WorldWideScience

Sample records for airborne fine particulate

  1. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  2. Airborne fine particulate matter induced pulmonary inflammation as well as oxidative stress in neonate rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Li-ren; WANG Kai; Baher Fahmy; SHEN Hua-hao; Cormier Stephania

    2010-01-01

    Background Airborne fine particulate matter (PM) can induce pulmonary inflammation which may adversely affect human health, but very few reports about its effect on the neonate rats are available. This study aimed to observe the potential impact and toxicity of fine PMs on the airway in neonate rats.Methods Pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity, histopathology, and antioxidants as well as oxidant products were assessed 24 hours after intratracheal instillation of fine PM consecutively for 3 days. Cytotoxicity of fine PM was measured in Hep-2 cells.Results Rats treated with high dose fine PM developed significant pulmonary inflammation characterized by neutrophiland macrophage infiltration. The inflammatory process was related to elevated level of TNF-α and prooxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the lung. Cytotoxicity studies performed in human epithelial cells indicated that high dose fine PM significantly reduced cell viability.Conclusion The study demonstrated acute exposure to fine PM induced airway inflammation as well as increased oxidative stress in addition to its direct toxic effect on airway epithelium cells.

  3. Airborne Fine Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhicong; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ruxin; Xu, Jian; Dong, Weiyang; Zhuang, Guoshun; Deng, Congrui

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or smaller than 2.5 μm is abbreviated as PM2.5, which is one of the main components in air pollution. Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased risk of many human diseases, including chronic and allergic rhinitis, but the underlying molecular mechanism for its toxicity has not been fully elucidated. We have hypothesized that PM2.5 may cause oxidative stress and enhance inflammatory responses in nasal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we used human RPMI 2650 cells, derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal septum, as a model of nasal epithelial cells, and exposed them to PM2.5 that was collected at Fudan University (31.3°N, 121.5°E) in Shanghai, China. PM2.5 exposure decreased the viability of RPMI 2650 cells, suggesting that PM2.5 may impair the barrier function of nasal epithelial cells. Moreover, PM2.5 increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Importantly, PM2.5 also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (an anti-oxidant) reduced the degree of the PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in RPMI 2650 cells. In addition, PM2.5 increased the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-13 and eotaxin (C-C motif chemokine ligand 11), each of which initiates and/or augments local inflammation. These results suggest that PM2.5 may induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in human nasal epithelial cells, thereby leading to nasal inflammatory diseases. The present study provides insights into cellular injury induced by PM2.5.

  4. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  5. Characterization of Fine Airborne Particulate Collected in Tokyo and Major Atmospheric Emission Sources by Using Single Particle Measurement of SEM-EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Iijima, A.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    In our long-term monitoring of size-classified Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) in Tokyo since 1995, it had been demonstrated that toxic elements such as As, Se, Cd, Sb and Pb were extremely enriched in fine APM (PM2.5). However, in that study, total sampled APM on a filter was digested with acids, and thus only averaged elemental composition in fine APM could be obtained. One of the effective methods to determine the origin of APM is single particle measurement by using SEM-EDX. By using characteristic shapes observed by SEM and marker elements contained in APM measured by EDX, detailed information for source identification can be obtained. In this study, fine APM (PM2.5) was collected at various locations such as roadside, diesel vehicle exhaust, a heavy oil combustion plant and a waste incineration plant as well as ambient atmosphere in Tokyo, and characteristics of fine particles that will be utilized for identification of emission sources are elucidated. Fine particles can be classified into 3 main characteristic shape groups; edge-shaped, cotton-like and spherical. Shape of particles collected in a heavy oil combustion plant and a waste incineration plant was mostly spherical, and these particles may be associated with thermal process. Diesel exhaust particles were predominantly cotton-like which may consist of coagulated nano-sized particles. Most of brake abrasion dusts were edge-shaped, which may be associated with mechanical abrasion of brake pads. In the elemental analysis of fine particles, high concentrations of Sb, Cu, Ti and Ba were detected in brake abrasion dusts. Since these elements are major constituents of brake pads, these can be used for marker elements of brake abrasion dusts. High concentration of C was detected in diesel exhaust particles and oil combustion particles, and thus C can be used for marker elements of their origin. Furthermore, high concentrations of C, Ca and K were detected in fly ash from a waste incineration plant, which

  6. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  7. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  8. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  9. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  10. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  11. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

  12. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  13. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C., E-mail: balducci@iia.cnr.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  14. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  15. Health Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter Trace Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG GAO; QI YU; LI-MIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) trace elements on health are widely concerned nowadays. Many achievements have been made while many unknowns exist. This article reports the recent research progresses, describes the effects of exposure to PM trace elements on health epidemiological evidence, toxicology findings, and raises some questions for future studies.

  16. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  17. Dispersion and Deposition of Fine Particulates, Heavy Metals and Nitrogen in Urban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, T. H.; Tong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Cities are characterized by networks of heavily trafficked roads, abrupt environmental gradients and local sources of airborne pollutants. Because urban dwellers are inevitably in close proximity to near ground pollution, there has been recent interest in using trees and green roofs to reduce human exposure yet there have been few empirical studies documenting the effect of vegetation and spatial heterogeneity on pollution concentration, human exposure and food safety. In this paper we describe the results of 2 studies in the New York metropolitan area. The first describes the effect of roadside trees on the concentration of fine particulates downwind of a major highway. The second examines vertical attenuation of fine particulates between street level and a rooftop vegetable farm and the deposition of nitrogen and heavy metals to vegetables and soil on the roof.

  18. Source apportionment of airborne particulates through receptor modeling: Indian scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirthankar; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Raju, M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particulate chemistry mostly governed by associated sources and apportionment of specific sources is extremely essential to delineate explicit control strategies. The present submission initially deals with the publications (1980s-2010s) of Indian origin which report regional heterogeneities of particulate concentrations with reference to associated species. Such meta-analyses clearly indicate the presence of reservoir of both primary and secondary aerosols in different geographical regions. Further, identification of specific signatory molecules for individual source category was also evaluated in terms of their scientific merit and repeatability. Source signatures mostly resemble international profile while, in selected cases lack appropriateness. In India, source apportionment (SA) of airborne particulates was initiated way back in 1985 through factor analysis, however, principal component analysis (PCA) shares a major proportion of applications (34%) followed by enrichment factor (EF, 27%), chemical mass balance (CMB, 15%) and positive matrix factorization (PMF, 9%). Mainstream SA analyses identify earth crust and road dust resuspensions (traced by Al, Ca, Fe, Na and Mg) as a principal source (6-73%) followed by vehicular emissions (traced by Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Ba and Zn; 5-65%), industrial emissions (traced by Co, Cr, Zn, V, Ni, Mn, Cd; 0-60%), fuel combustion (traced by K, NH4+, SO4-, As, Te, S, Mn; 4-42%), marine aerosols (traced by Na, Mg, K; 0-15%) and biomass/refuse burning (traced by Cd, V, K, Cr, As, TC, Na, K, NH4+, NO3-, OC; 1-42%). In most of the cases, temporal variations of individual source contribution for a specific geographic region exhibit radical heterogeneity possibly due to unscientific orientation of individual tracers for specific source and well exaggerated by methodological weakness, inappropriate sample size, implications of secondary aerosols and inadequate emission inventories. Conclusively, a number of challenging

  19. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  20. Approach to predict partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cong; FENG Liu

    2005-01-01

    Based on the theoretical linear solvation energy relationship and quantum chemical descriptors computed by AM1 Hamiltonian, a new approach was developed to predict the partitioning of some organic compounds between the airborne particulate and air. It could be successfully used to study the partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate, and evaluate the potential risk of organic compounds.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  2. Impact of banning of two-stroke engines on airborne particulate matter concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular air pollution is common in growing metropolitan areas throughout the world. Vehicular emissions of fine particles are particularly harmful because they occur near ground level, close to where people live and work. Two-stroke engines represented an important contribution to the motor vehicle emissions where they constitute approximately half of the total vehicle fleet in Dhaka city. Two-stroke engines have lower fuel efficiency than four-stroke engines, and they emit as much of an order of magnitude and more particulate matter (PM) than four-stroke engines of similar size. To eliminate their impact on air quality, the government of Bangladesh promulgated an order banning all two-stroke engines from the roads in Dhaka starting on December 31, 2002. The effect of the banning of two-stroke engines on airborne PM was studied at the Farm Gate air quality-monitoring station in Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh), a hot spot with very high-pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The samples were collected using a "Gent" stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 microm and 2.2-10 microm sizes. Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne PM collected from 2000 to 2004 were studied. It has been found that the fine PM and black carbon concentrations decreased from the previous years because of the banning of two-stroke engine baby taxies.

  3. Transport of airborne particulate matters originating from Mentougou, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a coupled regional air quality modeling system is applied to investigate the time spatial variations in airborne particulate matters (PM10), originating from Mentougou to Beijing municipal area in the period of April 1-7, 2004, and the influences of complex terrain and meteorological conditions upon boundary layer structure and PMio concentration distributions. An intercomparison of the performance with CALPUFF against the observed data is presented and an examination of scatter plots is provided. The statistics show that the correlation coefficient and STD between the modeled and observed data are 0.86 and 0.03, respectively. Analysis of model results illustrates that the pollutants emitted from Mentougou can be transported to Beijing municipal area along certain transport pathways, and PMio concentration distributions show heterogeneity characteristics. Contributions of the Mentougou sources to the PMio concentrations in Beijing municipal area are up to 0.1-15 μg/m3.

  4. Airborne particulate soiling of terrestrial photovoltaic modules and cover materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the first phase of a photovoltaic-module soiling study that was carried out with NASA participation to investigate the problem of the electrical performance degradation of flat-plate photovoltaic modules exposed at outdoor sites that is due to the accumulation of airborne particulates on sensitive optical surfaces. The results were obtained in both field and laboratory soiling experiments, as well as in materials field experiments using candidate encapsulants and top covers. It is concluded that: (1) the electrical performance degradation shows a significant time and site dependence, ranging from 2% to 60% power loss; (2) the rate of particulate accumulation appears to be largely material independent when natural removal processes do not dominate; (3) the effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material dependent; (4) top-cover materials of glass and plexiglass retain fewer particles than silicone rubber; and (5) high module voltages relative to ground do not appear to affect the rate of dirt accumulation on modules.

  5. PM 2.5 Airborne Particulates Near Frac Sand Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kristin; Jacobson, Jeron; Kroening, Zachary; Pierce, Crispin

    2015-11-01

    The rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas extraction in the U.S. has led to 135 active "frac" sand mines, processing plants, and rail transfer stations in Wisconsin. Potential environmental health risks include increased truck traffic, noise, ecosystem loss, and groundwater, light, and air pollution. Emitted air contaminants include fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and respirable crystalline silica. Inhalation of fine dust particles causes increased mortality, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, and lung cancer. In the authors' pilot study, use of a filter-based ambient particulate monitor found PM2.5 levels of 5.82-50.8 µg/m3 in six 24-hour samples around frac sand mines and processing sites. Enforcement of the existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annual PM2.5 standard of 12 µg/m3 is likely to protect the public from silica exposure risks as well. PM2.5 monitoring around frac sand sites is needed to ensure regulatory compliance, inform nearby communities, and protect public health.

  6. Real-world exposure of airborne particulate matter triggers oxidative stress in an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guohui; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between air pollution and the increase of cardio-pulmonary mortality and morbidity. In particular, inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure is closely associated with the pathogenesis of air pollution-induced systemic diseases. In this study, we exposed C57BIV6 mice to environmentally relevant PM in fine and ultra fine ranges (diameter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) using a “real-world” airborne PM exposure system. We investigated the pathophysiologic impact of PM2.5 exposure in the animal model and in cultured primary pulmonary macrophages. We demonstrated that PM2.5 exposure increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood vessels in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro PM2.5 exposure experiment suggested that PM2.5 could trigger oxidative stress response, reflected by an increased expression of the anti-oxidative stress enzymes superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), in mouse primary macrophages. Together, the results obtained through our “real-world” PM exposure approach demonstrated the pathophysiologic effect of ambient PM2.5 exposure on triggering oxidative stress in the specialized organ and cell type of an animal model. Our results and approach will be informative for the research in air pollution-associated physiology and pathology. PMID:21383899

  7. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  8. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  9. Characterization of fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ling-yan; HU Min; WANG Li; HUANG Xiao-feng; ZHANG Yuan-hang

    2004-01-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected by a three-stage cascade impactor at two kinds of Chinese restaurants to characterize fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking sources. Major individual organic compounds have been quantified by GC/MS, including series of alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanals, alkan-2-ones and PAHs.Alkanes and ketones make up a significant fraction of particle-phase organic compounds, ranging from C11 to C26,and C9 to C19, respectively. In addition, other organic compound classes have been identified, such as alkanols,esters, furans, lactones, amides, and nitriles. The mass concentrations of fine particles, alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and PAHs in air emitted from the Uigur style cooking are hundreds times higher than ambient PM2.5 in Beijing.

  10. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...

  11. Design of experiment approach for the optimization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers determination in fine airborne particulate matter by microwave-assisted extraction and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beser, Maria Isabel; Beltrán, Joaquim; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-01-03

    A sensitive and selective procedure for the determination of 12 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-28, BDE-49, BDE-47, BDE-66, BDE-100, BDE-119, BDE-99, BDE-155, BDE-154, BDE-153, BDE-139 and BDE-183) in airbone particulate matter (PM2.5) at trace level has been developed. The proposed method includes extraction PM2.5-bound PBDEs by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) clean-up and determination by GC-MS/MS using a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) in large volume injection (LVI) mode to introduce the sample to the chromatographic system. A design of experiment (DoE) approach was used for the optimization of large volume injection and microwave-assisted extraction parameters to improve these techniques efficiency. Other conditions of the method were studied: GC-MS/MS parameters, extraction solvent and matrix effect. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.063pgm(-3) to 0.210pgm(-3) when air volumes of 723m(3) were collected. Recoveries ranged from 80% to 106%. The method was successfully applied to eight real samples collected from a residential area of the monitoring network of the Region of Valencia Government (Spain) during April-August 2012. BDE-47 and BDE-99 were quantified in six and five samples respectively. The concentrations were ranged from 0.063 to 0.112pgm(-3) for BDE-47, and from 0.107 to 0.212pgm(-3) for BDE-99.

  12. Spatiotemporal distribution of airborne particulate metals and metalloids in a populated arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri; Sorooshian, Armin; Toffol, Emily; Arellano, Avelino F.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-08-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network of aerosol samplers has been used to study the spatial and temporal concentration trends in airborne particulate metals and metalloids for southern Arizona. The study region is a rapidly growing area in southwestern North America characterized by high fine soil concentrations (among the highest in the United States), anthropogenic emissions from an area within the fastest growing region in the United States, and a high density of active and abandoned mining sites. Crustal tracers in the region are most abundant in the summer (April-June) followed by fall (October-November) as a result of dry meteorological conditions which favor dust emissions from natural and anthropogenic activity. A distinct day-of-week cycle is evident for crustal tracer mass concentrations, with the greatest amplitude evident in urban areas. There have been significant reductions since 1988 in the concentrations of toxic species that are typically associated with smelting and mining. Periods with high fine soil concentrations coincide with higher concentrations of metals and metalloids in the atmosphere, with the enhancement being higher at urban sites.

  13. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  14. Toxicity to chicken embryos of organic extracts from airborne particulates separated into five sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-07-01

    The chicken embryo assay has been used for research on the toxicity of complex extracts derived from different environmental sources, as well as of individual compounds. However, only a few studies have been made on the toxicological effects of extracts derived from airborne particulate matter in chicken embryo. These studies showed that the toxic effect was due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particles, although their structure and quantity were the factors determining the extent of the toxicity. Airborne particulate matter is composed of particles of different sizes, which can be separated into five classes according to their size by an Andersen high-volume sampler. Each class contained many kinds of compounds such as PAHs. In this study, airborne particulate matter was extracted according to particle size, the extracts analyzed for PAHs, and tested for embryotoxicity.

  15. Exposure to mutagenic airborne particulate in a rubber manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, M E; Franceschetti, P; Mossini, E; Tieghi, S; Perbellini, L; Romeo, L

    1999-04-26

    Epidemiological studies conducted in the 1980s revealed that people working in the rubber manufacturing industry had an increased risk of cancer. Even now, workers employed in rubber processing are still at risk despite the measures adopted to improve their working conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of a genotoxic risk in a rubber industry and to verify whether or not it was possible to locate the most dangerous position among the different rubber-working processes. The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate was evaluated in samples collected in the mixing department of a rubber manufacturing plant. Ambient air samples were taken over 3-h period in two stable positions near the mixing (Banbury mixer) and calendering areas. Personal air samples were taken over 2-h period during a normal workday from five workers employed in different rubber processing operations (mixing, weighing, calendering, compounding and extruding). The mutagenic activity of the air samples was determined by plate incorporation assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA 98, TA 98NR, TA 100, YG 1021) with and without metabolic activation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the presence of other presumable contaminants were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed substantial direct and indirect frameshift mutagenicity in both ambient and personal samples. No mutagenic activity was present in S. typhimurium TA 100, except in the personal sample from a worker employed on the Banbury mixer. HPLC analysis revealed very low concentrations of PAHs. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of compounds such as azulene derivative, 1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline, N-methyl N-phenylbenzenamine, diphenylamine, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and bis(methyl-propyl)phthalate. We conclude that the high levels of mutagenic activity in ambiental and personal

  16. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-06-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC PM2.5 were basic (pH range, 8.9-10.0) and had no evidence of significant bacterial contamination. Levels of carbon were relatively low, suggesting that combustion-derived particles did not form a significant fraction of these samples recovered in the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the towers. Because gypsum and calcite are known to cause irritation of the mucus membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, inhalation of high doses of WTC PM2.5 could potentially cause toxic respiratory effects.

  17. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra-fine

  18. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  19. Methodological study and application of advanced receptor modeling to airborne particulate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueinta, Wanna

    Two aspects of air quality management, aerosol mass measurement and pollution source identification, were studied. A beta gauge was developed to determine particulate mass collected on filter. Two advanced receptor models were applied to resolve possible sources of pollutants on local and regional scales by use of positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multilinear engine (ME), respectively. A simple, low cost beta gauge was designed, constructed, and tested to determine if it provided the necessary performance and reliability in collected aerosol mass measurements. The beta gauge was calibrated and evaluated by experiments with different sized particles. The results showed that the unit provided a satisfactory accuracy and precision with respect to the gravimetric method. (PMF) is a least-square approach to factor analysis. In this study, PMF was applied to investigate the possible sources of airborne particulate matter (APM) collected at an urban residential area of Bangkok from June 1995 to May 1996 and at a suburban residential area in Pathumthani from September 1993 to August 1994. The data consisting of the fine and coarse fractions were analyzed separately. The analysis used the robust analysis mode and rotations to produce six source factors for both the fine and coarse fractions at the urban site and five factors for the fine and coarse fractions at the suburban site. Examination of the influence of wind direction showed the correspondence of some specific factors such as sea salt and vehicle sources with known area sources. ME is a new algorithm for solving a broad range of multilinear problems. A model was developed for the analysis of spatial patterns and possible sources affecting haze and its visual effects in the southwestern United States. The data from the project Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects (MOHAVE) collected during the late winter and mid-summer of 1992 at the monitoring sites in four states, i.e., California, Arizona, Nevada and Utah

  20. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Wheeler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  1. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were...

  2. Development of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-bin; LIU Yan; LIN Jin-ming; TANG Ning; HAYAKAWA Kazuichi; MAEDA Tsuneaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present work,the different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates is systematacially reviewed, and the applications of these pretreatment and analytical methods for PAHs are compared in detail. Some comments on the future expectation are also presented.

  3. Assessment of inhalation dose sensitivity by physicochemical properties of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Young; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Won Chul; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Facilities processing raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may give rise to enhanced radiation dose to workers due to chronic inhalation of airborne particulates. Internal radiation dose due to particulate inhalation varies depending on particulate properties, including size, shape, density, and absorption type. The objective of the present study was to assess inhalation dose sensitivity to physicochemical properties of airborne particulates. Committed effective doses to workers resulting from inhalation of airborne particulates were calculated based on International Commission on Radiological Protection 66 human respiratory tract model. Inhalation dose generally increased with decreasing particulate size. Committed effective doses due to inhalation of 0.01μm sized particulates were higher than doses due to 100μm sized particulates by factors of about 100 and 50 for {sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th, respectively. Inhalation dose increased with decreasing shape factor. Shape factors of 1 and 2 resulted in dose difference by about 18 %. Inhalation dose increased with particulate mass density. Particulate mass densities of 11 g·cm{sup -3} and 0.7 g·cm{sup -3} resulted in dose difference by about 60 %. For {sup 238}U, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of S, M, and F in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type S of {sup 238}U was about 9 times higher than dose for absorption F. For {sup 230}Th, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of F, M, and S in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type F of {sup 230}Th was about 16 times higher than dose for absorption S. Consequently, use of default values for particulate properties without consideration of site specific physiochemical properties may potentially skew radiation dose estimates to unrealistic values up to 1-2 orders of magnitude. For this reason, it is highly recommended to consider site specific working materials and

  4. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  5. Source apportionment of atmospheric fine particulate matter collected at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The trends in secondary organic aerosol at a remote location are studied using atmospheric fine particulate matter samples collected at Seney National Wildlife...

  6. Mineralogical characterization of airborne individual particulates in Beijing PM10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sen-lin; SHAO Long-yi; WU Ming-hong; JIAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    This work mainly focuses on the mineralogical study of particulate matter(PM10) in Beijing. Samples were collected on polycarbonate filter from April, 2002 to March, 2003 in Beijing urban area. Scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray(SEM/EDX) was used to investigate individual mineral particles in Beijing PM10. 1454 individual mineral particulates from 48 samples were analysed by SEM/EDX. The results revealed that mineral particulates were complex and heterogeneous. 38kinds of minerals in PM10 were identified. The clay minerals, of annual average percentage of 30.1% , were the main composition among the identified minerals, and illite/smectite was the main composition in clay minerals, reaching up to 35%. Annual average percentage of quartz, calcite, compound particulates, carbonates were 13.5%, 10.9%, 11.95%, 10.31%, respectively. Annual average percentage less than 10% were gypsum, feldspar, dolomite, and so on. Fluorite, apatite, halite, barite and chloridize zinc (ZnCl2) were firstly identified in Beijing PM10. Sulfurization was found on surface of mineral particles, suggested extensive atmospheric reaction in air during summer.

  7. 77 FR 50378 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate... disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed...

  8. 78 FR 78315 - Revision to the Idaho State Implementation Plan; Approval of Fine Particulate Matter Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the Idaho State Implementation Plan; Approval of Fine Particulate... particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) nonattainment area (Logan UT-ID). The EPA is proposing a limited approval of PM 2..., the disclosure of which is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted...

  9. 77 FR 45956 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking final action to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2... other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as...

  10. Estimation of fine particulate matter in Taipei using landuse regression and bayesian maximum entropy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsih; Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS), the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a) empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b) the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c) site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan) from 2005-2007.

  11. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  12. Fe, Ni and Zn speciation, in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiodjio Sendja, Bridinette; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Vassura, Ivano; Giorgetti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The study of elemental speciation in atmospheric particulate matter is important for the assessment of the source of the particle as well for the evaluation of its toxicity. XANES data at Fe, Ni, and Zn K-edges are recorded on a sample of urban dust (from the Rimini area of Emilia Romagna region, Italy) deposited on a filter and on the NIST standard reference material 1648. Using linear combination fitting we give an indication of the chemical species of the three metals present in the samples.

  13. Characterization of cytotoxicity of airborne particulates from urban areas of Lahore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Badar Ghauri; M.Mansha; Christian Khalil

    2012-01-01

    A number of species (organic and inorganic) in airborne particulates cause the toxicity to living being.The potential of in vitro test methods were explored for toxicity assessment of trace toxic elements (inorganic species) present in ambient air on human being (lungs).A year long sampling of airborne particles (PM2.5) was carried (April 2008 to March 2009) in Lahore,Pakistan.A total of thirty nine samples were collected on 47 mm Zefluor Teflon filter membranes and each was analysed to characterize for the elements:Sb,As,Be,Cd,Cr,Co,Pb,Mn,Hg using ICP-MS in water extract and total acid digestate.The samples cytotoxicity was also established using lung derived cells and MTS colorimetric assays.This generated dose response curves and IC50 values for the elemental mixtures identified on the Teflon filter membrane.The results indicated that even at low concentrations airborne elemental mixtures displayed an additive toxic effect.

  14. Analysis of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) over Hong Kong using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenzhong; Wong, Man Sing; Wang, Jingzhi; Zhao, Yuanling

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fine particulates (PM(2.5); particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM(2.5) and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007-2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM(2.5) concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM(2.5) concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM(2.5) were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM(2.5) emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM(2.5) concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM(2.5) vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM(2.5) vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM(2.5) concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  16. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  17. Characterization of airborne particulates in Bangkok urban area by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchpramool, S; Sumitra, T; Leenanuphunt, V

    1999-01-01

    Samples of airborne particulates were collected in a residential area and in an area near a busy highway in Bangkok during the period from January 1997 to May 1998. A stacked filter system was used for the former site and a Partisol 2000 was used for the latter site. Both 2.5 microns and 10-micron particulates were collected every week. The total suspended particulate matters were also collected at the latter site. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis utilizing neutron flux from a 2-MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The elements most frequently detected in the airborne particulates were Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Ti, V, and Zn. The enrichment factor and factor analysis were used to investigate trends, sources, and origin of the atmospheric aerosols. Anthropogenic elements in road dust, construction dust, motor vehicles emission, and other combustion components were identified. A comparative study of data between both sites was performed and it was found that the mass concentration in the area close to the highway was about three times higher than in the residential area.

  18. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  19. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  20. Production of potentially hazardous respirable silica airborne particulate from the burning of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Williamson, Ben J.; Horwell, Claire J.; Monro, Alex K.; Kirk, Caroline A.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    In some areas of the world where agricultural burning is practised, the airborne particles produced have been linked to respiratory disease in humans. Here, we investigate the abundance and form of silica (SiO 2) minerals found within ash and aerosol produced by the experimental burning of sugarcane. Samples of sugarcane leaf were incinerated over a range of temperatures, time scales and airflow conditions, the latter to investigate the effects of wind and updrafts during natural fires. The silica content of the residual ash (from still air simulations) was measured using an improved wet chemical methodology, described here. This indicated that the release of silica from the plant material into the atmosphere increases with increasing temperature of combustion. Airborne particulate, sampled using air-pump-filter apparatus, was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with automated image and elemental analysis. For airborne particulate formed at 1100 °C (with airflow), 17% of the particles are in the respirable size fraction (release of cristobalite to the atmosphere (as sampled on filters). This pilot study shows that potentially toxic particles could be released during sugarcane burning and reinforces the need for further study into the emissions and re-suspension of ash from the burning of biomass.

  1. Indoor and outdoor measurements of vertical concentration profiles of airborne particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, A; Deuchar, C N; Colls, J J

    1998-05-04

    Vertical concentration profiles of various particle size ranges of airborne particulate matter were measured from ground level up to 3 m, in outdoor and indoor environments. Indoor measurements were carried out in an electronics workshop, while two outdoor environments were chosen: a street canyon cutting across a town and an open field situated in a semi-rural environment. The novel measurement technique employed in this experimental work, which can also be used to determine vertical concentration gradients of pollutants other than airborne particles in different environments, is given particular attention. Analyses of the collected data for the environments considered are presented and some conclusions and plausible explanations of the profiles are discussed. The workshop and street canyon environments exhibited larger concentrations and vertical concentration gradients as compared to the sports field. This indicates that people breathing at different heights are subjected to different concentrations of airborne particulate matter, which has implications for sitting air pollution monitors intended for protection of public health and estimation of human exposure.

  2. Second generation dichotomous sampler for large-scale monitoring of airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W.; Adachi, R.S.; Cork, C.P.; Goulding, F.S.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Landis, D.A.; Searles, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The differences which exist between fine (< 2.5 ..mu..m) and coarse (> 2.5 ..mu..m) airborne particles with respect to their origin, chemical properties, and environmental impact, call for their separate collection and analysis. An automated dichotomous sampler (ADS), equipped with a high efficiency single-stage virtual impactor and a microprocessor-based controller to self-correct fault conditions including filter overload, has been developed as a model for commercial production.

  3. Fine particulate concentrations on sidewalks in five Southern California cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Houston, Douglas; Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Ferguson, Gavin; Pan, Hansheng; Bartolome, Christian

    2011-08-01

    This research provides an exploratory examination of the factors associated with fine particle concentrations in intersection and sidewalk microenvironments in five study areas in the Los Angeles region. The study areas range from low-density, auto-oriented development patterns to dense urban areas with mid- and high-rise buildings. Average concentrations of FP DT (fine particle concentrations measured with DustTrak Aerosol Monitors) ranged from about 20 to 70 μg m -3 across study areas during stationary and mobile (walking) monitoring in morning, midday, and evening periods. Results suggest that fine particle concentrations are highly variable on urban sidewalks. A regression analysis shows that concentrations are associated with traffic and the proximate built environment characteristics after accounting for meteorological factors, time of day, and location in the region. Regressions show higher concentrations were associated with lower wind speeds and higher temperatures, higher adjacent passenger vehicle traffic, higher ambient concentrations, and street canyons with buildings of over five stories. Locations in street canyons with 2-5 story buildings and with more paving and open space had lower concentrations after accounting for other factors. The associations with traffic and built environment variables explained a small amount of the variation in FP DT concentrations, suggesting that future research should examine the relative role of localized traffic and built environment characteristics compared to regional ambient concentrations and meteorology.

