intertidal areas of the Ribble Estuary, Lancashire, UK. From multidate surface sediment samples a significant relationship was identified between the Sellafield-derived {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am and clay content (r{sup 2} = 0.93 and 0.84 respectively). Detailed in situ, and laboratory, reflectance (0.4-2.5{mu}m) experiments demonstrated that significant relationships exist between Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) simulated reflectance and intertidal sediment grain-size. The spectral influence of moisture on the reflectance characteristics of the intertidal area is also evident. This had substantial implications for the timing of airborne image acquisition. Low-tide Daedalus ATM imagery (Natural Environmental Research Council) was collected of the Ribble Estuary on May 30th 1997. Preprocessing and linear unmixing of the imagery allowed accurate sub-pixel determinations of sediment clay content distributions (r{sup 2} = 0.81). Subsequently, the established relationships between {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am and sediment grain-size enabled the radionuclide activity distributions across the entire intertidal area (92 km{sup 2}) to be mapped at a geomorphic scale

  10. Heterogeneity in isogenic populations of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Egholm

    to be growth rate regulated. The growth rate regulated GFP expression could be used as a measure for single cell growth rate and cell-to-cell growth rate variability was investigated by the use of flow cytometry. Analysis of the B. subtilis reporter strain clearly showed that the smallest degree of population....... In summary population heterogeneity in isogenic populations of microorganisms was investigated using different approaches. The primary approach used in this work was single cell analysis by flow cytometry. In the cell-to-cell growth rate variability analysis process it became obvious that procedures...... generated by a fluorescent probe or dye or emitted from a fluorescent protein expressed by the cell, can be detected on a single cell level by microscopy and flow cytometry. Aiming at quantifying heterogeneity in isogenic populations of microorganisms using flow cytometry fluorescent reporter strains were...

  11. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  12. Interactions of chromium with microorganisms and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, C; Campos-García, J; Devars, S; Gutiérrez-Corona, F; Loza-Tavera, H; Torres-Guzmán, J C; Moreno-Sánchez, R

    2001-05-01

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants. Due to its widespread industrial use, chromium (Cr) has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The presence of Cr in the environment has selected microbial and plant variants able to tolerate high levels of Cr compounds. The diverse Cr-resistance mechanisms displayed by microorganisms, and probably by plants, include biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux. Some of these systems have been proposed as potential biotechnological tools for the bioremediation of Cr pollution. In this review we summarize the interactions of bacteria, algae, fungi and plants with Cr and its compounds.

  13. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  14. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  15. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  16. Impact of Sodium Tungstate and Tungsten Alloys on the Growth of Selected Microorganisms with Environmental Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    Naval Health Research Center Detachment Environmental Health Effects Laboratory Report No: EHEL-10-01 Date: 30 July 2010 IMPACT OF SODIUM...DD MM YY) 30/07/2010 2. REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (from – to) May 2009 – Oct 2009 4. TITLE IMPACT OF SODIUM TUNGSTATE AND...TUNGSTEN ALLOYS ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED MICROORGANISMS WITH ENVIROMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE 5a. Contract Number: 5b. Grant Number: 5c. Program Element

  17. Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Polluted Soil Using Microorganisms Found in Organic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Okwute, Ojonoma L.; Ijah, Udeme J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of chicken droppings and cow dung in the amendment of soil polluted with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in bioremediation. Soil polluted with 20 % raw (POME) in the laboratory was amended with different concentrations of chicken droppings, cow dung and a combination of the wastes (10 %, 20 % and 30 %). Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out and compared over time with respect to the different concentrat...

  18. Co-Cultivation—A Powerful Emerging Tool for Enhancing the Chemical Diversity of Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived bacteria and fungi are promising sources of novel bioactive compounds that are important for drug discovery programs. However, as encountered in terrestrial microorganisms there is a high rate of redundancy that results in the frequent re-discovery of known compounds. Apparently only a part of the biosynthetic genes that are harbored by fungi and bacteria are transcribed under routine laboratory conditions which involve cultivation of axenic microbial strains. Many biosyntheti...

  19. Role of microorganisms in mural paintings decay

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, T; J. Mirão; Gil, M.; Candeias, A.; Caldeira, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    The action of microbial communities on mural paintings, particularly in mortars and in pictorial layers, triggered numerous studies to identify the main biodeteriogenic agents and to better understand the role of microorganisms in the biodeterioration/biodegradation of these artworks. The biodegradation phenomenon is an important issue for the conservation of cultural heritage that needs urgent answers to their rehabilitation. Microbial activity and their ability to obtain elements by bios...

  20. Consolidated bioprocessing method using thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2016-02-02

    The present invention is directed to a method of converting biomass to biofuel, and particularly to a consolidated bioprocessing method using a co-culture of thermophilic and extremely thermophilic microorganisms which collectively can ferment the hexose and pentose sugars produced by degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses at high substrate conversion rates. A culture medium therefor is also provided as well as use of the methods to produce and recover cellulosic ethanol.

  1. Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R D

    1994-11-01

    Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

  2. Survey of subsurface geophysical exploration technologies adaptable to an airborne platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a Research Development Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (RDDT&E) project by EG&G Energy Measurement`s (EG&G/EM) Remote Sensing Laboratory. It examines geophysical detection techniques which may be used in Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) surveys to locate buried waste, waste containers, potential waste migratory paths, and aquifer depths. Because of the Remote Sensing Laboratory`s unique survey capabilities, only those technologies which have been adapted or are capable of being adapted to an airborne platform were studied. This survey describes several of the available subsurface survey technologies and discusses the basic capabilities of each: the target detectability, required geologic conditions, and associated survey methods. Because the airborne capabilities of these survey techniques have not been fully developed, the chapters deal mostly with the ground-based capabilities of each of the technologies, with reference made to the airborne capabilities where applicable. The information about each survey technique came from various contractors whose companies employ these specific technologies. EG&G/EM cannot guarantee or verify the accuracy of the contractor information; however, the data given is an indication of the technologies that are available.

  3. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Material and Methods: Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Results: Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103–9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU/m3, while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103–2.9×105 CFU/m3. The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6–7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Conclusions: Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1:1–9

  4. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    Efforts in the area of nuclear reactors and scientific computations are reported, including: robotics; reactor irradiation of nonend-bonded target slugs; computer link with Los Alamos National Laboratory; L-reactor thermal mitigation; aging of carbon in SRP reactor airborne activity confinement systems; and reactor risk assessment for earthquakes. Activities in chemical processes and environmental technology are reported, including: solids formation in a plutonium product stream; revised safety analysis reporting for F and H-Canyon operations; organic carbon analysis of DWPF samples; applications of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry; water chemistry analyzer for SRP reactors; and study of a biological community in Par Pond. Defense waste and laboratory operations activities include: Pu-238 waste incinerator startup; experimental canister frit blaster; saltstone disposal area design; powder metallurgy core diameter measurement; and a new maintenance shop facility. Nuclear materials planning encompasses decontamination and decommissioning of SRP facilities and a comprehensive compilation of environmental and nuclear safety issues. (LEW)

  5. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors.

  6. Protein languages differ depending on microorganism lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Grzymski

    Full Text Available Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups-a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage-utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text-identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function.

  7. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  8. Food fermentations: microorganisms with technological beneficial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh; Frisvad, Jens C; Gerds, Monica L; Hammes, Walter P; Harnett, James; Huys, Geert; Laulund, Svend; Ouwehand, Arthur; Powell, Ian B; Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Seto, Yasuyuki; Ter Schure, Eelko; Van Boven, Aart; Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Zgoda, Annabelle; Tuijtelaars, Sandra; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2012-03-15

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on "the history of use", "traditional food", or "general recognition of safety". Authoritative lists of microorganisms with a documented use in food have therefore come into high demand. One such list was published in 2002 as a result of a joint project between the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the European Food and Feed Cultures Association (EFFCA). The "2002 IDF inventory" has become a de facto reference for food cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature.

  9. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  11. Dry deposition of large, airborne particles onto a surrogate surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eugene; Kalman, David; Larson, Timothy

    Simultaneous measurements of particle dry deposition flux and airborne number concentration in the open atmosphere were made using three different types of artificially generated particles in the size range 10-100 μm - perlite, diatomaceous earth and glass beads. A combination of gravimetric analysis, automated microscopy and sonic anemometry provided size-resolved estimates of both the inertial and gravitational components of the quasi-laminar layer particle deposition velocity, ( Vd) b, as a function of size. Eddy inertial deposition efficiency ( ηdI) was determined as a function of dimensionless eddy Stokes number (Stk e). In the range 3PNL-SA-6721, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA), used in several regulatory models, significantly under-predicted (up to seven times) ( Vd) b for large particles ( da>10 μm).

  12. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  13. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  14. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  15. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  16. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  17. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Project technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1993-08-01

    The development of group-specific, 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface microorganisms is described. Because portions of the 16S RRNA molecule are unique to particular organisms or groups, these unique sequences can serve as targets for hybridization probes with varied specificity. Target sequences for selected microbial groups have been identified by analysis of the available RRNA sequence data for subsurface microbes. Hybridization probes for these target sequences were produced and their effectiveness and specificity tested with RNA cell blot and in situ hybridizations. Selected probes were used to study phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microbes and to classify these organisms into the specific groups that the probes are designed to detect. To date, this work has been performed on the P24 and C10 borehole isolates from the Savannah River Site. The probes will also be used, with in situ hybridizations, to detect and monitor selected microbial groups in freshly collected subsurface samples and laboratory microcosms in collaboration with other investigators. In situ hybridizations permit detection of selected microbial types without the necessity to isolate and culture them in the laboratory.

  19. GNSS kinematic position and velocity determination for airborne gravimetry

    OpenAIRE

    K. He

    2015-01-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a significant role in the fields of airborne gravimetry. The objective of this thesis is to develop reliable GNSS algorithms and software for kinematic highly precise GNSS data analysis in airborne gravimetry.

  20. Towards airborne nanoparticle mass spectrometry with nanomechanical string resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Kurek, Maksymilian; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Airborne nanoparticles can cause severe harm when inhaled. Therefore, small and cheap portable airborne nanoparticle monitors are highly demanded by authorities and the nanoparticle producing industry. We propose to use nanomechanical resonators to build the next generation cheap and portable...

  1. Enrichment and detection of microorganisms involved in direct and indirect methanogenesis from methanol in an anaerobic thermophilic bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.; Altinbas, M.; Paulo, P.L.; Heilig, H.G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    To gain insight into the microorganisms involved in direct and indirect methane formation from methanol in a laboratory-scale thermophilic (55°C) methanogenic bioreactor, reactor sludge was disrupted and serial dilutions were incubated in specific growth media containing methanol and possible interm

  2. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  3. Sensory Transduction in Microorganisms 2008 Gordon Research Conference (January 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann M. Stock

    2009-04-08

    Research into the mechanisms involved in the sensing and responses of microorganisms to changes in their environments is currently very active in a large number of laboratories worldwide. An increasingly wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species are being studied with regard to their sensing of diverse chemical and physical stimuli, including nutrients, toxins, intercellular signaling molecules, redox indicators, light, pressure, magnetic fields, and surface contact, leading to adaptive responses affecting motile behavior, gene expression and/or development. The ease of manipulation of microorganisms has facilitated application of a broad range of techniques that have provided comprehensive descriptions of cellular behavior and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Systems and their molecular components have been probed at levels ranging from the whole organism down to atomic resolution using behavioral analyses; electrophysiology; genetics; molecular biology; biochemical and biophysical characterization; structural biology; single molecule, fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy; computational modeling; bioinformatics and genomic analyses. Several model systems such as bacterial chemotaxis and motility, fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus, and motility and development in Dictyostelium discoideum have traditionally been a focus of this meeting. By providing a basis for assessment of similarities and differences in mechanisms, understanding of these pathways has advanced the study of many other microbial sensing systems. This conference aims to bring together researchers investigating different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial systems using diverse approaches to compare data, share methodologies and ideas, and seek to understand the fundamental principles underlying sensory responses. Topic areas include: (1) Receptor Sensing and Signaling; (2) Intracellular Signaling (two-component, c-di-GMP, c-AMP, etc.); (3) Intracellular Localization and

  4. Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 3...

  5. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Dong, Hailiang; Reguera, Gemma; Beyenal, Haluk; Lu, Anhuai; Liu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Fredrickson, James K.

    2016-08-30

    Electrons can be transferred from microorganisms to multivalent metal ions that are associated with minerals and vice versa. As the microbial cell envelope is neither physically permeable to minerals nor electrically conductive, microorganisms have evolved strategies to exchange electrons with extracellular minerals. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons, such as c-type cytochromes and microbial nanowires, with extracellular minerals and with microorganisms of the same or different species. Microorganisms that have extracellular electron transfer capability can be used for biotechnological applications, including bioremediation, biomining and the production of biofuels and nanomaterials.

  6. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from airborne wind energy system developers and the public related to these systems so that the FAA...

  7. Biodeterioration Risk Threatens the 3100 Year Old Staircase of Hallstatt (Austria: Possible Involvement of Halophilic Microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Piñar

    Full Text Available The prosperity of Hallstatt (Salzkammergut region, Austria is based on the richness of salt in the surrounding mountains and salt mining, which is documented as far back as 1500 years B.C. Substantial archaeological evidence of Bronze and Iron Age salt mining has been discovered, with a wooden staircase (1108 B.C. being one of the most impressive and well preserved finds. However, after its discovery, fungal mycelia have been observed on the surface of the staircase, most probably due to airborne contamination after its find.As a basis for the further preservation of this valuable object, the active micro-flora was examined to investigate the presence of potentially biodegradative microorganisms.Most of the strains isolated from the staircase showed to be halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms, due to the saline environment of the mine. Results derived from culture-dependent assays revealed a high fungal diversity, including both halotolerant and halophilic fungi, the most dominant strains being members of the genus Phialosimplex (synonym: Aspergillus. Additionally, some typical cellulose degraders, namely Stachybotrys sp. and Cladosporium sp. were detected. Numerous bacterial strains were isolated and identified as members of 12 different genera, most of them being moderately halophilic species. The most dominant isolates affiliated with species of the genera Halovibrio and Marinococcus. Halophilic archaea were also isolated and identified as species of the genera Halococcus and Halorubrum. Molecular analyses complemented the cultivation assays, enabling the identification of some uncultivable archaea of the genera Halolamina, Haloplanus and Halobacterium. Results derived from fungi and bacteria supported those obtained by cultivation methods, exhibiting the same dominant members in the communities.The results clearly showed the presence of some cellulose degraders that may become active if the requirements for growth and the environmental

  8. Determining airborne concentrations of spatial repellent chemicals in mosquito behavior assay systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito behavior assays have been used to evaluate the efficacy of vector control interventions to include spatial repellents (SR. Current analytical methods are not optimized to determine short duration concentrations of SR active ingredients (AI in air spaces during entomological evaluations. The aim of this study was to expand on our previous research to further validate a novel air sampling method to detect and quantitate airborne concentrations of a SR under laboratory and field conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A thermal desorption (TD gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS method was used to determine the amount of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT in samples of air. During laboratory experiments, 1 L volumes of air were collected over 10 min intervals from a three-chamber mosquito behavior assay system. Significantly higher levels of airborne DDT were measured in the chamber containing textiles treated with DDT compared to chambers free of AI. In the field, 57 samples of air were collected from experimental huts with and without DDT for onsite analysis. Airborne DDT was detected in samples collected from treated huts. The mean DDT air concentrations in these two huts over a period of four days with variable ambient temperature were 0.74 µg/m(3 (n = 17; SD = 0.45 and 1.42 µg/m(3 (n = 30; SD = 0.96. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results from laboratory experiments confirmed that significantly different DDT exposure conditions existed in the three-chamber system establishing a chemical gradient to evaluate mosquito deterrency. The TD GC-MS method addresses a need to measure short-term (<1 h SR concentrations in small volume (<100 L samples of air and should be considered for standard evaluation of airborne AI levels in mosquito behavior assay systems. Future studies include the use of TD GC-MS to measure other semi-volatile vector control compounds.