  4. Standard Practice for Sampling Airborne Particulate Contamination in Cleanrooms for Handling Aerospace Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for sampling airborne particulate matter larger than 5 m in size. The method is designed to be used in specific areas, commonly called cleanrooms in the aerospace industry, where aerospace fluids are handled. Note 1 Practice F 50 is an alternative procedure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Fernanda V.F.; Ardisson, Jose Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.; Brito, Walter de; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F., E-mail: ferufv@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  6. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  7. 77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate... October 27, 2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Rome, Georgia PM 2.5 attainment...

  8. Characterizing health impacts from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigon, Bruce; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health i...

  9. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

    2003-03-06

    A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...

  11. Nitrogen and Carbon Leaching in Repacked Sandy Soil with Added Fine Particulate Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar amendment to soil may affect N turnover and retention, and may cause translocation of dissolved and particulate C. We investigated effects of three fine particulate biochars made of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (one by slow pyrolysis and two by fast pyrolysis) on N and C leaching from...... repacked sandy soil columns (length: 51 cm). Biochar (2 wt%), ammonium fertilizer (NH4+, amount corresponding to 300 kg N ha-1) and an inert tracer (bromide) were added to a 3-cm top layer of sandy loam, and the columns were then irrigated with constant rate (36 mm d-1) for 15 d. The total amount...... of leachate came to about 3.0 water filled pore volumes (WFPVs). Our study revealed a high mobility of labile C components originating from the fine particulate fast pyrolysis biochar. This finding highlights a potential risk of C leaching coupled with the use of fast pyrolysis biochars for soil amendment...

  12. Fine particulates over South Asia: Review and meta-analysis of PM2.5 source apportionment through receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandita; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Barman, S C; Banerjee, Tirthankar

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulates (PM2.5) constitute dominant proportion of airborne particulates and have been often associated with human health disorders, changes in regional climate, hydrological cycle and more recently to food security. Intrinsic properties of particulates are direct function of sources. This initiates the necessity of conducting a comprehensive review on PM2.5 sources over South Asia which in turn may be valuable to develop strategies for emission control. Particulate source apportionment (SA) through receptor models is one of the existing tool to quantify contribution of particulate sources. Review of 51 SA studies were performed of which 48 (94%) were appeared within a span of 2007-2016. Almost half of SA studies (55%) were found concentrated over few typical urban stations (Delhi, Dhaka, Mumbai, Agra and Lahore). Due to lack of local particulate source profile and emission inventory, positive matrix factorization and principal component analysis (62% of studies) were the primary choices, followed by chemical mass balance (CMB, 18%). Metallic species were most regularly used as source tracers while use of organic molecular markers and gas-to-particle conversion were minimum. Among all the SA sites, vehicular emissions (mean ± sd: 37 ± 20%) emerged as most dominating PM2.5 source followed by industrial emissions (23 ± 16%), secondary aerosols (22 ± 12%) and natural sources (20 ± 15%). Vehicular emissions (39 ± 24%) also identified as dominating source for highly polluted sites (PM2.5>100 μgm(-3), n = 15) while site specific influence of either or in combination of industrial, secondary aerosols and natural sources were recognized. Source specific trends were considerably varied in terms of region and seasonality. Both natural and industrial sources were most influential over Pakistan and Afghanistan while over Indo-Gangetic plain, vehicular, natural and industrial emissions appeared dominant. Influence of vehicular emission was found

  13. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  14. Clustering Dynamics of Ultra-fine Particulate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Elliott, James

    2008-03-01

    Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultrafine particles (0.1 - 1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical ihalation applications. We develop a numerical model for these systems using the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction between the particles and their contact mechanical interactions. We study the dynamics of these systems in the absence and presence of gravity by controlling the particle size, and thereby, the surface properties of the particles. The high surface energies of these particles causes them to agglomerate as they gravitationally settle. We explore their internal structure as a function of their particle size.

  15. Characterization and source identification of trace metals in airborne particulates of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungratanaubon, Thitima; Wangwongwatana, Supat; Panich, Noppaporn

    2008-10-01

    Airborne particulate samples were collected in Bangkok, Thailand, using high-volume air samplers from March 2006 to March 2007. The sampling sites were the Huay-Khwang Community Housing (HCH) and the Ratburana Post Office (RPO), represented as residential and industrial areas, respectively. The samples collected were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for elemental analysis. The study reveals that total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations are higher in the RPO (144.47 microg/m(3)) than at the HCH (110.93 microg/m(3)) site. The results also indicate that most of the metals were highest in winter and lowest in the rainy season. Na, Al, K, and Fe are the elements mostly found in the study. High-correlation coefficients of Al-K, K-Zn, and Al-Zn are observed at the HCH (R=-0.99, -0.97, and -0.97) and the RPO (R=-0.94, -0.92, and -0.83), respectively. Most of the measured metallic elements show weak correlation with meteorological parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that soil, construction, vehicular emission, and biomass burning are the major pollutant sources of both sampling site. The HCH site is influenced by the domestic activities like vehicular emission, construction, and biomass burning. The sources of airborne metals found in the RPO come from both domestic and industrial activities.

  16. Morphology, chemical composition, and bacterial concentration of airborne particulate matter in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock houses are major sources of airborne particulate matter (PM, which can originate from manure, feed, feathers, skin and bedding and may contain and transport microorganisms. Improved knowledge of particle size, morphology, chemical and microbiological composition of PM in livestock houses can help identify major sources of PM and contribute to the development of appropriate source-specific reduction techniques. In rabbit production systems, however, there is limited information on specific particle characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise airborne PM in rabbit farms in terms of morphology, chemical compositions and bacterial concentration in different size fractions. Size-fractioned PM was sampled in the air of 2 rabbit farms, 1 for fattening rabbits and 1 for reproductive does, using a virtual cascade impactor, which simultaneously collected total suspended PM (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions. Airborne PM samples were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Representative samples from potential sources of PM were also collected and examined. Additionally, a methodology to extract bacteria from the collected samples of airborne PM was developed to determine the bacterial concentration per PM size fraction. Results showed that airborne PM in rabbit farms is highly complex in particle morphology, especially in size. Broken skin flakes, disintegrated particles from feed or faecal material from mechanical fracture are the main sources of airborne PM in rabbit farms. Major elements found in rabbit airborne PM were S, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 1.7×104 to 1.6×106 colony forming units (CFU/m3 (TSP; from 3.6×103 to 3.0×104 CFU/m3 (PM10; and from 3.1×103 to 1.6×104 CFU/m3 (PM2.5. Our results will improve the knowledge on essential particle characteristics necessary to understand PM’s origin in rabbit farms and

  17. Effect of microclimate on particulate matter, airborne bacteria, and odorous compounds in swine nursery houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H Q; Choi, H L; Lee, J H; Suresh, A; Zhu, K

    2010-11-01

    Nursery pigs are vulnerable to environmental risks associated with the microclimate and aerial contaminants. This study was carried out to assess the effect of microclimate (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air speed) on the quantity of particulate matter (PM), airborne bacteria, and odorants in nursery houses. Data were collected from 15 farms in different locations throughout South Korea during 4 seasons; daily sampling times were from 1000 to 1100 h in the morning. A nonparametric correlation analysis revealed correlations between microclimate variables and airborne contaminants in different seasons. Over the entire year, negative correlations were observed between temperature, air speed, and some odorous compounds (P houses. On the other hand, because of the sensitivity of coliform bacteria to temperature, positive correlations were observed between temperature and total coliform and Escherichia coli counts (P houses, the relationships between the microclimate and airborne contaminants established in this study could be used to reduce those contaminants by controlling microclimate variables. The correlations established in the current study could also be helpful in establishing guidelines for good management practices in nursery houses.

  18. Gamma-analysis of airborne particulates sampled in Youzhno-Sakhalinsk town at March - April 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Tertyshnik, E G; Andreev, F A; Artemyev, G B

    2012-01-01

    The experience of discovery of the radioactive products which have released into atmosphere of Sakhalin region from Fukushima Daiichi accident is presented. Sampling of airborne particulates and atmosphere fallout was carried out by means of the air ventilation set and horizontal gauze planchs, respectively. The HPGe detector was used for gamma analyses of the airborne samples. Since 23 March we confidently measured 131I in the airborne samples, after 03.04.2011 we also registered a rise of activity 137Cs and 134Cs. 132Te and 132I were discovered in ashen sample of the planch, which had exposed in Youzhno-Kurilk from 14 to 17 March. The effect of the pairs production when in the samples 208Tl presence, which emits gamma-quanta of 2615 keV, causes a rise in apparatus spectra of the peak corresponding to energy 1593 keV, which could be in error ascribed to 140La. It had been experimentally shown that the systematic reduction of 134Cs content in measuring samples due to effect of gamma - gamma coincidence did no...

  19. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L. as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Negri

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs. The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  20. Analysis of Fine Particulate Nitrate on Diurnal, Weekly and Seasonal Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D. E.; Harley, R. A.; Hering, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    Particulate nitrate is a secondary pollutant and important contributor to PM2.5; nitrate responses to changes in precursor emissions, meteorology, and atmospheric chemistry are of interest here. Fine particulate nitrate concentrations were analyzed on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal at 4 urban sites in the United States. Clear weekly signals in ambient black carbon concentrations as a result of reduced diesel emissions on weekends have been reported previously. A similar response in particulate nitrate has been hard to discern in the previously available data, despite significant weekend reductions in NOx emissions. Past analyses have been constrained by limited data availability: routine measurement programs typically have involved sampling once every 6 days, or less frequently. Also most measurement programs report 24-h average concentrations, which prevents consideration of diurnal patterns. Here we analyze semi-continuous measurements of fine particulate nitrate at 10-min time resolution. We consider yearlong records of nitrate measured at Fresno (California), Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) and St. Louis (Missouri). At a fourth site (Claremont, California), we analyze particulate nitrate measurements resolved into three size fractions: 0.07-0.45, 0.45-1, and 1-2.5 um. Daily average fine particulate nitrate concentrations were compared to a 7-day moving average at each site. We observed weekly cycles in nitrate at Fresno, Claremont, and St. Louis. The nitrate response was delayed in time relative to weekend decreases in NOx emissions. No weekly cycle in nitrate was observed at Pittsburgh. Analysis of related pollutants at Pittsburgh shows nitrate formation is ammonia-limited during spring, summer and fall; this limits the effect of NOx reductions on nitrate formation. Reductions in sulfate observed on weekends during spring and summer months at Pittsburgh could affect ammonia availability. However, we found in this case that decreases in sulfate led to increased

  1. Monitoring and Method development of Hg in Istanbul Airborne Particulates by Solid Sampling Continuum Source-High Resolution Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectromerty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soydemir E.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method has been developed and monitoring for the determination of mercury in PM2.5 airborne particulates by solid sampling high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The PM2.5 airborne particulates were collected on quartz filters using high volume samplers (500 L/min in Istanbul (Turkey for 96 hours every month in one year. At first, experimental conditions as well as the validation tests were optimized using collected filter. For this purpose, the effects of atomization temperature, amount of sample intoduced in to the furnace, addition of acids and/or KMnO4 on the sample, covering of graphite tube and platform or using of Ag nanoparticulates, Au nanoparticulates, and Pd solutions on the accuracy and precision were investigated. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the mercury concentrations were determined in the collected filter. The filters with PM2.5 airborne particulates were dried, divided into small fine particles and then Hg concentrations were determined directly. In order to eliminate any error due to the sensitivity difference between aqueous standards and solid samples, the quantification was performed using solid calibrants. The limit of detection, based on three times the standard deviations for ten atomizations of an unused filter, was 30 ng/g. The Hg content was dependent on the sampling site, season etc, ranging from

  2. DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN AIRBORNE PARTICULATES OF EAST ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Liu; Libin Liu; Jin-Ming Lin; Ning Tang; Kazuichi Hayakawa

    2006-01-01

    A review is presented on the distribution and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)and their derivatives, including nitro-PAHs and hydro-PAHs, on atmospheric particulates of East Asia. Generally, PAH compounds with two or three aromatic rings are released mainly into the gas phase, while those containing three or more aromatic rings are associated with particulate matter (PM) emission. Particle-associated PAHs are primarily adsorbed on fine particles, and little associated with coarse particles. Investigation into the concentration level of PAHs in different areas can serve not only to reflect the pollutant status and sources but also to lead to the formulation of control strategies.The results of the present study show that China has more severe PAH pollution than such East Asian countries as Japan and Korea.

  3. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  4. Determination of lead in fine particulates by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J C; Ho, K F; Lee, S C

    2001-01-02

    A simple method for determining lead in fine particulates (PM2.5) by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. Particulates collected on Nuclepore filter by using a dichotomous sampler were suspended in diluted nitric acid after ultrasonic agitation. The dislodging efficiency is nearly 100% after agitation for 5 min. In order to study the suspension behavior of PM2.5 in solvents, a Brookhaven ZetaPlus Particle Size Analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution and suspension behavior of air particulates in the solvent. The pre-digestion and modification effect of nitric acid would be discussed. Palladium was added as a chemical modifier and the temperature program of ETAAS was changed in order to improve the recovery. The slurry was introduced directly into a graphite tube for atomization. The metal content in the sample was determined by the standard addition method. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling method. It offers a quick and efficient alternative method for heavy metal characterization in fine particulates.

  5. Ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal in coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Glick, D.C.; Scaroni, A.W.; Makris, P.; Krecker, J.; Jung, G.; Stubblefield, D.J.

    1998-07-01

    Strategies are being developed at Penn Sate to produce ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuel, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), in industrial boilers. The research is being conducted at the bench, pilot, and demonstration scale, and the emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Specific activities are identifying/developing a low-temperature NO{sub x} reduction catalyst, studying the occurrence of nitrogen in coal and the fundamental mechanisms of NO{sub x} production, characterizing air toxic emissions, investigating the use of BioLime{trademark} for simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} reduction, and evaluating a ceramic filter for fine particulate control. Results from trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions testing when firing coal-based fuels are reported elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper discusses the preliminary results obtained using ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal when firing micronized coal in a package boiler.

  6. Effect of atmospheric parameters on fine particulate concentration in suburban Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Yao; Wei Liu; Wangkun Chen; Guanghua Wang; Youshi Zeng; Yu Huang; Jun Lin

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of atmospheric parameters,including temperature,wind speed,and relative humidity,on fine particulate mass concentrations measured inJiading District of Shanghai,China,during the period from January 2009 to January 2010.A sensitivity analysis was applied to investigate the interaction between atmospheric parameters and particulate mass concentration.The experiment revealed that the concentration of particulates increased with particle size from 0.1 to 1.0μm,and decreased with the increase of particle size from 1.0 to 2.5 μm.The effects of atmospheric parameters on fine mass concentrations were significantly particle size-dependent.The PM1.0-2.5 may come from the size increase of smaller particulates after moisture absorption.And the variation of concentrations of PM0.1-1.0was mainly attributed to the accumulation of PM0.1.The ventilation index and dilution index were calculated on the basis of data collected in December 2009.A correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant relation between these two indexes and the particulate concentration by examining the three particle size ranges,0.0-0.1,0.1-1.0,and 1.0-2.5 μm.The Spearman correlation coefficients that related the ventilation index to the concentration for the three particle size ranges were-0.45,-0.56 and-0.47,respectively,while the coefficients that related the dilution index to the concentration were-0.36,-0.42and-0.45,respectively.

  7. Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM2.5) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Damian; Parsons, Marc; Zinyemba, Chaka

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a broad range of health risks. This study assessed the impacts of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on air quality at outdoor community events in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Data were collected at three festivals in July-August 2011 using a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. The pooled mean PM2.5 level was 12.41 μg/m(3). Peak readings varied from 52 to 1877 μg/m(3). Mean PM2.5 near food stalls was 35.42 μg/m(3), which exceeds the WHO limit for 24 h exposure. Mean PM2.5 levels with smokers present were 16.39 μg/m(3) (all points) and 9.64 μg/m(3) (excluding points near food stalls). Although some smokers withdrew from common spaces, on average 20 smokers/hour were observed within 3 m. Extending smoking bans would improve air quality and address related concerns. However, food preparation is a more pressing area for policy action to reduce PM2.5 exposure at these community events.

  8. Control technology for fine-particulate emissions. [71 references; novel devices considered but rejected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a detailed review and critical evaluation of current control technologies as applied to fine particulate emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Topics reviewed are: sources and characteristics of coals and fly ash; performance characteristics of various types of coal-fired utility boilers; design, operation, performance and maintenance features of the conventional control devices (electrostatic precipitator, fabric filter baghouse, wet scrubber), and descriptions of (and where available, performance data on) novel control devices. The report also includes quantitative assessments of the capabilities of both conventional novel devices to meet three different performance standards - the present New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) of 0.1 lb particulate per MBtu heat input, and standards of 0.05 and 0.03 lb particulate per MBtu. Each of the three conventional devices is compared and rated with respect to eight different performance categories. This information is presented in charts, which can be used to determine the relative effectiveness and attractiveness of these three control devices. The novel devices are compared and rated in the same manner. The major conclusions of the report are: (1) The use of conventional scrubbers for fine particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers will no longer be feasible should a more stringent NSPS be promulgated. (2) At the present NSPS, conventional electrostatic precipitators and baghouses are competitive. For a stricter standard, however, the baghouse will become a more attractive alternative than the precipitator. (3) Novel devices appear to offer almost no hope for this particular application (at a commercial level) between now and 1985 and only little hope before 1990.

  9. Evaluation of coarse and fine particulate sources using a portable aerosol monitor in a desert community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Robert N; Coleman, Ted

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a portable aerosol monitor as a preliminary screening tool to identify local sources of coarse (PM(10-2.5)) and fine (PM(2.5)) particulate matter within the Coachella Valley, a low-elevation desert community. The portable aerosol monitor proved to be useful in identifying particle sources unique to the region, namely, sand dunes with sparse ground cover (vegetation), a river wash, and diesel truck and freight train traffic. The general limitations relate to discrepancies in the fraction of PM(10-2.5) when compared to regional air quality data and a lack of accurate mass-based data.

  10. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; McKone, T.E.; Jolliet, Olivier

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... balance matrix that tracks the global fate of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursor emissions (both indoors and outdoors) as an embedded system of compartments including urban environments, rural environments, and indoor environments within urban and rural areas. After presenting the model structure...

  11. Integrated indoor and outdoor exposure assessment framework for fine particulate matter pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Thomas E; Hodas, Natasha; Apte, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease report demonstrates that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is the major environmental contributor to mortality. Exposures outdoors (ambient) and indoors (household) contribute almost qually to this burden. Unfortunately, the health impacts from exposure...... as a mass balance matrix that tracks the global fate of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursor emissions (both indoors and outdoors) as an embedded system of compartments including urban environments, rural environments, and indoor environments within urban and rural areas. The fate modeling system...

  12. The Effect of Fine and Coarse Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality: A National Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background Although many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on mortality, data limitations have resulted in fewer studies of both particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles) and of coarse particles (particles with an aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 and < 10 μm; PM coarse). We conducted a national, multicity time-series study of the acute effect of PM2.5 and PM coarse on the increased risk of death for all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD),...

  13. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p < 0.01), NO2 (p < 0.01), PM10 (p < 0.01), SO2(p < 0.01), CO (p < 0.01), and relative humidity (p < 0.05) were significant factors that determine airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing.

  14. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005–2016: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mike Z.; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m3 for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m3 for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates. PMID:28216601

  15. Granulometric characterization of airborne particulate release during spray application of nanoparticle-doped coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, Daniel; Stintz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Airborne particle release during the spray application of coatings was analyzed in the nanometre and micrometre size range. In order to represent realistic conditions of domestic and handcraft use, the spray application was performed using two types of commercial propellant spray cans and a manual gravity spray gun. Four different types of coatings doped with three kinds of metal-oxide tracer nanoparticle additives (TNPA) were analyzed. Depending on the used coating and the kind of spray unit, particulate release numbers between 5 × 108 and 3 × 1010 particles per gram ejection mass were determined in the dried spray aerosols. The nanoparticulate fraction amounted values between 10 and 60 no%. The comparison between nanoparticle-doped coatings with non-doped ones showed no TNPA-attributed differences in both the macroscopic spray process characteristics and the particle release numbers. SEM, TEM and EDX-analyzes showed that the spray aerosols were composed of particles made up solely from matrix material and sheathed pigments, fillers and TNPAs. Isolated ZnO- or Fe2O3-TNPAs could not be observed.

  16. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Shadel, Craig [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Chapman, Jenny [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; McCurdy, Greg [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Etyemezian, Vicken [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Miller, Julianne J. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Mizell, Steve [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  17. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, I. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.valles@upc.edu; Camacho, A.; Ortega, X.; Serrano, I.; Blazquez, S.; Perez, S. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    Results for naturally occurring {sup 7}Be, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 208}Tl and anthropogenic {sup 137}Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The {sup 212}Pb and {sup 208}Tl, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the {sup 7}Be, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides.

  18. Embryotoxicity of organic extracts from airborne particulates in ambient air in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

    1986-07-01

    A fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), prepared from an organic extract of airborne particulate matter, was separated into nine subfractions by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The embryotoxicity of each of these fractions was investigated and analysis for PAHs by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. The ninth subfraction, with coronene as its main component, had the strongest toxic effects on chicken embryos per m/sup 3/ of air. Of the remaining eight subfractions, three had the greatest toxicity: the second fraction with benzofluoranthenes and benzo(e)pyrene as the main components, the fourth fraction having PAH-estimated compounds in small amounts, and the fifth fraction with indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene as the main ingredients had the greatest toxicity. These findings indicate PAHs to be responsible for embryotoxicity but the total amounts were not necessarily proportional to it. For further characterization of toxicity, the effects of each PAH and/or quantification of other embryotoxic compounds possibly present in small amounts should be investigated.

  19. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  20. Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Spagnolo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. Method: We collected the coarse fraction (5–10 µm and the fine fractions (1–2.5 µm; 0.5–1 µm; 0.25–0.5 µm. Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS assessment. Results: The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5–10 µm and 1–2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air.

  1. Composition and size distribution of airborne particulate PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in two Chinese megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanqin; Zhou, Bianhong; Tao, Jun; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Zhisheng; Wu, Can; Wang, Jiayuan; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Lu; Han, Yanni; Liu, Lang; Cao, Cong; Wang, Gehui

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations and compositions of PAHs and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in four size ranges of ambient particles ( 9.0 μm) collected in Xi'an and Guangzhou, two megacities of China, during the winter and summer of 2013 were measured and compared with those in 2003. The TSP-equivalent concentrations of Σ14PAHs in Xi'an and Guangzhou are 57 ± 20 and 18 ± 23 ng m- 3 in winter, 5-10 times higher than those in summer. PAHs in both cities are dominated by 5- and 6-ring congeners in summer. In contrast, they are dominated by 4- and 5-ring congeners in winter, probably due to enhanced gas-to-particle phase partitioning of the semi-volatile PAHs. TSP-equivalent Σ7OPAHs during winter are 54 ± 15 and 23 ± 32 ng m- 3 in Xi'an and Guangzhou and dominated by 5-ring OPAHs. Size distribution results showed that the fine modes (PAHs and OPAHs in both cities are dominated by 4- and 5-ring congeners in winter and 5- and 6-ring congeners in summer. Relative abundances of 3-ring PAHs and OPAHs increased along with an increase in particle sizes, accounting for from about 1% of the total PAHs or OPAHs in the smallest particles ( 90% of the total in the largest particles (> 9.0 μm). The toxicity of PAH assessment indicated that atmospheric particles in Xi'an and Guangzhou during winter are much more toxic than those during summer and fine particles are more toxic than coarse particles. Compared to those in 2003, fine particulate PAHs and OPAHs in both cities during winter decreased by 50-90%, most likely due to the replacement of coal by natural gas in the country.

  2. Chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particulate matters in Beijing during the 2008 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingru; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi; Wen, Tianxue; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yingfeng

    2012-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected daily in Beijing from 1 Jun. to 20 Sep. during the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 to investigate aerosol concentrations, particle size distributions, and sources as well as the effects of pollution control measures on the chemical compositions (including Water-soluble ions, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC)) in aerosols of different sizes. Water-soluble ions, EC, OC, and trace elements accounted for 45.0%, 1.6%, 14.7%, and 11.4% of the total particle mass (PM), respectively. Approximately 56%, 56%, 30%, 71% and 55% of the PM, water-soluble ions, trace elements, EC and OC, respectively, were associated with particles smaller than 2.1 μm. Sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the dominant ions, which together accounted for approximately 77% of total water-soluble ions. The crustal elements accounted for the majority of the trace elements present. Different sources showed different mass size distributions. Anthropogenic source compounds, such as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC, EC, and toxic elements, were mainly present in fine mode aerosols, whereas crustal elements, such as Al, Fe, Ca, Mg and Ba, primarily occurred in the coarse mode. SO42- and NH4+ concentrations were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.90, slope = 1.63) in the fine mode, thereby indicating that SO42- was mainly present as (NH4)2SO4; in contrast, a weak correlation between SO42- and NH4+ (r2 = 0.18, slope = 0.54) was observed in the coarse mode, indicating that SO42- was associated with other ions. Similarly, SO42- and NO3- exhibited a stronger correlation in the fine mode than in the coarse mode, indicating that SO42- and NO3- were formed via the same in-cloud processes in fine particles. The OC/EC ratio and the correlations between EC and OC concentrations showed that the sources of carbonaceous species were secondary organic carbon from fine particles and the long-range transport of coarse carbonaceous particles from biomass

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites.

  4. Study on the Adsorption Capacities for Airborne Particulates of Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions in Beijing (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kang Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscape plants are an important component of the urban ecosystem, playing a significant role in the adsorption of airborne particulates and air purification. In this study, six common landscape plants in Beijing were chosen as research subjects, and the adsorption capacities for each different plant leaf and the effects of the leaf structures for the adsorption capacities for particulates were determined. Preliminary results show that needle-leaved tree species adsorbed more airborne particulates than broad-leaved tree species for the same leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis exhibits the highest adsorption capacity, at 3.89 ± 0.026 μg·cm−2, almost two times as much as that of Populus tomentosa (2.00 ± 0.118 μg·cm−2. The adsorption capacities for PM10 of the same tree species leaves, in different polluted regions had significant differences, and the adsorption capacities for PM10 of the tree species leaf beside the Fifth Ring Road were higher than those of the tree species leaves in the Botanical Garden, although the adsorption capacities for PM2.5 of the same tree species in different polluted regions had no significant differences. By determining the soluble ion concentrations of the airborne particulates in two regions, it is suggested that the soluble ion concentrations of PM10 in the atmosphere in the Botanical Garden and beside the Fifth Ring Road have significant differences, while those of PM2.5 in the atmosphere had no significant differences. In different polluted regions there are significant adaptive changes to the leaf structures, and when compared with slightly polluted region, in the seriously polluted region the epidermis cells of the plant leaves shrinked, the surface textures of the leaves became rougher, and the stomas’ frequency and the pubescence length increased. Even though the plant leaves exposed to the seriously polluted region changed significantly, these plants can still grow normally and healthily.

  5. The structural and functional effects of fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes on rat umbilical cord blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Hou, Lijuan; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Cijiang; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Yachun; Cao, Jiyu

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of epidemiological evidence has supported the association between maternal exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the specific biological mechanisms implicated in the causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes are not well defined. In this study, a pregnant rat model of exposure to different doses of cooking oil fumes (COFs)-derived PM2.5 by tail intravenous injection in different pregnant stages was established. The results indicated that exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, changed the structure of umbilical cord blood vessels, decreased the diameter and lumen area, and increased wall thickness. What's more, a significant increase of maximum contraction tension was observed in the early pregnancy high-dose exposure group and pregnant low-dose exposure group compared to the control group. Based on the maximum contraction tension, acetylcholine (ACh) did not induce vasodilation but caused a dose-dependent constriction, and there were significant differences in the two groups compared to the control group. Exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 impaired the vasomotor function of umbilical veins by affecting the expression of NO and ET-1. This is the first study that evaluated the association of risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and pregnant rats exposed to COFs-derived PM2.5 and primarily explored the potential mechanisms of umbilical cord blood vessels injury on a rat model. More detailed vitro and vivo studies are needed to further explore the mechanism in the future.

  6. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  7. Determination of fine particulate semi-volatile organic material at three eastern U.S. sampling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K S; Eatough, D J; Stockburger, L

    2001-09-01

    Correct assessment of fine particulate carbonaceous material as a function of particle size is, in part, dependent on the determination of semi-volatile compounds, which can be lost from particles during sampling. This study gives results obtained for the collection of fine particulate carbonaceous material at three eastern U.S. sampling sites [Philadelphia, PA; Shenandoah National Park, VA; and Research Triangle Park (RTP), NC] using diffusion denuder technology. The diffusion denuder samplers allow for the determination of fine particulate organic material with no artifacts, due to the loss of semi-volatile organic particulate compounds, or collection of gas-phase organic compounds by the quartz filter during sampling. The results show that an average of 41, 43, and 59% of fine particulate organic material was lost as volatilized semi-volatile organic material during collection of particles on a filter at Philadelphia, RTP, and Shenandoah, respectively. The particle size distribution of carbonaceous material retained by a filter and lost from a filter during sampling was obtained for the samples collected at Philadelphia and Shenandoah. The carbonaceous material retained by the particles during sampling was found predominantly in particles smaller than 0.4 microm in aerodynamic diameter. In contrast, the semi-volatile organic material lost from the particles during sampling had a mass median diameter of approximately 0.5 microm.