  9. Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Jung (Candace); Ada, Earl; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Manual handling of nanoparticles is a fundamental task of most nanomaterial research; such handling may expose workers to ultrafine or nanoparticles. Recent studies confirm that exposures to ultrafine or nanoparticles produce adverse inflammatory responses in rodent lungs and such particles may translocate to other areas of the body, including the brain. An important method for protecting workers handling nanoparticles from exposure to airborne nanoparticles is the laboratory fume hood. Such hoods rely on the proper face velocity for optimum performance. In addition, several other hood design and operating factors can affect worker exposure. Handling experiments were performed to measure airborne particle concentration while handling nanoparticles in three fume hoods located in different buildings under a range of operating conditions. Nanoalumina and nanosilver were selected to perform handling experiments in the fume hoods. Air samples were also collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Handling tasks included transferring particles from beaker to beaker by spatula and by pouring. Measurement locations were the room background, the researcher's breathing zone and upstream and downstream from the handling location. Variable factors studied included hood design, transfer method, face velocity/sash location and material types. Airborne particle concentrations measured at breathing zone locations were analyzed to characterize exposure level. Statistics were used to test the correlation between data. The test results found that the handling of dry powders consisting of nano-sized particles inside laboratory fume hoods can result in a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the fume hood into the laboratory environment and the researcher's breathing zone. Many variables were found to affect the extent of particle release including hood design, hood operation (sash height, face velocity

  10. Effects of Heavy Metals on Activated Sludge Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing; XI Dan-li; CHEN Ji-hua

    2002-01-01

    The efforts of heavy metals on activated sludge microorganisms are reviewed. Although some heavy metals play an important role in the life of microorganism, heavy metals concentrations above toxic levels inhibit biological processes. Copper, zinc, nickel,cadmium and chromium were mostly studied because of their toxicity and widely used, regardless of single or combination. The microorganism response to these heavy metals varied with species and concentrations of metals,factors such as pH, sludge age, MLSS etc. also affect toxicity on the microorganism. The acclimation could extend the microorganism tolerance of heavy metals. The effects of heavy metals on sludge microorganisms could be described with different models, such as Sigmoidal and Monod equation. The kinetic constants are the useful indexes to estimate the heavy metals inhibition on activated sludge system. Methods to measure the toxicity and effects on microorganism community were also reviewed.

  11. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  12. MIT Lincoln Laboratory: Technology in Support of National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Ralston Stephan Rejto Kenneth Roth Mordechai Rothschild Kenneth Senne Anthony Sharon David Shaver Israel Soibelman William Song David Spears Scott...Atomic Energy Authority on airborne samples collected north of Scotland , and by the Naval Research Laboratory on rainwater collected in Kodiak...Interest, Lexington, Mass.: MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 1995; new material was added by John Tabaczynski, Stephen Weiner, and Kenneth Roth . 2 L.J

  13. Microorganisms and biomolecules in space hard environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microorganisms and biomolecules exposed to space vacuum and to different intensities of selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation is studied. The influence of these factors, applied singly or simultaneously, on the integrity of microbial systems and biomolecules is measured. Specifically, this experiment will study in Bacillus subtilis spores (1) disturbances in subsequent germination, outgrowth, and colony formation; (2) photochemical reactions of the DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro and their role in biological injury; and (3) the efficiency of repair processes in these events.

  14. Mixing by microorganisms in stratified fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Gregory L; Lauga, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examine the vertical mixing induced by the swimming of microorganisms at low Reynolds and P\\'eclet numbers in a stably stratified ocean, and show that the global contribution of oceanic microswimmers to vertical mixing is negligible. We propose two approaches to estimating the mixing efficiency, $\\eta$, or the ratio of the rate of potential energy creation to the total rate-of-working on the ocean by microswimmers. The first is based on scaling arguments and estimates $\\eta$ in terms of the ratio between the typical organism size, $a$, and an intrinsic length scale for the stratified flow, $\\ell = \\left ( \

  15. Green biosynthesis of floxuridine by immobilized microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Cintia W; Britos, Claudia N; Lozano, Mario E; Sinisterra, Jose V; Trelles, Jorge A

    2012-06-01

    This work describes an efficient, simple, and green bioprocess for obtaining 5-halogenated pyrimidine nucleosides from thymidine by transglycosylation using whole cells. Biosynthesis of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (floxuridine) was achieved by free and immobilized Aeromonas salmonicida ATCC 27013 with an 80% and 65% conversion occurring in 1 h, respectively. The immobilized biocatalyst was stable for more than 4 months in storage conditions (4 °C) and could be reused at least 30 times without loss of its activity. This microorganism was able to biosynthesize 2.0 mg L(-1) min(-1) (60%) of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine in 3 h. These halogenated pyrimidine 2'-deoxynucleosides are used as antitumoral agents.

  16. Lead resistance in micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosławiecka, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an element present in the environment that negatively affects all living organisms. To diminish its high toxicity, micro-organisms have developed several mechanisms that allow them to survive exposure to Pb(II). The main mechanisms of lead resistance involve adsorption by extracellular polysaccharides, cell exclusion, sequestration as insoluble phosphates, and ion efflux to the cell exterior. This review describes the various lead resistance mechanisms, and the regulation of their expression by lead binding regulatory proteins. Special attention is given to the Pbr system from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, which involves a unique mechanism combining efflux and lead precipitation.

  17. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed.

  18. Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Paolillo, Piermichele; Bollani, Lina; Stronati, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn.

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Airborne Gravity Data for AN01 (2009-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2009-2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  20. Application of molecular techniques for the assessment of microorganism diversity on cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their unpredictable ability to adapt to varying environmental conditions, microorganisms inhabit different types of biological niches on Earth. Owing to the key role of microorganisms in many biogeochemical processes, trends in modern microbiology emphasize the need to know and understand the structure and function of complex microbial communities. This is particularly important if the strategy relates to microbial communities that cause biodeterioration of materials that constitute our cultural heritage. Until recently, the detection and identification of microorganisms inhabiting objects of cultural value was based only on cultivation-dependent methods. In spite of many advantages, these methods provide limited information because they identify only viable organisms capable of growth under standard laboratory conditions. However, in order to carry out proper conservation and renovation, it is necessary to know the complete composition of microbial communities and their activity. This paper presents and characterizes modern techniques such as genetic fingerprinting and clone library construction for the assessment of microbial diversity based on molecular biology. Molecular methods represent a favourable alternative to culture-dependent methods and make it possible to assess the biodiversity of microorganisms inhabiting technical materials and cultural heritage objects.

  1. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  2. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  3. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  4. Precision Rectification of Airborne SAR Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Liao, M.; Zhang, Zhe

    1997-01-01

    A simple and direct procedure for the rectification of a certain class of airborne SAR data is presented. The relief displacements of SAR data are effectively removed by means of a digital elevation model and the image is transformed to the ground coordinate system. SAR data from the Danish EMISAR...

  5. The National Airborne Field Experiment Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, J. P.; Balling, Jan E.; Bell, M.

    2007-01-01

    The National Airborne Field Experiment's (NAFE) were a series of intensive experiments recently conducted in different parts of Australia. These hydrologic-focused experiments have been designed to answer a range of questions which can only be resolved through carefully planned and executed field...

  6. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.

    2004-01-01

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  7. Mapping Waterhyacinth Infestations Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  8. Airborne gravity field Measurements - status and developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Forsberg, René

    2016-01-01

    English Abstract:DTU-Space has since 1996 carried out large area airborne surveys over both polar, tropical and temperate regions, especially for geoid determination and global geopotential models. Recently we have started flying two gravimeters (LCR and Chekan-AM or inertial navigation systems) ...

  9. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-11-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  10. Survey of subsurface geophysical exploration technologies adaptable to an airborne platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a Research Development Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (RDDT E) project by EG G Energy Measurement's (EG G/EM) Remote Sensing Laboratory. It examines geophysical detection techniques which may be used in Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) surveys to locate buried waste, waste containers, potential waste migratory paths, and aquifer depths. Because of the Remote Sensing Laboratory's unique survey capabilities, only those technologies which have been adapted or are capable of being adapted to an airborne platform were studied. This survey describes several of the available subsurface survey technologies and discusses the basic capabilities of each: the target detectability, required geologic conditions, and associated survey methods. Because the airborne capabilities of these survey techniques have not been fully developed, the chapters deal mostly with the ground-based capabilities of each of the technologies, with reference made to the airborne capabilities where applicable. The information about each survey technique came from various contractors whose companies employ these specific technologies. EG G/EM cannot guarantee or verify the accuracy of the contractor information; however, the data given is an indication of the technologies that are available.

  11. Identification of periodontopathogen microorganisms by PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth and is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. The onset and progression of periodontal disease is attributed to the presence of elevated levels of a consortium of pathogenic bacteria. Gram negative bacteria, mainly strict anaerobes, play the major role. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to assess the presence of the main types of microorganisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of periodontal disease: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia in different samples collected from the oral cavity of 90 patients diagnosed with periodontitis. METHOD Bacterial DNA detection was performed in diverse biological materials, namely in dental plaque, gingival tissue and saliva, by means of multiplex PCR, a technique that allows simultaneous identification of two different bacterial genomes. RESULTS In the dental plaque of the periodontitis patients, Treponema denticola dominated. In the gingival tissue, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were the microbiota most frequently detected, whilst in saliva Treponema denticola and Eikenella corrodens were found with the highest percentage. CONCLUSION The identification of microorganisms by multiplex PCR is specific and sensitive. Rapid and precise assessment of different types of periodontopathogens is extremely important for early detection of the infection and consequently for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. In everyday clinical practice, for routine bacterial evaluation in patients with periodontal disease, the dental plaque is the most suitable biological material, because it is the richest in periodontal bacteria.

  12. Soil:An Extreme Habitat for Microorganisms?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.BOLTER

    2004-01-01

    The question is asked whether soils can be regarded as extreme environments with respect to microorganisms. After defining some extreme environments in a general sense, special properties of extreme environments are compared to soil habitats, with special emphasis laid on time frame and localities. In relation to water availability, nutrients and other properties, such places as aggregates can show properties of extreme habitats. These features, which can act at different levels of the system from the community level down to the cellular level, are summarized as stress factors. The latter,where many switches are located leading to different strategies of survival, is described as the most important one. This raises the question of how organisms have adapted to such conditions. The soil system demands a broad spectrum of adaptations and/or adjustments for a highly variable environment.The soil microorganisms'adaptation can thus be seen as the highest kind of flexibility and is more useful than any other special adaptation.

  13. Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2004-04-01

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human "Troy," and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens.

  14. From chemosensing in microorganisms to practical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Surya K; Kundu, Tapanendu; Sain, Anirban

    2012-11-01

    Microorganisms like bacteria can sense concentrations of chemoattractants in their medium very accurately. They achieve this through interaction between the receptors on their cell surfaces and chemoattractant molecules (like sugar). Physical processes like diffusion set some limits on the accuracy of detection, which was discussed by Berg and Purcell in the late seventies. We re-examine their work in order to assess what insight it may offer for making efficient, practical biosensors. We model the functioning of a typical biosensor as a reaction-diffusion process in a confined geometry. Using available data first we characterize the system by estimating the kinetic constants for the binding and unbinding reactions between the chemoattractants and the receptors. Then we compute the binding flux for this system, which Berg and Purcell had discussed. Unlike in microorganisms where the interval between successive measurements determines the efficiency of the nutrient searching process, it turns out that biosensors depend on long time properties like signal saturation time, which we study in detail. We also develop a mean field description of the kinetics of the system.

  15. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE ZhengFang; YU HongYan; WEN LiLi; NI JinRen

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl's method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L-1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L-1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L-1, At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  16. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  17. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl’s method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L?1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L?1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L?1. At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  18. [Sensitivity of surface microorganisms to disinfectants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywicka, H; Janowska, J; Tadeusiak, B

    1991-01-01

    The influence of humidity and temperature on survival of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa on the surfaces of titles, glass and blanket carriers has been estimated. The number of CFU was examined after exposure time 6 and 24 hours in temperatures of 21 degrees C, 37 degrees C and RH 35%, 95%. It was observed: 1. The important reduction of numbers of both microorganisms at temperature 37 degrees C and RH 95%, 2. The relatively high number of survival cells of P. aeruginosa on the surface of blankets at temp. 21 degrees C and RH 95%. The microorganisms on the carriers were previously kept for 24 h at temp. 21 degrees C, RH 35% and 95% and then exposed to solutions of chloramine, formalin, lysol and Sterinol (QAC). It was observed that there was a great dependence of the disinfecting effect on the degree of dessication of the surfaces. In all cases the resistance of contaminated carriers stored 24 h was higher at 95% RH than at 35% RH.

  19. REMOCIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS PATÓGENOS PRESENTES EN UN LICOR MIXTO BAJO CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO EMPLEANDO FILTROS EMPACADOS EN ZEOLITA NATURAL REMOVAL OF PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS PRESENT IN MIXED LIQUOUR UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS BY USING FILTERS PACKED IN NATURAL ZEOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Acevedo Cifuentes

    2012-12-01

    conducted and zeolite matter was washed and activated at the end of each test before starting the next one. Three samples were taken in each test. It was found that efficiency of filters under specific conditions of design was significantly high when assessed pathogens were removed, and percentage of removal was independent from the concentration value at the filter entry. Besides, efficiency to remove pathogens assessed was not dependent on the type of microorganisms.

  20. Food Microbiology--Design and Testing of a Virtual Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Steve; Stewart, Terry

    2010-01-01

    A web-based virtual laboratory exercise in identifying an unknown microorganism was designed for use with a cohort of 3rd-year university food-technology students. They were presented with a food-contamination case, and then walked through a number of diagnostic steps to identify the microorganism. At each step, the students were asked to select 1…

  1. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; John, J.; Castro, V. A.; Cruz, P.; Buttner, L. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including (1) the host#s susceptibility, (2) the host#s exposure to the infectious disease agent, and (3) the concentration of the infectious agent, and (4) the characteristics of the infectious agent. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire#s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The first accomplishment of the SWAB experiment was the incorporation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria. The use of this molecular technique has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to conventional methodology. This increased efficiency in bacterial speciation provides a better understanding of the microbial ecology and the potential risk to the crew. Additional SWAB studies focused on the use of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequencebased

  2. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Parde, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline

    2011-01-01

    on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer-STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera). Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21...... flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight...... horizontal flights, circular flights, wing and nose wags over the ocean. Analysis of the first two campaigns in 2007 and 2008 leads us to improve the CAROLS radiometer regarding isolation between channels and filter bandwidth. After implementation of these improvements, results show that the instrument...

  3. Anthropogenic microfibres pollution in marine biota. A new and simple methodology to minimize airborne contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Michele; Digka, Nikoletta; Anastasopoulou, Aikaterini; Tsangaris, Catherine; Mytilineou, Chryssi

    2016-12-15

    Research studies on the effects of microlitter on marine biota have become more and more frequent the last few years. However, there is strong evidence that scientific results based on microlitter analyses can be biased by contamination from air transported fibres. This study demonstrates a low cost and easy to apply methodology to minimize the background contamination and thus to increase results validity. The contamination during the gastrointestinal content analysis of 400 fishes was tested for several sample processing steps of high risk airborne contamination (e.g. dissection, stereomicroscopic analysis, and chemical digestion treatment for microlitter extraction). It was demonstrated that, using our methodology based on hermetic enclosure devices, isolating the working areas during the various processing steps, airborne contamination reduced by 95.3%. The simplicity and low cost of this methodology provide the benefit that it could be applied not only to laboratory but also to field or on board work.

  4. What do we really know about the role of microorganisms in iron sulfide mineral formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Aude; Gartman, Amy; Girguis, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Iron sulfide mineralization in low-temperature systems is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, though the delineation between these two modes of formation is not always straightforward. Here we review the role of microorganisms in the precipitation of extracellular iron sulfide minerals. We summarize the evidence that links sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and sulfide minerals in nature and we present a critical overview of laboratory-based studies of the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in microbial cultures. We discuss whether biologically derived minerals are distinguishable from abiotic minerals, possessing attributes that are uniquely diagnostic of biomineralization. These inquiries have revealed the need for additional thorough, mechanistic and high-resolution studies to understand microbially mediated formation of a variety of sulfide minerals across a range of natural environments.

  5. Phylogenetic and functional marker genes to study ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM) in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, Pilar; Molina, Verónica; Dorador, Cristina; Hadas, Ora; Kim, Ok-Sun; Junier, Thomas; Witzel, Jean-Paul; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of ammonia plays a significant role in the transformation of fixed nitrogen in the global nitrogen cycle. Autotrophic ammonia oxidation is known in three groups of microorganisms. Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea convert ammonia into nitrite during nitrification. Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (anammox) oxidize ammonia using nitrite as electron acceptor and producing atmospheric dinitrogen. The isolation and cultivation of all three groups in the laboratory are quite problematic due to their slow growth rates, poor growth yields, unpredictable lag phases, and sensitivity to certain organic compounds. Culture-independent approaches have contributed importantly to our understanding of the diversity and distribution of these microorganisms in the environment. In this review, we present an overview of approaches that have been used for the molecular study of ammonia oxidizers and discuss their application in different environments.

  6. What do we really know about the role of microorganisms in iron sulfide mineral formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Aude A.; Gartman, Amy; Girguis, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Iron sulfide mineralization in low-temperature systems is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, though the delineation between these two modes of formation is not always straightforward. Here we review the role of microorganisms in the precipitation of extracellular iron sulfide minerals. We summarize the evidence that links sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and sulfide minerals in nature and we present a critical overview of laboratory-based studies of the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in microbial cultures. We discuss whether biologically derived minerals are distinguishable from abiotic minerals, possessing attributes that are uniquely diagnostic of biomineralization. These inquiries have revealed the need for additional thorough, mechanistic and high-resolution studies to understand microbially mediated formation of a variety of sulfide minerals across a range of natural environments.

  7. Implementing Best Practices and Validation of Cryopreservation Techniques for Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Authentic, well preserved living organisms are basic elements for research in the life sciences and biotechnology. They are grown and utilized in laboratories around the world and are key to many research programmes, industrial processes and training courses. They are vouchers for publications and must be available for confirmation of results, further study or reinvestigation when new technologies become available. These biological resources must be maintained without change in biological resource collections. In order to achieve best practice in the maintenance and provision of biological materials for industry, research and education the appropriate standards must be followed. Cryopreservation is often the best preservation method available to achieve these aims, allowing long term, stable storage of important microorganisms. To promulgate best practice the Organisation for Economic Development and Co-operation (OECD published the best practice guidelines for BRCs. The OECD best practice consolidated the efforts of the UK National Culture Collections, the European Common Access to Biological Resources and Information (CABRI project consortium and the World Federation for Culture Collections. The paper discusses quality management options and reviews cryopreservation of fungi, describing how the reproducibility and quality of the technique is maintained in order to retain the full potential of fungi.

  8. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and Causative Microorganisms in Intensive Care Unit: A Two Year Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Palabıyık

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care units (ICUs. It causes prolonged hospital stay and increases mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the rate of VAP, causative microorganisms, and their antibiotic susceptibilities in anaesthesiology and reanimation ICU (ARICU. Material and Method: This retrospective study included patients who were admitted to 12-bed ARICU between January 2013 and December 2014. The detection of VAP was done according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. The rate of VAP, VAP ratio, and ventilator utilization ratio (VUR were calculated according to guidelines of Turkish National Infection Surveillance Control Group. Endotracheal aspiration samples were collected and cultivated. The identification of the isolates was performed by using VITEK-2 automated system. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by the disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. Results: VAP was determined in 16 of 359 patients who required invasive mechanic ventilation for longer than 48 hours and hospitalized in ARICU. VUR was 65%, VAP ratio was 4.5% and the rate of VAP was 3.3 per 1000 ventilator days. Seventeen microorganisms were isolated from endotracheal aspiration samples, including Acinetobacter baumannii (n=6, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=4, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=4, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens. The most sensitive antibiotics for microorganisms are listed as follows; Acinetobacter baumannii: colistin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa: amikacin, carbapenems; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole; Klebsiella and Enterobacteriaceae species: carbapenems, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin. Conclusion: Intermittent analyses and antibiotic susceptibilities of VAP

  9. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  10. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  11. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  12. Putative ancient microorganisms from amber nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Blasco, Lucía; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomás G

    2007-06-01

    Evolutionary microbiology studies based on the isolation of ancient DNA and/or microbial samples are scarce due to the difficulty of finding well preserved biological specimens. However, amber is a fossil resin with natural preserving properties for microbial cells and DNA. The visualization by transmission electron microscopy of different microorganism-like specimens found in amber nuggets from both the Miocene and the Cretaceous periods was accompanied by studies of ancient DNA obtained from the nuggets. After the design of specific primers based on the present sequences of both genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ancestral AGP2 sequence from the Miocene, as well as the 18S rRNA from the Cretaceous, were amplified.

  13. Microorganism billiards in closed plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Madison S

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that many species of microorganisms leave a solid surface at a fixed angle determined by steric interactions and near-field hydrodynamics. This angle is completely independent of the incoming angle. For several collisions in a closed body this determines a unique type of billiard system, an aspecular billiard in which the outgoing angle is fixed for all collisions. We analyze such a system using numerical simulation of this billiard for varying tables and outgoing angles, and also utilize the theory of one-dimensional maps and wavefront dynamics. When applicable we cite results from and compare our system to similar billiard systems in the literature. We focus on examples from three broad classes: the ellipse, the Bunimovich billiards, and the Sinai billiards. The effect of a noisy outgoing angle is also discussed.

  14. Itaconic Acid Production by Microorganisms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helia Hajian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Itaconic acid (C5H6O4 is an organic acid with unique structure and characteristics. In order to promote the bio-based economy, the US-Department of Energy (DOE assigned a “top-12” of platform chemicals, which include numerous of organic acids. In particular di-carboxylic acids, like itaconic acid, can be used as monomers for bio-polymers. Thus the need to produce itaconic acid attracts much attention. The favored production process is fermentation of carbohydrates by fungi and Aspergillus terreus is the mostly frequently employed commercial producer of itaconic acid. This review reports the current status of use of microorganisms in enhancing productivity.

  15. Role of effective microorganism in unfertile soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasotha Chandramohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluvate the effect of Effective microorganisms (EM.The EM isolation is very important for agricultural fields. For this study used the different kinds of natural ingrediends such as banana, papaya, pumpkin, egg, cane molasses and neem powder to added and mixed and wait for the fermentation. After 45 days the samples were collected.The collected sample were identified using plating technique, microscopic studies and Biochemical test. The identified effective organism was Bacillus megaterium. These Effective organisms acting against the pathogen. The results concluded miximum zone of inhibition against the pathogen Such as E.coil (16mm, P.aeruginosa (18mm, K.pneumoniae (19mm, S.aureus (17mm, S.epidermis (16mm

  16. Feeding, Swimming and Navigation of Colonial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Julius; Bouillant, Ambre; Marron, Alan; Leptos, Kyriacos; Goldstein, Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Animals are multicellular in nature, but evolved from unicellular organisms. In the closest relatives of animals, the choanoflagellates, the unicellular species Salpincgoeca rosetta has the ability to form colonies, resembling true multicellularity. In this work we use a combination of experiments, theory, and simulations to understand the physical differences that arise from feeding, swimming and navigating as colonies instead of as single cells. We show that the feeding efficiency decreases with colony size for distinct reasons in the small and large Péclet number limits, and we find that swimming as a colony changes the conventional active random walks of microorganism to stochastic helices, but that this does not hinder effective navigation towards chemoattractants.

  17. Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, J.

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms have a long history of use in food production, e.g. in the production of sausages, cheeses, etc. Roughly one quarter of all food products rely on microbiological processes, and the safe use of microorganisms for food production is essential. The transfer of novel traits to food microorganisms through recombinant gene technology will result in new potential food safety issues. This requires the elaboration of criteria for safety assessment of foods derived from genetic microorga...

  18. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  19. Airborne microbial composition in a high-throughput poultry slaughtering facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruiping; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Meng, Hua; Xiao, Peng; Chang, Lingling

    2013-03-01

    A high-throughput chicken slaughtering facility in Beijing was systematically investigated for numbers of airborne microorganisms. Samples were assessed for counts of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. During a 4-month period (September to December 2011), samples were collected for 10 min three times daily (preproduction, production, and postproduction). Samples were collected for three consecutive days of each month with an FA-1 sampler from six sampling sites: receiving-hanging, soaking-scalding and defeathering, evisceration, precooling, subdividing, and packing. Humidity, temperature, wind velocity, and airborne particulates also were recorded at each sampling site and time. The highest counts of microorganisms were recorded in the initial stages of processing, i.e., the receiving-hanging and defeathering areas, with a definite decline toward the evisceration, prechilling, subdividing, and packing areas; the prechilling area had the lowest microbial counts of 2.4 × 10(3) CFU/m(3). Mean total coliforms counts ranged from 8.4 × 10(3) to 140 CFU/m(3). Maximum E. coli counts were 6.1 × 10(3) CFU/m(3) in the soaking-scalding and defeathering area. B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus represented only a small proportion of the microbial population (1,900 to 20 CFU/m(3)). L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were rarely detected in evisceration, precooling, subdividing, and packing areas. Our study identified the levels of bioaerosols that may affect chicken product quality. This finding could be useful for improved control of microbial contamination to ensure product quality.

  20. DENTINE CARIES: ACID-TOLERANT MICROORGANISMS AND ASPECTS ON COLLAGEN DEGRADATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Anders Hedenbjörk

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a common disease all over the world, despite the fact that it can be both effectively prevented and treated. It is driven by acids produced by oral microorganisms as a consequence of their metabolism of dietary carbohydrates. Given enough acid challenge, eventually the tooth enamel barrier will be broken down, and the carious lesion will extend into underlying hard tissue, forming a macroscopic cavity in the dentine. In comparison to biofilm on enamel, a dentine carious lesion provides a vastly different environment for the residing microorganisms. The environment influences the types and numbers of microorganisms that can colonize the dentine caries lesion. The overall aims for this thesis are to enumerate and further study microorganisms found in established dentine caries lesions and also to illuminate how host-derived proteolytic enzymes might contribute to this degradation, not only to better understand the caries process in dentine but also to find incitements for new methods to influence the natural progression of caries lesions. In Paper I, the numbers of remaining viable microorganisms after completed excavation using two excavation methods were investigated. Samples of carious dentine tissue were collected before and after excavation and cultivated on different agar media in different atmospheres. Analysis was performed by counting the number of colony-forming units (CFUs). Key findings: The number of remaining microorganisms after excavation was low for both methods, but some microorganisms always remained in the cavity floors even when the cavities were judged as caries free using normal clinical criteria. In Paper II, the acid tolerant microbiota in established dentine caries lesions was investigated. Samples were taken as in Paper I, but on three levels (superficial, center of lesion, floor of lesion after completed excavation). The samples were cultivated in anaerobic conditions on solid pH-selective agar media of different acidity

  1. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.;

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  2. Collective motion of micro-organisms from field theoretical viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, M; Kawamura, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the collective motion of micro-organisms in the fluid and consider the problem of the red tide. The red tide is produced by the condensation of the micro-organisms, which might be a similar phenomenon to the condensation of the strings. We propose a model of the generation of the red tide. By considering the interaction between the micro-organisms mediated by the velocity fields in the fluid, we derive the Van der Waals type equation of state, where the generation of the red tide can be regarded as a phase transition from the gas of micro-organisms to the liquid.

  3. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  4. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    2017-01-01

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes.

  5. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  6. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation...... and perturbations of the surface of the Earth. The Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) has experimented with airborne INSAR since 1993. Multiple track data are collected in a special mode in which the radar directly steers the aircraft which allows for very precise control of the flight path. Such data sets...... have been acquired at both L- and C-band. During 1994/95 the system was further modified to add the capability to perform single pass interferometric data acquisitions at C-band. This paper will discuss: (1) the general principles of INSAR systems and their application to topographic mapping and (2...

  7. Infrared signature generation of airborne targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Michael R.

    1993-08-01

    This report proposes a generic methodology for generating infrared signatures of airborne targets. The various issues, assumptions and simplifications utilized in signature studies are outlines to insure baseline consistency among future models and evaluation tools. More specifically, the target is characterized on a component level, and the at-aperture signature is generated by the correct inclusion of atmospheric transmission. While the technique and general concepts may apply to all airborne targets, this study places emphasis on cruise missiles and related targets due to their low contrast. For these targets, the background signature becomes more important as both the emitted target radiance and the reflected background radiance contribute to the overall signature. Example target signatures generated using the proposed methodology will be presented following the discussion of signature modeling.

  8. Comprehensive characterization of indoor airborne bacterial profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.L.Chan; P.H.F.Yu; Y.W.Cheng; C.Y.Chan; P.K.Wong

    2009-01-01

    This is the first detailed characterization of the air-borne bacterial profiles in indoor environments and two restaurants were selected for this study.Fifteen genera of bacteria were isolated from each restaurant and identified by three different bacterial identification systems including MIDI, Biolog and Riboprinter?.The dominant bacteria of both restaurants were Gram-positive bacteria in which Micrococcus and Bacillus species were the most abundant species.Most bacteria identified were representative species of skin and respiratory tract of human, and soil.Although the bacterial levels in these restaurants were below the limit of the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO) Level 1 standard (i.e., < 500 cfu/m3), the majority of these bacteria were opportunistic pathogens.These results suggested that the identity of airborne bacteria should also be included in the IAQ to ensure there is a safety guideline for the public.

  9. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  10. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M; Stilianakis, N. I.; Drossinos, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as ...

  11. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  12. Physiological ecology of microorganisms in Subglacial Lake Whillans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trista J Vick-Majors

    2016-10-01

    in the SLW water column. Heterotrophic metabolisms utilizing acetate and formate as electron donors yielded less energy than chemolithotrophic metabolisms when calculated in terms of energy density, which supports experimental results that showed chemoautotrophic activity in excess of heterotrophic activity. The microbial communities of subglacial lake ecosystems provide important natural laboratories to study the physiological and biogeochemical behavior of microorganisms inhabiting cold, dark environments.

  13. Cryospheric Applications of Modern Airborne Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. Lower-cost equipment, more powerful software, and simplified methods have lowered the barriers-to-entry significantly and now allow repeat-mapping of cryospheric dynamics that were previously too expensive to consider. The current state-of-the-art is the ability to use an airborne equipment package costing less than $20,000 to make topographic maps on landscape-scales at 10 cm pixel size with a vertical repeatability of about 10 cm. Nearly any surface change on the order of decimeters can be measured using these techniques through analysis of time-series of such maps. This presentation will discuss these new methods and their application to cryospheric dynamics such as the measurement of snow depth, coastal erosion, valley-glacier volume-change, permafrost thaw, frost heave of infrastructure, river bed geomorphology, and aufeis melt. Because of the expense of other airborne methods, by necessity measurements of these dynamics are currently most often made on the ground along benchmark transects that are then extrapolated to the broader scale. The ability to directly measure entire landscapes with equal or higher accuracy than transects eliminates the need to extrapolate them and the ability to do so at lower costs than transects may revolutionize the way we approach studying change in the cryosphere, as well as our understanding of the cryosphere itself.

  14. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  15. Geological Mapping of Sabah, Malaysia, Using Airborne Gravity Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauzi Nordin, Ahmad; Jamil, Hassan; Noor Isa, Mohd;

    2016-01-01

    using airborne gravity surveys. Airborne gravity data over land areas of Sabah has been combined with the marine airborne gravity data to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage in order to produce the geological mapping. Free-air and Bouguer anomaly maps (density 2.67 g/cm3) have been......Airborne gravimetry is an effective tool for mapping local gravity fields using a combination of airborne sensors, aircraft and positioning systems. It is suitable for gravity surveys over difficult terrains and areas mixed with land and ocean. This paper describes the geological mapping of Sabah...... gravity data were 5-6 km. The airborne gravity survey database for landand marine areas has been compiled using ArcGIS geodatabase format in order to produce the update geological map of Sabah....