  8. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    Climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 did not cause a statistically significant change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations within any major sub-region of California in the current study. Climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-year period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate change caused increased

  9. Evaluation of historical beryllium abundance in soils, airborne particulates and facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Bibby, Richard K; Eppich, Gary R; Lee, Steven; Lindvall, Rachel E; Wilson, Kent; Esser, Bradley K

    2012-10-15

    Beryllium has been historically machined, handled and stored in facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since the 1950s. Additionally, outdoor testing of beryllium-containing components has been performed at LLNL's Site 300 facility. Beryllium levels in local soils and atmospheric particulates have been measured over three decades and are comparable to those found elsewhere in the natural environment. While localized areas of beryllium contamination have been identified, laboratory operations do not appear to have increased the concentration of beryllium in local air or water. Variation in airborne beryllium correlates to local weather patterns, PM10 levels, normal sources (such as resuspension of soil and emissions from coal power stations) but not to LLNL activities. Regional and national atmospheric beryllium levels have decreased since the implementation of the EPA's 1990 Clean-Air-Act. Multi-element analysis of local soil and air samples allowed for the determination of comparative ratios for beryllium with over 50 other metals to distinguish between natural beryllium and process-induced contamination. Ten comparative elemental markers (Al, Cs, Eu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Tl) that were selected to ensure background variations in other metals did not collectively interfere with the determination of beryllium sources in work-place samples at LLNL. Multi-element analysis and comparative evaluation are recommended for all workplace and environmental samples suspected of beryllium contamination. The multi-element analyses of soils and surface dusts were helpful in differentiating between beryllium of environmental origin and beryllium from laboratory operations. Some surfaces can act as "sinks" for particulate matter, including carpet, which retains entrained insoluble material even after liquid based cleaning. At LLNL, most facility carpets had beryllium concentrations at or below the upper tolerance limit determined by sampling facilities

  10. An update on mortality in Denmark caused by fine particulate matter air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Brandt, Jørgen

    .5 concentration and distribution in Denmark (and elsewhere) has increased tremendously and new calculations of its’ health effects have been reported. Since 2002 not only the air pollution data and the models have changed, so has the demography of the population and the baseline mortality rates. It is not clear...... at the Copenhagen street level (http://envs.au.dk/en/knowledge/air/monitoring/). Results from the different methods of calculation of effects on mortality will be presented and discussed. Conclusions Estimation of health effects from long term PM exposure has developed tremendously over the past decade. Rigouros...... comparisons of how these different methods perform has rarely been done. This study compare methods using Denmark as an example, and gives an update on mortality caused by fine particulate matter air pollution. This work was funded by the DCE – National Centre for Environment and Energy project ”Health...

  11. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, T.E.; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution has been estimated to contribute more than 7% to the total global human disease burden from 1990 to 2013 (http://healthdata.org/gbd). Ambient (outdoor) and household indoor PM2.5 exposures are reported to account for 41% and 58% of this impact, respectively....... Model and parameters are tested in a case study on the production and rocessing of rice in three distinct scenarios covering urban China, rural India and U.S.-Europe. Recommendations are to use this coupled, generic framework whenever emission locations are unknown and to apply spatial models henever...... emission locations are known. Our study constitutes a first step towards providing guidance on how to include health effects from PM2.5 indoor air exposures in product-oriented impact assessments....

  12. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo;

    2015-01-01

    , human-specific, and pollutant-specific factors. Due to a limited availability of data characterizing these factors, however, indoor emissions and intake of PM2.5 are not commonly considered when evaluating the environmental performance of product life cycles. With the aim of addressing this barrier......, a literature review was conducted and data characterizing factors influencing iFin,total were compiled. In addition to providing data for the calculation of iFin,total in various indoor environments and for a range geographic regions, this paper discusses remaining limitations to the incorporation of PM2......Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...

  13. Fine particulate matter estimated by mathematical model and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gobbo César

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5 and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children. Methods: An ecological study of time series was performed, with daily indicators of hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma in children up to 10 years of age, living in Taubaté (SP and estimated concentrations of PM2.5, between August 2011 and July 2012. A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk, with lag zero up to five days after exposure; the single pollutant model was adjusted by the apparent temperature, as defined from the temperature and relative air humidity, seasonality and weekday. Results: The values of the relative risks for hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma were significant for lag 0 (RR=1.051, 95%CI; 1.016 to 1.088; lag 2 (RR=1.066, 95%CI: 1.023 to 1.113; lag 3 (RR=1.053, 95%CI: 1.015 to 1.092; lag 4 (RR=1.043, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.088 and lag 5 (RR=1.061, 95%CI: 1.018 to 1.106. The increase of 5mcg/m3 in PM2.5 contributes to increase the relative risk for hospitalization from 20.3 to 38.4 percentage points; however, the reduction of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration results in 38 fewer hospital admissions. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children younger than 10 years of age, showing the role of fine particulate matter in child health and providing subsidies for the implementation of preventive measures to decrease these outcomes.

  14. Implications of ammonia emissions from post-combustion carbon capture for airborne particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinhyok; McCoy, Sean T; Adams, Peter J

    2015-04-21

    Amine scrubbing, a mature post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, could increase ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to its ammonia emissions. To capture 2.0 Gt CO2/year, for example, it could emit 32 Gg NH3/year in the United States given current design targets or 15 times higher (480 Gg NH3/year) at rates typical of current pilot plants. Employing a chemical transport model, we found that the latter emission rate would cause an increase of 2.0 μg PM2.5/m(3) in nonattainment areas during wintertime, which would be troublesome for PM2.5-burdened areas, and much lower increases during other seasons. Wintertime PM2.5 increases in nonattainment areas were fairly linear at a rate of 3.4 μg PM2.5/m(3) per 1 Tg NH3, allowing these results to be applied to other CCS emissions scenarios. The PM2.5 impacts are modestly uncertain (±20%) depending on future emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3. The public health costs of CCS NH3 emissions were valued at $31-68 per tonne CO2 captured, comparable to the social cost of carbon itself. Because the costs of solvent loss to CCS operators are lower than the social costs of CCS ammonia, there is a regulatory interest to limit ammonia emissions from CCS.

  15. Fine and coarse particulate matter chemical characterization in a heavily industrialized city in central Mexico during Winter 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Hugo; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Sosa, Gustavo; González-Avalos, Eugenio; Reyes, Elizabeth; García, José

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the first reported study on fine particulate matter (PM) chemical composition at Salamanca, a highly industrialized urban area of Central Mexico. Samples were collected at six sites within the urban area during February and March 2003. Several trace elements, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and six ions were analyzed to characterize aerosols. Average concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM10) and fine PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) ranged from 32.2 to 76.6 [g m(-3) and 11.1 to 23.7 microg m(-3), respectively. OC (34%), SO4= (25.1%), EC (12.9%), and geological material (12.5%) were the major components of PM2.5. For PM10 geological material (57.9%), OC (17.3%), and SO4= (9.7%) were the major components. Coarse fraction (PM,, -PM2.5), geological material (81.7%), and OC (8.6%) were the dominant species, which amounted to 90.4%. Correlation analysis showed that sulfate in PM2.5 was present as ammonium sulfate. Sulfate showed a significant spatial variation with higher concentrations to the north resulting from predominantly southwesterly winds above the surface layer and by major SO2 sources that include a power plant and refinery. At the urban site of Cruz Roja it was observed that PM2.5 mass concentrations were similar to the submicron fraction concentrations. Furthermore, the correlation between EC in PM2.5 and EC measured from an aethalometer was r(2) = 0.710. Temporal variations of SO2 and nitrogen oxide were observed during a day when the maximum concentration of PM2.5 was measured, which was associated with emissions from the nearby refinery and power plant. From cascade impactor measurements, the three measured modes of airborne particles corresponded with diameters of 0.32, 1.8, and 5.6 microm.

  16. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Demonstrate Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Sources and a Role for TRPA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals, the composition of which is determined by contributing sources, and has been linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These effects stem in part from the irritating properties of PM constituents, which ...

  17. 76 FR 60492 - Adequacy Status of the Ohio Portion of the Huntington/Ashland Submitted Annual Fine Particulate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., starting at 69 FR 40038, and we used the information in these resources in making our adequacy... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Ohio Portion of the Huntington/Ashland Submitted Annual Fine Particulate... Ohio portion of the Huntington/Ashland WV-KY-OH area. Ohio submitted the insignificance findings...

  18. The Effects on Bronchial Epithelial Mucociliary Cultures of Coarse, Fine, and Ultrafine Particulate Matter From an Underground Railway Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxham, Matthew; Morgan-Walsh, Rebecca J; Cooper, Matthew J; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick W; Howarth, Peter H; Cassee, Flemming R; Teagle, Damon A H; Palmer, Martin R; Davies, Donna E

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that underground railway particulate matter (PM) is rich in iron and other transition metals across coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5), and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) fractions and is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there is little knowledge of whether th

  19. Health effects of fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment: findings from the Basel Guidance Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Evans, John S.;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is considered to be one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the global human disease burden. However, due to the lack of broad consensus and harmonization in the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, there is no clear guidance on how...

  20. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  1. Airborne particulate matter and mitochondrial damage: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Lifang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress generation is a primary mechanism mediating the effects of Particulate Matter (PM on human health. Although mitochondria are both the major intracellular source and target of oxidative stress, the effect of PM on mitochondria has never been evaluated in exposed individuals. Methods In 63 male healthy steel workers from Brescia, Italy, studied between April and May 2006, we evaluated whether exposure to PM was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number (MtDNAcn, an established marker of mitochondria damage and malfunctioning. Relative MtDNAcn (RMtDNAcn was determined by real-time PCR in blood DNA obtained on the 1st (time 1 and 4th day (time 2 of the same work week. Individual exposures to PM10, PM1, coarse particles (PM10-PM1 and airborne metal components of PM10 (chromium, lead, arsenic, nickel, manganese were estimated based on measurements in the 11 work areas and time spent by the study subjects in each area. Results RMtDNAcn was higher on the 4th day (mean = 1.31; 95%CI = 1.22 to 1.40 than on the 1st day of the work week (mean = 1.09; 95%CI = 1.00 to 1.17. PM exposure was positively associated with RMtDNAcn on either the 4th (PM10: β = 0.06, 95%CI = -0.06 to 0.17; PM1: β = 0.08, 95%CI = -0.08 to 0.23; coarse: β = 0.06, 95%CI = -0.06 to 0.17 or the 1st day (PM10: β = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.09 to 0.26; PM1: β = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.11 to 0.35; coarse: β = 0.17, 95%CI = 0.09 to 0.26. Metal concentrations were not associated with RMtDNAcn. Conclusions PM exposure is associated with damaged mitochondria, as reflected in increased MtDNAcn. Damaged mitochondria may intensify oxidative-stress production and effects.

  2. Analysis of traffic and meteorology on airborne particulate matter in Münster, northwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Johanna K; Klemm, Otto

    2009-07-01

    The importance of street traffic and meteorological conditions on the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 microm (PM10) was studied in the city of Münster in northwest Germany. The database consisted of meteorological data, data of PM10 mass concentrations and fine particle number (6-225 nm diameter) concentrations, and traffic intensity data as counted with tally hand counters at a four- to six-lane road. On working days, a significant correlation could be found between the diurnal mean PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number. The lower number of heavy-duty vehicles compared with passenger cars contributed more to the particle number concentration on working days than on weekend days. On weekends, when the vehicle number was very low, the correlation between PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number changed completely. Other sources of PM and the meteorology dominated the PM concentration. Independent of the weekday, by decreasing the traffic by approximately 99% during late-night hours, the PM10 concentration was reduced by 12% of the daily mean value. A correlation between PM10 and the particle number concentration was found for each weekday. In this study, meteorological parameters, including the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer, were also accounted for. The authors deployed artificial neural networks to achieve more information on the influence of various meteorological parameters, traffic, and the day of the week. A multilayer perceptron network showed the best results for predicting the PM10 concentration, with the correlation coefficient being 0.72. The influence of relative humidity, temperature, and wind was strong, whereas the influence of atmospheric stability and the traffic parameters was weak. Although traffic contributes a constant amount of particles in a daily and weekly cycle, it is the meteorology that drives most of the variability.

  3. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  4. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  5. Fine Particulate Matter in Urban Environments: A Trigger of Respiratory Symptoms in Sensitive Children

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    Daniel Dunea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this research was to study children’s respiratory illness levels in Targoviste (Romania in relationship to the outdoor concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5. We monitored and analysed the PM2.5 concentrations according to a complex experimental protocol. The health trial was conducted over three months (October–December 2015 and required the active cooperation of the children’s parents to monitor carefully the respiratory symptoms of the child, i.e., coughing, rhinorrhoea, wheezing, and fever, as well as their outdoor program. We selected the most sensitive children (n = 25; age: 2–10 years with perturbed respiratory health, i.e., wheezing, asthma, and associated symptoms. The estimated average PM2.5 doses were 0.8–14.5 µg·day−1 for weekdays, and 0.4–6.6 µg·day−1 for the weekend. The frequency and duration of the symptoms decreased with increasing age. The 4- to 5-year old children recorded the longest duration of symptoms, except for rhinorrhoea, which suggested that this age interval is the most vulnerable to exogenous trigger agents (p < 0.01 compared to the other age groups. PM2.5 air pollution was found to have a direct positive correlation with the number of wheezing episodes (r = 0.87; p < 0.01 in November 2015. Monitoring of wheezing occurrences in the absence of fever can provide a reliable assessment of the air pollution effect on the exacerbation of asthma and respiratory disorders in sensitive children.

  6. MicroRNA-1228(*) inhibit apoptosis in A549 cells exposed to fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Ding, Zhen; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Xin; Meng, Qingtao; Wu, Shenshen; Wang, Shizhi; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Chen, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Studies have reported associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and respiratory disorders; however, the underlying mechanism is not completely clear owing to the complex components of PM2.5. microRNAs (miRNAs) demonstrate tremendous regulation to target genes, which are sensitive to exogenous stimulation, and facilitate the integrative understood of biological responses. Here, significantly modulated miRNA were profiled by miRNA microarray, coupled with bioinformatic analysis; the potential biological function of modulated miRNA were predicted and subsequently validated by cell-based assays. Downregulation of miR-1228-5p (miR-1228(*)) expression in human A549 cells were associated with PM2.5-induced cellular apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. Further, overexpression of miR-1228(*) rescued the cellular damages induced by PM2.5. Thus, our results demonstrate that PM2.5-induced A549 apoptosis is initiated by mitochondrial dysfunction and miR-1228(*) could protect A549 cells against apoptosis. The involved pathways and target genes might be used for future mechanistic studies.

  7. Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter During the 2006 MIRAGE (MILAGRO) Field Campaign. Part I. Data Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, M.; Matias, E.; Nenes, A.; Ponce de Leon, C.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the MIRAGE (MILAGRO, http://mirage-mex.acd.ucar.edu) field campaign, particulate matter in size ranges of 1, 2.5 μm was collected at the T1 site (located ~ 35 km NE downwind Mexico city) from March 5th-31st, 2006. Scientific objectives related to this database are focused on application of different aerosol modeling tools (Part II of this work). In this part a discussion of data validation and findings related is presented. Overall, highest concentrations of fine PM are present during the morning sampling periods (PM1, ~90% and PM2.5, ~70% of the time) suggesting a combination of transport of emissions from the Valley of Mexico and combustion processes nearby T1 are occurring. Although electroneutrality balances are achieved for both PM size ranges on the different sampling periods, it is noted that levels of concentration (neq/m3) found at the MIRAGE site (100-500 neq/m3) are significantly lower than those observed in Mexico City, reported previously around 200-1000 neq/m3. A considerable amount of crustal species is observed in the 2.5-1 μm size range. Additional analysis of K/Na ratio supports this finding and also suggests the dominating emissions in PM1 are of anthropogenic origin while in the PM2.5-1 size range are of crustal origin.

  8. Correction factor for continuous monitoring of wood smoke fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Marcy L; Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

    2011-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated a handful of instruments as Federal Reference or Federal Equivalency Methods (FRM and FEM, respectively) for the monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). More commonly used for indoor exposure assessment studies are optical scanning devices such as the DustTrak (TSI) due to the their portability and affordability. It is recommended by the manufacturer of these instruments that a "correction factor" be applied when assessing source-specific conditions. In this study, DustTraks were collocated with multiple samplers in various environments in an effort to establish an indoor, wood smoke-source specific correction factor. The DustTrak was found to report PM2.5 levels on average 1.6 times higher than a filter based method in two indoor sampling programs. The DustTrak also reported indoor PM2.5 concentrations 1.7 times higher than a FRM sampler during a regional forest fire event. These real-world scenarios give a correction factor within a reasonable range of the results of a controlled laboratory experiment in which DustTraks reported PM2.5 approximately 2 times higher than a FEM. Our indoor wood smoke-specific correction factor of 1.65 will allow for DustTraks to be confidently used in quantifying PM2.5 exposures within indoor environments predominantly impacted by wood smoke.

  9. Meteorological Influences on Seasonal Variation of Fine Particulate Matter in Cities over Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines meteorological impacts on seasonal variation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in southern Ontario, Canada. After analyzing PM2.5 data at 12 cities in the region in 2006, we found that PM2.5 concentrations were 30–40% higher in summer (7–15 μg/m3 than in winter (4–11 μg/m3. High PM2.5 episodes occurred more frequently in warmer seasons. Analyses of surface meteorology, weather maps, and airflow trajectories suggest that these PM2.5 episodes were often related to synoptic transport of pollutants from highly polluted areas in the United States. The southerly or southwesterly winds associated with midlatitude cyclones play an important role in such transport. A typical weather pattern favoring the transport is suggested. When it was hot, humid, and stagnant with southerly or southwesterly winds, the likelihood of high PM2.5 occurrences was high. The Greater Golden Horseshoe and Southwestern Ontario regions had higher PM2.5 (6–12 μg/m3 annually than the northern region (4–6 μg/m3, reflecting combined effects of meteorology, regional transport, and local emissions. In the future, PM2.5 transport from the United States will likely increase in abundance because of possible prolonged accumulation at the pollution sources as the frequency of the midlatitude cyclones may reduce under climate change.

  10. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-08-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  11. Spatial variable selection methods for investigating acute health effects of fine particulate matter components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm Vock, Laura F; Reich, Brian J; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dominici, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Multi-site time series studies have reported evidence of an association between short term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but the effect size varies across the United States. Variability in the effect may partially be due to differing community level exposure and health characteristics, but also due to the chemical composition of PM which is known to vary greatly by location and time. The objective of this article is to identify particularly harmful components of this chemical mixture. Because of the large number of highly-correlated components, we must incorporate some regularization into a statistical model. We assume that, at each spatial location, the regression coefficients come from a mixture model with the flavor of stochastic search variable selection, but utilize a copula to share information about variable inclusion and effect magnitude across locations. The model differs from current spatial variable selection techniques by accommodating both local and global variable selection. The model is used to study the association between fine PM (PM <2.5μm) components, measured at 115 counties nationally over the period 2000-2008, and cardiovascular emergency room admissions among Medicare patients.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    401. This difference may be the result of using filter media at Station 400 with a smaller pore size than the media used at the other two stations. Average annual gamma exposure at Station 401 is slightly greater than at Station 400 and 402. Average annual gamma exposure at all three TTR stations are in the upper range to slightly higher than values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the TTR. At higher wind speeds, the saltation counts are greater at Station 401 than at Station 402 while the suspended particulate concentrations are greater at Station 402 than at Statin 401. Although these observations seem counterintuitive, they are likely the result of differences in the soil material present at the two sites. Station 401 is located on an interfluve elevated above two adjacent drainage channels where the soil surface is likely to be composed of coarser material. Station 402 is located in finer sediments at the playa edge and is also subject to dust from a dirt road only 500 m to the north. During prolonged high wind events, suspended dust concentrations at Station 401 peaked with the initial winds then decreased whereas dust concentrations at Station 402 peaked with each peak in the wind speed. This likely reflects a limited PM10 source that is quickly expended at Station 401 relative to an abundant PM10 source at Station 402. In CY2013, to facilitate comparisons between radiological analyses of collected dust, the filter media at all three stations will be standardized. In addition, a sequence of samples will be collected at Station 400 using both types of filter media to enable development of a mathematical relationship between the results derived from the two filter types. Additionally, having acquired approximately four years of observations at Stations 400 and 401 and a year of observations at Station 402, a period-of-record analysis of the radiological and airborne dust conditions will be undertaken.

  13. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  14. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate – air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate and 2047–2053 (future climate. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate – air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~35–40% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV radiation was predicted to decrease in major urban areas in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. These changes resulted in a ~0.6–1.9 μg m−3 decrease in predicted PM2.5 concentrations in coastal and central Los Angeles. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were predicted to increase at certain locations within the SJV and the Sacramento Valley due to the

  15. Global Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations and Trends Inferred from Satellite Observations, Modeling, and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Boys, Brian; Philip, Sajeev; Lee, Colin; Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal

    2014-05-01

    Outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading environmentally-related cause of premature mortality worldwide. However, ground-level PM2.5 monitors remain sparse in many regions of the world. Satellite remote sensing from MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS yields a powerful global data source to address this issue. Global modeling (GEOS-Chem) plays a critical role in relating these observations to ground-level concentrations. The resultant satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 indicate dramatic variation around the world, with implications for global public health. A new ground-based aerosol network (SPARTAN) offers valuable measurements to understand the relationship between satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. This talk will highlight recent advances in combining satellite remote sensing, global modeling, and ground-based measurements to improve understanding of global population exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter.

  16. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the

  17. Preliminary studies of airborne particulate emmisions from the Ampellum S.A. copper smelter, Zlatna, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Williamson

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have been carried on the characterization of particulate emissions from the Ampellum S.A. copper smelter in the town of Zlatna, Romania. The particulates studied were collected on polycarbonate filters using air pump apparatus and on the surfaces of lichens. Mass of total suspended particulates (TSP and PM10 varied from 19 to 230 μg/m3 and 3 to 146 μg/m3, respectively (PM10/TSP = 0.14 to 1.0, depending on wind direction and proximity to the smelter. Particulates on collection filters from a site directly downwind from the smelter have a mean equivalent spherical diameter (ESD of 0.94 μm (s.d. 1.1 and are dominantly made up of material with the composition of anglesite (PbSO4. The remainder of the material is a heterogeneous mixture of silicates and Fe-, Pb- and Cu-bearing phases. Particulates > 5 μm ESD are rare on the TSP filters, mainly due to the restricted sampling durations possible with the equipment used (<3 hours. Particulates have therefore been studied in the lichen Acarospora smaragdula, which was growing on posts downwind from the smelter and which was found to contain high levels and a broader range of particulates compared with the filters (<5 to 100 μm in diameter. Larger particles include 20-30 μm diameter Fe-rich spherules, which occasionally have Pb- and S-rich encrustations on their surfaces. The nature and possible health effects of the particulates are discussed and recommendations made for future studies.

  18. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among Jinan children: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2016-12-14

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 µm (PM10) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explored confoundings factos of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM10 concentrations two days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m(3) in PM2.5 and PM10 were correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02-1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM2.5 and PM10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  19. Charge-Spot Model for Electrostatic Forces in Simulation of Fine Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.; Johnson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    . Adhesive image-charge forces acting on charged particles touching conducting surfaces can be up to 50 times stronger if the charge is located in discrete spots on the particle surface instead of being distributed uniformly over the surface of the particle, as is assumed by most other models. Besides being useful in modeling particulates in space and distant objects, this modeling technique is useful for electrophotography (used in copiers) and in simulating the effects of static charge in the pulmonary delivery of fine dry powders.

  20. Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Goel, Anju

    2016-09-14

    The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs. The aims were to assess the effects of different ventilation settings on in-vehicle PMCs and their comparison during delay conditions at the TIs with those experienced by pedestrians while crossing these TIs. We also estimated the zone of influence (ZoI) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 under different driving conditions and fitted the probability distribution functions to fixed-site data to understand the concentration and exposure dynamics of coarse and fine particles around the studied (3- and 4-way) TIs. The fine particles (PM2.5) showed a strong positive exponential correlation with the air exchange rates under different ventilation settings compared with coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showing an opposite trend. This suggested that the ventilation system of the car was relatively more efficient in removing coarse particles from the incoming outside air. On-road median PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during delays at the TIs were ∼40%, 16% and 17% higher, respectively, compared with free-flow conditions on the rest of the route. About 7% of the average commuting time spent during delay conditions over all the runs at the TIs corresponded to 10, 7 and 8% of the total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The maximum length of the ZoI for PM2.5 and PM1 was highest at the 4-way TI and the maximum length of the ZoI for PM10 was highest at the 3-way TI. The on-road average RDD rate of PM10 inside the cabin when windows were fully open was

  1. Regulatory T Cells Protect Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-cai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the role of CD4+CD25+ T cells (Tregs in protecting fine particulate matter (PM- induced inflammatory responses, and its potential mechanisms. Methods. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with graded concentrations (2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 µg/cm2 of suspension of fine particles for 24h. For coculture experiment, HUVECs were incubated alone, with CD4+CD25− T cells (Teff, or with Tregs in the presence of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies for 48 hours, and then were stimulated with or without suspension of fine particles for 24 hours. The expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines was examined. Results. Adhesion molecules, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL- 6 and IL-8, were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1 to endothelial cells was increased and NF-κB activity was upregulated in HUVECs after treatment with fine particles. However, after Tregs treatment, fine particles-induced inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation were significantly alleviated. Transwell experiments showed that Treg-mediated suppression of HUVECs inflammatory responses impaired by fine particles required cell contact and soluble factors. Conclusions. Tregs could attenuate fine particles-induced inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation in HUVECs.

  2. Development of two fine particulate matter standard reference materials (<4 μm and <10 μm) for the determination of organic and inorganic constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Cleveland, Danielle; Heckert, N Alan; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Long, Stephen E; Lynch, Jennifer M; Murphy, Karen E; Olfaz, Rabia; Pintar, Adam L; Porter, Barbara J; Rabb, Savelas A; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A; Zeisler, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter (Particulate Matter (particulate matter (PM). These materials have been characterized for the mass fractions of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, sugars, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and inorganic constituents, as well as particle-size characteristics. These materials are the first Certified Reference Materials available to support measurements of both organic and inorganic constituents in fine PM. In addition, values for PAHs are available for RM 8785 Air Particulate Matter on Filter Media. As such, these SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among PM monitoring studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in these studies. Graphical Abstract Removal of PM from filter for the preparation of SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter.

  3. Diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in fine particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing-Feng; Fan, Xiao-Yan; Pan, Kai-Ling; Li, Hong-Yu; Sun, Li-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Increasing ammonia emissions could exacerbate air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate ammonia oxidation in PM2.5. This study investigated the diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and complete ammonia oxidizers (Comammox) in PM2.5 collected in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megalopolis, China. Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2 was the most dominant AOA. Nitrosospira multiformis and Nitrosomonas aestuarii were the most dominant AOB. Comammox were present in the atmosphere, as revealed by the occurrence of Candidatus Nitrospira inopinata in PM2.5. The average cell numbers of AOA, AOB and Ca. N. inopinata were 2.82 × 104, 4.65 × 103 and 1.15 × 103 cell m‑3 air, respectively. The average maximum nitrification rate of PM2.5 was 0.14 μg (NH4+-N) [m3 air·h]‑1. AOA might account for most of the ammonia oxidation, followed by Comammox, while AOB were responsible for a small part of ammonia oxidation. Statistical analyses showed that Nitrososphaera subcluster 4.1 was positively correlated with organic carbon concentration, and Nitrosomonas eutropha showed positive correlation with ammonia concentration. Overall, this study expanded our knowledge concerning AOA, AOB and Comammox in PM2.5 and pointed towards an important role of AOA and Comammox in ammonia oxidation in PM2.5.

  4. Impacts of Intercontinental Transport of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter on Human Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; West, J. Jason; Hongbin, Yu; Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Fiore, Arlene; Hess, Peter; Marmer, Elina; Montanaro, Veronica; Park, Rokjin; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.

  5. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  6. Space and time resolved monitoring of airborne particulate matter in proximity of a traffic roundabout in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kai E; Lundkvist, Johanna; Netrval, Julia; Eriksson, Mats; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G

    2013-11-01

    Concerns over exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) are on the rise. Currently monitoring of PM is done on the basis of interpolating a mass of PM by volume (μg/m(3)) but has the drawback of not taking the chemical nature of PM into account. Here we propose a method of collecting PM at its emission source and employing automated analysis with scanning electron microscopy associated with EDS-analysis together with light scattering to discern the chemical composition, size distribution, and time and space resolved structure of PM emissions in a heavily trafficated roundabout in Sweden. Multivariate methods (PCA, ANOVA) indicate that the technogenic marker Fe follows roadside dust in spreading from the road, and depending on time and location of collection, a statistically significant difference can be seen, adding a useful tool to the repertoiré of detailed PM monitoring and risk assessment of local emission sources.