  16. The hidden face of academic researches on classified highly pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic microorganisms and toxins are manipulated in academic laboratories for fundamental research purposes, diagnostics, drugs and vaccines development. Obviously, these infectious pathogens represent a potential risk for human and/or animal health and their accidental or intentional release (biosafety and biosecurity, respectively) is a major concern of governments. In the past decade, several incidents have occurred in laboratories and reported by media causing fear and raising a sense of suspicion against biologists. Some scientists have been ordered by US government to leave their laboratory for long periods of time following the occurrence of an incident involving infectious pathogens; in other cases laboratories have been shut down and universities have been forced to pay fines and incur a long-term ban on funding after gross negligence of biosafety/biosecurity procedures. Measures of criminal sanctions have also been taken to minimize the risk that such incidents can reoccur. As United States and many other countries, France has recently strengthened its legal measures for laboratories' protection. During the past two decades, France has adopted a series of specific restriction measures to better protect scientific discoveries with a potential economic/social impact and prevent their misuse by ill-intentioned people without affecting the progress of science through fundamental research. French legal regulations concerning scientific discoveries have progressively strengthened since 2001, until the publication in November 2011 of a decree concerning the "PPST" (for "Protection du Potentiel Scientifique et Technique de la nation", the protection of sensitive scientific data). Following the same logic of protection of sensitive scientific researches, regulations were also adopted in an order published in April 2012 concerning the biology and health field. The aim was to define the legal framework that precise the conditions for authorizing

  17. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  18. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  19. Nitrogen utilization pathways of soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinggera, J.; Geisseler, D.; Merbach, I.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. In terrestrial ecosystems N occurs predominantly in the form of organic matter. Here, soil microorganisms can use two possible mechanisms for the uptake of organic N: the direct route and the mobilization-immobilization-turnover (MIT) route. In the direct route simple organic molecules are taken up directly into the cell. The deamination occurs inside the cell and only the surplus N is released into the soil solution. In the second route, the deamination occurs outside the cell and all N is mineralized before assimilation. To determine the importance of the different N uptake pathways of soil microorganisms an incubation experiment (21 days, 20°C) is currently being carried out. Corn leaves with different C to N ratios (20, 40) and (NH4)2SO4 have been added to three soils (Haplic Chernozem, FAO) with different fertilization histories (300dt/ha farmyard manure every second year, mineral NPK fertilizer, no fertilization) from the long-term experiment at Bad Lauchstädt. Contents of NH4+, NO3- and microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic), CO2 production, potential protease activity, gross N mineralization and mineralization of added amino acids will be determined after 3, 7 and 21 days. Preliminary results show that the protease activity (without addition of corn residues) decreased in the order manure-fertilized soil (18.26 mg tyrosine kg-1 soil h-1) > Soil with mineral NPK fertilizer (17.45 mg tyrosine kg-1 soil h-1) > unfertilized soil (11.34 mg tyrosine kg-1 oven dry soil h-1). The turnover of amino acids after 24h was higher for the manure-fertilized soil (99.5% of the added amino acids were consumed) than for the NPK- fertilized and unfertilized soils (76%). The effects of the fertilization histories on the temporal dynamics of the different biological properties (Cmic, Nmic), CO2 production, protease activity and N mineralization rates will be presented.

  20. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change.

  1. Process for selecting polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kleerebezem, R.; Jian, Y.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for selecting a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing micro-organism from a natural source comprising a variety of micro-organisms, comprising steps of preparing a fermentation broth comprising the natural source and nutrients in water; creating and maintaining aero

  2. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  3. Composting MSW and sewage sludge with effective complex microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effects of complex microorganisms in composting process of the municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge were examined through inspecting biomass, temperature, oxygen consumption, organic mater, and C/N (the ratio of carbon and nitrogen). The experimental results shows: complex microorganisms are effective to compose organic matter and speedup composting change into humus.

  4. Effects of heat-activated persulfate oxidation on soil microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Smets, Barth F.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2008-01-01

    /L). The results emphasize the necessity of using multiple toxicity assays and indigenous cultures in order to realistically assess the potential effects of in situ chemical oxidation on soil microorganisms. A comparison to other studies suggests that the effects of activated persulfate on soil microorganisms...

  5. Cybernetic modeling of adaptive prediction of environmental changes by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandli, Aravinda R; Modak, Jayant M

    2014-02-01

    Microorganisms exhibit varied regulatory strategies such as direct regulation, symmetric anticipatory regulation, asymmetric anticipatory regulation, etc. Current mathematical modeling frameworks for the growth of microorganisms either do not incorporate regulation or assume that the microorganisms utilize the direct regulation strategy. In the present study, we extend the cybernetic modeling framework to account for asymmetric anticipatory regulation strategy. The extended model accurately captures various experimental observations. We use the developed model to explore the fitness advantage provided by the asymmetric anticipatory regulation strategy and observe that the optimal extent of asymmetric regulation depends on the selective pressure that the microorganisms experience. We also explore the importance of timing the response in anticipatory regulation and find that there is an optimal time, dependent on the extent of asymmetric regulation, at which microorganisms should respond anticipatorily to maximize their fitness. We then discuss the advantages offered by the cybernetic modeling framework over other modeling frameworks in modeling the asymmetric anticipatory regulation strategy.

  6. High-Performance Airborne Optical Carbon Dioxide Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental species measurement on airborne atmospheric research craft is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer...

  7. High-Performance Airborne Optical Carbon Dioxide Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental species measurement on airborne atmospheric research craft is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer many...

  8. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  9. Rapidly evolving microorganisms with high biofuel tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyawahare, Saurabh; Zhang, Qiucen; Lang, Wendy; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Replacing non-renewable energy sources is one of the biggest and most exciting challenges of our generation. Algae and bacteria are poised to become major renewable biofuels if strains can be developed that provide a high,consistent and robust yield of oil. One major stumbling block towards this goal is the lack of tolerance to high concentrations of biofuels like isobutanol. Using traditional bioengineering techniques to remedy this face the hurdle of identifying the correct pathway or gene to modify. But the multiplicity of interactions inside a cell makes it very hard to determine what to modify a priori. Instead, we propose a technology that does not require prior knowledge of the genes or pathways to modify. In our approach that marries microfabrication and ecology, spatial heterogeneity is used as a knob to speed up evolution in the desired direction. Recently, we have successfully used this approach to demonstrate the rapid emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance in as little as ten hours. Here, we describe our experimental results in developing new strains of micro-organisms with high oil tolerance. Besides biofuel production, our work is also relevant to oil spill clean-ups.

  10. Snow as a habitat for microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoham, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    There are three major habitats involving ice and snow, and the microorganisms studied from these habitats are most eukaryotic. Sea ice is inhabited by algae called diatoms, glacial ice has sparse populations of green algai cal desmids, and the temporary and permanent snows in mountainous regions and high latitudes are inhabited mostly by green algal flagellates. The life cycle of green algal flagellates is summarized by discussing the effects of light, temperature, nutrients, and snow melts. Specific examples of optimal conditions and environmental effects for various snow algae are given. It is not likely that the eukaryotic snow algae presented are candidated for life on the planet Mars. Evolutionally, eukaryotic cells as know on Earth may not have had the opportunity to develop on Mars (if life evolved at all on Mars) since eukaryotes did not appear on Earth until almost two billion years after the first prokaryotic organisms. However, the snow/ice ecosystems on Earth present themselves as extreme habitats were there is evidence of prokaryotic life (eubacteria and cyanbacteria) of which literally nothing is known. Any future surveillances of extant and/or extinct life on Mars should include probes (if not landing sites) to investigate sites of concentrations of ice water. The possibility of signs of life in Martian polar regions should not be overlooked.

  11. Effectiveness of ozone against periodontal pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Karin C; Quirling, Martina; Lenzke, Stefanie; Paschos, Ekaterini; Kamereck, Klaus; Brand, Korbinian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2011-06-01

    Ozone has been proposed as an adjunct antiseptic in periodontitis therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effectiveness of gaseous/aqueous ozone, in comparison with that of the established antiseptic chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), against periodontal microorganisms. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Parvimonas micra in planktonic or biofilm cultures were exposed, for 1 min, to gaseous ozone, aqueous ozone, CHX, or phosphate-buffered saline (control). None of the agents was able to substantially reduce the A. actinomycetemcomitans count in biofilm cultures. In contrast, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. micra could be eliminated by 2% CHX or by ozone gas at 53 gm(-3) . Significantly greater antimicrobial effects were observed against planktonic cultures than against biofilm-associated bacteria. The rate of killing was influenced by the species of bacteria, and by the type and concentration of agent. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of aqueous ozone (20 μg ml(-1) ) or gaseous ozone (≥ 4 gm(-3) ) compared with 2% CHX but they were more effective than 0.2% CHX. Therefore, high-concentrated gaseous and aqueous ozone merit further investigation as antiseptics in periodontitis therapy. A safe system for applying gaseous ozone into the periodontal pocket that avoids inhalation still needs to be developed.

  12. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  13. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Baeza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies” (CAROLS L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer—STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera. Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21 flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight horizontal flights, circular flights, wing and nose wags over the ocean. Analysis of the first two campaigns in 2007 and 2008 leads us to improve the CAROLS radiometer regarding isolation between channels and filter bandwidth. After implementation of these improvements, results show that the instrument is conforming to specification and is a useful tool for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite validation as well as for specific studies on surface soil moisture or ocean salinity.

  14. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  15. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPLINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2004-05-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  16. CAROLS: a new airborne L-band radiometer for ocean surface and land observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Pardé, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline; Fanise, Pascal; Hauser, Daniele; Dechambre, Monique; Kerr, Yann; Leduc-Leballeur, Marion; Reverdin, Gilles; Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten; Albergel, Clement; Calvet, Jean Christophe; Wigneron, Jean Pierre; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Rius, Antonio; Tenerelli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The "Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies" (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer-STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera). Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21 flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight horizontal flights, circular flights, wing and nose wags over the ocean. Analysis of the first two campaigns in 2007 and 2008 leads us to improve the CAROLS radiometer regarding isolation between channels and filter bandwidth. After implementation of these improvements, results show that the instrument is conforming to specification and is a useful tool for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite validation as well as for specific studies on surface soil moisture or ocean salinity.

  17. Design of an Airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) for the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, P.; vanGorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Cohen, D.; Wilson, D.; Randall, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Polanco, O.; Dierssen, H.; Balasubramanian, K.; Vargas, R.; Hein, R.; Sobel, H.; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    PRISM is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. We describe here the instrument design and the technologies that enable it to achieve its distinguishing characteristics. PRISM covers the 350-1050 nm range with a 3.1 nm sampling and a 33(deg) field of view. The design provides for high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The complete instrument also incorporates two additional wavelength bands at 1240 and 1610 nm in a spot radiometer configuration to aid with atmospheric correction.

  18. Advances in National Capabilities for Consequence Assessment Modeling of Airborne Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasstrom, J; Sugiyama, G; Foster, K; Larsen, S; Kosovic, B; Eme, B; Walker, H; Goldstein, P; Lundquist, J; Pobanz, B; Fulton, J

    2007-11-26

    This paper describes ongoing advancement of airborne hazard modeling capabilities in support of multiple agencies through the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Atmospheric Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). A suite of software tools developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and collaborating organizations includes simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end user's computers, Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced 3-D flow and atmospheric dispersion modeling tools and expert analysis from the national center at LLNL, and state-of-the-science high-resolution urban models and event reconstruction capabilities.

  19. Ku-band radar penetration into snow cover Arctic sea ice using airborne data

    OpenAIRE

    Willatt, R.; Laxon, S.; Giles, K.; R. Cullen; Haas, C.; V. Helm

    2011-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry provides data to monitor winter Arctic sea-ice thickness variability on interannual, basin-wide scales. When using this technique an assumption is made that the peak of the radar return originates from the snow/ice interface. This has been shown to be true in the laboratory for cold, dry snow as is the case on Arctic sea ice during winter. However, this assumption has not been tested in the field. We use data from an airborne normal-incidence Ku-band radar altimeter ...

  20. Airborne measurements of NO{sub y} and impact of this trace gas on atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perros, P.E.; Marion, T. [Paris-12 et 7 Univ., Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1999-05-01

    Nitrogen compounds play a key role in the ozone production processes. The airborne measurement of individual species is difficult compared to their global measurement. This can be done by the conversion of all the species (NO{sub y}) in NO followed by a subsequent analysis by chemiluminescence. Laboratory tests allow up to determine the main characteristics of such conversion. NO{sub y} measurements associated with NO{sub x} concentrations allow a quantitative and qualitative study of ozone production processes. In particular it is possible to determine the ozone production potential of an air mass, the ozone production efficiency and to specify the chemical regimes. (authors) 13 refs.

  1. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...... by multiplying the SDI by an altitude dependent conversion factor. The conversion factors are determined from spectra based on Monte Carlo calculations. The results are compared with measurements in a laboratory calibration set-up. IT-NT-27. June 1996. 27 p....

  2. The Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Mauser

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectralimager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which wasconstructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfullydeployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrumentdesign and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system’ssecond generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the datais described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  3. OPTICAL AND DIELECTRIC SENSORS BASED ON ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES FOR MICROORGANISMS DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ramos Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are natural compounds isolated from a wide variety of organisms that include microorganisms, insects, amphibians, plants and humans. These biomolecules are considered as part of the innate immune system and are known as natural antibiotics, presenting a broad spectrum of activities against bacteria, fungi and/or viruses. Technological innovations have enabled AMPs to be utilized for the development of novel biodetection devices. Advances in nanotechnology, such as the synthesis of nanocomposites, nanoparticles, and nanotubes have permitted the development of nanostructured platforms with biocompatibility and greater surface areas for the immobilization of biocomponents, arising as additional tools for obtaining more efficient biosensors. Diverse AMPs have been used as biological recognition elements for obtaining biosensors with more specificity and lower detection limits, whose analytical response can be evaluated through electrochemical impedance and fluorescence spectroscopies. AMP-based biosensors have shown potential for applications such as supplementary tools for conventional diagnosis methods of microorganisms. In this review, conventional methods for microorganism diagnosis as well new strategies using AMPs for the development of impedimetric and fluorescent biosensors are highlighted. AMP-based biosensors show promise as methods for diagnosing infections and bacterial contaminations as well as applications in quality control for clinical analyses and microbiological laboratories.

  4. Stimulation of soil microorganisms in pesticide-contaminated soil using organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Yudha Perwira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals such as pesticides have contributed to significant increases in crop yields; however, they can also be linked to adverse effects on human health and soil microorganisms. For efficient bioremediation of pesticides accumulated in agricultural fields, stimulation of microorganisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the relationships between bacterial biomass and total carbon (TC and total nitrogen (TN in 427 agricultural soils. The soil bacterial biomass was generally positively correlated with TC and TN contents in the soil, but some soils had a low bacterial biomass despite containing high amounts of TC and TN. Soils of two fields (fields A and B with low bacterial biomass but high TC and TN contents were investigated. Long-term pesticide use (dichloropropane-dichloropropene and fosthiazate in field A and chloropicrin in field B appeared to have contributed to the low bacterial biomass observed in these soils. Soil from field A was treated with different organic materials and incubated for 1 month under laboratory conditions. The bacterial biomass in field A soil was enhanced in treatments containing organic materials rich in TN. Application of organic materials stimulated the growth of microorganisms with the potential to bioremediate pesticide-polluted soils.

  5. A new ultrasonic high-throughput instrument for rapid DNA release from microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnadel, Marisa; Felden, Luc; Fijuljanin, Demir; Jouette, Sébastien; Chollet, Renaud

    2014-04-01

    Rapid detection methods for microbiological contamination are requested by many industries that respond to public health concerns. The control laboratories are replacing traditional culturing methods with faster assays based on nucleic acid amplification technologies, such as real-time PCR. However, an optimal nucleic acid sample preparation method is critical for the sensitivity and specificity of such tools. A high-throughput automated external ultrasonic device was developed for rapid lysing of microorganisms. Based on Ct values obtained from real-time PCR, there was efficient DNA release from the 16 microorganisms tested, including Gram positive and negative bacteria, bacterial spores, yeasts and spores of molds. Linearity of the lysis method was also demonstrated for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Candida albicans and the spores of Aspergillus brasiliensis, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) between 0.90 and 0.98. After sonication, PCR analysis of the lysates revealed earlier Ct values (0.83 to 7.49) for S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. enterica compared to the bead-beating method of lysis. These results demonstrated more efficient DNA release from bacteria with the ultrasonication system. Nevertheless, for fungi, the Ct values were 0.94 to 1.61 later for sonication than for bead beating. This study demonstrates that 4min of sonication with this new automated high-throughput instrument allows for the efficient lysis of a large range of microorganisms.

  6. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms from a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Izabela; Almeida, C Marisa R; Magalhães, Catarina M; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Guedes, Paula; Basto, M Clara P; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioremediation potential of microorganisms from intertidal sediments of a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill 7 years before and subject to chronic petroleum contamination since then. For that, the response of microorganisms to a new oil contamination was assessed in terms of community structure, abundance, and capacity to degrade hydrocarbons. Experiments were carried out under laboratory-controlled conditions by mixing sediment with crude oil with three different nitrogen supplementations in 50 ml serum bottles under constant shake for 15 days. Autochthonous microorganisms were able to respond to the new oil contamination by increasing their abundance (quantified by DAPI) and changing the community structure (evaluated by DGGE). This response was particularly clear for some specific bacterial groups such as Pseudomonas, Actinomycetales, and Betaproteobacteria. These communities presented an important potential for hydrocarbon degradation (up to 85 % for TPHs and 70 % for total PAHs), being the biodegradation stimulated by addition of an appropriate amount of nitrogen.

  7. Co-cultivation--a powerful emerging tool for enhancing the chemical diversity of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmann, Andreas; Aly, Amal H; Lin, Wenhan; Wang, Bingui; Proksch, Peter

    2014-02-17

    Marine-derived bacteria and fungi are promising sources of novel bioactive compounds that are important for drug discovery programs. However, as encountered in terrestrial microorganisms there is a high rate of redundancy that results in the frequent re-discovery of known compounds. Apparently only a part of the biosynthetic genes that are harbored by fungi and bacteria are transcribed under routine laboratory conditions which involve cultivation of axenic microbial strains. Many biosynthetic genes remain silent and are not expressed in vitro thereby seriously limiting the chemical diversity of microbial compounds that can be obtained through fermentation. In contrast to this, co-cultivation (also called mixed fermentation) of two or more different microorganisms tries to mimic the ecological situation where microorganisms always co-exist within complex microbial communities. The competition or antagonism experienced during co-cultivation is shown to lead to a significantly enhanced production of constitutively present compounds and/or to an accumulation of cryptic compounds that are not detected in axenic cultures of the producing strain. This review highlights the power of co-cultivation for increasing the chemical diversity of bacteria and fungi drawing on published studies from the marine and from the terrestrial habitat alike.

  8. The NRL 2011 Airborne Sea-Ice Thickness Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2011-12-01

    In March of 2011, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a study focused on the estimation of sea-ice thickness from airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors. The study was funded by ONR to take advantage of the Navy's ICEX2011 ice-camp /submarine exercise, and to serve as a lead-in year for NRL's five year basic research program on the measurement and modeling of sea-ice scheduled to take place from 2012-2017. Researchers from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and NRL worked with the Navy Arctic Submarine Lab (ASL) to emplace a 9 km-long ground-truth line near the ice-camp (see Richter-Menge et al., this session) along which ice and snow thickness were directly measured. Additionally, US Navy submarines collected ice draft measurements under the groundtruth line. Repeat passes directly over the ground-truth line were flown and a grid surrounding the line was also flown to collect altimeter, LiDAR and Photogrammetry data. Five CRYOSAT-2 satellite tracks were underflown, as well, coincident with satellite passage. Estimates of sea ice thickness are calculated assuming local hydrostatic balance, and require the densities of water, ice and snow, snow depth, and freeboard (defined as the elevation of sea ice, plus accumulated snow, above local sea level). Snow thickness is estimated from the difference between LiDAR and radar altimeter profiles, the latter of which is assumed to penetrate any snow cover. The concepts we used to estimate ice thickness are similar to those employed in NASA ICEBRIDGE sea-ice thickness estimation. Airborne sensors used for our experiment were a Reigl Q-560 scanning topographic LiDAR, a pulse-limited (2 nS), 10 GHz radar altimeter and an Applanix DSS-439 digital photogrammetric camera (for lead identification). Flights were conducted on a Twin Otter aircraft from Pt. Barrow, AK, and averaged ~ 5 hours in duration. It is challenging to directly compare results from the swath LiDAR with the

  9. Isolation of porphyran-degrading marine microorganisms from the surface of red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takashi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Sumi, Toshihisa; Yoshiki, Masahiro; Tsuruta, Yumi; Abe, Shin-ichi; Nishino, Shiduo; Sanematsu, Seigo; Koganemaru, Kazuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    Marine microorganisms degrading porphyran (POR) were found on the surface of thalli of Porphyra yezoensis. Fifteen crude microorganism groups softened and liquefied the surface of agar-rich plate medium. Among these, 11 microorganism groups degraded porphyran that consisted of sulfated polysaccharide in Porphyra yezoensis. Following isolation, 7 POR-degradable microorganisms were isolated from the 11 POR-degradable microorganism groups.

  10. Screening of microorganisms from Antarctic surface water and cytotoxicity metabolites from Antarctic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lanhong; Yang, Kangli; Liu, Jia; Sun, Mi; Zhu, Jiancheng; Lv, Mei; Kang, Daole; Wang, Wei; Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The Antarctic is a potentially important library of microbial resources and new bioactive substances. In this study, microorganisms were isolated from surface water samples collected from different sites of the Antarctic. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay-based cytotoxicity-tracking method was used to identify Antarctic marine microorganism resources for antitumor lead compounds. The results showed that a total of 129 Antarctic microorganism strains were isolated. Twelve strains showed potent cytotoxic activities, among which a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as N11-8 was further studied. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that N11-8 belongs to the genus Bacillus. Fermented active products of N11-8 with molecular weights of 1-30 kDa had higher inhibitory effects on different cancaer cells, such as BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, U251 human glioma cells, RKO human colon carcinoma cells, A549 human lung carcinoma cells, and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. However, they displayed lower cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. However, they displayed lower cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. Microscopic observations showed that the fermented active products have inhibitory activity on BEL-7402 cells similar to that of mitomycin C. Further studies indicated that the fermented active products have high pH and high thermal stability. In conclusion, most strains isolated in this study may be developed as promising sources for the discovery of antitumor bioactive substances. The fermented active products of Antarctic marine Bacillus sp. N11- 8 are expected to be applied in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  11. Indoor experimental facility for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) configurations - rail-SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirose, Getachew; Phelan, Brian R.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Koenig, Francois; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an indoor experimental facility to evaluate and assess airborne synthetic-aperture-radar-(SAR)-based detection capabilities. The rail-SAR is located in a multi-use facility that also provides a base for research and development in the area of autonomous robotic navigation. Radar explosive hazard detection is one key sensordevelopment area to be investigated at this indoor facility. In particular, the mostly wooden, multi-story building houses a two (2) story housing structure and an open area built over a large sandbox. The housing structure includes reconfigurable indoor walls which enable the realization of multiple See-Through-The-Wall (STTW) scenarios. The open sandbox, on the other hand, allows for surface and buried explosive hazard scenarios. The indoor facility is not rated for true explosive hazard materials so all targets will need to be inert and contain surrogate explosive fills. In this paper we discuss the current system status and describe data collection exercises conducted using canonical targets and frequencies that may be of interest to designers of ultra-wideband (UWB) airborne, ground penetrating SAR systems. A bi-static antenna configuration will be used to investigate the effects of varying airborne SAR parameters such as depression angle, bandwidth, and integration angle, for various target types and deployment scenarios. Canonical targets data were used to evaluate overall facility capabilities and limitations. These data is analyzed and summarized for future evaluations. Finally, processing techniques for dealing with RF multi-path and RFI due to operating inside the indoor facility are described in detail. Discussion of this facility and its capabilities and limitations will provide the explosive hazard community with a great airborne platform asset for sensor to target assessment.

  12. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  13. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  14. Single cell genomics of subsurface microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C.; Kieft, T. L.; Woyke, T.; Rinke, C.; Sczyrba, A.; van Heerden, E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed unexpected abundance and diversity of microorganisms in terrestrial and marine subsurface, providing new perspectives over their biogeochemical significance, evolution, and the limits of life. The now commonly used research tools, such as metagenomics and PCR-based gene surveys enabled cultivation-unbiased analysis of genes encoded by natural microbial communities. However, these methods seldom provide direct evidence for how the discovered genes are organized inside genomes and from which organisms do they come from. Here we evaluated the feasibility of an alternative, single cell genomics approach, in the analysis of subsurface microbial community composition, metabolic potential and microevolution at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), South Dakota, and the Witwaterstrand Basin, South Africa. We successfully recovered genomic DNA from individual microbial cells from multiple locations, including ultra-deep (down to 3,500 m) and low-biomass (down to 10^3 cells mL^-1) fracture water. The obtained single amplified genomes (SAGs) from SURF contained multiple representatives of the candidate divisions OP3, OP11, OD1 and uncharacterized archaea. By sequencing eight of these SAGs, we obtained the first genome content information for these phylum-level lineages that do not contain a single cultured representative. The Witwaterstrand samples were collected from deep fractures, biogeochemical dating of which suggests isolation from tens of thousands to tens of millions of years. Thus, these fractures may be viewed as "underground Galapagos", a natural, long-term experiment of microbial evolution within well-defined temporal and spatial boundaries. We are analyzing multiple SAGs from these environments, which will provide detailed information about adaptations to life in deep subsurface, mutation rates, selective pressures and gene flux within and across microbial populations.

  15. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  16. Molecular detection of airborne Coccidioides in Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Nancy A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Barker, Bridget M.; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the soil-dwelling fungus Coccidioides is essential for the prevention of Valley fever, a disease primarily caused by inhalation of the arthroconidia. Methods for collecting and detectingCoccidioides in soil samples are currently in use by several laboratories; however, a method utilizing current air sampling technologies has not been formally demonstrated for the capture of airborne arthroconidia. In this study, we collected air/dust samples at two sites (Site A and Site B) in the endemic region of Tucson, Arizona, and tested a variety of air samplers and membrane matrices. We then employed a single-tube nested qPCR assay for molecular detection. At both sites, numerous soil samples (n = 10 at Site A and n = 24 at Site B) were collected and Coccidioides was detected in two samples (20%) at Site A and in eight samples (33%) at Site B. Of the 25 air/dust samples collected at both sites using five different air sampling methods, we detected Coccidioides in three samples from site B. All three samples were collected using a high-volume sampler with glass-fiber filters. In this report, we describe these methods and propose the use of these air sampling and molecular detection strategies for environmental surveillance of Coccidioides.

  17. Airborne measurements of fission product fall-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.; Korsbech, U.

    1992-12-01

    During 1993 the Danish Emergency Management Agency will install an airborne [gamma]-ray detector system for area survey of contamination with radioactive nuclides - primarily fission products that may be released during a heavy accident at a nuclear power plant or from accidents during transport of radioactive material. The equipment is based on 16 liter NaI(TI) crystals and multichannel analysers from Exploranium (Canada). A preliminary investigation of the possibilities for detection of low and high level contamination - and the problems that may be expected during use of the equipment, and during interpretation of the measured data, is described. Several days after reactor shut-down some of the nuclides can be identified directly from the measured spectrum, and contamination levels may be determined within a factor two. After several weeks, most fission products have decayed. Concentrations and exposure rates can be determined with increasing accuracy as time passes. Approximate calibration of the equipment for measurements of surface contamination and natural radioactivity can be performed in the laboratory. Further checks of equipment should include accurate measurements of the spectrum resolution. Detectors should be checked individually, and all together. Further control of dead time and pulse pile-up should be performed. Energy calibration, electronics performance and data equipment should be tested against results from the original calibration. (AB).

  18. Airborne particulate soiling of terrestrial photovoltaic modules and cover materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the first phase of a photovoltaic-module soiling study that was carried out with NASA participation to investigate the problem of the electrical performance degradation of flat-plate photovoltaic modules exposed at outdoor sites that is due to the accumulation of airborne particulates on sensitive optical surfaces. The results were obtained in both field and laboratory soiling experiments, as well as in materials field experiments using candidate encapsulants and top covers. It is concluded that: (1) the electrical performance degradation shows a significant time and site dependence, ranging from 2% to 60% power loss; (2) the rate of particulate accumulation appears to be largely material independent when natural removal processes do not dominate; (3) the effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material dependent; (4) top-cover materials of glass and plexiglass retain fewer particles than silicone rubber; and (5) high module voltages relative to ground do not appear to affect the rate of dirt accumulation on modules.

  19. Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, William E.; Steele, Bradley; Nelson, Graham; Truscott, Antony; Itzler, Mark; Entwistle, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 15 years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and private industry have been developing airborne LiDAR systems based on arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors capable of detecting a single photon. The extreme sensitivity of GmAPD detectors allows operation of LiDAR sensors at unprecedented altitudes and area collection rates in excess of 1,000 km2/hr. Up until now the primary emphasis of this technology has been limited to defense applications despite the significant benefits of applying this technology to non-military uses such as mapping, monitoring critical infrastructure and disaster relief. This paper briefly describes the operation of GmAPDs, design and operation of a Geiger-mode LiDAR, a comparison of Geiger-mode and traditional linear mode LiDARs, and a description of the first commercial Geiger-mode LiDAR system, the IntelliEarth™ Geospatial Solutions Geiger-mode LiDAR sensor.

  20. Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, G. (Editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

  1. Airborne chemical contamination of a chemically amplified resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Scott A.; Clecak, Nicholas J.; Wendt, H. R.; Willson, C. Grant; Snyder, Clinton D.; Knors, C. J.; Deyoe, N. B.; Maltabes, John G.; Morrow, James R.; McGuire, Anne E.; Holmes, Steven J.

    1991-06-01

    We have found that the performance of the t-BOC/onium salt resist system is severely degraded by vapor from organic bases. This effect is very pronounced and can be observed when the coated wafers stand for 15 minutes in air containing as little as 15 parts per billion (ppb) of an organic base. The observed effect, caused by this chemical contamination, depends on the tone of the resist system. For negative tone systems the UV exposure dose, required to obtain the correct linewidth, increases. While for the positive tone system, one observes the generation of a skin at the resist-air interface. Both effects are caused by the photogenerated acid being neutralized by the airborne organic base. There are a wide variety of commonly used materials which can liberate trace amounts of volatile amines and degrade resist performance. For example, fresh paint on a laboratory wall can exhibit this detrimental effect. These effects can be minimized by storing and processing the resist coated wafers in air that has passed through a specially designed, high efficiency carbon filter. The implementation of localized air filtration, to bathe the resist in chemically pure air, enabled this resist system to operate in a manufacturing environment at a rate of 100 wafers/hour.

  2. Military airborne and maritime application for cooperative behaviors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Robinett, Rush D. III

    2004-09-01

    As part of DARPA's Software for Distributed Robotics Program within the Information Processing Technologies Office (IPTO), Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with identifying military airborne and maritime missions that require cooperative behaviors as well as identifying generic collective behaviors and performance metrics for these missions. This report documents this study. A prioritized list of general military missions applicable to land, air, and sea has been identified. From the top eight missions, nine generic reusable cooperative behaviors have been defined. A common mathematical framework for cooperative controls has been developed and applied to several of the behaviors. The framework is based on optimization principles and has provably convergent properties. A three-step optimization process is used to develop the decentralized control law that minimizes the behavior's performance index. A connective stability analysis is then performed to determine constraints on the communication sample period and the local control gains. Finally, the communication sample period for four different network protocols is evaluated based on the network graph, which changes throughout the task. Using this mathematical framework, two metrics for evaluating these behaviors are defined. The first metric is the residual error in the global performance index that is used to create the behavior. The second metric is communication sample period between robots, which affects the overall time required for the behavior to reach its goal state.

  3. Evaluation of multiple-channel OFDM based airborne ultrasonic communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wentao; Wright, William M D

    2016-09-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation has been extensively used in both wired and wireless communication systems. The use of OFDM technology allows very high spectral efficiency data transmission without using complex equalizers to correct the effect of a frequency-selective channel. This work investigated OFDM methods in an airborne ultrasonic communication system, using commercially available capacitive ultrasonic transducers operating at 50kHz to transmit information through the air. Conventional modulation schemes such as binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) were used to modulate sub-carrier signals, and the performances were evaluated in an indoor laboratory environment. Line-of-sight (LOS) transmission range up to 11m with no measurable errors was achieved using BPSK at a data rate of 45kb/s and a spectral efficiency of 1b/s/Hz. By implementing a higher order modulation scheme (16-QAM), the system data transfer rate was increased to 180kb/s with a spectral efficiency of 4b/s/Hz at attainable transmission distances up to 6m. Diffraction effects were incorporated into a model of the ultrasonic channel that also accounted for beam spread and attenuation in air. The simulations were a good match to the measured signals and non-LOS signals could be demodulated successfully. The effects of multipath interference were also studied in this work. By adding cyclic prefix (CP) to the OFDM symbols, the bit error rate (BER) performance was significantly improved in a multipath environment.