  7. Local and non-local sources of airborne particulate pollution at Beijing--The ratio of Mg/Al as an element tracer for estimating the contributions of mineral aerosols from outside Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Lihui; ZHUANG; Guoshun; SUN; Yele; WANG; Zifa

    2005-01-01

    A new element tracer technique has firstly been established to estimate the contributions of mineral aerosols from both inside and outside Beijing. The ratio of Mg/Al in aerosol is a feasible element tracer to distinguish between the sources of inside and outside Beijing. Mineral aerosol, inorganic pollution aerosol mainly as sulfate and nitrate, and organic aerosol are the major components of airborne particulates in Beijing, of which mineral aerosol accounted for 32%―67% of total suspended particles (TSP), 10%―70% of fine particles (PM2.5), and as high as 74% and 90% of TSP and PM2.5, respectively, in dust storm. The sources from outside Beijing contributed 62% (38%―86%) of the total mineral aerosols in TSP, 69% (52%―90%) in PM10, and 76% (59%―93%) in PM2.5 in spring, and 69% (52%―83%), 79% (52%―93%), and 45% (7%―79%) in TSP, PM10, and PM2.5, respectively, in winter, while only ~20% in summer and autumn. The sources from outside Beijing contributed as high as 97% during dust storm and were the dominant source of airborne particulates in Beijing. The contributions from outside Beijing in spring and winter are higher than those in summer, indicating clearly that it was related to the various meteorological factors.

  8. What do we learn from EC (black carbon), OC and their Isotope Measurements in Fine Airborne PM over Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Zhang, W.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J.; Chan, T.; Leaitch, R.

    2009-04-01

    Elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC & OC) components in fine airborne carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) are major air pollutants existing in urban, rural and remote environments as well as key players in climate change (via radiative forcing). It is known that both EC (also called as black carbon or soot) and OC are released from various emission sources (e.g., fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning) and OC is also produced in the atmosphere through photochemical oxidations from gas phase organics. Tracking their spatial (e.g., from urban to rural to background air or latitudinal) and temporal (e.g. seasonal and inter-annual) distributions will provide valuable information to constraining emission sources and atmospheric transport/transformation mechanisms as well as to assessing effectiveness of mitigation for these pollutants. Sources/processes detecting and attributing are key aspects in both air quality and climate change research. Isotope measurements, as independent tools, can provide valuable insight to constrain those aspects. Duo to its inert nature, it is expected that the ^13C of EC won't be changed after emitting to the atmosphere, reflecting the signature of source, whereas the ^13Cof OC will have a various degree of changes through photochemical processes, depending on the history of the air mass. Therefore, an isotopic profile of ^13C in carbon components released at different temperature ranges can provide useful insight to the emission sources and formation processes in ambient PM. Quartz filter samples were collected at the five sites over Canada, from Toronto (a typical urban site), Egbert (a rural site, ~ 80 km northwest of Toronto), to Fraserdale, and Berm-TT (both are continental boreal forest sites), to Alert (an Arctic baseline site). EC and OC concentrations for those samples collected during the period (2006 - 2007) were determined using a thermal method (Totoal_900_EnCan) developed in Toronto lab at Environment Canada, which is

  9. A new approach for the determination of silicon in airborne particulate matter using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, A; Limbeck, A

    2009-07-30

    In this work a new procedure for element specific analysis of silicon in airborne particulate matter is presented. The method is based on a preliminary treatment of the aerosol samples with nitric acid and perchloric acid leading to a mineralization of the organic sampling substrate, dissolution of soluble material and a homogeneous suspension of the remaining non-soluble sample fraction. ETAAS measurement of the derived slurries was performed using a Zr-treated graphite tube which prevents the formation of stable silicon carbide during sample measurement. Losses of volatile silicon species during sample pyrolysis were overcome by using Co(II) as matrix modifier and a pyrolysis temperature of only 300 degrees C. Furthermore this low pyrolysis temperature prevents charring of organic material which enables accurate ETAAS analysis. The method including the developed pretreatment procedure was evaluated using the Standard reference material 2709 (San Joaquin Soil) from NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). Suitability for measurement of Si in airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter aerosol samples and comparison of derived results with the findings obtained for the same samples after microwave digestion and subsequent ETAAS measurement. Finally the developed procedure was applied for the analysis of silicon in PM10 collected at an urban site in Vienna (Austria). Matrix matched calibration has been used for quantification of derived absorption signals. With the use of 20 microL sample injection volume for ETAAS analysis an instrumental detection limit of 52.2 microg L(-1) was obtained, which translates to method detection limits of approximately 0.52 microg m(-3) when considering the volumes of air collected per investigated aerosol sample. The reproducibility of analysis given as the relative standard deviation was 4.4% (n=12). Derived concentrations for Si in PM10 varied between 0.8 and 7.2 microg m(-3) which

  10. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-20

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  11. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  12. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate with present emissions and 2047–2053 (future climate with present emissions. Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4–39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate

  13. Expert workshop traffic-caused airborne particles in urban areas; Experten-Workshop 'Verkehrsbedingte Feinstaeube in der Stadt'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzendorf, Martin; Birmili, Wolfram; Franke, Patrick

    2006-07-15

    The proceedings of the expert workshop on traffic-caused airborne particulates in urban regions include the following contributions: epidemiology of ultra-fine particulates, ultra-fine particulates and their impacts in human health, environmental particulates in the urban atmosphere: properties and future requirement of measuring methods; ultra-fine particulates from traffic emissions - problems of measuring site selection for the evaluation of human exposure, modeling of PMx emissions in the context of environmental compatibility assessments and mitigation planning, traffic-caused particulates - need for action and remedial actions from the sight of the Federal environment Agency, traffic-related measures for the reduction of urban particulate exposure and their impact on the planning of air pollution prevention, strategic environmental assessment as an instrument for the airborne particulate consideration within the traffic and regional planning.

  14. Ambient Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Air Pollution Attributable to Household Cooking Fuel in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Mehta, S.; Smith, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    Using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), we estimate the proportion of fine particulate ambient air pollution (PM2.5) attributable to household fuel use for cooking in Asia. This analysis considers primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in two years: 1990 and 2005. Only emissions from household cooking fuels-not heating or lighting-are considered. Due to data availability, this analysis focuses solely on Asian countries, notably India and China which are home to about half of the households using solid fuel use worldwide. Forest and grassland fires, dust, and other "natural" particle sources were omitted from this analysis. The impact of emission sources on secondary particles from aerosol precursors was not determined. In China, the proportion of total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 attributable to household cooking decreased from 44% to 31% between 1990 and 2005. In India, the percent of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions attributable to household cooking decreased from 55% to 49% between 1990 and 2005. Total mass change in primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions was much more variable by state in India, between 1990 and 2005, than by province in China (where there was a general downward trend in the total mass emitted). Similarly, growth in industrial emissions was much more variable at the sub-national level, between 1990 and 2005, in India than in China. Energy production played a more prominent role in the growth of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in India than it did in China. Forward-looking GAINS scenarios show that the contribution of household cooking to total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions is much greater than that from on-road transport in India and China between 1990 and 2030. On-road cars, trucks, and other transport vehicles are, however, the cause of important pollutants other than PM2.5 (as are as cooking stoves that do

  15. Acute effects of fine particulate air pollution on ST segment height: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Rongling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods We investigate the acute effects and the time course of fine particulate pollution (PM2.5 on myocardium ischemic injury as assessed by ST-segment height in a community-based sample of 106 healthy non-smokers. Twenty-four hour beat-to-beat electrocardiogram (ECG data were obtained using a high resolution 12-lead Holter ECG system. After visually identifying and removing all the artifacts and arrhythmic beats, we calculated beat-to-beat ST-height from ten leads (inferior leads II, III, and aVF; anterior leads V3 and V4; septal leads V1 and V2; lateral leads I, V5, and V6,. Individual-level 24-hour real-time PM2.5 concentration was obtained by a continuous personal PM2.5 monitor. We then calculated, on a 30-minute basis, the corresponding time-of-the-day specific average exposure to PM2.5 for each participant. Distributed lag models under a linear mixed-effects models framework were used to assess the regression coefficients between 30-minute PM2.5 and ST-height measures from each lead; i.e., one lag indicates a 30-minute separation between the exposure and outcome. Results The mean (SD age was 56 (7.6 years, with 41% male and 74% white. The mean (SD PM2.5 exposure was 14 (22 μg/m3. All inferior leads (II, III, and aVF and two out of three lateral leads (I and V6, showed a significant association between higher PM2.5 levels and higher ST-height. Most of the adverse effects occurred within two hours after PM2.5 exposure. The multivariable adjusted regression coefficients β (95% CI of the cumulative effect due to a 10 μg/m3 increase in Lag 0-4 PM2.5 on ST-I, II, III, aVF and ST-V6 were 0.29 (0.01-0.56 μV, 0.79 (0.20-1.39 μV, 0.52 (0.01-1.05 μV, 0.65 (0.11-1.19 μV, and 0.58 (0.07-1.09 μV, respectively, with all p

  16. Evaluation of airborne respirable particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure of asphalt workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Assessment of exposure to the airborne respirable particles (PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of asphalt manufacturing and road paving workers in the Campania region (Italy.

    Materials and Methods: A study was carried out during 2006 and involved 5 firms producing and employing bitumen in road paving activities. The workers studied were categorized on the basis of their job as workers in bitumen manufacturing, in road paving and in workers not exposed at bitumen fume considered like controls.

    Results: In the manufacturing plants the average concentrations of airborne PM10 were 1125±445 ìg/m3 in the HMA manufacturing workers’ areas; 314±81 ìg/m3 in the process surveyors’ cabins and 92±27 ìg/m3 in the controls’ areas (administrative offices. Within the breathing zones of the worker, the average PAHs levels in air were as follows: 367±198 ng/m3 for HMA manufacturing workers; 348±172 ng/m3 for process surveyors; 21±2 ng/m3 for the controls. At the road paving sites the average airborne PM10 levels were 1435±325 ìg/m3 for roller operators; 1610±356 ìg/m3 for paver operators; 319±108 ìg/m for the controls (traffic controllers. PAHs in the breathing zones were 1220±694 ng/m3 for the paver operators; 1360±575 ng/m3 for the roller operators’ and 139±135 ng/m3 for the traffic controllers’. The results show that the more consistent hazard for asphalt workers’ health is derived from exposure to airborne PM10 both in exposed and in non-exposed (controls workers.

  17. Source Signatures of Fine Particulate Matter from Petroleum Refining and Fuel Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Robert Huggins

    1999-12-31

    Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732 kW boiler. Particulate matter (PM) emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than and greater than 2.5 microns in diameter. However, examination of several of the samples by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) revealed that part of the <2.5 micron fraction (PM{sub 2.5}) in fact consists of carbonaceous cenospheres and vesicular particles that range up to 10 microns in diameter. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy data were obtained at the S, V, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As Kedges, and at the Pb L-edge. Deconvolution of the x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region of the S spectra established that the dominant molecular forms of S present were sulfate (26-84% of total S) and thiophene (13-39% of total S). Sulfate was greater in the PM{sub 2.5} samples than in the >2.5 micron samples (PM{sub 2.5+}). Inorganic sulfides and elemental sulfur were present in lower percentages. The Ni XANES spectra from all of the samples agree fairly well with that of NiSO4, while most of the V spectra closely resemble that of vanadyl sulfate (VO{center_dot}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O). The other metals investigated (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were also present predominantly as sulfates. Arsenic is present as an arsenate (As{sup +5}). X-ray diffraction patterns of the PM{sub 2.5} fraction exhibit sharp lines due to sulfate compounds (Zn, V, Ni, Ca, etc.) superimposed on broad peaks due to amorphous carbons. All of the samples contain a significant organic component, with the LOI ranging from 64 to 87 % for the PM{sub 2.5} fraction and from 88 to 97% for the PM{sub 2.5+} fraction. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicates that the carbon is predominantly condensed in graphitic structures. Aliphatic structure was detected in only one of seven samples examined.

  18. Mass size distributions and size resolved chemical composition of fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Juan C.; Rees, Sarah; Takahama, Satoshi; Khlystov, Andrey; Pandis, Spyros N.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Robinson, Allen L.

    Size-resolved aerosol mass and chemical composition were measured during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Daily samples were collected for 12 months from July 2001 to June 2002. Micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) were used to collect aerosol samples of fine particulate matter smaller than 10 μm. Measurements of PM 0.056, PM 0.10, PM 0.18, PM 0.32, PM 0.56, PM 1.0, PM 1.8 and PM 2.5 with the MOUDI are available for the full study period. Seasonal variations in the concentrations are observed for all size cuts. Higher concentrations are observed during the summer and lower during the winter. Comparison between the PM 2.5 measurements by the MOUDI and other integrated PM samplers reveals good agreement. Good correlation is observed for PM 10 between the MOUDI and an integrated sampler but the MOUDI underestimates PM 10 by 20%. Bouncing of particles from higher stages of the MOUDI (>PM 2.5) is not a major problem because of the low concentrations of coarse particles in the area. The main cause of coarse particle losses appears to be losses to the wall of the MOUDI. Samples were collected on aluminum foils for analysis of carbonaceous material and on Teflon filters for analysis of particle mass and inorganic anions and cations. Daily samples were analyzed during the summer (July 2001) and the winter intensives (January 2002). During the summer around 50% of the organic material is lost from the aluminum foils as compared to a filter-based sampler. These losses are due to volatilization and bounce-off from the MOUDI stages. High nitrate losses from the MOUDI are also observed during the summer (above 70%). Good agreement between the gravimetrically determined mass and the sum of the masses of the individual compounds is obtained, if the lost mass from organics and the aerosol water content are included for the summer. For the winter no significant losses of material are detected and there exists reasonable agreement between the gravimetrical mass and the

  19. Water-soluble inorganic ions in airborne particulates from the nano to coarse mode: a case study of aerosol episodes in southern region of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Peng; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Kai-Lun; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-06-01

    In 2004, airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected for several aerosol episodes occurring in the southern region of Taiwan. The particulate samples were taken using both a MOUDI (Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a nano-MOUDI sampler. These particulate samples were analyzed for major water-soluble ionic species with an emphasis to characterize the mass concentrations and distributions of these ions in the ambient ultrafine (PM0.1, diameter particles. Particles collected at the sampling site (the Da-Liao station) on the whole exhibited a typical tri-modal size distribution on mass concentration. The mass concentration ratios of PMnano/PM2.5, PM0.1/PM2.5, and PM1/PM2.5 on average were 1.8, 2.9, and 71.0%, respectively. The peak mass concentration appeared in the submicron particle mode (0.1 microm Particles smaller than 0.1 microm were essentially basic, whereas those greater than 2.5 microm were neutral or slightly acidic. The neutralization ratio (NR) was close to unity for airborne particles with diameters ranging from 0.18 to 1 microm. The NRs of these airborne particles were found strongly correlated with their sizes, at least for samples taken during the aerosol episodes under study. Insofar as this study is exploratory in nature, as only a small number of particulate samples were used, there appears to be a need for further research into the chemical composition, source contribution, and formation of the nano and ultrafine mode airborne particulates.

  20. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products.

  1. The impact of particle size selective sampling methods on occupational assessment of airborne beryllium particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K

    2013-05-01

    In 2010, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) formally changed its Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for beryllium from a 'total' particulate sample to an inhalable particulate sample. This change may have important implications for workplace air sampling of beryllium. A history of particle size-selective sampling methods, with a special focus on beryllium, will be provided. The current state of the science on inhalable sampling will also be presented, including a look to the future at what new methods or technology may be on the horizon. This includes new sampling criteria focused on particle deposition in the lung, proposed changes to the existing inhalable convention, as well as how the issues facing beryllium sampling may help drive other changes in sampling technology.

  2. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  3. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  4. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of...

  5. Control strategies for the reduction of airborne particulate nitrate in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J.; Ying, Qi; Kaduwela, Ajith

    The effect of NO x, volatile organic compound (VOC), and NH 3 emissions control programs on the formation of particulate ammonium nitrate in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) was examined under the typical winter conditions that existed on 4-6 January, 1996. The UCD/CIT photochemical transport model was used for this study so that the source origin of primary particulate matter and secondary particulate matter could be identified. When averaged across the entire SJV, the model results predict that 13-18% of the reactive nitrogen (NO y=NO x+reaction products of NO x) emitted from local sources within the SJV was converted to nitrate at the ground level. Each gram of NO x emitted locally within the SJV (expressed as NO 2) produced 0.23-0.31 g of particulate ammonium nitrate (NH 4NO 3), which is much smaller than the maximum theoretical yield of 1.7 g of NH 4NO 3 per gram of NO 2. The fraction of reactive nitrogen converted to nitrate varied strongly as a function of location. Urban regions with large amounts of fresh NO emissions converted little reactive nitrogen to nitrate, while remote areas had up to 70% conversion (equivalent to approximately 1.2 g of NH 4NO 3 per gram of NO 2). The use of a single spatially averaged ratio of NH 4NO 3/NO x as a predictor of how changes to NO x emissions would affect particulate nitrate concentrations would not be accurate at all locations in the SJV under the conditions studied. The largest local sources of particulate nitrate in the SJV were predicted to be diesel engines and catalyst equipped gasoline engines under the conditions experienced on 6 January, 1996. Together, these sources accounted for less than half of the ground-level nitrate aerosol in the SJV. The remaining fraction of the aerosol nitrate originated from reactive nitrogen originally released upwind of the SJV. The majority of this upwind reactive nitrogen was already transformed to nitrate by the time it entered the SJV. The effect of local emissions controls on

  6. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  7. PAH in airborne particulate matter.. Carcinogenic character of PM10 samples and assessment of the energy generation impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, M.S.; Cruz, M.T. de la; Lopez, J.M.; Mastral, A.M. [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    One of the main anthropogenic sources producing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) is related to combustion processes especially transport, power generation processes and other industrial activities. Therefore, the main cities constitute one of the main pollution sources for population. Due to the carcinogenic character of some of these pollutants, Directive 2004/107/EC established a target value of 1.0 ng/m{sup 3} with regard to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for the total content in the particulate matter fraction averaged over a calendar year. Nevertheless, the consideration of only BaP can underestimate the carcinogenic character of the particulate matter. In this work, the carcinogenic character of the airborne PM10 of Zaragoza was studied during 2003-2004 by determining the concentration of BaP equivalents (BaP-eq), using toxic equivalent factors provided by Larsen and Larsen. Diagnostic ratios were used to discern regarding the main pollution sources in Zaragoza city in which the prevailing emission sources were related to diesel emissions and combustion sources. As PAH can travel long distances around the world, the impact of local pollution sources and long-range atmospheric transport on those samples exceeding 1.0 ng/m{sup 3} of BaP-eq that imply higher risk for human health were assessed by considering BaA/Chry and BaP/BeP ratios and by studying the origin of the air masses with the backward air trajectories according to the HYSPLIT model. Those samples were mainly produced during cold season. The local pollution sources were the dominant sources although one episode of long-range transport from European countries could be observed. (author)

  8. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durukan I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of air particulate matter (APM levels in the city were examined. In some stations, APM sampled in according to their size distribution such as PM10 and PM2.5. Elemental characterization of size distributed PM were achieved and evaluated. It was detected that the elements mainly originated from soil in Beytepe station, from soil and solid fuel usage in Kayas station and from traffic and a variety of human activities in Sıhhiye station in air samplings. While the elements of natural origin observed in PM10 fraction, the elements from traffic and human activities were in PM2.5. Eventually, enrichment calculations were performed in order to identify the pollution sources.

  9. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  10. Observations of the effect of atmospheric processes on the genotoxic potency of airborne particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between genotoxic potency and the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and nitro-PAH in urban and semi-rural air masses has been investigated. The Salmonella/microsome assay has been used as a measure of genotoxic...... potency. We find that the ratios of BaP/ mutagenicity and PAH/mutagenicity are highly variable. The processes responsible for the variation are formation and degradation of mutagens and transport of polluted air masses from heavily industrialized regions, Air masses from Central Europe are shown...... been used in the past as an indicator of the carcinogenic risk of airborne particles, it is suggested that the cancer risk of air pollution has to be re-evaluated....

  11. Cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion in Xuanwei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Cao, Jun-Ji; Ning, Zhi; Lee, S C; Ho, K F

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. A sample from the community with the highest mortality contained the highest total concentration of PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs and posed the highest excess cancer risk from a lifetime of inhaling fine particulates. Positive correlations between total carbonyl-OPAHs, total AZAs and total PAHs implied that the emissions were dependent on similar factors, regardless of sample location and type. The calculated cancer risk ranged from 5.23-10.7 × 10(-3), which is higher than the national average. The risk in each sample was ∼1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that deemed high risk, suggesting that the safety of these households is in jeopardy. The lack of potency equivalency factors for the PAH derivatives could possibly have underestimated the overall cancer risk.

  12. High time resolution observation and statistical analysis of atmospheric light extinction properties and the chemical speciation of fine particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years,the visibility deterioration caused by regional fine particulate pollution becomes one of the crucial air pollution problems in the urban areas of our country.The rapid variation of visibility and fine particulates make it difficult to estimate the relationship between them precisely and accurately unless high time resolution observation data can be accessed.This study aims to fill this gap in the field of atmospheric science by establishing a formula using multiple linear regressions.Excellent fitting goodness (R2=0.913,n=3167) was obtained using 10 min average of high-resolution real-time light scattering coefficients,light absorption coefficients,main chemical speciation concentration in PM1 and some meteorological parameters from 17 Jan to 16 Feb,2009.It shows that the average light extinction coefficient during the observation in the winter of Shenzhen was measured to be 290 ± 183 Mm?1,consisting of 72% of light scattering and 21% of absorption.In terms of the percentage contribution of PM1 chemical species to the total light extinction,the organic matter was estimated to be most with an average of 45%,followed by ammonium sulfate with an average of 24%.The contributions of black carbon and ammonium nitrate were 17% and 12%,respectively.Besides,the diurnal variation of light extinction was investigated as well in this study.

  13. Source analysis of fine and coarse particulate matter from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Torres, A.G.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The analyses of the different sources which can contribute to particulate matter (PM) emissions from livestock houses are essential to develop adequate reduction techniques. The aim of this study was to morphologically and chemically characterize several sources of PM from livestock houses. We colle

  14. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  15. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  16. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-03

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.

  17. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil -ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: heloisa@ulbra.br

    2008-01-15

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m{sup 3}/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis.

  18. In vitro alveolar cytotoxicity of soluble components of airborne particulate matter: effects of serum on toxicity of transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, C D; Riley, M R; Riley-Saxton, E

    2004-10-01

    Respiration of fossil fuel-derived airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to various pulmonary disorders. Transition metals contained in such PM, such as zinc, iron and vanadium, have been suggested as the primary culprits in PM-induced pulmonary distress by rat instillation studies. In this study, the cytotoxicity of zinc, iron, and vanadium on confluent monolayers of rat alveolar epithelial cells was evaluated as the inhibition of cellular succinate dehydrogenase metabolic activity as quantified via the MTT assay. In addition, the effect of culture medium serum concentration on the toxicities of these three metals was investigated. Of the three metals tested, zinc was the most toxic, with an EC50 of 0.6 mM in culture medium with 10% serum; vanadium and iron had EC50's of 3 and 4 mM, respectively. Serum in culture medium was found to substantially reduce the apparent toxicity of zinc: EC50's for zinc ranged from 0.6 mM in 10% serum to 0.1 mM in serum-free medium. Zinc toxicity analyses in various culture medium conditions demonstrated that the toxicity-reducing effect of serum was due largely and perhaps entirely, to serum albumin. Some, but not all of the effect of serum and albumin on zinc toxicity is apparently due to zinc-albumin binding.

  19. Characterization of chemical composition and concentration of fine particulate matter during a transit strike in Ottawa, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Luyi; Chan, Tak Wai; Ke, Fu; Wang, Daniel K. W.

    2014-06-01

    From December 10, 2008 to February 9, 2009, a strike stopped the public transit services in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. To understand the changes in air quality associated with the transit strike, the chemical composition and concentration of the fine particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), collected before, during, and after the transit strike period, were evaluated. The collected PM2.5 samples were analyzed to determine the particulate matter mass, the levels of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), as well as the particulate non-polar semi-volatiles, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes. Particle number size distributions measured during and after the transit strike period were also compared. Results indicated that during transit strike months, particle number size distributions were entirely dominated by nucleation mode particles leading to an increase in total particle number concentration by about 79%. In addition, particulate matter, organic carbon, and elemental carbon mass concentrations also increased by over 100%. The average total PAH levels during the strike months were higher by a factor of about 7. Elevated concentrations of high molecular weight PAHs (i.e., PAH with 5 and 6 rings) observed during the strike months suggested that there were more gasoline-powered vehicles on the roads over that period. The level of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene was higher by a factor of 5. Mass concentrations of hopanes and steranes were 30-98% higher during the strike months than non-strike months and exhibited strong correlations with EC suggesting the primary origin of these compounds. These results indicated that the increased traffic volume due to the passenger vehicles and the change in driving pattern during the transit strike period reduced the local air quality.

  20. Cleanroom airborne particulate limits and 70% isopropyl alcohol: a lingering problem for pharmaceutical manufacturing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Seventy percent isopropyl alcohol (70% IPA) in water for injection is extensively utilised within pharmaceutical cleanrooms for glove and surface disinfection. When supplied in pressurised containers and delivered as an aerosol, it has been demonstrated that large quantities of 70% IPA particles are generated that remain airborne for substantial periods of time. Within non-unidirectional airflow cleanroom areas, such particles are likely to be recorded by the particle monitoring system. Consequently, the derived operational limits for particles will almost certainly be at "artificially high" levels and any particle generating activities with contamination potential may be masked. These high particle levels may not comply with the requirements of Annex 1 of the European Unions Guide to Good Manufacturing Practices (EU GGMP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Aseptic Processing Guideline. This is the case predominantly for the larger particles (> or =5 microm), the monitoring of which is exclusively required by the Annex 1 guide. However, by using canisters that deliver the 70% IPA as a stream, large quantities of particles are not generated and more meaningful and compliant operational levels can be obtained. Additionally, the EU GGMP's Annex 1 continuing requirement to monitor particles > or =5 microm appears to have little value or scientific justification and restricts further harmonisation of the European guide with the US FDA Aseptic Processing Guideline.

  1. Analytical in vitro approach for studying cyto- and genotoxic effects of particulate airborne material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufderheide, Michaela; Scheffler, Stefanie; Möhle, Niklas; Halter, Beat; Hochrainer, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    In the field of inhalation toxicology, progress in the development of in vitro methods and efficient exposure strategies now offers the implementation of cellular-based systems. These can be used to analyze the hazardous potency of airborne substances like gases, particles, and complex mixtures (combustion products). In addition, the regulatory authorities require the integration of such approaches to reduce or replace animal experiments. Although the animal experiment currently still has to provide the last proof of the toxicological potency and classification of a certain compound, in vitro testing is gaining more and more importance in toxicological considerations. This paper gives a brief characterization of the CULTEX® Radial Flow System exposure device, which allows the exposure of cultivated cells as well as bacteria under reproducible and stable conditions for studying cellular and genotoxic effects after the exposure at the air-liquid or air-agar interface, respectively. A commercial bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) as well as Salmonella typhimurium tester strains were exposed to smoke of different research and commercial available cigarettes. A dose-dependent reduction of cell viability was found in the case of 16HBE14o- cells; S. typhimurium responded with a dose-dependent induction of revertants. The promising results recommend the integration of cellular studies in the field of inhalation toxicology and their regulatory acceptance by advancing appropriate validation studies.

  2. Dust storm contributions to airborne particulate matter in Reykjavík, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Gísladóttir, Guđrún; Bullard, Joanna; McTainsh, Grant

    2011-10-01

    Episodes of high levels of particulate matter (PM) in Reykjavík occur several times a year. The main sources of daily variation in PM are traffic or highly localized (e.g. construction) sources, however several episodes have been identified where these are not the cause. Examining PM10 (diameter 50-100 μg m-3; 30-min average), demonstrates that dust storms are the source of these increased levels of PM10. Since satellite coverage is sparse, visual confirmation of many such peaks in PM10 cannot be achieved. The level of pollution measured in Reykjavík during dust storms indicates that at least 200 kg s-1 of PM10 sized material is being eroded and transported away from sand plains ˜110 km away - this equates to an emission rate of 35 g m2 h-1. The source regions for dust storms in Iceland are the sandur areas on the southern coast of Iceland, and regions close to the glaciers. With climate warming, and fast retreating glaciers, the potential source regions in Iceland are rapidly increasing.

  3. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N [Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian, E-mail: umphsp@leeds.ac.u [Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research Division, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, The LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  4. A comparison between ceramic membrane filters and conventional fabric filters for fine particulate removal from a coal-fired industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Glick, D.C.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Drury, K. [Corning Inc., Painted Post, NY (United States); Makris [Corning Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Stubblefield, D.J. [Corning Inc., Corning, NY (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Penn State is developing technologies for ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuels, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) in industrial boilers. Emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Results from trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions testing, when firing coal-based fuels, are reported elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper discusses the evaluation of ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal in a package boiler when firing micronized coal and CWSF.