  4. Laser links for mobile airborne nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Knapek, Markus; Horwath, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircrafts (RPA's) and especially Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) are currently operated over long distances, often across several continents. This is only made possible by maintaining Beyond Line Of Side (BLOS) radio links between ground control stations and unmanned vehicles via geostationary (GEO) satellites. The radio links are usually operated in the Ku-frequency band and used for both, vehicle command & control (C2) - it also refers to Command and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) - as well as transmission of intelligence data - the associated communication stream also refers to Payload Link (PL). Even though this scheme of communication is common practice today, various other issues are raised thereby. The paper shows that the current existing problems can be solved by using the latest technologies combined with altered intuitive communication strategies. In this context laser communication is discussed as a promising technology for airborne applications. It is clearly seen that for tactical reasons, as for instance RPA cooperative flying, Air-to-Air communications (A2A) is more advantageous than GEO satellite communications (SatCom). Hence, together with in-flight test results the paper presents a design for a lightweight airborne laser terminal, suitable for use onboard manned or unmanned airborne nodes. The advantages of LaserCom in combination with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies particularly for Persistent Wide Area Surveillance (PWAS) are highlighted. Technical challenges for flying LaserCom terminals aboard RPA's are outlined. The paper leads to the conclusion that by combining both, LaserCom and ISR, a new quality for an overall system arises which is more than just the sum of two separate key technologies.

  5. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  6. Topology optimized cloak for airborne sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Directional acoustic cloaks that conceal an aluminum cylinder for airborne sound waves are presented in this paper. Subwavelength cylindrical aluminum inclusions in air constitute the cloak design to aid practical realizations. The positions and radii of the subwavelength cylinders are determined...... by minimizing scattering from the cloak-structure and cylinder using the gradient-based topology optimization method. In the final optimization step, the radii of the subwavelength cylinders are constrained to three discrete values. A near-perfect narrow-banded and angular cloaking effect is obtained...

  7. Voxel inversion of airborne EM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;

    2013-01-01

    We present a geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which allows for straightforward integration of different data types in joint inversion, for informing geological/hydrogeological models directly and for easier incorporation...... for jointly inverting airborne and ground-based geophysical data. Furthermore, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid not correlated to the geophysical model space, and incorporating the geophysical data into the geological/hydrological modelling grids is problematic. We...... present a voxel grid inversion routine that overcomes these problems and we discuss in detail the algorithm implementation....

  8. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energ...

  9. Airborne Pollen Grains Of Afyon, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Süheyla ERGUN; Sevcan TATLIDIL; Hulusi MALYER; Sabri OZYURT; Ahmet AKKAYA; Nihat SAPAN

    2002-01-01

    The airborne pollen grains of Afyon have been studied for a two-year period (1999-2000) with a Durham sampler. A total of 14 367 pollen grains belonging to 40 taxa have been identified and recorded with some unidentified ones. Of them, 6 732 were identified in 1999 and 7 635 in 2000. Of the total pollen grains, 69.67% were arboreal, 26.64% non-arboreal and 3.68 % unidentified. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinus, Gramineae, Cupressaceae, Platanus, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Quercus, Ailanthus, Moraceae, Juglans, Salix, Cedrus and Rosaceae. The highest level of pollen grains was in May.

  10. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  11. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods.

  12. Participation of microorganisms in processes of waste biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kolomoets

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is shown, that microorganisms can be used for utilisation of products of waste degradation. The influence of microelements small doses on the ability of secured cultures of soil microorganisms to grow on poor nutrient medium was studied. The cultures simulate the relationship of the end products of waste pyrolysis. The positive influence of MnCl2, K2HPO4, NH4NО3 as well as the complex of microelements on the ability of secured microorganisms to accumulate the biomass and assimilate the substrate is shown. Among two secured and studied germ culturesthe genus of –Bacillus is more promising.

  13. Detection in Urban Scenario Using Combined Airborne Imaging Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renhorn, I.; Axelsson, M.; Benoist, K.W.; Bourghys, D.; Boucher, Y.; Xavier Briottet, X.; Sergio De CeglieD, S. De; Dekker, R.J.; Dimmeler, A.; Dost, R.; Friman, O.; Kåsen, I.; Maerker, J.; Persie, M. van; Resta, S.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Shimoni, M.; Vegard Haavardsholm, T.

    2012-01-01

    The EDA project “Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors” (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The proje

  14. Detection in Urban Scenario using Combined Airborne Imaging Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renhorn, I.; Axelsson, M.; Benoist, K.W.; Bourghys, D.; Boucher, Y.; Xavier Briottet, X.; Sergio De CeglieD, S. De; Dekker, R.J.; Dimmeler, A.; Dost, R.; Friman, O.; Kåsen, I.; Maerker, J.; Persie, M. van; Resta, S.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Shimoni, M.; Vegard Haavardsholm, T.

    2012-01-01

    The EDA project “Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors” (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The proje

  15. SOFIA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors: An External Evaluation of Cycle 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a partnership between NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The observatory itself is a Boeing 747 SP that has been modified to serve as the world's largest airborne research observatory. The SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a component of SOFIA's…

  16. Moving Target Indication for Multi-channel Airborne Radar Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.

    2010-01-01

    Moving target indication (MTI) using radar is of great interest in civil and military applications. Its uses include airborne or space-borne surveillance of ground moving vehicles (cars, trains) or ships at sea, for instance. Airborne (space-borne) radar offers several advantages when compared to op

  17. APEX; current status of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieke, J.; Itten, K.I.; Kaiser, J.W.; Schlapfer, D.; Brazile, J.; Debruyn, W.; Meuleman, K.; Kempeneers, P.; Neukom, A.; Feusi, H.; Adolph, P.; Moser, R.; Schilliger, T.; Kohler, P.; Meng, M.; Piesbergen, J.; Strobl, P.; Schaepman, M.E.; Gavira, J.; Ulbrich, G.J.; Meynart, R.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a joint Swiss/Belgian initiative started a project to build a new generation airborne imaging spectrometer, namely APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) under the ESA funding scheme named PRODEX. APEX is a dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the spectral range between 380 - 2

  18. Restructuring a General Microbiology Laboratory into an Investigative Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigative laboratory sequence based upon the isolation and characterization of soil bacteria to aid microbiology teachers in providing students with activities that expose them to basic techniques of microbiology as well as demonstrates the scientific process and the experimental analysis of microorganisms. (ZWH)

  19. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  20. Micro-organisms isolated from cadaveric samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Allograft musculoskeletal tissue is commonly used in orthopaedic surgical procedures. Cadaveric donors of musculoskeletal tissue supply multiple allografts such as tendons, ligaments and bone. The microbiology laboratory of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS, Australia) has cultured cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples for bacterial and fungal isolates since 2006. This study will retrospectively review the micro-organisms isolated over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swab and tissue samples were received for bioburden testing and were inoculated onto agar and/or broth culture media. Growth was obtained from 25.1 % of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received. The predominant organisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms, with the heaviest bioburden recovered from the hemipelvis. The rate of bacterial and fungal isolates from cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples is higher than that from living donors. The type of organism isolated may influence the suitability of the allograft for transplant.

  1. Identification of microorganisms grown on chromogenic media by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthje, Petra; Pranada, Arthur B; Carruthers-Lay, Duncan; Desjardins, Marc; Gaillot, Olivier; Wareham, David; Ciesielczuk, Holly; Özenci, Volkan

    2017-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and chromogenic media are widely used in clinical microbiology laboratories to facilitate the rapid selection and identification of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether usage of chromogenic media limits the diagnostic performance of MALDI-TOF MS for microbial identification. A total of 386 microorganisms collected and analyzed at five laboratories were included. Isolates were cultured on relevant chromogenic media and non-selective agar plates in parallel and identified using the Bruker MALDI-TOF MS. Among the tested isolates, no misidentification was recorded and there was no medium-related difference in the identification level. However, score values were overall slightly but significantly lower for isolates grown on chromogenic media. In conclusion, the use of chromogenic culture media tested here had no relevant impact on MALDI-TOF MS performance for diagnostic purposes.

  2. Application of aerobic microorganisms in bioremediation in situ of soil contaminated by petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicka, Dorota; Suszek, Agnieszka; Borkowski, Andrzej; Bielecka, Aleksandra

    2009-07-01

    Aerobic microorganisms able to biodegrade benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) have been isolated from an area contaminated by petroleum products. The activity of the isolated communities was tested under both laboratory and field conditions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene were added to the cultures as the sole carbon source, at a concentration of 500 mg/L. In batch cultures under laboratory conditions, an 84% reduction of benzene, 86% of toluene and 82% of xylene were achieved. In cultures with ethylbenzene as the sole carbon source, the reduction was around 80%. Slightly lower values were observed under field conditions: 95% reduction of benzene and toluene, 81% of ethylbenzene and 80% of xylene. A high biodegradation activity of benzene (914 microM/L/24h), toluene (771 microM/L/24h), xylene (673 microM/L/24h) and ethylbenzene (644 microM/L/24h) was observed in the isolated communities.

  3. Study on analysis from sources of error for Airborne LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H. C.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z. J.; Zuo, Z. Q.; Xu, Q. Q.; Li, F. F.; Song, C.

    2016-11-01

    With the advancement of Aerial Photogrammetry, it appears that to obtain geo-spatial information of high spatial and temporal resolution provides a new technical means for Airborne LIDAR measurement techniques, with unique advantages and broad application prospects. Airborne LIDAR is increasingly becoming a new kind of space for earth observation technology, which is mounted by launching platform for aviation, accepting laser pulses to get high-precision, high-density three-dimensional coordinate point cloud data and intensity information. In this paper, we briefly demonstrates Airborne laser radar systems, and that some errors about Airborne LIDAR data sources are analyzed in detail, so the corresponding methods is put forwarded to avoid or eliminate it. Taking into account the practical application of engineering, some recommendations were developed for these designs, which has crucial theoretical and practical significance in Airborne LIDAR data processing fields.

  4. Stellar Occultations from Airborne Platforms: 1988 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Dunham, Edward W.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Person, Michael J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-10-01

    Observing a stellar occultation by a solar system body with an airborne telescope requires precise positioning of the observer within the shadow cast onto the Earth. For small bodies like Pluto and Kuiper Belt objects, smaller than the Earth, the challenge is particularly intense, with the accuracy of the astrometric and flight planning determining whether the observation succeeds or fails. From our first airborne occultation by Pluto in 1988 aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), to our most recent event by Pluto in 2015 aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), we have refined our astrometric and flight planning systems to the point where we can now place an airborne observer into the small central flash zone. We will discuss the history of airborne observation of occultations while detailing the improvements in the astrometric processes. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grant NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory.

  5. 77 FR 45350 - Notice of Availability of Microbial Risk Assessment Guideline: Pathogenic Microorganisms With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Assessment Guideline: Pathogenic Microorganisms with Focus on Food and Water (MRA Guideline). The MRA... document, Microbial Risk Assessment Guideline: Pathogenic Microorganisms with Focus on Food and Water will... AGENCY Notice of Availability of Microbial Risk Assessment Guideline: Pathogenic Microorganisms...

  6. Photobiology Research Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Photobiology Research Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL. The photobiology group's research is in four main areas: (1) Comprehensive studies of fuel-producing photosynthetic, fermentative, and chemolithotrophic model microorganisms; (2) Characterization and engineering of redox enzymes and proteins for fuel production; (3) Genetic and pathway engineering of model organisms to improve production of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels; and (4) Studies of nanosystems using biological and non-biological materials in hybrid generation. NREL's photobiology research capabilities include: (1) Controlled and automated photobioreactors and fermenters for growing microorganisms under a variety of environmental conditions; (2) High-and medium-throughput screening of H{sub 2}-producing organisms; (3) Homologous and heterologous expression, purification, and biochemical/biophysical characterization of redox enzymes and proteins; (4) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gases, metabolites, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; (5) Genetic and pathway engineering and development of novel genetic toolboxes; and (6) Design and spectroscopic characterization of enzyme-based biofuel cells and energy conversion nanodevices.

  7. Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements using Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephan R.; Abshire, James; Dawsey, Martha; Ramanathan, Anand

    2012-01-01

    We report on an initial airborne demonstration of atmospheric methane column measurements at 1.65 micrometers using a widely tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier (OPA) lidar and a photon counting detector. Methane is an important greenhouse gas and accurate knowledge of its sources and sinks is needed for climate modeling. Our lidar system uses 20 pulses at increasing wavelengths and integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) to map a methane line at 1650.9 nanometers. The wavelengths are generated by using a Nd:YAG pump laser at 1064.5 nanometers and distributed feedback diode laser at 1650.9 nanometers and a periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. The pulse width was 3 nanoseconds and the pulse repetition rate was 6.28 KHz. The outgoing energy was approximately 13 microJoules/pulse. A commercial 20 nanometer diameter fiber-coupled telescope with a photon counting detector operated in analog mode with a 0.8 nanometer bandpass filter was used as the lidar receiver. The lidar system was integrated on NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory, based at Dryden Airborne operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale CA. Three flights were performed in the central valley of California. Each flight lasted about 2.5 hours and it consisted of several flight segments at constant altitudes at approximately 3, 4.5, 6, 7.6, 9.1, 10.6 km (l0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 kft). An in-situ cavity ring down spectrometer made by Picarro Inc. was flown along with the lidar instrument provided us with the "truth" i.e. the local CH4, CO2 and H2O concentrations at the constant flight altitude segments. Using the aircraft's altitude, GPS, and meteorological data we calculated the theoretical differential optical depth of the methane absorption at increasing altitudes. Our results showed good agreement between the experimentally derived optical depth measurements from the lidar instrument and theoretical calculations as the flight altitude was increased from 3 to 10.6 kilometers, assuming a

  8. From the lab to the farm: an industrial perspective of plant beneficial microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jacob Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Any successful strategy aimed at enhancing crop productivity with microbial products ultimately relies on the ability to scale at regional to global levels. Microorganisms that show promise in the lab may lack key characteristics for widespread adoption in sustainable and productive agricultural systems. This paper provides an overview of critical considerations involved with taking a strain from discovery to the farmer’s field. This paper will review some of the most effective microbial products on the market today, explore the reasons for their success and outline some of the major challenges involved in industrial production and commercialization of beneficial strains for widespread agricultural application. General processes associated with commercializing viable microbial products are discussed in two broad categories, biofertility inoculants and biocontrol products. Specifically, we will address what farmers desire in potential microbial products, how mode of action informs decisions on product applications, variation in laboratory and field study data, challenges with scaling for mass production, and the importance of consistent efficacy, product stability and quality. In order to make a significant impact on global sustainable agriculture, the implementation of plant beneficial microorganisms will require a more seamless transition between laboratory and farm application. Early attention to the challenges presented here will improve the likelihood of developing effective microbial products that will improve crop yields, decrease disease severity, and help to feed an increasingly hungry planet.

  9. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil from Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb leaves on coalho cheese contaminating microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coalho cheese (a firm but very lightweight cheese produced in Brazil is widely produced and consumed in the Brazilian Northeast and its production has been mainly related to small farmers. This food has been frequently characterized as having high microbial load posing a risk for the health of consumers. This study aimed to indentify the chemical compounds of the essential oil from Eugenia caryophyllata leaves; to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the oil against coalho cheese contaminating microorganisms; and to assess its efficacy in inhibiting the autochthonous microflora of the cheese during refrigerated storage. Eugenol (74% was found to be the most prevalent compound in the essential oil. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Cidal Concentration (MCC in laboratorial broth were in the range of 2.5-5 and 5-20 µg.mL-1, respectively. Vaccum packed coalho cheese added with 5, 10, and 20 µg.g-1 of oil showed a lower growth rate (like-static effect against mesophilic bacteria during the time intervals evaluated. On the other hand, 2.5-10 µg.g-1 of oil provided a prominent decrease toward fungi count in cheese samples during storage. These results reveal the interesting antimicrobial property of the essential oil from E. caryophyllata leaves against a range of coalho cheese-related microorganisms in laboratorial media and in food matrix.

  10. Electronic Control of Unguided Airborne Vehicle (UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with building an electronic remote control circuit for Unguided Airborne Vehicle (UAV based on implementing Dual Tone Multiple Frequency decoder ( DTMF .A microcontroller is used in the design to analyze and execute the commands arriving to the UAV . A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD is implemented to show the results during the circuit development and test phase. The control of the UAV is done from the ground using a mobile or a personnel computer (PC supplied with a modem. The DTMF decoder output is connected to the microcontroller which analyzes the commands and accordingly execute them on the control parts in the UAV . The microcontroller issues orders and display the operations on the LCD . The circuit design assumes the presence of an operating GSM network for the transmission of the control commands .The airborne platform model is a small aircraft carrying the electronic circuit on board. Three stepper motors are used as a means of control to the wings, elevators and rudders in the UAV. .The electronic circuit on board the UAV is well protected to ensue safety of the hardware and perfect performance.

  11. Filter algorithm for airborne LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Ma, Hongchao; Wu, Jianwei; Tian, Liqiao; Qiu, Feng

    2007-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning data has become an accepted data source for highly automated acquisition of digital surface models(DSM) as well as for the generation of digital terrain models(DTM). To generate a high quality DTM using LIDAR data, 3D off-terrain points have to be separated from terrain points. Even though most LIDAR system can measure "last-return" data points, these "last-return" point often measure ground clutter like shrubbery, cars, buildings, and the canopy of dense foliage. Consequently, raw LIDAR points must be post-processed to remove these undesirable returns. The degree to which this post processing is successful is critical in determining whether LIDAR is cost effective for large-scale mapping application. Various techniques have been proposed to extract the ground surface from airborne LIDAR data. The basic problem is the separation of terrain points from off-terrain points which are both recorded by the LIDAR sensor. In this paper a new method, combination of morphological filtering and TIN densification, is proposed to separate 3D off-terrain points.

  12. Changes to airborne pollen counts across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ziello

    Full Text Available A progressive global increase in the burden of allergic diseases has affected the industrialized world over the last half century and has been reported in the literature. The clinical evidence reveals a general increase in both incidence and prevalence of respiratory diseases, such as allergic rhinitis (common hay fever and asthma. Such phenomena may be related not only to air pollution and changes in lifestyle, but also to an actual increase in airborne quantities of allergenic pollen. Experimental enhancements of carbon dioxide (CO[Formula: see text] have demonstrated changes in pollen amount and allergenicity, but this has rarely been shown in the wider environment. The present analysis of a continental-scale pollen data set reveals an increasing trend in the yearly amount of airborne pollen for many taxa in Europe, which is more pronounced in urban than semi-rural/rural areas. Climate change may contribute to these changes, however increased temperatures do not appear to be a major influencing factor. Instead, we suggest the anthropogenic rise of atmospheric CO[Formula: see text] levels may be influential.

  13. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  14. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  15. Architecture and Algorithms for an Airborne Network

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Arunabha; Silva, Tiffany; Das, Nibedita; Kundu, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force currently is in the process of developing an Airborne Network (AN) to provide support to its combat aircrafts on a mission. The reliability needed for continuous operation of an AN is difficult to achieve through completely infrastructure-less mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper we first propose an architecture for an AN where airborne networking platforms (ANPs - aircrafts, UAVs and satellites) form the backbone of the AN. In this architecture, the ANPs can be viewed as mobile base stations and the combat aircrafts on a mission as mobile clients. The combat aircrafts on a mission move through a space called air corridor. The goal of the AN design is to form a backbone network with the ANPs with two properties: (i) the backbone network remains connected at all times, even though the topology of the network changes with the movement of the ANPs, and (ii) the entire 3D space of the air corridor is under radio coverage at all times by the continuously moving ANPs. In addition to proposing an...

  16. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  17. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, D.; Stephens, B.; Running, S.; Monson, R.; Vukicevic, T.; Ojima, D.

    2004-12-01

    Mountain landscapes of the Western US contain a significant portion of the North American carbon sink. This results from the land use history of the region, which has a preponderance of potentially aggrading mid-aged stands. The issue is significant not only because of the significant sink but because of the vulnerability of that sink to drought, insects, wildfire and other ecological changes occurring rapidly in the West. Quantification of the carbon budgets of western forests have received relatively limited attention, in part because direct carbon flux measurements are believed to be difficult to apply in complex landscapes. New techniques that take advantage of organized nighttime drainage flows may allow quantification of respiration on scales inaccessible in level landscapes, while Lagrangian airborne measurements may allow daytime fluxes to be quantified. Airborne and ground-based measurements during the summer of 2004 in Colorado show substantial drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the day and strong enrichment of the nocturnal boundary layer from nighttime respiration. We present a strategy whereby in situ measurements at multiple scales, remote sensing and data assimilation may be used to quantify carbon dynamics in mountain landscapes. Larger scales of integration may be possible in mountainous than level landscapes because of the integrative flow of air and water, while because of high heterogeneity, scaling from detailed local process studies remains difficult.

  18. Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Malusá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for environmentaly friendly agricultural practices is driving the use of fertilizers based on beneficial microorganisms. The latter belong to a wide array of genera, classes, and phyla, ranging from bacteria to yeasts and fungi, which can support plant nutrition with different mechanisms. Moreover, studies on the interactions between plant, soil, and the different microorganisms are shedding light on their interrelationships thus providing new possible ways to exploit them for agricultural purposes. However, even though the inoculation of plants with these microorganisms is a well-known practice, the formulation of inocula with a reliable and consistent effect under field conditions is still a bottleneck for their wider use. The choice of the technology for inocula production and of the carrier for the formulation is key to their successful application. This paper focuses on how inoculation issues can be approached to improve the performance of beneficial microorganisms used as a tool for enhancing plant growth and yield.

  19. [Bio-active substances derived from marine microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanyong; Hu, Jiangchun; Xue, Delin; Ma, Chengxin; Wang, Shujin

    2002-07-01

    Marine microorganisms, which are taxonomically diverse and genetically special, have powerful potential in producing novel bio-active substances. This article summarized research progress in this respect. The results showed that marine bacteria which are main marine microorganism flora can produce rich kinds of bio-active substances and that even though marine actinomycetes and marine fungi are not as many as marine bacteria in species and quantity, they should be paid no less attention about their bio-active substances. Besides, present research are limited to those marine microorganisms which are easily cultured. One of the future research trends will be focused on bio-active substances derived from non-culturable marine microorganisms.

  20. SELECTION OF MICROORGANISMS FOR FERMENTATION OF MEAT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylenko S. G.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Principal criteria for the selection of microorganisms with a wide range of biological and technological properties for fermentation of raw meats are considered. Attention is paid to the main groups of microorganisms such as Micrococсus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Propionibacterium which are promising for creation of bacterial preparations. To create bacterial preparations, the basic criteria of selection for microorganisms were determined as follows: the ability of microorganisms to be developed within the specific ecological niche (raw meat materials and their influence on flavor characteristics of the final product under the conditions of intensification of production technologies of meat products. Methods used for search and retrieval of technologically promising strains from different natural sources (fresh meats, minced meats, meat, dairy and sour-milk products, vegetables, fruit, brines and mixtures for salting are considered.

  1. Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) for extreme acidophilic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Medium for growth of extreme acidophilic microorganisms. This medium does not contain trace elements. When not working on mineral, addition of trace element (TE) solution is necessary, see separate protocol. http://www.nature.com/protocolexchange/protocols/3811

  2. Indigenous microorganisms production and the effect on composting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, Nurul-Ain; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    In this study, production of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) and effect on addition of IMO in composting process were done. Production of IMO was done in a series of steps to allow propagation of beneficial microorganisms. Effect of IMO addition in composting process was investigated by having 4 treatments; 1) rice straw without IMO nor manure and rice bran, 2) rice straw with IMO only, 3) rice straw with manure and rice bran, 4) rice straw with IMO, manure and rice bran. Production of IMO using cooked rice yields white molds. Addition of IMO during composting did not affect temperature increment. However, there were differences in numbers of microorganisms found during each stages of composting. Initial composting stage was dominated by mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes, followed by thermophilic bacteria and later by actinomycetes upon composting completion. In conclusion, this study showed that IMO addition in composting increased microorganisms which are responsible in organic decomposition.

  3. Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusá, E.; Sas-Paszt, L.; Ciesielska, J.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for environmentaly friendly agricultural practices is driving the use of fertilizers based on beneficial microorganisms. The latter belong to a wide array of genera, classes, and phyla, ranging from bacteria to yeasts and fungi, which can support plant nutrition with different mechanisms. Moreover, studies on the interactions between plant, soil, and the different microorganisms are shedding light on their interrelationships thus providing new possible ways to exploit them for agricultural purposes. However, even though the inoculation of plants with these microorganisms is a well-known practice, the formulation of inocula with a reliable and consistent effect under field conditions is still a bottleneck for their wider use. The choice of the technology for inocula production and of the carrier for the formulation is key to their successful application. This paper focuses on how inoculation issues can be approached to improve the performance of beneficial microorganisms used as a tool for enhancing plant growth and yield. PMID:22547984

  4. How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into

  5. Pathogenic Microorganisms from Raw Milk of Different Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Letiţia Oprean; Ramona Iancu; Eniko Gaşpar; Ecaterina Lengyel

    2011-01-01

    Milk is an ideal environment for microbial growth and for this reason the separation of some pathogens is very important. The analysis of milk regarding pathogenic microorganisms is a clear indicator of hygienic quality and this influences the dairy production. Samples of raw milk from cow, goat and sheep were analyzed for pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The microorganisms found in milk directly affect the human health and can cause a public illness if the unpasteur...

  6. Marine Microorganisms: perspectives for getting involved in cellulosic ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriago, Pablo

    2012-08-29

    The production of ethanol has been considered as an alternative to replace part of the petroleum derivate. Brazil and the US are the leading producers, but more environmentally friendly alternatives are needed. Lignocellulose has an enormous potential but technology has to be still improve in order to economically produce ethanol. The present paper reviews the potential and problems of this technology and proposes the study of a group of microorganisms with the largest genetic pool, marine microorganism.

  7. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  8. Rotary Apparatus Concentrates And Separates Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus concentrates and separates swimming micro-organisms of different species into concentric rings in fluid. Fluid containing high concentration of desired species removed by use of small scoop placed into fluid at radius of one of rings formed by that species. Micro-organisms concentrated into concentric rings by combined dynamic effects of upward and horizontal components of swimming, rotation of dish, gravitation, and viscosity.

  9. Microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to inhibitors and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Shihui

    2014-07-29

    The present invention provides genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced tolerance to stress and/or inhibitors such as sodium acetate and vanillin. The enhanced tolerance can be achieved by increasing the expression of a protein of the Sm-like superfamily such as a bacterial Hfq protein and a fungal Sm or Lsm protein. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using the genetically modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  10. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  11. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  12. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  13. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  14. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  15. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  16. Airborne electromagnetic data and processing within Leach Lake Basin, Fort Irwin, California: Chapter G in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Paul A.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bloss, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    From December 2010 to January 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys of Leach Lake Basin within the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California. These data were collected to characterize the subsurface and provide information needed to understand and manage groundwater resources within Fort Irwin. A resistivity stratigraphy was developed using ground-based time-domain electromagnetic soundings together with laboratory resistivity measurements on hand samples and borehole geophysical logs from nearby basins. This report releases data associated with the airborne surveys, as well as resistivity cross-sections and depth slices derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data. The resulting resistivity models confirm and add to the geologic framework, constrain the hydrostratigraphy and the depth to basement, and reveal the distribution of faults and folds within the basin.

  17. Interactions between novel micro-organisms and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, P; Franciosa, G

    2002-09-01

    Microbial strains traditionally used to ferment food have a long history of safe use and are, therefore, considered as generally recognised as safe. Many of these micro-organisms have also functional attributes and are included among probiotics. New species and strains of bacteria with desirable technological and functional properties are constantly being identified; in addition, micro-organisms can be engineered by recently developed biotechnological tools in order to accelerate strain improvement. Although the potentialities of novel micro-organisms with better probiotic and technological properties are promising, it cannot be assumed that they share the safety record of traditional micro-organisms, since they may pose unique challenges for human health. The risk assessment and safety evaluation of novel micro-organisms must focus, primarily, on their potential harmful effects, both direct and indirect, upon host resident intestinal microflora. Genetically modified micro-organisms need further assessment for the complete characterisation of the DNA rearrangement and of the final product, in order to establish the "substantial equivalence" with the parental strain.

  18. New therapeutic approaches by using microorganism-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedei, A; D'Elios, M M

    2012-01-01

    The role of natural products as a source for remedies has been recognized since ancient times. Despite major scientific and technological progress in combinatorial chemistry, drugs derived from natural product still make an enormous contribution to drug discovery today. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutic candidate compounds since a tremendous chemical diversity is found in millions of species of plants, animals, marine organisms and microorganisms. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi have been invaluable to discover drugs and lead compounds. These microorganisms produce a large variety of antimicrobial agents which have evolved to give their hosts an advantage over their competitors in the microbiological world. The screening of microorganisms became highly popular after the discovery of penicillin but in recent years the list of antibacterial agents (bacteria- or fungi-derived) has increased considerably with the arrival of cephalosporins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, rifamycins, and chloramphenicol. Although most of the drugs derived from microorganisms are used in antibacterial therapy, some microbial metabolites have provided lead compounds in other fields of medicine. For example: the fungal metabolite lovastatin, which was the lead compound for a series of drugs that lower cholesterol levels, the ciclosporin (fungal metabolite) currently used to suppress the immune response after transplantation operations and sirolimus- a bacterium-derived macrolide- used in the treatment of some cancers. The aim of this review is to analyze the current uses and the future applications in therapeutic treatments of microorganism-derived products (MdPs) and discuss the results obtained in the some clinical trials.

  19. An airborne gamma-ray spectrometry survey of nuclear sites in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, D C W; Cresswell, A J; Hardeman, F; Debauche, A

    2004-01-01

    As part of a wider study to define the existing background levels in Belgium an airborne gamma-ray survey was conducted in two areas associated with nuclear sites. In the Mol area, the survey zone included areas surrounding the SCK-CEN nuclear research centre, and its associated neighbourhood which includes radioactive waste stores, fuel manufacture and fabrication facilities and an international accelerator laboratory. In the vicinity of Fleurus, the survey included the IRE complex with radiochemical laboratories, irradiation facilities and stores, and isotope production accelerators. The survey was conducted using a twin engined helicopter equipped with a combined scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer. The system was installed and tested in the UK, and then transferred to Belgium for operations. The complete survey was conducted successfully within 1 week. The results provide a comprehensive record of the radiation environment of the nuclear sites at time of survey, and show a range of signals associated with the types of activity present in each area. They confirm that radiation fields are largely confined to the operational sites, and provide a traceable record against which future changes could be assessed. The demonstration of efficient deployment between two European countries, coupled with rapid mapping of many different radiometric signals around these sites confirms the utility of the airborne gamma spectrometry approach for accurate definition of enhanced radiation fields. This has important implications for emergency response.

  20. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  1. The Model Laboratory Animal and the‘Trojan Horse' in Biosecurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Driver

    2003-01-01

    @@ Today's sophisticated biomedical research sometimes requires the use of laboratory animals raised in stable micronen vironments free from the microorganisms that may compromise the success of an experiment. Laboratory rodents can be obtained in one of several categories defined by the degree to which they harbour microflora, whether commensal, potentially pathogenic or pathogenic. It is now possible to specify the different species of organism that are tolerated and those that are not tolerated, In such model laboratory animals it is essential to raise and maintain them in circumstances under which microorganisms that would not be tolerated cannot enter the production system.

  2. Development of an efficient method for screening microorganisms by using symbiotic association between Nasutitermes takasagoensis and intestinal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Arata; Aoyagi, Hideki; Kinjyo, Kazuhiko; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hideo

    2007-07-01

    Screening method of microorganisms that utilized the symbiotic association between insect (Nasutitermes takasagoensis: Nt) and intestinal microorganisms was developed. The existence of desired microorganisms that grew by degrading difficult-to-degrade materials in the gut was detected using survivability of Nt as an indicator. The desired microorganisms were isolated from the survived Nt. It was thought that guts of Nt behave as continuous culture systems whereby microorganisms that cannot degrade diet components are washed out, whereas those that can degrade it are retained and concentrated in the gut. About 60% of Nt fed with phenol artificial diet (PAD) died within 7 days, while 4% of termites survived for 9 days. The structure of intestinal microorganisms of the survived Nt fed with PAD differed from the bacterial communities obtained from enrichment culture (which contained phenol) of wood-feeding Nt. Relatively high colonies (650-times) were detected in the gut of Nt fed on phenol artificial diet compared with those obtained when Nt was fed on wood. Seven denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were detected from gut of wood-feeding Nt, whereas 11 DGGE-bands were detected from that of phenol-feeding Nt. Out of 11 DGGE-bands, 5 of them were sequenced, and bacterial species including phenol-degrading bacteria were identified.