  5. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  6. Temperature-induced volatility of molecular markers in ambient airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Ruehl

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers are organic compounds used to represent known sources of particulate matter (PM in statistical source apportionment studies. The utility of molecular markers depends on, among other things, their ability to represent PM volatility under realistic atmospheric conditions. We measured the particle-phase concentrations and temperature-induced volatility of commonly-used molecular markers in California's heavily polluted San Joaqin Valley. Concentrations of elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were not reduced by mild (~10 K heating. In contrast, both hopane/sterane and n-alkane concentrations were reduced, especially during the summer sampling events at the urban site. These results suggest that hopanes and steranes have effective saturation concentrations ~1 μg m−3, and therefore can be considered semi-volatile in realistic ambient conditions. The volatility behavior of n-alkanes during the urban summer is consistent with that predicted for absorption by suberic acid (a C8 diacid using a group contribution modelling method. Observations can also be matched by an absorbent whose composition is based on recently-obtained high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer factors (approximately 33% "hydrocarbon-like" and 67% oxygenated organic aerosol. The diminished volatility of the n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes during rural and/or winter experiments could be explained by a more oxygenated absorbing phase along with a non-absorptive partitioning mechanism, such as adsorption to soot. This suggests that the temperature-induced volatility of large hydrocarbons in PM is most important if a relatively non-polar absorbing organic phase exists. While the activity coefficients of most organic aerosol compounds may be close to unity, the assumption of ideality for large hydrocarbons (e.g., hopanes may result in large errors in partitioning calculations.

  7. Assessing the performance of methods to detect and quantify African dust in airborne particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mar; Salvador, Pedro; Artíñano, Begoña; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Latz, Achim J; Cabañas, Mercè; Moreno, Teresa; García dos Santos, Saúl; Herce, María Dolores; Diez Hernández, Pablo; Romero García, Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía

    2010-12-01

    African dust (AD) contributions to particulate matter (PM) levels may be reported by Member States to the European Commission during justification of exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV). However, the detection and subsequent quantification of the AD contribution to PM levels is complex, and only two measurement-based methods are available in the literature: the Spanish-Portuguese reference method (SPR), and the Tel Aviv University method (TAU). In the present study, both methods were assessed. The SPR method was more conservative in the detection of episodes (71 days identified as AD by SPR, vs 81 by TAU), as it is less affected by interferences with local dust sources. The mean annual contribution of AD was lower with the TAU method than with SPR (2.7 vs 3.5 ± 1.5 μg/m(3)). The SPR and TAU AD time series were correlated with daily aluminum levels (a known tracer of AD), as well as with an AD source identified by the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Higher r(2) values were obtained with the SPR method than with TAU in both cases (r(2) = 0.72 vs 0.56, y = 0.05x vs y = 0.06x with aluminum levels; r(2)=0.79 vs 0.43, y = 0.8x vs y = 0.4x with the PMF source). We conclude that the SPR method is more adequate from an EU policy perspective (justification of DLV exceedances) due to the fact that it is more conservative than the TAU method. Based on our results, the TAU method requires adaptation of the thresholds in the algorithm to refine detection of low-impact episodes and avoid misclassification of local events as AD.

  8. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  9. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  10. Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Sørensen, M.; Hertel, Ole;

    2011-01-01

    (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15–23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9–27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant’s bedroom......, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM2.5 concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. Conclusions We identified several sources of fine PM in infants’ bedrooms...

  11. Chemical characteristics and causes of airborne particulate pollution in warm seasons in Wuhan, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiaopu; Chen, Nan; Guo, Hai; Zeng, Lewei; Zhang, Weihao; Shen, Fan; Quan, Jihong; Wang, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Continuous measurements of airborne particles and their chemical compositions were conducted in May, June, October, and November 2014 at an urban site in Wuhan, central China. The results indicate that particle concentrations remained at a relatively high level in Wuhan, with averages of 135.1 ± 4.4 (mean ± 95 % confidence interval) and 118.9 ± 3.7 µg m-3 for PM10 and 81.2 ± 2.6 and 85.3 ± 2.6 µg m-3 for PM2.5 in summer and autumn, respectively. Moreover, PM2.5 levels frequently exceeded the National Standard Level II (i.e., daily average of 75 µg m-3), and six PM2.5 episodes (i.e., daily PM2.5 averages above 75 µg m-3 for 3 or more consecutive days) were captured during the sampling campaign. Potassium was the most abundant element in PM2.5, with an average concentration of 2060.7 ± 82.3 ng m-3; this finding indicates intensive biomass burning in and around Wuhan during the study period, because almost no correlation was found between potassium and mineral elements (iron and calcium). The source apportionment results confirm that biomass burning was the main cause of episodes 1, 3, and 4, with contributions to PM2.5 of 46.6 % ± 3.0 %, 50.8 % ± 1.2 %, and 44.8 % ± 2.6%, respectively, whereas fugitive dust was the leading factor in episode 2. Episodes 5 and 6 resulted mainly from increases in vehicular emissions and secondary inorganic aerosols, and the mass and proportion of NO3- both peaked during episode 6. The high levels of NOx and NH3 and the low temperature during episode 6 were responsible for the increase of NO3-. Moreover, the formation of secondary organic carbon was found to be dominated by aromatics and isoprene in autumn, and the contribution of aromatics to secondary organic carbon increased during the episodes.

  12. 77 FR 1873 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Submittal III. Final Action IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Background On July 18, 1997 (62 FR... Area. Subsequently, on April 5, 2011 (76 FR 18650), EPA determined that the Rome Area attained the 1997... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine...

  13. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER--INSTITUTIONAL OIL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA seeks to understand the correlation between ambient fine PM and adverse human health effects, and there are no reliable emission factors to use for estimating PM2.5 or NH3. The most common source of directly emitted PM2.5 is incomplete combustion of fossil or biomass fuels. M...

  14. Temperature-induced volatility of molecular markers in ambient airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Ruehl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers are organic compounds used to represent known sources of particulate matter (PM in statistical source apportionment studies. The utility of molecular markers depends on, among other things, their ability to represent PM volatility under realistic atmospheric conditions. We measured the particle-phase concentrations and temperature-induced volatility of commonly-used molecular markers in California's heavily polluted San Joaqin Valley. Concentrations of elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were not reduced by mild (~10 K heating. In contrast, both hopane/sterane and n-alkane concentrations were reduced, especially during the summer sampling events at the urban site. These results suggest that hopanes and steranes have effective saturation concentrations ~1 μg m−3, and therefore can be considered semi-volatile. The volatility of an individual compound depends both on its inherent properties (primarily vapour pressure and the interactions between itself and any potential absorbing phase. The volatility behavior of n-alkanes during the urban summer is consistent with that predicted for absorption by suberic acid (a C8 diacid using a group contribution modelling method. Observations can also be matched by an absorbent whose composition is based on recently-obtained high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer factors (approximately 33% "hydrocarbon-like" and 67% oxygenated organic aerosol. The reduced evaporation of the n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes with mild heating during rural and/or winter experiments could be explained by a more oxygenated absorbing phase along with a non-absorptive partitioning mechanism, such as adsorption to soot. This suggests that the temperature-induced volatility of large hydrocarbons in PM is most important if a relatively non-polar absorbing organic phase exists. While the activity coefficients of most organic

  15. Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads, and Markers of Small Vessel Disease in a Memory Study Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with impaired cognitive function and vascular disease in older adults, but little is known about these associations among people with concerns about memory loss. Objective To examine associations between exposures to fine particulate matter and residential proximity to major roads and markers of small vessel disease. Methods From 2004—2010, 236 participants in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center Longitudinal Cohort participated in neuroimaging studies. Residential proximity to major roads and estimated 2003 residential annual average of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) were linked to measures of brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds. Associations were modeled using linear and logistic regression and adjusted for clinical and lifestyle factors. Results In this population (median age [interquartile range]=74[12], 57% female) living in a region with median 2003 PM2.5 annual average below the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, there were no associations between living closer to a major roadway or for a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and smaller BPF, greater WMH volume, or a higher odds of microbleeds. However, a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was associated with −0.19 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): −0.37, −0.005) lower natural log-transformed WMH volume. Other associations had wide confidence intervals. Conclusions In this population, where median 2003 estimated PM2.5 levels were below the current EPA standard, we observed no pattern of association between residential proximity to major roads or 2003 average PM2.5 and greater burden of small vessel disease or neurodegeneration. PMID:27372639

  16. Fine particulate matter source apportionment for the chemical speciation trends network site at Birmingham, Alabama, using positive matrix factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, K.; Jayanty, R.K.; Flanagan, J.B. [Research Triangle Institute International, NC (United States). Research Triangle Park

    2008-01-15

    The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model version 1.1 was used with data from the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Chemical Speciation Trends Network (STN) to estimate source contributions to ambient PM2.5 in a highly industrialized urban setting in the southeastern United States. Model results consistently resolved 10 factors that are interpreted as two secondary, five industrial, one motor vehicle, one road dust, and one biomass burning sources. It was found that most PMF factors did not cleanly represent single source types and instead are 'contaminated' by other sources. Secondary particulate matter formed by atmospheric processes, such as sulfate and secondary OC, contribute the majority of ambient PM2.5 and exhibit strong seasonality 37 {+-} 10% winter vs. 55 {+-} 16% summer average. Motor vehicle emissions constitute the biggest primary PM2.5 mass contribution. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of the EC tracer method to effectively blank-correct the OC concentrations in the STN dataset. In addition, examination of the effect of input uncertainty estimates on model results indicates that the estimated uncertainties currently being provided with the STN data may be somewhat lower than the levels needed for optimum modeling results. An appendix , available to members on the website www.awma lists stationary sources of PM2.5 within 10 km of the NHBM site and PM2.5 emissions greater than 1 ton per year. 71 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Lung-Chi [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM{sub 10} and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM{sub 10} collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM{sub 10} exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  18. Oxidative stress-induced telomeric erosion as a mechanism underlying airborne particulate matter-related cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particulate matter (PM pollution is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, the majority due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. While many potential pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, there is not yet a consensus as to which are most important in causing pollution-related morbidity/mortality. Nor is there consensus regarding which specific types of PM are most likely to affect public health in this regard. One toxicological mechanism linking exposure to airborne PM with CVD outcomes is oxidative stress, a contributor to the development of CVD risk factors including atherosclerosis. Recent work suggests that accelerated shortening of telomeres and, thus, early senescence of cells may be an important pathway by which oxidative stress may accelerate biological aging and the resultant development of age-related morbidity. This pathway may explain a significant proportion of PM-related adverse health outcomes, since shortened telomeres accelerate the progression of many diseases. There is limited but consistent evidence that vehicular emissions produce oxidative stress in humans. Given that oxidative stress is associated with accelerated erosion of telomeres, and that shortened telomeres are linked with acceleration of biological ageing and greater incidence of various age-related pathology, including CVD, it is hypothesized that associations noted between certain pollution types and sources and oxidative stress may reflect a mechanism by which these pollutants result in CVD-related morbidity and mortality, namely accelerated aging via enhanced erosion of telomeres. This paper reviews the literature providing links among oxidative stress, accelerated erosion of telomeres, CVD, and specific sources and types of air pollutants. If certain PM species/sources might be responsible for adverse health outcomes via the proposed mechanism, perhaps the pathway to reducing mortality/morbidity from PM would become clearer

  19. Airborne agricultural particulate matter induces inflammatory cytokine secretion by respiratory epithelial cells: mechanisms of regulation by eicosanoid lipid signal mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malireddy, Smitha; Lawson, Courtney; Steinhour, Emily; Hart, Judy; Kotha, Sainath R; Patel, Rishi B; Zhao, Lingying; Wilkins, John R; Marsh, Clay B; Magalang, Ulysses J; Romberger, Debra; Wewers, Mark D; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the airborne poultry dust (particulate matter, PM)-induced respiratory tract inflammation, a common symptom in agricultural respiratory diseases. The study was based on the hypothesis that poultry PM would induce the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by respiratory epithelial cells under the upstream regulation by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activation and subsequent formation of cyclooxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalyzed arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites (eicosanoids). Human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture were treated with the poultry PM (0.1-1.0 mg) for different lengths of time, following which PLA2 activity, release of eicosanoids and secretion of IL-8 in cells were determined. Poultry PM (1.0 mg/ml) caused a significant activation of PLA2 in a time-dependent manner (15-60 min), which was significantly attenuated by the calcium-chelating agents, cPLA2-specific inhibitor (AACOCF3) and antioxidant (vitamin C) in A549 cells. Poultry PM also significantly induced the release of COX- and LOX-catalyzed eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxane A2 and leukotrienes B4 and C4) and upstream activation of AA LOX in the cells. Poultry PM also significantly induced release of IL-8 by the cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly attenuated by the calcium chelating agents, antioxidants and COX- and LOX-specific inhibitors. The current study for the first time revealed that the poultry PM-induced IL-8 release from the respiratory epithelial cells was regulated upstream by reactive oxygen species, cPLA2-, COX- and LOX-derived eicosanoid lipid signal mediators.

  20. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

    2014-01-01

    Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  1. Chemical compositions of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Chinese cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2007-01-01

    Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou.

  2. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  3. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  4. Airborne particulates. European directives and standardization; Matieres particulaires dans l`air ambiant directives europeennes et normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdret, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 59 - Douai (France)

    1996-12-31

    The development of future European directives concerning atmospheric dusts and particulates, organization of the in-charge committee, measurement requirements and limit value determination processes are presented. Various measuring methods and instruments used for particulate and aerosol measurements are reviewed

  5. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celo V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs, in particular platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rh, from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM is important for the estimation of potential risks to human health and to the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to present the first results from an analysis on the concentration and distribution of Pt, Pd and Rh in PM collected on Teflon filters at two selected urban sites (Toronto, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta collected within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network. In this work, a quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, combined with microwave assisted acid digestion using aqua regia was used. A cation exchange separation was used to alleviate the matrix-induced spectral and nonspectral interferences prior to ICP-MS analysis. To obtain sufficient material needed for PGEs analysis, fine PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm; PM2.5 and coarse PM (with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 mm; PM10-2.5 samples were combined into composite samples on a seasonal basis. The obtained results will be discussed and compared with literature data.

  6. The complementarity of PIXE and PIGE techniques: A case study of size segregated airborne particulates collected from a Nigeria city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, G C; Obioh, I B; Asubiojo, O I; Chiari, M; Nava, S; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F; Nuviadenu, C

    2015-09-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique is a reliable ion beam analytical tool for the characterization of thin aerosol samples, but it can underestimate the lightest measurable elements (such as Na, Mg, Al and Si) owing to the absorption of their X-rays inside the sample. The Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) technique could be employed as avalid means to determine corrections for such an effect. Hence, in this study, Fine (PM(2.5)) and Coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter samples collected at Ikeja, Lagos-Nigeria, using a double staged 'Gent' stacked sampler were analyzed for their elemental concentrations using an external beam set-up for simultaneous PIXE and PIGE measurements. The measured PIXE concentrations as well as the PIGE correction factors for Na and Al detected in the PM(10-2.5) samples (collected on polycarbonate Nuclepore membranes) are reported. The concentrations of 24 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs and Pb) detected in both fractions were displayed, discussed and likely sources of these elements were also identified.

  7. A novel methodology for determining low-cost fine particulate matter street sweeping routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carola A; Beghelli, Alejandra; Meneses, Veronica P

    2012-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of low-cost PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter arc routing problem into a node routing problem is proposed in this paper. This is accomplished by building a graph that represents the area to sweep in such a way that the problem can be solved by applying any known solution to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). As a way of illustration, the proposed method was applied to the northeast area of the Municipality of Santiago (Chile). Results show that the proposed methodology achieved up to 37% savings in kilometers traveled by the sweeping vehicle when compared to the solution obtained by solving the TSP problem with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)--aware tools.

  8. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminassab, S.; Daher, N.; Saffari, A.; Wang, D.; Ostro, B. D.; Sioutas, C.

    2014-11-01

    To identify major sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5, dp Simi Valley, Bakersfield, Fresno, San Jose, and Sacramento. Between five to nine sources of fine PM were identified at each sampling site, several of which were common among multiple locations. Secondary aerosols, including secondary ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were the most abundant contributor to ambient PM2.5 mass at all sampling sites, except for San Jose, with an annual average cumulative contribution of 26 to 63%, across the state. On an annual average basis, vehicular emissions (including both diesel and gasoline vehicles) were the largest primary source of fine PM at all sampling sites in southern California (17-18% of total mass), whereas in Fresno and San Jose, biomass burning was the most dominant primary contributor to ambient PM2.5 (27 and 35% of total mass, respectively), in general agreement with the results of previous source apportionment studies in California. In Bakersfield and Sacramento, vehicular emissions and biomass burning displayed relatively equal annual contributions to ambient PM2.5 mass (12 and 25%, respectively). Other commonly identified sources at all sites included aged and fresh sea salt and soil, which contributed to 0.5-13%, 2-27%, and 1-19% of the total mass, respectively, across all sites and seasons. In addition, a few minor sources were identified exclusively at some of the sites (e.g., chlorine sources, sulfate-bearing road dust, and different types of industrial emissions). These sources overall accounted for a small fraction of the total PM mass across the sampling locations (1 to 15%, on an annual average basis).

  10. In-depth compositional analysis of water-soluble and -insoluble organic substances in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles using ultra-high-resolution 15T FT-ICR MS and GC×GC-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Hoon; Ryu, Jijeong; Jeon, Sodam; Seo, Jungju; Yang, Yung-Hun; Pack, Seung Pil; Choung, Sungwook; Jang, Kyoung-Soon

    2017-03-05

    Airborne particulate matter consisting of ionic species, salts, heavy metals and carbonaceous material is one of the most serious environmental pollutants owing to its impacts on the environment and human health. Although elemental and organic carbon compounds are known to be major components of aerosols, information on the elemental composition of particulate matter remains limited because of the broad range of compounds involved and the limits of analytical instruments. In this study, we investigated water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles collected during winter in Korea to better understand the elemental compositions and distributions of these compounds. To collect ultra-high-resolution mass profiles, we analyzed water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds, extracted with water and dichloromethane, respectively, using an ultra-high-resolution 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (15T FT-ICR) mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (via both electrospray ionization [ESI] and atmospheric pressure photoionization [APPI] for water-extracts and via APPI for dichloromethane-extracts). In conjunction with the FT-ICR mass spectrometry (MS) data, subsequent two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data were used to identify potentially hazardous organic components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This analysis provided information on the sources of ambient particles collected during winter season and partial evidence of contributions to the acidity of organic content in PM2.5 particles. The compositional and structural features of water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds from PM2.5 particles are important for understanding the potential impacts of aerosol-carried organic substances on human health and global ecosystems in future toxicological studies.

  11. Seasonal trends in the composition and ROS activity of fine particulate matter in Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Samera Hussein; Shafer, Martin Merrill; Kadhim, Ahmed K. H.; Al-Omran, Sabah M.; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Baghdad suffers from severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution and has limited infrastructure to monitor and control PM-pollution. To help better understand the nature of particulate matter in Baghdad, daily PM2.5 samples were collected every 6th day from September, 2012 to September, 2013. The samples were analyzed for chemical composition and cellular oxidative stress activity using a macrophage-based assay. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50 ± 19 μg m-3, and was comprised of approximately 28% crustal materials, 26% organic carbon (OC), 17% sulfate, 12% elemental carbon (EC), and 8.0% ammonium ion. No clear seasonal trend was observed for the total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 OC, but EC exhibited higher concentrations in the warmer months, likely due to the extensive use of electric generators operated by diesel and gasoline for cooling. April showed the lowest levels of both EC and OC compared with other months due to both sand and rainstorm events which led to increased deposition and dispersion of local emissions. Concentrations of nitrate ion were low in all seasons due to the high temperatures and low humidity, but slightly higher levels were observed in the cooler months of winter. The oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) activity (59 ± 35 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3) of the PM was relatively lower than in other studied areas. Association between the water soluble PM constituents and the oxidative activity was investigated using a multi-linear regression model which showed no strong relationships between ROS activity and the water soluble components of PM2.5, but a moderate correlation of water soluble organic carbon from biomass burning (WSOC-BB) was observed (R2 = 0.52). Biomass burning PM has been shown to be an important contributor to ROS activity in other published studies, but additional work is needed to better understand the sources leading to the ROS activity in Baghdad.

  12. The fine and coarse particulate matter at four major Mediterranean cities: local and regional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2013-11-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with adverse health effects to the population exposed. The aim of this paper is the identification of local and regional sources, affecting PM10 and PM2.5 levels in four large cities of southern Europe, namely: Lisbon, Madrid, Marseille, and Rome. Air pollution data from seven sampling sites of the European Union network were used. These stations were selected due to their ability of monitoring PM2.5 concentrations and providing reliable series of data. Each station's background was also taken into account. Pearson correlation coefficients and primal component analysis components were extracted separately for cold and warm periods in order to define the relationships among particle matters (PMs) and gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and evaluate the contributions of local sources. Possible seasonal variations of PM2.5/PM10 ratio daily values were also used as markers of PM sources, influencing particulate size distribution. Particle emissions were primarily attributed to traffic and secondarily to natural sources. Minimum daily values of PM2.5/PM10 ratio were observed during warm periods, particularly at suburban stations with rural background, due to dust resuspension and also due to the increase of biogenic coarse PM (pollen, dust, etc.). Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model trajectory model was used in order to compute the 4-day backward trajectories of the air masses that affected the four cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances, within a 5-year period (2003-2007), at 300, 750, and 1,500 m above ground level (AGL). The trajectories were then divided to clusters with a K-means analysis. In all four cities, the influence of slow-moving air masses was associated with a large fraction of PM10 exceedances and with high average and maximum daily mean PM10 concentrations, principally at the 300 m AGL analysis. As far the issue of the increased PM10 concentrations

  13. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  14. FINE PARTICLE EXPOSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED VENTRICULAR REPOLARIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has previously been associated with cardiac events, especially in older people with cardiovascular disease and in diabetics. This study examined the cardiac effects of short-term exposures to ambient PM2.5 in a prospective pane...

  15. A pilot study to assess effects of long-term inhalation of airborne particulate matter on early Alzheimer-like changes in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Dhaval P; Puig, Kendra L; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E; Combs, Colin K

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter, results in activation of the brain inflammatory response and Alzheimer disease (AD)-like pathology in dogs and humans. However, the length of time required for inhalation of ambient particulate matter to influence brain inflammation and AD pathology is less clear. Here, we studied the effect of 3 and 9 months of air particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure on brain inflammatory phenotype and pathological hallmarks of AD in C57BL/6 mice. Using western blot, ELISA, and cytokine array analysis we quantified brain APP, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE), oligomeric protein, total Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine-modified proteins, HNE-Michael adducts, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), glial markers (GFAP, Iba-1), pre- and post- synaptic markers (synaptophysin and PSD-95), cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) levels, and the cytokine profile in PM2.5 exposed and filtered air control mice. Only 9 month PM2.5 exposure increased BACE protein levels, APP processing, and Aβ 1-40 levels. This correlated with a concomitant increase in COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels and a modest alteration in the cytokine profile. These data support the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to airborne particulate matter has the potential to alter brain inflammatory phenotype and promote development of early AD-like pathology.

  16. A pilot study to assess effects of long-term inhalation of airborne particulate matter on early Alzheimer-like changes in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval P Bhatt

    Full Text Available Exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter, results in activation of the brain inflammatory response and Alzheimer disease (AD-like pathology in dogs and humans. However, the length of time required for inhalation of ambient particulate matter to influence brain inflammation and AD pathology is less clear. Here, we studied the effect of 3 and 9 months of air particulate matter (<2.5 μm diameter, PM2.5 exposure on brain inflammatory phenotype and pathological hallmarks of AD in C57BL/6 mice. Using western blot, ELISA, and cytokine array analysis we quantified brain APP, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE, oligomeric protein, total Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitrotyrosine-modified proteins, HNE-Michael adducts, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, glial markers (GFAP, Iba-1, pre- and post- synaptic markers (synaptophysin and PSD-95, cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2 levels, and the cytokine profile in PM2.5 exposed and filtered air control mice. Only 9 month PM2.5 exposure increased BACE protein levels, APP processing, and Aβ 1-40 levels. This correlated with a concomitant increase in COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels and a modest alteration in the cytokine profile. These data support the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to airborne particulate matter has the potential to alter brain inflammatory phenotype and promote development of early AD-like pathology.

  17. New chemical tracers for diesel source emission apportionment in ambient fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charland, J.P.; Caravaggio, G.; MacDonald, P.; MacPhee, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Graham, L.A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Hopanes and steranes are petroleum biomarkers that are commonly used in chemical mass balance (CMB)studies to determine the source of organic carbon from motor vehicle exhaust. Hopanes and steranes are found in engine lubricating oil and trace amounts are released during engine combustion. Since lubricating oils are used in both gasoline and diesel engines, the distribution and abundance of these biomarkers relative to organic carbon (OC) in exhaust particulate matter (PM) cannot be used to distinguish between these sources. The purpose of this study was to find molecular markers specific to diesel fuel that can be used to assess the contribution of diesel vehicles exhaust to ambient PM. PM filter samples were collected from gasoline and diesel vehicles. At the same time, samples of fresh and used engine specific lubricating oils were also collected along with gasoline and diesel fuel for organic speciation. Thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze all samples. Ambient air PM samples were also collected and analyzed for the presence of these newly proposed tracers. It was concluded that the detection of bicycloparaffins in PM can provide new insight into diesel emissions and help determine pollution sources.

  18. Fine particulate emissions of internal combustion engines; Feinpartikel-Emissionen von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, A. [TTM Technik Thermische Maschinen, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    2000-06-01

    The contribution presents data on particulate emissions of road vehicles, e.g. emission factors, scattering ranges, grain sizes, constituents. Spark ignition engines, diesel engines, four-stroke gas engines and two-stroke spark ignition engines are considered. Abrasion of brakes and tyres is mentioned as well as the effects on human lungs. Standardisation efforts so far are mentioned in the contribution. [German] Im Beitrag wird zunaechst der Begriff 'Feinpartikel' definiert. Das heisst, wie fein sind die Feinpartikel, welche Eigenschaften sie haben und warum sie im vorliegenden Zusammenhang von zunehmender Bedeutung sind. Partikel treten entsprechend ihrem Entstehungsprozess bevorzugt in drei Bereichen auf. Man spricht haeufig von drei-modalen-Verteilung: Nuklei-Modus, Akkumulations-Modus, Grobpartikel. Im Beitrag werden Zahlenwertangaben ueber die Partikelemissionen des Strassenverkehrs gemacht, etwa wie: Emissionsfaktoren, Streubereiche, Korngroessen und Inhaltsstoffe. Betrachtet werden die Motorentypen: Otto-, Diesel- und Otto-Gasmotor (Viertakter), sowie Zweitakt-Ottomotoren. Darueber hinaus werden Brems- und Reifenabriebe sowie Partikel aus Kupplungsverschleiss detailliert angesprochen. Der Mechanismus der Auswirkungen auf die menschliche Lunge wird ausfuehrlich erklaert. Erste Ansaetze zur Standardisierung der Feinpartikelemission haben sich mit Ruecksicht auf die gesundheitlichen Wirkungen bereits entwickelt und werden im Beitrag erwaehnt. (AFK)

  19. Simulating the fine and coarse inorganic particulate matter concentrations in a polluted megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, Vlassis A.; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Fountoukis, Christos; Nenes, Athanasios; Zavala, Miguel; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa T.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2010-02-01

    A three dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) is applied to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to simulate the chemical composition and mass of the major PM 1 (fine) and PM 1-10 (coarse) inorganic components and determine the effect of mineral dust on their formation. The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II is used to explicitly simulate the effect of Ca, Mg, and K from dust on semi-volatile partitioning and water uptake. The hybrid approach is applied to simulate the inorganic components, assuming that the smallest particles are in thermodynamic equilibrium, while describing the mass transfer to and from the larger ones. The official MCMA 2004 emissions inventory with improved dust and NaCl emissions is used. The comparison between the model predictions and measurements during a week of April of 2003 at Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental (CENICA) "Supersite" shows that the model reproduces reasonably well the fine mode composition and its diurnal variation. Sulfate predicted levels are relatively uniform in the area (approximately 3 μg m -3), while ammonium nitrate peaks in Mexico City (approximately 7 μg m -3) and its concentration rapidly decreases due to dilution and evaporation away from the urban area. In areas of high dust concentrations, the associated alkalinity is predicted to increase the concentration of nitrate, chloride and ammonium in the coarse mode by up to 2 μg m -3 (a factor of 10), 0.4 μg m -3, and 0.6 μg m -3 (75%), respectively. The predicted ammonium nitrate levels inside Mexico City for this period are sensitive to the physical state (solid versus liquid) of the particles during periods with RH less than 50%.

  20. Stable isotope measurements of carbon fractions (OC/EC) in airborne particulate: A new dimension for source characterization and apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Brook, J. R.; Zhang, W.; Li, S. M.; Graham, L.; Ernst, D.; Chivulescu, A.; Lu, G.