  3. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  4. Control of Airborne Infectious Diseases in Ventilated Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    We protect ourselves from airborne cross-infection in the indoor environment by supplying fresh air to a room by natural or mechanical ventilation. The air is distributed in the room according to different principles: mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, etc. A large amount of air...... is supplied to the room to ensure a dilution of airborne infection. Analyses of the flow in the room show that there are a number of parameters that play an important role in minimizing airborne cross-infection. The air flow rate to the room must be high, and the air distribution pattern can be designed...

  5. Airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1992-01-01

    Proper interpretation of airborne gravimetry and altimetry requires good knowledge of aircraft trajectory. Recent advances in precise navigation with differential GPS have made it possible to measure gravity from the air with accuracies of a few milligals, and to obtain altimeter profiles of terrain or sea surface correct to one decimeter. These developments are opening otherwise inaccessible regions to detailed geophysical mapping. Navigation with GPS presents some problems that grow worse with increasing distance from a fixed receiver: the effect of errors in tropospheric refraction correction, GPS ephemerides, and the coordinates of the fixed receivers. Ionospheric refraction and orbit error complicate ambiguity resolution. Optimal navigation should treat all error sources as unknowns, together with the instantaneous vehicle position. To do so, fast and reliable numerical techniques are needed: efficient and stable Kalman filter-smoother algorithms, together with data compression and, sometimes, the use of simplified dynamics.

  6. Wavelet Based Fractal Analysis of Airborne Pollen

    CERN Document Server

    Degaudenzi, M E

    1999-01-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen time series indicate that the system can be described by a low dimensional chaotic map. We apply the wavelet transform to study the multifractal characteristics of an a irborne pollen time series. We find the persistence behaviour associated to low pollen concentration values and to the most rare events of highest pollen co ncentration values. The information and the correlation dimensions correspond to a chaotic system showing loss of information with time evolution.

  7. Vine variety discrimination with airborne imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Armán, M.; Alba-Castro, J. L.; Homayouni, S.; da Costa, J. P.; Martín-Herrero, J.

    2007-09-01

    We aim at the discrimination of varieties within a single plant species (Vitis vinifera) by means of airborne hyperspectral imagery collected using a CASI-2 sensor and supervised classification, both under constant and varying within-scene illumination conditions. Varying illumination due to atmospheric conditions (such as clouds) and shadows cause different pixels belonging to the same class to present different spectral vectors, increasing the within class variability and hindering classification. This is specially serious in precision applications such as variety discrimination in precision agriculture, which depends on subtle spectral differences. In this study, we use machine learning techniques for supervised classification, and we also analyze the variability within and among plots and within and among sites, in order to address the generalizability of the results.

  8. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

  9. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  10. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  11. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  12. Determination of airborne nanoparticles from welding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva; Miranda, Rosa Maria Mendes; Vieira, Maria Teresa Freire

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in welding processes (tungsten inert gas [TIG], metal active gas [MAG] of carbon steel, and friction stir welding [FSW] of aluminum) in terms of deposited area in pulmonary alveolar tract using a nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) analyzer. The obtained results showed the dependence of process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles compared to background levels. Data indicated that the process that resulted in the lowest levels of alveolar deposited surface area (ADSA) was FSW, followed by TIG and MAG. However, all tested processes resulted in significant concentrations of ultrafine particles being deposited in humans lungs of exposed workers.

  13. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Nonradiological Waste Management Information for 1993 and record to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1994-08-01

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on airborne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1993. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  14. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory nonradiological waste management information for 1994 and record to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D.L.; Lisee, D.J.; Taylor, K.A.

    1995-08-01

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on airborne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1994. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  15. Source bioaerosol concentration and rRNA gene-based identification of microorganisms aerosolized at a flood irrigation wastewater reuse site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Rubio, Tania; Viau, Emily; Romero-Hernandez, Socorro; Peccia, Jordan

    2005-02-01

    Reuse of partially treated domestic wastewater for agricultural irrigation is a growing practice in arid regions throughout the world. A field sampling campaign to determine bioaerosol concentration, culturability, and identity at various wind speeds was conducted at a flooded wastewater irrigation site in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Direct fluorescent microscopy measurements for total microorganisms, culture-based assays for heterotrophs and gram-negative enteric bacteria, and small-subunit rRNA gene-based cloning were used for microbial characterizations of aerosols and effluent wastewater samples. Bioaerosol results were divided into two wind speed regimens: (i) below 1.9 m/s, average speed 0.5 m/s, and (ii) above 1.9 m/s, average speed 4.5 m/s. Average air-borne concentration of total microorganisms, culturable heterotrophs, and gram-negative enteric bacteria were, respectively, 1.1, 4.2, and 6.2 orders of magnitude greater during the high-wind-speed regimen. Small-subunit rRNA gene clone libraries processed from samples from air and the irrigation effluent wastewater during a high-wind sampling event indicate that the majority of air clone sequences were more than 98% similar to clone sequences retrieved from the effluent wastewater sample. Overall results indicate that wind is a potential aerosolization mechanism of viable wastewater microorganisms at flood irrigation sites.

  16. The NASA enhanced MODIS airborne simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Thomas A.; Myers, Jeffrey; Grant, Patrick; Platnick, Steven; Guerin, Daniel C.; Fisher, John; Song, Kai; Kimchi, Joseph; Kilmer, Louis; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Moeller, Christopher C.

    2011-10-01

    The new NASA Enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS) is based on the legacy MAS system, which has been used extensively in support of the NASA Earth Observing System program since 1995. eMAS consists of two separate instruments designed to fly together on the NASA ER-2 and Global Hawk high altitude aircraft. The eMAS-IR instrument is an upgraded version of the legacy MAS line-scanning spectrometer, with 38 spectral bands in the wavelength range from 0.47 to 14.1 μm. The original LN2-cooled MAS MWIR and LWIR spectrometers are replaced with a single vacuum-sealed, Stirling-cooled assembly, having a single MWIR and twelve LWIR bands. This spectrometer module contains a cold optical bench where both dispersive optics and detector arrays are maintained at cryogenic temperatures to reduce infrared background noise, and ensure spectral stability during high altitude airborne operations. The EMAS-HS instrument is a stand-alone push-broom imaging spectrometer, with 202 contiguous spectral bands in the wavelength range from 0.38 to 2.40 μm. It consists of two Offner spectrometers, mated to a 4-mirror anastigmatic telescope. The system has a single slit, and uses a dichroic beam-splitter to divide the incoming energy between VNIR and SWIR focal plane arrays. It will be synchronized and bore-sighted with the IR line-scanner, and includes an active source for monitoring calibration stability. eMAS is intended to support future satellite missions including the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager ( HyspIRI,) the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP,) and the follow-on Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS.)

  17. Assessment of composition and origin of airborne bacteria in the free troposphere over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Yamada, Maromu; Matsuki, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2013-08-01

    Long-range transport of airborne microorganisms through the free troposphere significantly impacts biological ecosystems, human life, and atmospheric processes in downwind areas. However, microbial communities in the free troposphere have rarely been investigated because the direct collection of microbial cells at high altitudes requires sophisticated sampling techniques. In this study, tropospheric air sampling was performed using a balloon and an aircraft at 800 m and 3000 m, respectively, over the Noto Peninsula in Japan (37.5°N, 137.4°E) where free tropospheric winds carry aerosols from continental areas. The air samples were collected during four different sampling periods when air masses came from desert regions of Asian continent (west samples) and from Siberia of Russia North Asia (north samples). The west samples contained higher levels of aerosols, and bacteria from the west samples grew in culture media containing up to 15% NaCl. In contrast, bacteria from the north samples could not be cultured in the same media. All isolates obtained from the NaCl-amended cultures were similar to Bacillus subtilis and classified as Firmicutes. A 16S rDNA clone library prepared from the west samples was mainly composed of one phylotype of Firmicutes that corresponded to the cultured B. subtilis sequence. A clone library prepared from the north samples consisted primarily of two phyla, i.e., Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which are known to dominantly inhabit low-temperature environments of North Asia. Our results suggest that airborne bacterial communities at high altitudes include several species that vary by the direction and interaction of free tropospheric winds.

  18. Microbial and 'de novo' transformation of dicarboxylic acids by three airborne fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, Valerie; Kos, Gregor [McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 801 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Mortazavi, Roya [McGill University, Department of Chemistry, 805 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Ariya, Parisa A. [McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 801 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada); McGill University, Department of Chemistry, 805 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada)], E-mail: parisa.ariya@mcgill.ca

    2008-02-15

    Micro-organisms and organic compounds of biogenic or anthropogenic origins are important constituents of atmospheric aerosols, which are involved in atmospheric processes and climate change. In order to investigate the role of fungi and their metabolisation activity, we collected airborne fungi using a biosampler in an urban location of Montreal, Quebec, Canada (45{sup o} 28' N, 73{sup o} 45' E). After isolation on Sabouraud dextrose agar, we exposed isolated colonies to dicarboxylic acids (C{sub 2}-C{sub 7}), a major group of organic aerosols and monitored their growth. Depending on the acid, total fungi numbers varied from 35 (oxalic acid) to 180 CFU/mL (glutaric acid). Transformation kinetics of malonic acid, presumably the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.00 mM for isolated airborne fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Thysanophora with the fastest transformation rate are presented. The initial concentration was halved within 4.5 and 11.4 days. Other collected fungi did not show a significant degradation and the malonic acid concentration remained unchanged (0.25 and 1.00 mM) within 20 days. Degradation of acid with formation of metabolites was followed using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as monitoring of {sup 13}C labelled malonic acid degradation with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Using GC/MS we identified two processes driving chemical modifications of organic aerosol solutions: (I) formation of metabolites within several days, and (II) rapid release ({<=} 2 min) of organic molecules from fungal species upon the insertion of taxa in organic aerosol solutions. Metabolites included aromatic compounds and alcohols (e.g. trimethylbenzene and butanol). Potential atmospheric implications of our results are discussed.

  19. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  20. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP, Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Extremophile Microorganisms with Significance to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bej, Asim K.

    2003-01-01

    It is now well recognized that microorganisms thrive in extreme ecological conditions such as geothermal vents, polar region, acid and alkaline lakes, and the cold pressurized depth of the ocean floor of this planet. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic adaptations to extreme environments by these extremophile microorganisms have generated immense interest amongst astrobiologists who increasingly believe in the existence of extraterrestrial life. The evidence collected by NASA's space probe Galileo suggested the presence of liquid water and volcanic activity on Mars and Jupiter's satellite Europa. Volcanic activity provides some of the heat necessary to keep the water on Europa from freezing that could provide important dissolved chemicals needed by living organisms. The possibility of the existence of hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters on Mars, and a layer of liquid water under the ice on Europa provide sufficient 'raison d'etre' to study microorganisms in similar extreme environments on Earth, which could provide us with a model that would help establish the existence of extraterrestrial life on other planetary bodies. The objectives of the summer research project were as follows: (1) application of molecular approaches to help establish new species of extremophile microorganisms isolated from a hypersaline alkaline lake; and (2) identification of a major cold-shock gene (cspA) homolog from a psychrotolerant microorganism, PmagG1.

  2. Mini-review: Inhibition of biofouling by marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Abed, Raeid M M; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Any natural or artificial substratum exposed to seawater is quickly fouled by marine microorganisms and later by macrofouling species. Microfouling organisms on the surface of a substratum form heterogenic biofilms, which are composed of multiple species of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, protozoa and fungi. Biofilms on artificial structures create serious problems for industries worldwide, with effects including an increase in drag force and metal corrosion as well as a reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Additionally, microorganisms produce chemical compounds that may induce or inhibit settlement and growth of other fouling organisms. Since the last review by the first author on inhibition of biofouling by marine microbes in 2006, significant progress has been made in the field. Several antimicrobial, antialgal and antilarval compounds have been isolated from heterotrophic marine bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi. Some of these compounds have multiple bioactivities. Microorganisms are able to disrupt biofilms by inhibition of bacterial signalling and production of enzymes that degrade bacterial signals and polymers. Epibiotic microorganisms associated with marine algae and invertebrates have a high antifouling (AF) potential, which can be used to solve biofouling problems in industry. However, more information about the production of AF compounds by marine microorganisms in situ and their mechanisms of action needs to be obtained. This review focuses on the AF activity of marine heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi and covers publications from 2006 up to the end of 2012.

  3. Capillary isoelectric focusing of native and inactivated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horká, M; Kubícek, O; Růzicka, F; Holá, V; Malinovská, I; Slais, K

    2007-07-06

    The research of microorganisms includes the development of methods for the inactivation of viruses and other microbes. It also means to efficiently eliminate the infectivity of microorganisms without damage of their integrity and structure. According to the results of the last 5 years the capillary electromigration techniques appear to be very perspective for the comparison of the methods applicable for inactivation in the diagnostics and study of the pathogens. In this paper we suggest the capillary isoelectric focusing of the model microorganisms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans and bacteriophage PhiX 174, native or inactivated by different procedures. UV detection and fluorometric detection for the dynamically modified microbes by pyrenebutanoate on the basis of the non-ionogenic tenside were used here. Isoelectric points of native and/or dynamically modified microorganisms and other properties were compared with those obtained after microorganisms inactivation. The segmental injection of the sample pulse enabled the reproducible and efficient capillary isoelectric focusing in different pH gradients. The low-molecular-weight pI markers were used for tracing of the pH gradient.

  4. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-02-18

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments.

  5. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation of... conditions. A complete record of such micro-organisms shall be kept currently correct and a list submitted...

  6. 40 CFR 725.12 - Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of microorganisms for... MICROORGANISMS General Provisions and Applicability § 725.12 Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and...) Taxonomic designation. The taxonomic designation of a microorganism must be provided for the donor...

  7. The NASA Airborne Snow Observatory: Demonstration Mission 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, T. H.; Berisford, D. F.; Boardman, J. W.; Bormann, K.; Deems, J. S.; Gehrke, F.; Horn, J.; Marks, D. G.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGurk, B. J.; Ramirez, P.; Richardson, M.; Skiles, M.; Winstral, A. H.; Zimdars, P.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and imaging LiDAR system, to quantify snow water equivalent and snow albedo, provide unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete, robust inputs to snowmelt runoff models, water management models, and systems of the future. This talk presents results from the second Demonstration Mission that occurred during the intense California drought of spring 2014. With the acquisition of the new cutting edge lidar system, ASO was able to fly higher and as such acquire complete basin coverage for the Tuolumne, Merced, Lakes, and South Fork of Kings River Basins in the California Sierra Nevada. Despite the intensity of the California drought, several snowfalls occurred during the Demonstration Mission and we were able to uniquely map snowfall distribution, providing unprecedented capability to test our understanding of orographics and redistribution of snowfall. A new snow density model and analysis were integrated into the ASO data system. Despite a > 4-fold increase in data volume from the new lidar, the landing-to-data delivery remained at < 24 hrs. ASO SWE and albedo data are assimilated into models of varying complexity and results presented here. We use the ASO data in the Sierra Nevada to evaluate SWE simulations from the NWS SNODAS and SWE reconstruction models. Finally, the ASO data were watched carefully during the drought, suggesting that the Hetch Hetchy reservoir original infrastructure's forecast of falling well short of fill would be biased low and that the reservoir would come close to filling.

  8. Thermal Mapping Airborne Simulator for Small Satellite Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance, inexpensive, airborne simulator that will serve as the prototype for a small satellite based imaging system capable of mapping thermal anomalies...

  9. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An autonomous airborne imaging system for earth science research, disaster response, and fire detection is proposed. The primary goal is to improve information to...

  10. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN03 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2014 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  11. Airborne Magnetic Trackline and Survey Data (Vector and Scalar Observations)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receive airborne magnetic survey data from US and non-US...

  12. Dynamic network management and service integration for airborne network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Li, Weihua

    2009-12-01

    The development of airborne network is conducive to resource sharing, flight management and interoperability in civilian and military aviation fields. To enhance the integrated ability of airborne network, the paper focuses on dynamic network management and service integration architecture for airborne network (DNMSIAN). Adaptive routing based on the mapping mechanism between connection identification and routing identification can provide diversified network access, and ensure the credibility and mobility of the aviation information exchange. Dynamic network management based on trustworthy cluster can ensure dynamic airborne network controllable and safe. Service integration based on semantic web and ontology can meet the customized and diversified needs for aviation information services. The DNMSIAN simulation platform demonstrates that our proposed methods can effectively perform dynamic network management and service integration.

  13. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN09 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is...

  14. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  16. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN04 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Michigan and Lake Huron collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...

  17. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES03 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data...

  18. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS03 (2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas and Louisiana collected in 2009 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  20. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...