    A method to measure 13C/ 12C ratios of individual carbon fractions of airborne particular matter (PM) from filter samples using a stepwise thermal desorption/combustion OC/EC analyzer (via thermal optical transmission, (TOT) coupled with gas chromatography separation, followed by isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) analysis has been developed. In the TOT instrument, carbon fractions are released at different temperature ranges and different redox conditions. Organic carbon fraction (OC) was released at a relatively low temperature ( T=550 °C), whereas, elemental carbon or black carbon fraction (EC or BC) was released at a high temperature ( T>800 °C) via combustion. A temperature step of 870 °C without oxygen was chosen to remove the impact of carbonate carbon (CC) and possible cross-impact from OC and EC. All the fractions were collected cryogenically and subject to carbon isotope measurements via GC-IRMS. To evaluate the precision, accuracy and linearity range of the measurements, the different types of blanks and standards were investigated, including OC (i.e. glucose, sucrose, n-Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), CC (i.e. carbonates) and EC (i.e. carbon black and graphite). The overall precision and the accuracy of the method is ˜0.3‰. The method was applied to Pacific2001 aerosol samples from the Greater Vancouver area in Canada. The results show that good baseline separations in thermographs can be achieved for individual carbon fractions (i.e. OC and EC) using optimized temperature plateau and retention times; relative small difference in carbon isotopic composition between OC and EC ( ΔC=δ13C-δ13C) were found in tunnel samples, whereas, the largest Δ 13C OC-EC were obtained in forest air samples; the Δ 13C OC-EC in ambient PM is likely dependant upon the dominant sources present in the vicinity of the sampling sites; the distribution of 13C/ 12C ratios of OC/EC can provide useful information for source characterization

  1. Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Lung Function among Healthy College Students in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient fine particulate matter (PM has been associated with impaired lung function, but the effect of temperature on lung function and the potential interaction effect between PM and temperature remain uncertain. To estimate the short-term effects of PM2.5 combined with temperature on lung function, we measured the daily peak expiratory flow (PEF in a panel of 37 healthy college students in four different seasons. Meanwhile, we also monitored daily concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm, ambient temperature and relative humidity of the study area, where the study participants lived and attended school. Associations of air pollutants and temperature with lung function were assessed by generalized estimating equations (GEEs. A 10 μg/m3 increase of indoor PM2.5 was associated with a change of −2.09 L/min in evening PEF (95%CI: −3.73 L/min–−0.51 L/min after adjusting for season, height, gender, temperature and relative humidity. The changes of −2.17 L/min (95%CI: −3.81 L/min– −0.52 L/min and −2.18 L/min (95%CI: −3.96 L/min–−0.41 L/min in evening PEF were also observed after adjusting for outdoor SO2 and NO2 measured by Environmental Monitoring Center 3 kilometers away, respectively. An increase in ambient temperature was found to be associated with a decrease in lung function and our results revealed a small but significant antagonistic interactive effect between PM2.5 and temperature. Our findings suggest that ambient PM2.5 has an acute adverse effect on lung function in young healthy adults, and that temperature also plays an important role.

  2. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  3. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  4. Comparative toxicity of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter obtained from different cities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, M.I.; McGee, J.; Duvall, R.M.; Dailey, L.; Daniels, M.; Boykin, E.; Cho, S.H.; Doerfler, D.; Gordon, T.; Devlin, R.B. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Hundreds of epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with dose-dependent increases in morbidity and mortality. While early reports focused on PM less than 10 {mu}m (PM10), numerous studies have since shown that the effects can occur with PM stratified into ultrafine (UF), fine (FI), and coarse (CO) size modes despite the fact that these materials differ significantly in both evolution and chemistry. Furthermore the chemical makeup of these different size fractions can vary tremendously depending on location, meteorology, and source profile. For this reason, high-volume three-stage particle impactors with the capacity to collect UF, FI, and CO particles were deployed to four different locations in the United States (Seattle, WA; Salt Lake City, UT; Sterling Forest and South Bronx, NY), and weekly samples were collected for 1 mo in each place. The particles were extracted, assayed for a standardized battery of chemical components, and instilled into mouse lungs (female BALB/c) at doses of 25 and 100 {mu}g. Eighteen hours later animals were euthanized and parameters of injury and inflammation were monitored in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Of the four locations, the South Bronx coarse fraction was the most potent sample in both pulmonary and systemic biomarkers. Receptor source modeling on the PM2.5 samples showed that the South Bronx sample was heavily influenced by emissions from coal fired power plants (31%) and mobile sources (22%). Further studies will assess how source profiles correlate with the observed effects for all locations and size fractions.

  5. Airborne observation of aerosol optical depth during ARCTAS: vertical profiles, inter-comparison and fine-mode fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe aerosol optical depth (AOD measured during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS experiment, focusing on vertical profiles, inter-comparison with correlative observations and fine-mode fraction. Arctic haze observed in <2 km and 2–4 km over Alaska in April 2008 originated mainly from anthropogenic emission and biomass burning, respectively, according to aerosol mass spectrometry and black carbon incandescence measurements. The Ångström exponent for these air masses is 1.4 ± 0.3 and 1.7 ± 0.1, respectively, when derived at 499 nm from a second-order polynomial fit to the AOD spectra measured with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14 over 354–2139 nm. We examine 55 vertical profiles selected from all phases of the experiment. For two thirds of them, the AOD spectra are within 3% + 0.02 of the vertical integral of local visible-light scattering and absorption. The horizontal structure of smoke plumes from local biomass burning observed in central Canada in June and July 2008 explains most outliers. The differences in mid-visible Ångström exponent are <0.10 for 63% of the profiles with 499-nm AOD > 0.1. The retrieved fine-mode fraction of AOD is mostly between 0.7 and 1.0, and its root mean square difference (in both directions from column-integral submicron fraction (measured with nephelometers, absorption photometers and an impactor is 0.12. These AOD measurements from the NASA P-3 aircraft, after compensation for below-aircraft light attenuation by vertical extrapolation, mostly fall within ±0.02 of AERONET ground-based measurements between 340–1640 nm for five overpass events.

  6. Saccharide Composition in Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Soils in Central Arizona and Use of Saccharides as Molecular Markers for Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Clements, A.; Fraser, M.

    2009-04-01

    The desert southwestern United States routinely exceeds health-based standards for coarse particulate matter [1]. PM10 concentrations are high in both urban and rural areas and are believed to originate from fugitive dust emissions from agricultural fields and roads and soil erosion from the surrounding desert locations. Soil together with its associated biota contains a complex mixture of biogenic detritus, including plant detritus, airborne microbes comprised of bacteria, viruses, spores of lichens and fungi, small algae, and protozoan cysts [4][5], which can mostly become airborne when winds are strong enough and soil dry enough to be re-entrained into the atmosphere [3]. Other potential sources to PM10 may include primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), given a multitude of flower, grass, and fungal species that thrive in the Sonoran desert and actively release pollens and spores throughout the year [2]. However, because soil and fugitive dust is also believed to contain a large number of these biological particles and is considered as a secondary host of PBAPs [3] [4], the role and contribution of PBAPs as a direct ambient PM source in the desert southwest have not been clearly stated or investigated. In an effort to identify and assess the relative contribution of these and other major PM sources in the southwestern US region, and particularly to assess the contribution from soil and fugitive dust, a series of ambient PM samples and soil samples were collected in Higley, AZ, USA, a suburb of the Phoenix metropolitan area which has seen rapid urban sprawl onto agricultural lands. Because of their suggested ability to track biologically important organic materials from natural environment [4][6][7][8][9][10], saccharides were chosen as the key compounds to trace the release of soil dusts into the atmosphere, and to elucidate other major sources that contribute to the PM levels in this location in the arid southwestern US. To this end, saccharide compounds

  7. Combustion of dried animal dung as biofuel results in the generation of highly redox active fine particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Frank J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burning of biomass in the developing world for heating and cooking results in high indoor particle concentrations. Long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM has been associated with increased rates of acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive lung disease and cancer. In this study we determined the oxidative activity of combustion particles derived from the biomass fuel dung cake by examining their capacity to deplete antioxidants from a model human respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF. For comparison, the observed oxidative activity was compared with that of particles derived from industrial and vehicular sources. Results Incubation of the dung cake particle suspensions in the RTLF for 4 h resulted in a mean loss of ascorbate of 72.1 ± 0.7 and 89.7 ± 2.5% at 50 and 100 μg/ml, respectively. Reduced glutathione was depleted by 49.6 ± 4.3 and 63.5 ± 22.4% under the same conditions. The capacity of these samples to deplete ascorbate was in excess of that observed with diesel or gasoline particles, but comparable to that seen with residual oil fly ash and considerably in excess of all three control particles in terms of glutathione depletion. Co-incubation with the metal chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetate inhibited these losses, whilst minimal inhibition was seen with superoxide dismutase and catalase treatment. The majority of the activity observed appeared to be contained within aqueous particle extracts. Conclusion These data demonstrate that biomass derived particles have considerable oxidative activity, largely attributable to their transition metal content.

  8. Fine-scale estimation of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter concentrations in proximity to a road intersection by using wavelet neural network with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Feng; He, Hong-di; Lu, Qing-Chang; Wang, Dongsheng; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2015-03-01

    At road intersections, vehicles frequently stop with idling engines during the red-light period and speed up rapidly in the green-light period, which generates higher velocity fluctuation and thus higher emission rates. Additionally, the frequent changes of wind direction further add the highly variable dispersion of pollutants at the street scale. It is, therefore, very difficult to estimate the distribution of pollutant concentrations using conventional deterministic causal models. For this reason, a hybrid model combining wavelet neural network and genetic algorithm (GA-WNN) is proposed for predicting 5-min series of carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in proximity to an intersection. The proposed model is examined based on the measured data under two situations. As the measured pollutant concentrations are found to be dependent on the distance to the intersection, the model is evaluated in three locations respectively, i.e. 110 m, 330 m and 500 m. Due to the different variation of pollutant concentrations on varied time, the model is also evaluated in peak and off-peak traffic time periods separately. Additionally, the proposed model, together with the back-propagation neural network (BPNN), is examined with the measured data in these situations. The proposed model is found to perform better in predictability and precision for both CO and PM2.5 than BPNN does, implying that the hybrid model can be an effective tool to improve the accuracy of estimating pollutants' distribution pattern at intersections. The outputs of these findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed model to be applicable to forecast the distribution pattern of air pollution in real-time in proximity to road intersection.

  9. Fine particulate air pollution and its components in association with cause-specific emergency admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutrakis Petros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between exposure to particulate matter and health is well established, there remains uncertainty as to whether certain chemical components are more harmful than others. We explored whether the association between cause-specific hospital admissions and PM2.5 was modified by PM2.5 chemical composition. Methods We estimated the association between daily PM2.5 and emergency hospital admissions for cardiac causes (CVD, myocardial infarction (MI, congestive heart failure (CHF, respiratory disease, and diabetes in 26 US communities, for the years 2000-2003. Using meta-regression, we examined how this association was modified by season- and community-specific PM2.5 composition, controlling for seasonal temperature as a surrogate for ventilation. Results For a 10 μg/m3 increase in 2-day averaged PM2.5 concentration we found an increase of 1.89% (95% CI: 1.34- 2.45 in CVD, 2.25% (95% CI: 1.10- 3.42 in MI, 1.85% (95% CI: 1.19- 2.51 in CHF, 2.74% (95% CI: 1.30- 4.2 in diabetes, and 2.07% (95% CI: 1.20- 2.95 in respiratory admissions. The association between PM2.5 and CVD admissions was significantly modified when the mass was high in Br, Cr, Ni, and Na+, while mass high in As, Cr, Mn, OC, Ni, and Na+ modified MI, and mass high in As, OC, and SO42- modified diabetes admissions. For these species, an interquartile range increase in their relative proportion was associated with a 1-2% additional increase in daily admissions per 10 μg/m3 increase in mass. Conclusions We found that PM2.5 mass higher in Ni, As, and Cr, as well as Br and OC significantly increased its effect on hospital admissions. This result suggests that particles from industrial combustion sources and traffic may, on average, have greater toxicity.

  10. Transfer of fine sediments and particulate heavy metals in large river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ulrike; Reid, Lucas; Fuchs, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    For heavy metals and other particulate contaminants erosion is an important emission pathway into surface waters. Emissions via erosion can strongly vary depending on land use, morphology, erodibility of the soils and the heavy metal content in the topsoil layer of the source areas. A high spatial resolution of input data is thus necessary to identify hotspots of heavy metal emissions via erosion in large river basins. In addition a part of the suspended solid load which is emitted to surface waters from the catchment areas can be deposited in the river system during transportation. The retention of sediments mainly takes place in lakes, reservoirs and river barrages. Former modelling studies in large river basins of Germany revealed, that the observed suspended sediment loads at monitoring stations were strongly overestimated, if retention processes in the river system were neglected. The objective of this study was therefore to test whether the consideration of sedimentation rates in lakes, reservoirs and river barrages can improve the prediction of observed suspended sediment loads in large river basins. We choose the German/Austrian part of the Danube basin until Passau (77 156 km²) for this analysis, as the alpine tributaries in the South of the Danube basin deliver high annual sediment rates (i.e. Inn and Isar) which are not fully recovered at the monitoring stations located further upstream of the Danube due to retention processes. The sediment input was quantified for all tributaries and added up along the flow path of the river system. Due to the large scale, sediment production within the catchments was calculated using the USLE for cultivated land and naturally covered areas and specific erosion rates for alpine areas without vegetation cover. Sediment delivery was estimated using an approach based on the location of the sediment source areas in the catchments and the morphology on the way to the surface waters. The location of the lakes, reservoirs and

  11. The effects on bronchial epithelial mucociliary cultures of coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter from an underground railway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxham, Matthew; Morgan-Walsh, Rebecca J; Cooper, Matthew J; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick W; Howarth, Peter H; Cassee, Flemming R; Teagle, Damon A H; Palmer, Martin R; Davies, Donna E

    2015-05-01

    We have previously shown that underground railway particulate matter (PM) is rich in iron and other transition metals across coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5), and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) fractions and is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there is little knowledge of whether the metal-rich nature of such particles exerts toxic effects in mucus-covered airway epithelial cell cultures or whether there is an increased risk posed by the ultrafine fraction. Monolayer and mucociliary air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were exposed to size-fractionated underground railway PM (1.1-11.1 µg/cm(2)) and release of lactate dehydrogenase and IL-8 was assayed. ROS generation was measured, and the mechanism of generation studied using desferrioxamine (DFX) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was determined by RT-qPCR. Particle uptake was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Underground PM increased IL-8 release from PBECs, but this was diminished in mucus-secreting ALI cultures. Fine and ultrafine PM generated a greater level of ROS than coarse PM. ROS generation by ultrafine PM was ameliorated by DFX and NAC, suggesting an iron-dependent mechanism. Despite the presence of mucus, ALI cultures displayed increased HO-1 expression. Intracellular PM was observed within vesicles, mitochondria, and free in the cytosol. The results indicate that, although the mucous layer appears to confer some protection against underground PM, ALI PBECs nonetheless detect PM and mount an antioxidant response. The combination of increased ROS-generating ability of the metal-rich ultrafine fraction and ability of PM to penetrate the mucous layer merits further research.

  12. Development and characterization of metal-diboride-based composites toughened with ultra-fine SiC particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Frédéric; Bellosi, Alida

    2005-05-01

    Two metal-diboride-based ceramics containing up to 15 vol%. ultra-fine α-SiC particulates were developed from commercially available powders. The primary matrix of the composites was ZrB 2 or a mixture of ZrB 2 and HfB 2. With the assistance of 4.5 vol%. ZrN as a sintering aid, both the compositions achieved nearly full density after hot-pressing at 1,900 °C. The microstructure was characterized by fine diboride grains ( ≈3 μm average size) and SiC particles dispersed uniformly. Limited amounts of secondary phases like MO 2 and M(C,N), M=Zr or Zr/Hf, were found. The thermo-mechanical data of both the materials offered a promising combination of properties: about 16 GPa of micro-hardness, 5 MPa√ m of fracture toughness and Young's moduli exceeding 470 GPa. The ZrB 2sbnd SiC composite showed values of strength in air of 635 ± 60 and 175 ± 15 MPa at 25 and 1,500 °C, respectively. Likewise, the (ZrB 2 + HfB 2) sbnd SiC composite exhibited values of strength in air of 590 ± 25 and 190 ± 20 MPa at 25 and 1,500 °C, respectively. The composites also displayed good tolerance of conditions of repeated short exposures, 10 minutes each, at 1,700 °C in stagnant air. In such oxidizing conditions, the resistance to oxidation was provided by the formation of a protective silica-based glass coating, the primary oxidation product of SiC. Such a coating encapsulated the specimen coherently, and provided protection to the faces exposed to the hot atmosphere.

  13. Temporal and spatial distributions of summer-time ground-level fine particulate matters in Baltimore-DC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Greenwald, R.; Sarnat, J.; Hu, X.; Kewada, P.; Morales, Y.; Goldman, G.; Redman, J.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies have established a robust association between chronic exposure to ambient level fine particulate matters (PM2.5) and adverse health effects such as COPD, cardiorespiratory diseases, and premature death. Population exposure to PM2.5 has historically been estimated using ground measurements which are often sparse and unevenly distributed. There has been much interest as well as suspicion in both the air quality management and research communities regarding the value of satellite retrieved AOD as particle air pollution indicators. A critical step towards the future use of satellite aerosol products in air quality monitoring and management is to better understand the AOD-PM2.5 association. The existing EPA and IMPROVE networks are insufficient to validate AOD-estimated PM2.5 surface especially when higher resolution satellite products become available in the near future. As part of DISCOVER-AQ mission, we deployed 15 portable filter-based samplers alongside of ground-based sun photometers of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) in July 2011. Gravimetric analyses were conducted to estimate 24h PM2.5 mass concentrations, using Teflon filters and Personal Environmental Monitors (PEMs) operated at a flow rate of 4 LPM. Pre- and post-sampling filters were weighed at our weigh room laboratory facilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Our objectives are (1) to examine if AOD measured by ground-based sun-photometers with the support from ground-based lidars can provide the fine scale spatial heterogeneity observed by ground PM monitors, and (2) whether PM2.5 levels estimated by satellite AOD agree with this true PM2.5 surface. Study design, instrumentation, and preliminary results of measured PM2.5 spatial patterns in July 2011 will be presented as well as discussion of further data analysis and model development.

  14. Adverse effects of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingmei; Lin, Zhiqing; Liao, Kai; Xi, Zhuge; Wang, Dayong

    2015-04-15

    The toxic effects of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5), collected from Datong, Shanxi province, China, on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated. Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in deficits in development, reproduction, locomotion behavior, and lifespan, and induction of intestinal autofluorescence or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Prolonged exposure to PM2.5 led to more severe toxicity on nematodes than acute exposure. In addition, exposure to PM2.5 induced altered expression patterns of genes required for the control of oxidative stress. Reduction in mean defecation cycle length and developmental deficits in AVL and DVB neurons, which are involved in the control of defecation behavior, were also triggered by PM2.5 exposure. Thus, oxidative stress and abnormal defecation behavior may contribute greatly to the toxicity of coal combustion related PM2.5 in nematodes. The results also imply that the long-term adverse effects of coal combustion related PM2.5 on environmental organisms should be carefully considered.

  15. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2016-05-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  16. Dispersion of atmospheric fine particulate matters in simulated lung fluid and their effects on model cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuhua; Wang, Lixin; Cao, Zhaoyu; Zhou, Xuehua; Yang, Fan; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zhenhua; Hu, Jingtian; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected to investigate its dispersion in simulated lung fluid (SLF) and its interaction with model cell membranes. Organic acids, NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were detected in PM2.5 soluble fraction, and heavy metals were detected from the total mass. The insoluble fraction contained kaolinite, CaCO3, aliphatic carbons, aromatic rings, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups reflected by the infrared spectra. Proteins dispersed PM2.5 in SLF, resulted in smaller hydrodynamic diameter (dH) and slower sedimentation rate. Conversely, phospholipids increased dH value and accelerated sedimentation rate. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were used as model cell membranes. PM2.5 adhered on and disrupted the membrane containing positively-charged lipids but not the membrane containing neutrally- and negatively-charged lipids, which was monitored by microscopy and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The cationic sites on membrane were necessary for PM2.5 adhesion, but membrane should be disrupted by the combined action of electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds between PM2.5 oxygen containing groups and the lipid phosphate groups. Our results specified the roles of proteins and phospholipids in PM2.5 dispersion and transport, highly suggested that the health hazard of PM2.5 was related to the biomolecules in the lung fluid and the particle surface groups.

  17. Association of EGF Receptor and NLRs signaling with Cardiac Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice Exposed to Fine Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuefei; Wu, Zhaoke; Wang, Na; Duan, Shuyin; Wu, Yongjun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Weidong; Feng, Feifei

    2016-09-01

    ЄAmbient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) could induce cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the roles of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) in PM2.5 -induced cardiac injury, we set up a BALB/c mice model of PM2.5 -induced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis with intratracheal instillation of PM2.5 suspension (4.0 mg/kg b.w.) for 5 consecutive days (once per day). After exposure, we found that mRNA levels of CXCL1, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18 were elevated, but interestingly, mRNA level of NLRP12 was significant decreased in heart tissue from PM2.5 -induced mice compared with those of saline-treated mice using real-time PCR. Protein levels of phospho-EGFR (Tyr1068), phospho-Akt (Thr308), NLRP3, NF-κB-p52/p100, and NF-κB-p65 in heart tissue of PM2.5 -exposed mice were all significantly increased using immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. Therefore, PM2.5 exposure could induce cardiac inflammatory injury in mice, which may be involved with EGFR/Akt signaling, NLRP3, and NLRP12.

  18. Impact of natural gas development in the Marcellus and Utica shales on regional ozone and fine particulate matter levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani, Yusuf H.; Roy, Anirban A.; Heo, Jinhyok; Robinson, Allen L.; Adams, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    The Marcellus and Utica shale formations have recently been the focus of intense natural gas development and production, increasing regional air pollutant emissions. Here we examine the effects of these emissions on regional ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels using the chemical transport model, CAMx, and estimate the public health costs with BenMAP. Simulations were performed for three emissions scenarios for the year 2020 that span a range potential development storylines. In areas with the most gas development, the 'Medium Emissions' scenario, which corresponds to an intermediate level of development and widespread adoption of new equipment with lower emissions, is predicted to increase 8-hourly ozone design values by up to 2.5 ppbv and average annual PM2.5 concentrations by as much as 0.27 μg/m3. These impacts could range from as much as a factor of two higher to a factor of three lower depending on the level of development and the adoption of emission controls. Smaller impacts (e.g. 0.1-0.5 ppbv of ozone, depending on the emissions scenario) are predicted for non-attainment areas located downwind of the Marcellus region such as New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC. Premature deaths for the 'Medium Emissions' scenario are predicted to increase by 200-460 annually. The health impacts as well as the changes in ozone and PM2.5 were all driven primarily by NOx emissions.

  19. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2017-03-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered

  1. Hard Coal Fly Ash and Silica-Effect of Fine Particulate Matter Deposits on Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ulrichs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One focus in recent atmospheric pollution research is on fine Particle Matter (PM, especially as result of increasing traffic and anthropogenic activity in urban areas. Here, the impact on animal and human health has been in the center of many studies. Despite the fact that PM depositions can affect plants on the long term, there are only few studies about the impact on plants conducted. Approach: Therefore we studied the impact of PM on plants, using naturally occurring silica dusts (diatomaceous earth and hard Coal Fly Ash (CFA from burning processes. Dusts were applied onto Brassica chinensis L. using a simple duster (covering upper leaf surfaces or electrostatically (covering leaf upper and -underside. Results: Main components of the tested CFA are SO42-, K, Ca and NH4+. The pH value of eluates was found to be around 9.5 in CFA and 5.7 in silica. B. chinensis was insensitive towards the high pH and showed no growth reduction when grown in silica or CFA substrate. PM deposition on leaf surfaces results through shading in a reduced photosynthetic activity. The reduction is relatively higher at higher light intensities. Photosynthesis stays reduced after removal of silica PM from leaf surfaces. We assume that stomata get cloaked by small particles and that silica absorbs lipids from the epicuticle resulting in a general stress reaction. Smaller sized silica particles resulted in a higher reduction of CO2-absorption. Next to particle size is the photosynthesis negatively correlated with exposure time for silica PM. The chlorophyll fluorescence data indicate that dust-covered leaves exhibited significantly lower quantum yield of PS II and a reduced quantum efficiency of PS II and therefore supported the gas exchange data. Conclusion: Reduced photosynthetic performance would be expected to reduce growth and productivity of B. chinensis. In contrast to silica hard coal fly ash

  2. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10) and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Krzysztof

    2016-09-28

    Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm) has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old), obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health are necessary.

  3. Response of fine particulate matter concentrations to changes of emissions and temperature in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Megaritis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PMCAMx-2008, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, was applied in Europe to quantify the changes in fine particle (PM2.5 concentration in response to different emission reductions as well as to temperature increase. A summer and a winter simulation period were used, to investigate the seasonal dependence of the PM2.5 response to 50% reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, nitrogen oxides (NOx, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs and anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA emissions and also to temperature increases of 2.5 and 5 K. Reduction of NH3 emissions seems to be the most effective control strategy for reducing PM2.5, in both periods, resulting in a decrease of PM2.5 up to 5.1 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 (5.5% and 4% on average during summer and winter respectively, mainly due to reduction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 (20% on average in both periods. The reduction of SO2 emissions decreases PM2.5 in both periods having a significant effect over the Balkans (up to 1.6 μg m−3 during the modeled summer period, mainly due to decrease of sulfate (34% on average over the Balkans. The anthropogenic POA control strategy reduces total OA by 15% during the modeled winter period and 8% in the summer period. The reduction of total OA is higher in urban areas close to its emissions sources. A slight decrease of OA (8% in the modeled summer period and 4% in the modeled winter period is also predicted after a 50% reduction of VOCs emissions due to the decrease of anthropogenic SOA. The reduction of NOx emissions reduces PM2.5 (up to 3.4 μg m−3 during the summer period, due to a decrease of NH4NO3, causing although an increase of ozone concentration in major urban areas and over Western Europe. Additionally, the NOx control strategy actually increases PM2.5 levels during the winter period, due to more oxidants becoming available to react with SO2 and VOCs. The increase of temperature results in a decrease of PM2

  4. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a

  5. Fine (PM2.5), coarse (PM2.5-10), and metallic elements of suspended particulates for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Pi-Cheng Fu, Peter; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2003-06-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple (120 degrees, 34('), 10(") E; 24 degrees, 16('), 12(") N) in this study. This is representative of incense burning and semi-open sampling sites. The Universal-sampler collected fine and coarse particle material was used to measure suspended particulate concentrations, and sampling periods were from 16/08/2001 to 2/1/2002 at Tzu Yun Yen temple. In addition, metallic element concentrations, compositions of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple were also analyzed in this study. The PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios ranged between 31% and 87% and averaged 70+/-11% during incense the burning period, respectively. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Mn>Ni>Cu in fine particles (PM(2.5)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cd>Ni>Mn>Cu in coarse particle (PM(2.5-10)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. Fine particulates (PM(2.5)) are the main portion of PM(10) at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. From the point of view of PM(10), these data reflect that the elements Fe, Zn, and Cr were the major elements distributed at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study.

  6. Airborne observation of aerosol optical depth during ARCTAS: vertical profiles, inter-comparison, fine-mode fraction and horizontal variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe aerosol optical depth (AOD measured during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS experiment, conducted in North America in April and June–July 2008, focusing on vertical profiles, inter-comparison with correlative observations, fine-mode fraction and horizontal variability. The AOD spectra spanning 354–2139 nm measured with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14 are generally less wavelength-dependent below 2 km (499-nm Angstrom exponent 1.4 ± 0.3 than in 2–4 km (1.6–1.8 for Alaska in April 2008. Together with concurrent aerosol mass spectrometry and black carbon incandescence measurements, this corroborates the hypothesis that Arctic haze in these layers originates mainly from anthropogenic emission and biomass burning, respectively. The spectra are within 3%+0.02 of the vertical integral of local visible-light scattering and absorption for two thirds of the 55 vertical profiles examined. The horizontal structure of smoke plumes in central Canada in June and July 2008 explains most outliers. The differences in mid-visible Angstrom exponent are <0.10 for 63% of the profiles with 499-nm AOD>0.1. The retrieved fine-mode fraction of AOD is mostly between 0.7 and 1.0, and its root mean square difference from column-integral submicron fraction (measured with nephelometers, absorption photometers and an impactor is 0.12. These AOD measurements from the NASA P-3 aircraft, after compensation for below-aircraft light attenuation by vertical extrapolation, mostly fall within 0.02 of AERONET ground-based measurements for five overpass events. Evidently, the fresh local emission in Canada in June and July makes the horizontal distribution of AOD highly heterogeneous (standard deviation ~19% of the mean over 20 km and random (autocorrelation r=0.37 across 20 km, in contrast to long-range transport to Alaska in April (std~2%, r=0.95. The

  7. Seasonal variations of fine particulate organosulfates derived from biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the mid-Atlantic United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, L. Edward; Riva, Matthieu; Blomberg, Max Z.; Brock, Amanda K.; Qualters, Elisa Marie; Siejack, Richard A.; Ramakrishnan, Kumar; Surratt, Jason D.; Kautzman, Kathryn E.

    2016-11-01

    Organosulfates (OSs) are an important and ubiquitous class of organic compounds found in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that serves as markers for multiphase chemical processes leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In this study, high-volume filter sampling was implemented to collect PM2.5 samples during the August 2012-June 2013 time period in suburban Towson, MD. By utilizing ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry employing an electrospray ionization source (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS), 58 OSs were characterized and quantified in PM2.5 collected across all seasons. The selection of the extraction solvent was also found to be important for OS characterization. Seasonal trends demonstrate that the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dominates OS formation in early fall and spring, with substantial contributions from isoprene OS (∼15 ng/m3), and limonene and α-pinene OS (∼5 ng/m3). From November to March anthropogenic OSs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)- and alkane-derived OSs recently characterized in laboratory-generated SOA, reached their highest levels averaging 4 ng/m3. Nitrogen-containing OSs derived from terpene chemistry remain consistent over the sampling period averaging 2 ng/m3 and do not demonstrate strong seasonal fluctuations. Correlations between the identified OSs and known organic acids that arise from either the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic or anthropogenic VOCs assist in source apportionment. Meteorological data coupled with air mass back-trajectory analyses using HYSPLIT provide insight into meteorological and transport conditions that promote the formation/occurrence of OSs within the mid-Atlantic U.S. region.

  8. Exploring the uncertainty associated with satellite-based estimates of premature mortality due to exposure to fine particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Bonne; Heald, Colette L.

    2016-03-01

    The negative impacts of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure on human health are a primary motivator for air quality research. However, estimates of the air pollution health burden vary considerably and strongly depend on the data sets and methodology. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been widely used to overcome limited coverage from surface monitoring and to assess the global population exposure to PM2.5 and the associated premature mortality. Here we quantify the uncertainty in determining the burden of disease using this approach, discuss different methods and data sets, and explain sources of discrepancies among values in the literature. For this purpose we primarily use the MODIS satellite observations in concert with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We contrast results in the United States and China for the years 2004-2011. Using the Burnett et al. (2014) integrated exposure response function, we estimate that in the United States, exposure to PM2.5 accounts for approximately 2 % of total deaths compared to 14 % in China (using satellite-based exposure), which falls within the range of previous estimates. The difference in estimated mortality burden based solely on a global model vs. that derived from satellite is approximately 14 % for the US and 2 % for China on a nationwide basis, although regionally the differences can be much greater. This difference is overshadowed by the uncertainty in the methodology for deriving PM2.5 burden from satellite observations, which we quantify to be on the order of 20 % due to uncertainties in the AOD-to-surface-PM2.5 relationship, 10 % due to the satellite observational uncertainty, and 30 % or greater uncertainty associated with the application of concentration response functions to estimated exposure.

  9. Neighborhood social stressors, fine particulate matter air pollution, and cognitive function among older U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer; Karraker, Amelia; Clarke, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and poor cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults. We use data on 779 U.S. adults ages 55 and older from the 2001/2002 wave of the Americans' Changing Lives study. We determined annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2001 in the area of residence by linking respondents with EPA air monitoring data using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was measured using the number of errors on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Exposure to neighborhood social stressors was measured using perceptions of disorder and decay and included subjective evaluations of neighborhood upkeep and the presence of deteriorating/abandoned buildings, trash, and empty lots. We used negative binomial regression to examine the interaction of neighborhood perceived stress and PM2.5 on the count of errors on the cognitive function assessment. We found that the association between PM2.5 and cognitive errors was stronger among older adults living in high stress neighborhoods. These findings support recent theoretical developments in environmental health and health disparities research emphasizing the synergistic effects of neighborhood social stressors and environmental hazards on residents' health. Those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, where social stressors and environmental hazards are more common, may be particularly susceptible to adverse health effects of social and physical environmental

  10. Spatiotemporal modeling with temporal-invariant variogram subgroups to estimate fine particulate matter PM2.5 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Chang-Fu; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Short-term exposure estimation of daily air pollution levels incorporating geographic information system (GIS) into spatiotemporal modeling remains a great challenge for assessing corresponding acute adverse health effects. Due to daily meteorological effects on the dispersion of pollutants, explanatory spatial covariables and their coefficients may not be the same as in classical land-use regression (LUR) modeling for long-term exposure. In this paper, we propose a two-stage spatiotemporal model for daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration prediction: first, daily nonlinear temporal trends are estimated through a generalized additive model, and second, GIS covariates are used to predict spatial variation in the temporal trend-removed residuals. To account for spatial dependence on meteorological conditions, the dates of the study period are divided by the sill of the daily empirical variogram into approximately temporal-invariant subgroups. Within each subgroup, daily PM2.5 estimations are obtained by combining the temporal and spatial parts of the estimations from the two stages. The proposed method is applied to the modeling of spatiotemporal PM2.5 concentrations observed at 18 ambient air monitoring stations in Taipei metropolitan area during 2006-2008. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentrations decreased whereas the relative humidity and wind speed increased with the sill subgroups, which may be due to the effects of daily meteorological conditions on the dispersions of the particles. Also, the covariates and their coefficients of the LUR models varied with subgroups and had in general higher adjusted R-squares and smaller root mean square errors in prediction than those of a single overall LUR model.

  11. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fine Particulate Matter Mass and Chemical Composition: The Middle East Consortium for Aerosol Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Abdeen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 μg/m3, with an average of 28.7 μg/m3. Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 μg/m3 in the summer (April–June months compared to winter (October–December months (26.0 μg/m3 due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5 mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5 mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East.

  13. Effects of a changing climate on summertime fine particulate matter levels in the eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Melissa C.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2015-06-01

    The chemical transport model PMCAMx is used to examine the effect of climate change on fine (under 2.5 µms) particulate matter (PM2.5) during the summer in the eastern United States. Meteorology from 10 years in the 1990s (present) and 10 years in the 2050s (future) based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 scenario is used. Anthropogenic pollutant emissions are assumed to remain constant, while biogenic emissions are climate sensitive and, depending on species, increase between 15 and 27% on average. The predicted changes of PM2.5 are modest (increases of less than 10% on average across the domain) and quite variable in space, ranging from +13% in the Plains to -7% in the Northeast. Variability is driven concurrently by changes in temperature, wind speed, rainfall, and relative humidity, with no single dominant meteorological factor. Sulfate and organic aerosol are responsible for most of the PM2.5 change. The improved treatment of organic aerosol using the volatility basis set does not increase significantly its sensitivity to climate change compared to traditional treatments that neglect the volatility of primary particles and do not simulate the chemical aging processes. Future organic aerosol is predicted to be more oxidized due to increases of its secondary biogenic and anthropogenic components. These results suggest that the effects of planned and expected emission anthropogenic emission controls will be more important than those of climate change for PM2.5 concentrations in 2050. Maximum daily 8 h average ozone increases by 5% on average are predicted, with a marked increase in the Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest.

  14. The Effect of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Industrialization on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Wang, Shaojian; Sun, Siao

    2016-11-01

    Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China have led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011. The results showed that PM2.5 concentrations and three anthropogenic factors were cointegrated. The panel Fully Modified Least Squares and panel Granger causality test results indicated that economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization increased PM2.5 concentrations in the long run. The results implied that if China persists in its current development pattern, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization will inevitably lead to increased PM2.5 emissions in the long term. Industrialization was the principal factor that affected PM2.5 concentrations for the total panel, the industry-oriented panel and the service-oriented panel. PM2.5 concentrations can be reduced at the cost of short-term economic growth and industrialization. However, reducing the urbanization level is not an efficient way to decrease PM2.5 pollutions in the short term. The findings also suggest that a rapid reduction of PM2.5 concentrations relying solely on adjusting these anthropogenic factors is difficult in a short-term for the heavily PM2.5-polluted panel. Moreover, the Chinese government will have to seek much broader policies that favor a decoupling of these coupling relationships.

  15. Exploring the uncertainty associated with satellite-based estimates of premature mortality due to exposure to fine particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 exposure on human health are a primary motivator for air quality research. However, estimates of the air pollution health burden vary considerably and strongly depend on the datasets and methodology. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD have been widely used to overcome limited coverage from surface monitoring and to assess the global population exposure to PM2.5 and the associated premature mortality. Here we quantify the uncertainty in determining the burden of disease using this approach, discuss different methods and datasets, and explain sources of discrepancies among values in the literature. For this purpose we primarily use the MODIS satellite observations in concert with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We contrast results in the United States and China for the years 2004–2011. We estimate that in the United States, exposure to PM2.5 accounts for approximately 4 % of total deaths compared to 22 % in China (using satellite-based exposure, which falls within the range of previous estimates. The difference in estimated mortality burden based solely on a global model vs. that derived from satellite is approximately 9 % for the US and 4 % for China on a nationwide basis, although regionally the differences can be much greater. This difference is overshadowed by the uncertainty in the methodology for deriving PM2.5 burden from satellite observations, which we quantify to be on order of 20 % due to uncertainties in the AOD-to-surface-PM2.5 relationship, 10 % due to the satellite observational uncertainty, and 30 % or greater uncertainty associated with the application of concentration response functions to estimated exposure.

  16. Uncertainty in health risks due to anthropogenic primary fine particulate matter from different source types in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, M.; Tuomisto, J. T.; Pekkanen, J.; Karvosenoja, N.; Kupiainen, K.; Porvari, P.; Sofiev, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kangas, L.; Kukkonen, J.

    2010-06-01

    The emission-exposure and exposure-response (toxicity) relationships are different for different emission source categories of anthropogenic primary fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). These variations have a potentially crucial importance in the integrated assessment, when determining cost-effective abatement strategies. We studied the importance of these variations by conducting a sensitivity analysis for an integrated assessment model. The model was developed to estimate the adverse health effects to the Finnish population attributable to primary PM 2.5 emissions from the whole of Europe. The primary PM 2.5 emissions in the whole of Europe and in more detail in Finland were evaluated using the inventory of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario model (FRES), respectively. The emission-exposure relationships for different primary PM 2.5 emission source categories in Finland have been previously evaluated and these values incorporated as intake fractions into the integrated assessment model. The primary PM 2.5 exposure-response functions and toxicity differences for the pollution originating from different source categories were estimated in an expert elicitation study performed by six European experts on air pollution health effects. The primary PM 2.5 emissions from Finnish and other European sources were estimated for the population of Finland in 2000 to be responsible for 209 (mean, 95% confidence interval 6-739) and 357 (mean, 95% CI 8-1482) premature deaths, respectively. The inclusion of emission-exposure and toxicity variation into the model increased the predicted relative importance of traffic related primary PM 2.5 emissions and correspondingly, decreased the predicted relative importance of other emission source categories. We conclude that the variations of emission-exposure relationship and toxicity between various source categories had significant impacts for the assessment on premature

  17. Indoor-outdoor concentrations of fine particulate matter in school building microenvironments near a mine tailing deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality in school classrooms is a major pediatric health concern because children are highly susceptible to adverse effects from xenobiotic exposure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 emitted from mining waste deposits within and near cities in northern Chile is a serious environmental problem. We measured PM2.5 in school microenvironments in urban areas of Chañaral, a coastal community whose bay is contaminated with mine tailings. PM2.5 levels were measured in six indoor and outdoor school environments during the summer and winter of 2012 and 2013. Measurements were taken during school hours on two consecutive days. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were 12.53–72.38 μg/m3 in the summer and 21.85–100.53 μg/m3 in winter, while outdoor concentrations were 11.86–181.73 μg/m3 in the summer and 21.50–93.07 μg/m3 in winter. Indoor/outdoor ratios were 0.17–2.76 in the summer and 0.64–4.49 in winter. PM2.5 levels were higher in indoor microenvironments during the winter, at times exceeding national and international recommendations. Our results demonstrate that indoor air quality Chañaral school microenvironments is closely associated with outdoor air pollution attributable to the nearby mine tailings. Policymakers should enact environmental management strategies to minimize further environmental damage and mitigate the risks that this pollution poses for pediatric health.

  18. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  19. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Li; Travis Losser; Charles Yorke; Reinhard Piltner

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse dista...

  20. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclides due to the Fukushima reactors accident in air particulate in Milan (Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Sala, Elena

    2011-01-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on 11th March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that had been diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in air particulate due to this accident has been detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 \\mu Bq/m3 of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radionuclides were determined and some correlations with the original reactor releases were found. Radioactive contaminations ranging from a few to 400 \\mu Bq/m3 for the 131I and of a few tens of \\mu Bq/m3 for the 137Cs and 134Cs have been detected

  1. Effects of quartz, airborne particulates and fly ash fractions from a waste incinerator on elastase release by activated and nonactivated rabbit alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, H; Labedzka, M; Schmidt, N; Gercken, G

    1988-01-01

    Elastase release from cultured, activated and nonactivated rabbit alveolar macrophages (AM) was investigated after stimulation by different environmentally related mineral dusts (50-1000 micrograms/10(6) cells). Eight different dusts were analyzed for element contents and grain size: one rural and three urban airborne dusts, a coarse and a fine fraction of a sieved waste incinerator fly ash, a sonicated coarse fly ash fraction, and the standard quartz dust DQ 12. The fine fly ash fraction, the sonicated coarse fly ash fraction, and the quartz dust DQ 12 enhanced elastase release by activated AM. Only one of the tested airborne dusts effected a comparable elastase release. The untreated coarse fraction of the fly ash did not cause a significant increase of extracellular elastase activities. Elastase release was dependent on particle numbers and chemical composition and correlated best with barium and tin contents. Nonactivated AM released higher elastase activities than activated AM at low-dose levels. The possible role of dust-induced elastase secretion in the pathogenesis of emphysema is discussed.

  2. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  3. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration.

  4. Quantitative real-time monitoring of multi-elements in airborne particulates by direct introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Sato, Hikaru; Hiyoshi, Katsuhiro; Furuta, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    A new calibration system for real-time determination of trace elements in airborne particulates was developed. Airborne particulates were directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the concentrations of 15 trace elements were determined by means of an external calibration method. External standard solutions were nebulized by an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) coupled with a desolvation system, and the resulting aerosol was introduced into the plasma. The efficiency of sample introduction via the USN was calculated by two methods: (1) the introduction of a Cr standard solution via the USN was compared with introduction of a Cr(CO)6 standard gas via a standard gas generator and (2) the aerosol generated by the USN was trapped on filters and then analyzed. The Cr introduction efficiencies obtained by the two methods were the same, and the introduction efficiencies of the other elements were equal to the introduction efficiency of Cr. Our results indicated that our calibration method for introduction efficiency worked well for the 15 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb). The real-time data and the filter-collection data agreed well for elements with low-melting oxides (V, Co, As, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Pb). In contrast, the real-time data were smaller than the filter-collection data for elements with high-melting oxides (Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Ba). This result implies that the oxides of these 8 elements were not completely fused, vaporized, atomized, and ionized in the initial radiation zone of the inductively coupled plasma. However, quantitative real-time monitoring can be realized after correction for the element recoveries which can be calculated from the ratio of real-time data/filter-collection data.

  5. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (ppollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis.

  6. Lead sources in airborne particulate matter from urban areas of Sicily; Livelli di piombo nel particolato atmosferico dei centri urbani della Sicilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiuppa, A.; Dongarra' , G.; Varrica, D. [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Fisica della Terra; Monna, G. [Univ. de Bourgougne, Geosol, CST, Dijon (France); Sabatino, G. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    2001-01-01

    Pb isotopic studies, measurements of Pb/Br ratios and enrichment factors have been used to discriminate the origin of lead in the urban atmosphere of several cities of Sicily. The acquired data confirm that, although the relative importance of gasoline-derived Pb is decreased in time, lead still remains one of the most significant trace elements in airborne particulate matter. The chemical and isotopic data show that gasoline and industrial activities makes a major contribution to particulate Pb, while the crustal source is of minor importance. The correlation between lead and antimony is also presented. [Italian] Le differenti fonti che contribuiscono al contenuto di piombo nel particolato atmosferico di alcune citta' della Sicilia sono state discriminate mediante l'utilizzo di opportuni marker chimici: il rapporto Pb/Br ed i rapporti isotopici del piombo. I rapporti Pb/Br osservati nel particolato atmosferico risultano prossimi al rapporto tipico presente nelle benzine. I dati isotopici confermano il limitato contributo crostale rispetto a quello proveniente dal traffico autoveicolare e mettono in evidena come in alcune aree sia particolarmente significativo anche il contributo delle attivita' industriali. Viene inoltre presentata la correlazione esistente fra i contenuti di piombo e antimonio, come risultato delle attivita' antropiche.

  7. Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound elements in haze-fog episode and associated health risks in a megacity of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiming; Wang, Qin'geng; Shao, Min; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Yixuan; Qian, Xin; Wu, Hongfei; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Haze caused by high particulate matter loadings is an important environmental issue. PM2.5 was collected in Nanjing, China, during a severe haze-fog event and clear periods. The particulate-bound elements were chemically fractionated using sequential extractions. The average PM2.5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze-fog (96-518 μg/m(3)) than non-haze fog periods (49-142 μg/m(3)). Nearly all elements showed significantly higher concentrations during haze-fog than non-haze fog periods. Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu were considered to have higher bioavailability and enrichment degree in the atmosphere. Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. The integrated carcinogenic risk for two possible scenarios to individuals exposed to metals was higher than the accepted criterion of 10(-6), whereas noncarcinogenic risk was lower than the safe level of 1. Residents of a city burdened with haze will incur health risks caused by exposure to airborne metals.

  8. Two Model-Based Methods for Policy Analyses of Fine Particulate Matter Control in China: Source Apportionment and Source Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions have been controlled in recent years in China to mitigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. Recent studies show that sulfate dioxide (SO2)-only control cannot reduce total PM2.5 levels efficiently. Other species such as nitrogen oxide, ammonia, black carbon, and organic carbon may be equally important during particular seasons. Furthermore, each species is emitted from several anthropogenic sectors (e.g., industry, power plant, transportation, residential and agriculture). On the other hand, contribution of one emission sector to PM2.5 represents contributions of all species in this sector. In this work, two model-based methods are used to identify the most influential emission sectors and areas to PM2.5. The first method is the source apportionment (SA) based on the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) available in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) driven by meteorological predictions of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The second method is the source sensitivity (SS) based on an adjoint integration technique (AIT) available in the GEOS-Chem model. The SA method attributes simulated PM2.5 concentrations to each emission group, while the SS method calculates their sensitivity to each emission group, accounting for the non-linear relationship between PM2.5 and its precursors. Despite their differences, the complementary nature of the two methods enables a complete analysis of source-receptor relationships to support emission control policies. Our objectives are to quantify the contributions of each emission group/area to PM2.5 in the receptor areas and to intercompare results from the two methods to gain a comprehensive understanding of the role of emission sources in PM2.5 formation. The results will be compared in terms of the magnitudes and rankings of SS or SA of emitted species and emission groups/areas. GEOS-Chem with AIT is applied over East Asia at a horizontal grid

  9. Microfabricated Air-Microfluidic Sensor for Personal Monitoring of Airborne Particulate Matter: Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the design and fabrication of a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) air-microfluidic particulate matter (PM) sensor, and show experimental results obtained from exposing the sensor to concentrations of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust, two commonly occurring P...

  10. Eco-toxicological bioassay of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with Photobacterium Phosphoreum T3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxin; Shi, Chanzhen; Yan, Yan; Yang, Yunfei; Zhou, Bin

    2016-11-01

    A bioluminescent bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum T3 (PPT3), was used as a bio-indicator for the atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to determine the eco-toxicity of PM2.5. The PM2.5 contains toxic chemicals, which reduce light output. The PM2.5 samples were collected in the period from March 2014 to January 2015 in Nanjing and analyzed for the chemical composition versus their eco-toxicity. The eco-toxicological responses of each toxicant were detected in PM2.5 samples with PPT3. The dose-response curves obtained were verified using the Weibull fitting function. According to the measured EC50 values (EC50, the concentration of a toxicant that inhibits 50% of the bioluminescence), the toxicity sequence was: B[a]P>hexa-PCB>tetra-PCB>tri-PCB>Pb(2+)>DEHP>Cu(2+)>DBP>BDE209>Zn(2+)>DMP>DEP, where B[a]P is benzo(a)pyrene, PCB is polychlorinated biphenyl, DEHP is diethylhexyl phthalate, DBP is dibutyl phthalate, BDE209 is decabromodiphenyl ether, DMP is dimethyl phthalate, and DEP is diethyl phthalate. All the PM2.5 samples analyzed proved to be weak toxic for PPT3. The toxicity of PM2.5 was assessed by the dose-addition of organic species and heavy metallic elements existing in PM2.5 with PPT3. The bioluminescence test showed that the metals and organics detected in PM2.5 promoted PM2.5 toxicity. The total detectable organics (denoted by ΣOrs) exhibited slightly higher toxicity than the total metals (denoted by ΣMs). In contrast, the sum of water-soluble ions (denoted by ΣIons) was beneficial to PPT3. The PM2.5 toxicity increased as the PM2.5 trapped more organics or metallic elements from the industrial or densely populated urban areas, where the PM2.5 had a high inhibition rate of bioluminescence for PPT3 in contrast to the residential PM2.5 samples, where the minimum inhibition rate was observed. The toxicity of PM2.5 samples varied with the mass concentrations, chemical constituents, and sampling locations. The chemicals in PM2.5, especially organic

  11. Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yonghui; Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Ma, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    In 2012, Chinese Environmental Bureau modified its National Ambient Air Quality Standards to include fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Recent air pollution monitoring data shows that numerous locations have exceeded this standard, which may have resulted in avoidable adverse health effects. For example, among the 74 Chinese cities with PM2.5 monitoring data in 2013, only three cities attained the annual air quality standard (35 μg/m3). This study aimed to quantify the potential short- and long-term health benefits from achieving the Chinese ambient air quality standard and WHO's air quality objectives. A generalized additive model was used to estimate the short-term association of mortality with changes in daily PM2.5 concentrations, based on which we estimated the potential premature mortality reduction that would have been achieved during the period of 2012-2015 if the daily air quality standard had been met in Guangzhou, China; we also estimated the avoidable deaths if attaining the annual air quality standard using the relative risk obtained from a previous cohort study. During the study period, there were 160 days exceeding the national daily PM2.5 standard (75 μg/m3) in Guangzhou, and the annual average concentration (47.7 μg/m3) was higher than the air quality standard of 35 μg/m3. Significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality were observed. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in daily death counts of 0.95% (95% CI: 0.56%, 1.34%) in natural mortality, 1.31% (95% CI: 0.75%, 1.87%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.06% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.94%) in respiratory mortality. The health benefits of attaining the national daily air quality standard of PM2.5 (75 μg/m3) would have prevented 143 [95% confidence interval (CI): 84, 203] fewer natural deaths, including 84 (95% CI: 48, 121) fewer cardiovascular deaths and 27 (95% CI: 5, 49) fewer respiratory deaths. Had the annual PM2.5 levels been reduced to 35 μg/m3, an estimated 3875

  12. Time series analysis of fine particulate matter and asthma reliever dispensations in populations affected by forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Catherine T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have evaluated the association between forest fire smoke and acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases, but few have examined effects on pharmaceutical dispensations. We examine the associations between daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and pharmaceutical dispensations for salbutamol in forest fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods We estimated PM2.5 exposure for populations in administrative health areas using measurements from central monitors. Remote sensing data on fires were used to classify the populations as fire-affected or non-fire-affected, and to identify extreme fire days. Daily counts of salbutamol dispensations between 2003 and 2010 were extracted from the BC PharmaNet database. We estimated rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for each population during all fire seasons and on extreme fire days, adjusted for temperature, humidity, and temporal trends. Overall effects for fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations were estimated via meta-regression. Results Fire season PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in all fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR (95% CI of 1.06 (1.04-1.07 for a 10 ug/m3 increase. Fire season PM2.5 was not significantly associated with salbutamol dispensations in non-fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR of 1.00 (0.98-1.01. On extreme fire days PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in both population types, with a global meta-regression RR of 1.07 (1.04 - 1.09. Conclusions Salbutamol dispensations were clearly associated with fire-related PM2.5. Significant associations were observed in smaller populations (range: 8,000 to 170,000 persons, median: 26,000 than those reported previously, suggesting that salbutamol dispensations may be a valuable outcome for public health surveillance during fire events.

  13. Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong-Min Kang; Byung-Wook Kang; Hak Sung Lee [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). Department of Environmental Health, Exposure, Epidemiology, and Risk Program, School of Public Health

    2006-07-15

    Ambient measurements were made using two sets of annular denuder system during the four seasons and were then compared with the results during the period of 1996-1997 to estimate the trends and seasonal variations in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) principal species. Annual averages of gaseous HNO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} increased by 11% and 6%, respectively, compared with those of the previous study, whereas HONO and SO{sub 2} decreased by 11% and 136%, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by {approximately} 17%, 35% for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and 29% for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup -} increased by 21%. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 12.8 and 5.98 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, accounting for {approximately} 26 and 12% of PM2.5 concentration, respectively. The species studied accounted for 84% of PM2.5 concentration, ranging from 76% in winter to 97% in summer. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to identify possible source areas affecting air pollution levels at a receptor site in Seoul. High possible source areas in concentrations of PM2.5, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}2, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and K{sup +} were coastal cities of Liaoning province, inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces in China, and typical port cities of South Korea. The PSCF results may suggest that air pollution levels in Seoul are affected considerably by long-range transport from external areas, such as the coastal zone in China and other cities in South Korea, as well as Seoul itself. It appears that the NO{sub 3} contribution to PM2.5 increased by {approximately} 4%, whereas the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} contribution decreased by {approximately} 2%. This trend may be explained by a shift of fuel patterns from fossil fuel to LNG, according to the governmental policies. 44 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Huang

    Full Text Available Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing.In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration.Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3-280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4-193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r ≥ 0.90, p < 0.0001, and the ambient data explained ≥ 84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations.PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as exposure surrogates. PM2

  15. Effects of particulate air pollution on human health. Statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution; Partikulaere Luftverunreinigung und ihre Folgen fuer die menschliche Gesundheit. Stellungnahme der deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie (DGP) zur aktuellen Feinstaub-Diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voshaar, T.H. [Krankenhaus Bethanien, Moers (Germany). Zentrum fuer Schlafmedizin und Heimbeatmung; Heyder, J. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Koehler, D. [Fachkrankenhaus Kloster Grafschaft, Schmallenberg (Germany); Krug, N. [Fraunhofer-Inst. Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Hannover (Germany); Nowak, D. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Scheuch, G. [Inamed GmbH, Muenchen-Gauting und Gemuenden/Wohra (Germany); Schulz, H. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Witt, C. [Charite-Universitaetsklinik, Schwerpunkt Pneumologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution reviews recent research on the matter: effects of particulates depending on particle size, abundance indoor and outdoor, tobacco smoke, diesel soot particles, health hazards especially for children, epidemiology, toxicological studies, aerosols. (uke)

  16. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happo, M.S.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Halinen, A.I.; Jalava, P.I.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Hillamo, R.; Salonen, R.O. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2008-07-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM2.5-0.2) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM2.5-0.2 correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca{sup 2+}, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM2.5-0.2-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM10 (2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM2.5 (0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects.

  17. Innovative application of fluoro tagging to trace airborne particulate and gas-phase polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klösener, Johannes; Peters, Thomas M; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Teesch, Lynn M; Thorne, Peter S; Robertson, Larry W; Luthe, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants applied as coatings to many consumer products, including household items. PBDEs are released and produce airborne vapors and dusts. Inhalation of particle-phase and/or gas-phase PBDEs is therefore a major route of exposure. In an attempt to mimic realistic airborne exposures, actual uptake, and deposition of particles and vapors, we prepared and characterized particles for future animal exposure studies. To trace the particles in environmental and biological systems, we employed fluoro tagging. We synthesized, characterized, and employed three PBDE congeners, 35, 47, and 99, and five fluoro-substituted PBDEs (F-PBDEs), 17-F5' 25-F5', 28-F3', 35-F5', 47-F3, and 99-F3', for this study. The PBDE congeners were selected because they are commonly found in house dust. For that reason, we coated spherical silica particles of 3 microm and C18 endcapped silica as representative and inert support materials, with 20, 30, and 40% PBDEs. We determined the particle size distributions by aerodynamic particle size spectrometry and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The suitability of the fluoro-tagged tracers to mimic their corresponding parent PBDEs was investigated by extraction studies from spiked blood serum. Our study is of fundamental importance to the development of xenobiotic tracers for monitoring routes of human exposure to PBDEs and understanding uptake of PBDEs from particles and vapors.

  18. [Study on the Relationship between the Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter of Xuanwei Coal Combustion and Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiapeng; Cao, Yu; Huang, Yunchao; Li, Guangjian; Ye, Lianhua; Zhao, Guangqiang; Lei, Yujie; Chen, Xiaobo; Tian, Linwei

    2015-07-01

    背景与目的 云南省宣威地区是中国乃至世界肺癌的高发区,肺癌已成为制约当地社会经济发展和影响社会民生的重要因素。煤炭是当地主要的生活燃料,燃煤是当地室内污染的主要来源。本研究探讨云南宣威不同肺癌发病率地区烟煤燃烧过程中可吸入细颗粒物(fine particulate matter, PM2.5)产出情况,以及不同地区PM2.5成分异同。探讨吸入细颗粒物与当地肺癌高发的关系。方法 收集宣威市来宾镇老林煤矿C1煤层、宝山镇虎场煤矿K7煤层、文兴镇太平煤矿M30煤层的煤矿进行燃烧试验。收集室内的空气中的PM2.5进行称重,元素分析,用电子显微镜观察其形态,对比三种PM2.5异同。对宣威地区的肺癌患者的术后标本进行电子显微镜观察。结果 室内空气中的PM2.5浓度分别为C1煤(8.244±1.460)mg/m³,K7煤(5.066±0.984)mg/m³,K7煤(5.071±1.460)mg/m³;三组空气中PM2.5浓度两两比较差异有统计学意义(Ρ=0.029)。C1煤层中滤膜上的杂质有(Silicon, Si)和氧(Oxygen, O)元素富集,三组滤膜上均发现了碳(Carbon, C),硫(Sulfur, S)的聚集,在部分的滤膜上可见游离的二氧化硅(SiO2),部分滤膜上有铝(Aluminium, Al)、钙(Calcium, Ca)元素的聚集。C1煤层与其他煤层相比所产生颗粒物形态不规则,成团块状,杂质较多。在部分的宣威来宾地区的肺癌患者术后标本中,发现纳米级细颗粒的杂质。结论 C1煤与K7和M30煤燃烧产生的PM2.5不同,PM2.5的成分可能与当地肺癌高发相关。.

  19. Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter in Changzhou, China, and source apportionment with offline aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhaolian; Liu, Jiashu; Gu, Aijun; Feng, Feifei; Liu, Yuhai; Bi, Chenglu; Xu, Jianzhong; Li, Ling; Chen, Hui; Chen, Yanfang; Dai, Liang; Zhou, Quanfa; Ge, Xinlei

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of aerosol chemistry in densely populated regions is critical for effective reduction of air pollution, while such studies have not been conducted in Changzhou, an important manufacturing base and populated city in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. This work, for the first time, performed a thorough chemical characterization on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples, collected during July 2015 to April 2016 across four seasons in this city. A suite of analytical techniques was employed to measure the organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5; in particular, an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed to probe the chemical properties of water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA). The average PM2.5 concentration was found to be 108.3 µg m-3, and all identified species were able to reconstruct ˜ 80 % of the PM2.5 mass. The WSIIs occupied about half of the PM2.5 mass (˜ 52.1 %), with SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ as the major ions. On average, nitrate concentrations dominated over sulfate (mass ratio of 1.21), indicating that traffic emissions were more important than stationary sources. OC and EC correlated well with each other and the highest OC / EC ratio (5.16) occurred in winter, suggesting complex OC sources likely including both secondary and primary ones. Concentrations of eight trace elements (Mn, Zn, Al, B, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb) can contribute up to ˜ 5.0 % of PM2.5 during winter. PAH concentrations were also high in winter (140.25 ng m-3), which were predominated by median/high molecular weight PAHs with five and six rings. The organic matter including both water-soluble and water-insoluble species occupied ˜ 21.5 % of the PM2.5 mass. SP-AMS determined that the WSOA had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C), nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C), and organic

  20. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  1. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wurzbacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM, coarse particulate organic matter. Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM. Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU, of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Fine Particulate Matter in São Paulo During the Winter Months: Concentrations and Black Carbon Comparison Between Techniques and Equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2014-12-01

    During the winter months in São Paulo, Brazil, particulate matter and black carbon were monitored using a Dust Trak (TSI model 8533), a Black Carbon monitor (MAAP-Thermo) and a PM2.5 sampler (Partisol-Thermo). The concentrations were obtained every 5 minutes, from June to August 2014, for the first and second and every 12 hours for the third. The experiment took place in a site at the University of São Paulo which is located in the Southeast part of the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP is one of the biggest urban centers of the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants, 10 million vehicles and high values of some regulated pollutants, as particulate matter, especially in winter. Ambient fine particles associated with vehicle emissions have been linked to adverse health effects. Black carbon has a significant share of particulate mass concentrations. Previous studies showed a contribution of more than 30% for São Paulo. This year the climate was atypical in São Paulo. The summer was the driest of the last 30 years. The winter was hot and also dry. Dust trak monitor showed peaks of more than 120 μg/m3 for PM2.5. For a specific period, black carbon concentrations from the MAAP monitor were compared to black carbon measured by optical reflectance on teflon filters collected by the Partisol sampler. Monitor values were around 30% higher, but specific characteristics can influence this value. In the past, optical reflectance and thermal techniques for black carbon were compared. The reflectance technique showed higher results for the fine fraction than the thermal method. Now, reflectance is being compared to instrument measurements and results are also satisfactory.

  3. Source identification, apportionment and toxicity of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 airborne particulates in a region characterised by wood burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Linares, Claudio; Ovando-Fuentealba, Luis; Orellana-Donoso, Sandra; Gatica, Silvana; Klerman, Francisca; Mudge, Stephen M; Gallardo, Waldo; Pinaud, Jean Paul; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo

    2016-05-18

    The occurrence of airborne particulate matter has been flagged as "of concern" in several megacities, especially in Asia. Selected Chilean regions have similar problems as wood burning is the major source of heating in homes. This concern has led to mitigation measures restricting the burning of wood at periods when the particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) concentrations are predicted to be high. This work investigates the linkage between indoor and outdoor particle concentrations, determines their source through the polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) signature and investigates the efficacy of the current management practice of burning restrictions. The PM2.5 fraction was collected at 12 different properties with coincident indoor and outdoor sampling using a low-volume active sampler for 24 hours. Indoor concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 6 to 194 μg m(-3) with a mean of 72 μg m(-3) and corresponding outdoor concentrations ranged from 5 to 367 μg m(-3) with a mean of 85 μg m(-3) over the winter periods of 2014 and 2015; the Chilean national permitted maximum in outdoor air is 50 μg m(-3) in 24 hours. Higher concentrations were measured when the outdoor air temperature was lower. The PAHs were analysed on the PM2.5 fraction; the indoor concentrations ranged from 2 to 291 ng m(-3) with a mean of 51 ng m(-3) compared to an outdoor concentration between 3 and 365 ng m(-3) with a mean of 71 ng m(-3). Multivariate statistical analysis of the PAH profiles using principal components analysis (PCA) and polytopic vector analysis (PVA) identified wood burning, static and mobile diesel emissions and kerosene combustion as the major contributors to the particulate matter. When converted to toxicity equivalents (BaP-TEQ), the highest toxicity arising from PAHs in the indoor air was associated with a property that used a "leaky" combined wood stove and heater and also used a wood-fired brazier for local heating. In outdoor air, there was a relationship between the

  4. Chemical characterization of a polar portion in the neutral fraction derived from airborne particulate extracts responsible for the embryotoxicity in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected with a high-volume air sampler between June 1984 and May 1985 on the roof top of the authors institute. The tar material extracted was separated into six fractions by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. These fractions were then tested for their embryotoxicities by a chicken embryo assay. A moderately polar fraction per weight and a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) had the greatest toxicity for chicken embryos. When the polar fraction was purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, the purified fraction was 3.7 times more toxic than the original polar fraction. To determine the responsible components for the toxicity, the purified fraction as well as the original fraction was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characterized components were classified into oxygenated PAHs (containing ketones, quinones, and aldehydes), nitrogen-containing PAHS, diphenyl-substituted aliphatic ketones (or diketones), and esters of aliphatic acids.

  5. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-03-06

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm(2) of PM10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype.

  6. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of dissolved analytes even in the presence of leaching agents. Derived results indicated that the investigated leaching agents extract different amounts of trace metals. In general, leaching agents with organic nature yielded comparatively greater extractable and thus bio-accessible trace metal fractions to that of simple solvents like H2O or aqueous NaCl solution. With water, only 26.3±4.0% of Cd was found to be bio-accessible whereas 88.4±24.8 of Cd was obtained as bio-accessible fraction with the use of synthetic gastric juice. The concentrations of bio-accessible metal fractions varied from 0.4 ng m−3 (Cd to 714 ng m−3 (Zn and 0.3 ng m−3 (Cd to 190 ng m−3 (Zn for PM10 samples collected from Karachi (Pakistan and Graz (Austria respectively.

  7. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter: validation and application of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, Marzia; Catrambone, Tamara; Gordiani, Andrea; Cabella, Renato

    2010-12-01

    This study concerns the validation of an analytical method for the measurement of occupational exposure to trace levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter (APM). Personal exposure to selected PAHs of five workers occupationally exposed to urban pollution in Rome, Italy, was evaluated. The samples were collected over 10 days evenly distributed during winter and summer of 2008. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were collected by a sampling pump and trapped in polytetrafluoroethylene filters; ultrasonic extraction was applied to extract PAH species from the matrix with toluene, and the concentrated extract was quantitatively analyzed by GC/MS. The analytical method was optimized and validated using a standard reference material of urban dust (SRM 1649a). Detection limits ranged from 0.8 ng per sample for indeno [1,2,3-cd] pyrene to 20.4 ng for sample for anthracene. Experimental results of the 50 personal samples collected showed that phenanthrene was the predominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [95% CI (32.42-41.13 ng m(-3))]; the highest benzo[a]pyrene concentration was 2.58 ng m(-3), approximately 2-fold higher than European annual target values (1 ng m(-3)). Seasonal variations of personal exposure to selected PAHs suggested higher emissions and reduced atmospheric reactivity of PAH compounds in winter. The analytical method was a suitable procedure for the determination of 13 of the 16 priority PAHs in APM personal samples and can be considered a useful tool to evaluate occupational exposure to low PAH levels.

  8. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMrespiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued.

  9. Cocaine and other illicit drugs in airborne particulates in urban environments: A reflection of social conduct and population size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, M., E-mail: mar.viana@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Postigo, C., E-mail: cprqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Querol, X., E-mail: xavier.querol@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Alastuey, A., E-mail: andres.alastuey@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez de Alda, M.J., E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, D., E-mail: dbcqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); King Saud University, Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Artinano, B., E-mail: b.artinano@ciemat.es [Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, P., E-mail: purmahia@udc.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus A Zapateira, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Garcia Gacio, D., E-mail: dgarcia@udc.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus A Zapateira, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cots, N., E-mail: nuria.cots@gencat.ca [Department of the Environment, Catalonia Regional Government, Av. Diagonal 525, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Levels of cocaine and other psychoactive substances in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were determined in urban environments representing distinct social behaviours with regard to drug abuse: night-life, university and residential areas. Three cities (with population >1 million and <0.3 million inhabitants) were selected. Mean daily levels of drugs in PM were 11-336 pg/m{sup 3} for cocaine, 23-34 pg/m{sup 3} for cannabinoids, and 5-90 pg/m{sup 3} for heroin. The highest levels were recorded on weekends, with factors with respect to weekdays of 1-3 for cocaine, 1-2 for cannabinoids and 1.1-1.7 for heroin. Higher levels were detected in the night-life areas, pointing towards consumption and trafficking as major emission sources, and possibly ruling out drug manufacture. The similarities in temporal trends at all sites suggested a city-scale transport of psychoactive substances. Correlations were detected between cocaine and amphetamine consumption (r{sup 2} = 0.98), and between heroin and cannabinoids (r{sup 2}>0.82). - Highlights: > Cocaine, heroin, cannabis and related illicit drugs are found in detectable amounts in urban air. > Illicit drug consumption and small-scale trafficking are the major emission sources. > Illicit drugs remain in atmospheric particles and are transported across cities during at least 5 days. > Levels of illicit drugs increase from residential to night-life areas, and maximise on weekends. > Correlations between illicit drugs were detected, suggesting differences in consumer groups. - The presence of illicit drugs in atmospheric particles can be used to track illicit drug abuse.

  10. Redox/methylation mediated abnormal DNA methylation as regulators of ambient fine particulate matter-induced neurodevelopment related impairment in human neuronal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including autism in children. However, the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation is suggested to be a fundamental mechanism for the neuronal responses to environmental cues. We prepared whole particle of PM2.5 (PM2.5), water-soluble extracts (Pw), organic extracts (Po) and carbon core component (Pc) and characterized their chemical constitutes. We found that PM2.5 induced significant redox imbalance, decreased the levels of intercellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and caused global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure triggered gene-specific promoter DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and abnormal mRNA expression of autism candidate genes. PM2.5-induced DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions of synapse related genes were associated with the decreases in their mRNA and protein expression. The inhibiting effects of antioxidative reagents, a methylation-supporting agent and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of redox/methylation mechanism in PM2.5-induced abnormal DNA methylation patterns and synaptic protein expression. The biological effects above generally followed a sequence of PM2.5 ≥ Pwo > Po > Pw > Pc. Our results implicated a novel epigenetic mechanism for the neurodevelopmental toxicity of particulate air pollution, and that eliminating the chemical components could mitigate the neurotoxicity of PM2.5.

  11. Redox/methylation mediated abnormal DNA methylation as regulators of ambient fine particulate matter-induced neurodevelopment related impairment in human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-14

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including autism in children. However, the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation is suggested to be a fundamental mechanism for the neuronal responses to environmental cues. We prepared whole particle of PM2.5 (PM2.5), water-soluble extracts (Pw), organic extracts (Po) and carbon core component (Pc) and characterized their chemical constitutes. We found that PM2.5 induced significant redox imbalance, decreased the levels of intercellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and caused global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure triggered gene-specific promoter DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and abnormal mRNA expression of autism candidate genes. PM2.5-induced DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions of synapse related genes were associated with the decreases in their mRNA and protein expression. The inhibiting effects of antioxidative reagents, a methylation-supporting agent and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of redox/methylation mechanism in PM2.5-induced abnormal DNA methylation patterns and synaptic protein expression. The biological effects above generally followed a sequence of PM2.5 ≥ Pwo > Po > Pw > Pc. Our results implicated a novel epigenetic mechanism for the neurodevelopmental toxicity of particulate air pollution, and that eliminating the chemical components could mitigate the neurotoxicity of PM2.5.

  12. Effects of β-adrenoceptor subtypes on cardiac function in myocardial infarction rats exposed to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuping; Lv, Jiyuan; Lin, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuewen; Wang, Lixia; Yin, Yanping; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure (HF) stems were mainly from longstanding overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent studies highlighted the potential benefits of β1-adrenoceptor (β1-AR) blocker combined with β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) agonist in patients with HF. Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution, such as particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), has been found associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) which is the most common cause of congestive HF. In this study, we have investigated the effect of combined metoprolol and terbutaline on cardiac function in a rat model of AMI exposed to PM2.5. Our results demonstrated that short-term exposure to PM2.5 contributes to aggravate cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. The combined use of β1-AR blocker and β2-AR agonist is superior to β1-AR blocker alone for the treatment of AMI rats exposed to PM2.5. The combination of β1-AR blocker and β2-AR agonist may decrease the mortality of patients with myocardial infarction who have been exposed to PM2.5.

  13. Effects of β-Adrenoceptor Subtypes on Cardiac Function in Myocardial Infarction Rats Exposed to Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure (HF stems were mainly from longstanding overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent studies highlighted the potential benefits of β1-adrenoceptor (β1-AR blocker combined with β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR agonist in patients with HF. Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution, such as particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5, has been found associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI which is the most common cause of congestive HF. In this study, we have investigated the effect of combined metoprolol and terbutaline on cardiac function in a rat model of AMI exposed to PM2.5. Our results demonstrated that short-term exposure to PM2.5 contributes to aggravate cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. The combined use of β1-AR blocker and β2-AR agonist is superior to β1-AR blocker alone for the treatment of AMI rats exposed to PM2.5. The combination of β1-AR blocker and β2-AR agonist may decrease the mortality of patients with myocardial infarction who have been exposed to PM2.5.

  14. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  15. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: The Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Shima, Masayuki [Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Guo, Xinbiao, E-mail: guoxb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Study subjects relocated between areas with different air pollution contents. • PM{sub 2.5} showed the most consistent inverse associations with pulmonary function. • Cu, Cd, As and Sn were consistently associated with reduced pulmonary function. • Carbonaceous fractions, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Sb were also associated with pulmonary function. • Sources may include traffic, industry, coal burning, and long range transported dust. -- Abstract: The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV{sub 1} associated with various air pollutants and PM{sub 2.5} constituents. Four PM{sub 2.5} constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution.

  16. Comparison of three different sample preparation procedures for the determination of traffic-related elements in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Ivan N B; Welz, Bernhard; Vale, Maria Goreti R; de Andrade, Jailson B; Smichowski, Patricia; Shaltout, Abdallah A; Colares, Lígia; Carasek, Eduardo

    2012-01-15

    Three different procedures for sample preparation have been compared for the determination of Cu, Mo and Sb in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). Direct solid sample analysis of the ground filters was compared with microwave-assisted acid leaching with aqua regia and ultrasound-assisted extraction also using aqua regia. The main absorption line at 324.754 nm or the secondary line at 216.509 nm was used for the determination of Cu, depending on the analyte content in the samples. The primary absorption line at 313.259 nm was used for Mo and the secondary line at 212.739 nm for Sb determination. The limits of detection (LOD, 3σ) found for the direct solid sampling method, based on ten atomizations of an unused filter were 15 μg g(-1) for all three analytes, corresponding to 40 ng m(-3) for a typical air volume of 1,440 m(3) collected over a period of 24h. The LOD for the other two methods were less than a factor of two inferior, but the total time required for an analysis was significantly longer. The repeatability of the measurements was between 3 and 9% (n=5), and the results obtained with the three methods did not show any significant difference. The ratio between the three analytes on the filters from areas of intense traffic was found to be around Cu:Mo:Sb≈4:1:1.4, which suggests that the source of all three elements is brake linings, i.e., related to automobile traffic. When the ratio deviated significantly from the above values, the source of contamination was assumed to be of different origin.

  17. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  18. Short-term associations of fine particulate matter components and emergency hospital admissions among a privately insured population in Greater Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suyang; Ganduglia, Cecilia M.; Li, Xiao; Delclos, George L.; Franzini, Luisa; Zhang, Kai

    2016-12-01

    A number of time-series studies have associated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass and components with various health outcomes. No studies have yet examined the associations between PM2.5 components and hospital admissions among a privately insured population. We estimated the short-term associations between exposure to PM2.5 mass and components and emergency hospital admissions for all-cause and cause-specific diseases in Greater Houston, Texas, during 2008-2013 using Blue Cross Blue Shield Texas claims data. A total of 90,085 emergency hospital admissions were included in this study, with an average of 34 ± 10 admissions per day. We selected 20 PM2.5 components from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network site located in Houston, and then applied Poisson regression models to assess the short-term effects of PM2.5 mass and species on emergency hospital admissions. Effects were estimated without adjustment for other airborne pollutants. PM2.5 mass was not statistically significantly associated with increased all-cause emergency hospital admissions and selected cause-specific admissions. For selected PM2.5 species, we found interquartile range increases in arsenic (0.001 μg/m3) and copper (0.017 μg/m3) were significantly (P air pollution.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-04-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic

  20. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  1. Climate Change Effects on Annual Average Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, M.; Mahmud, A.

    2008-12-01

    California has one of the worst particulate air pollution problems in the nation with some estimates predicting more than 5000 premature deaths each year attributed to air pollution. Climate change will modify weather patterns in California with unknown consequences for PM2.5. Previous down-scaling exercises carried out for the entire United States have typically not resolved the details associated with California's mountain-valley topography and mixture of urban-rural emissions characteristics. Detailed studies carried out for California have identified strong effects acting in opposite directions on PM2.5 concentrations making the net prediction for climate effects on PM2.5 somewhat uncertain. More research is needed to reduce this uncertainty so that we can truly understand climate impacts on PM2.5 and public health. The objective of this research is to predict climate change effects on annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) in California with sufficient resolution to capture the details of California's air basins. Business-as-usual scenarios generated by the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) will be down-scaled to 4km meteorology using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. The CIT/UCD source-oriented photochemical air quality model will be employed to predict PM2.5 concentrations throughout the entire state of California. The modeled annual average total and speciated PM2.5 concentrations for the future (2047-2049) and the present-day (2004-2006) periods will be compared to determine climate change effects. The results from this study will improve our understanding of global climate change effects on PM2.5 concentrations in California.

  2. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, Delbert J; Mangelson, Nolan F; Anderson, Richard R; Martello, Donald V; Pekney, Natalie J; Davidson, Cliff I; Modey, William K

    2007-10-01

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NO(x), NO2, and O3 concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. These findings are consistent with the majority of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport, and thus decoupled from local

  3. Methods for characterizing fine particulate matter using ground observations and remotely sensed data: potential use for environmental public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Crosson, William L; Limaye, Ashutosh S; Rickman, Douglas L; Quattrochi, Dale A; Estes, Maurice G; Qualters, Judith R; Sinclair, Amber H; Tolsma, Dennis D; Adeniyi, Kafayat A; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2009-07-01

    This study describes and demonstrates different techniques for surface fitting daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pilot study of Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta. It presents a methodology for estimating daily spatial surfaces of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations using the B-Spline and inverse distance weighting (IDW) surface-fitting techniques, leveraging National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM2.5 from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM2.5 estimates derived from NASA's satellite data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate PM2.5 exposure estimates. This paper shows that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM,2. not only provides a more complete daily representation of PM,2. than either dataset alone would allow, but it also reduces the errors in the PM2.5-estimated surfaces. The results of this study also show that although the IDW technique can introduce some numerical artifacts that could be due to its interpolating nature, which assumes that the maxima and minima can occur only at the observation points, the daily IDW PM2.5 surfaces had smaller errors in general, with respect to observations, than those of the B-Spline surfaces. Finally, the methods discussed in this paper establish a foundation for environmental public health linkage and association studies for which determining the concentrations of an environmental hazard such as PM2.5 with high accuracy is critical.

  4. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  5. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Zinc in Airborne Particulate Matter Shows Tire Debris Concentrated in > 0.5 μm Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Gill, T. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Cahill, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we speciated Zn in size-resolved fractions of particulate matter (PM) from El Paso, Texas. Spectral patterns indicated that Zn in tire debris is the dominant form of Zn in PM coarser than 0.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter. Although concentrated in the > 0.5 μm fraction, a large portion of the tire debris in PM is small enough to penetrate and deposit in the lower respiratory tract. We collected 3 sets of size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) over periods of several days to several weeks in November 2008, and April and May 2009. Local PM compositions typically are dominated by anthropogenic input in November and geologic sources in April, and a mixture in May. The collection site is in the urban core of El Paso, TX, contiguous to the University of Texas at El Paso, 0.6 km from Interstate Highway 10, 0.4 km from State Highway 20, and 1 km from Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The DRUM sampler (Davis Rotating Uniform size-cut Monitor) employs a rotating Lundgren-type impactor, draws 10 l per minute, and deposits PM on plastic strips mounted on rotating drums. The sampler collected and segregated ambient PM into 8 size cuts: 12-5 μm, 5-2.5, 2.5-1.15, 1.15-0.75, 0.75-0.56, 0.56-0.34, 0.34-0.26, and 0.26-0.09. We conducted the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource on beam line 7-3. Spectra of the 24 samples of PM and numerous model compounds were collected at the Zn K absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. The overall spectral patterns from the 3 seasons were similar to one another. But strikingly, each set of 8 XAS spectra displayed an obvious change in the Zn speciation at the 0.56-0.75 μm size cut. We compared the PM spectra to those of our suite of known model compounds and materials. The spectral pattern of the coarser size cuts was quite similar to those of the tires we tested. The Zn in the tires

  6. Ischemic Heart Disease Incidence in Relation to Fine versus Total Particulate Matter Exposure in a U.S. Aluminum Industry Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M Neophytou

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease (IHD has been linked to exposures to airborne particles with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5 in the ambient environment and in occupational settings. Routine industrial exposure monitoring, however, has traditionally focused on total particulate matter (TPM. To assess potential benefits of PM2.5 monitoring, we compared the exposure-response relationships between both PM2.5 and TPM and incidence of IHD in a cohort of active aluminum industry workers. To account for the presence of time varying confounding by health status we applied marginal structural Cox models in a cohort followed with medical claims data for IHD incidence from 1998 to 2012. Analyses were stratified by work process into smelters (n = 6,579 and fabrication (n = 7,432. Binary exposure was defined by the 10th-percentile cut-off from the respective TPM and PM2.5 exposure distributions for each work process. Hazard Ratios (HR comparing always exposed above the exposure cut-off to always exposed below the cut-off were higher for PM2.5, with HRs of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.11-2.60 and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.02-2.13 in smelters and fabrication, respectively. For TPM, the HRs were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.89-1.77 and 1.25 (95% CI: 0.88-1.77 for smelters and fabrication respectively. Although TPM and PM2.5 were highly correlated in this work environment, results indicate that, consistent with biologic plausibility, PM2.5 is a stronger predictor of IHD risk than TPM. Cardiovascular risk management in the aluminum industry, and other similar work environments, could be better guided by exposure surveillance programs monitoring PM2.5.

  7. Development and evaluation of a daily temporal interpolation model for fine particulate matter species concentrations and source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Jeremiah D.; Holmes, Heather A.; Balachandran, Sivaraman; Maier, Marissa L.; Zhai, Xinxin; Ivey, Cesunica; Digby, Kyle; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of emissions sources on air quality in St. Louis, Missouri are assessed for use in acute health effects studies. However, like many locations in the United States, the speciated particulate matter (PM) measurements from regulatory monitoring networks in St. Louis are only available every third day. The power of studies investigating acute health effects of air pollution is reduced when using one-in-three day source impacts compared to daily source impacts. This paper presents a temporal interpolation model to estimate daily speciated PM2.5 mass concentrations and source impact estimates using one-in-three day measurements. The model is used to interpolate 1-in-3 day source impact estimates and to interpolate the 1-in-3 day PM species concentrations prior to source apportionment (SA). Both approaches are compared and evaluated using two years (June 2001-May 2003) of daily data from the St. Louis Midwest Supersite (STL-SS). Data withholding is used to simulate a 1-in-3 day data set from the daily data to evaluate interpolated estimates. After evaluation using the STL-SS data, the model is used to estimate daily source impacts at another site approximately seven kilometers (7 km) northwest of the STL-SS (Blair); results between the sites are compared. For interpolated species concentrations, the model performs better for secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon) than for primary species (metals and elemental carbon), likely due to the greater spatial autocorrelation of secondary species. Pearson correlation (R) values for sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental carbon, and organic carbon ranged from 0.61 (elemental carbon, EC2) to 0.97 (sulfate). For trace metals, the R values ranged from 0.31 (Ba) to 0.81 (K). The interpolated source impact estimates also indicated a stronger correlation for secondary sources. Correlations of the secondary source impact estimates based on measurement data and interpolation data ranged from 0.68 to 0

  8. Measurement of fine particulate matter nonvolatile and semi-volatile organic material with the Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Brett D; Kleinman, Michael; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Cary, Robert A; Hopke, Philip K; Wilson, William E

    2008-01-01

    Semi-volatile organic material (SVOM) in fine particles is not reliably measured with conventional semicontinuous carbon monitors because SVOM is lost from the collection media during sample collection. We have modified a Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Monitor to allow for the determination of SVOM. In a conventional Sunset monitor, gas-phase organic compounds are removed in the sampled airstream by a diffusion denuder employing charcoal-impregnated cellulose filter (CIF) surfaces. Subsequently, particles are collected on a quartz filter and the instrument then determines both the organic carbon and elemental carbon fractions of the aerosol using a thermal/optical method. However, some of the SVOM is lost from the filter during collection, and therefore is not determined. Because the interfering gas-phase organic compounds are removed before aerosol collection, the SVOM can be determined by filtering the particles at the instrument inlet and then replacing the quartz filter in the monitor with a charcoal-impregnated glass fiber filter (CIG), which retains the SVOM lost from particles collected on the inlet filter. The resulting collected SVOM is then determined in the analysis step by measurement of the carbonaceous material thermally evolved from the CIG filter. This concept was tested during field studies in February 2003 in Lindon, UT, and in July 2003 in Rubidoux, CA. The results obtained were validated by comparison with Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) results. The sum of nonvolatile organic material determined with a conventional Sunset monitor and SVOM determined with the modified Sunset monitor agree with the PC-BOSS results. Linear regression analysis of total carbon concentrations determined by the PC-BOSS and the Sunset resulted in a zero-intercept slope of 0.99 +/- 0.02 (R2 = 0.92) and a precision of sigma = +/- 1.5 microg C/m3 (8%).

  9. STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Tsang, Hilda; Lai, Hak-Kan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Thomas, G Neil; Chan, King-Pan; Lee, Siu-Yin; Ayres, Jon G; Lam, Tai-Hing; Leung, Wai K

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of air pollution on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. We investigated the association between long-term exposures to outdoor fine particles (PM2.5) and hospitalization for peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs) in a large cohort of Hong Kong Chinese elderly.A total of 66,820 subjects aged ≥65 years who were enrolled in all 18 Government Elderly Health Service centers of Hong Kong participated in the study voluntarily between 1998 and 2001. They were prospectively followed up for more than 10 years. Annual mean exposures to PM2.5 at residence of individuals were estimated by satellite data through linkage with address details including floor level. All hospital admission records of the subjects up to December 31, 2010 were retrieved from the central database of Hospital Authority. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for PUD hospitalization associated with PM2.5 exposure after adjustment for individual and ecological covariates.A total of 60,273 subjects had completed baseline information including medical, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data at recruitment. During the follow-up period, 1991 (3.3%) subjects had been hospitalized for PUD. The adjusted HR for PUD hospitalization per 10 μg/m of PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.36, P = 0.02). Further analysis showed that the associations with PM2.5 were significant for gastric ulcers (HR 1.29; 1.09-1.53, P = 0.003) but not for duodenal ulcers (HR 0.98; 0.78 to 1.22, P = 0.81).Long-term exposures to PM2.5 were associated with PUD hospitalization in elder population. The mechanism underlying the PM2.5 in the development of gastric ulcers warrants further research.

  10. Effects of polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion on response to EGFR mutations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kin-Fai; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Lui, Ka-Hei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Liu, Chien-Ying; Ning, Zhi; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Induction of PM2.5-associated lung cancer in response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) remains unclear. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 (with wild-type EGFR) and HCC827 (with EGFR mutation) were exposed to the PM2.5, followed by treatment with EGFR-TKI. Two samples showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the cell viability in A549. EGFR-TKI further demonstrated significantly decreased in cell viability in A549 after exposure to the coal emissions. Chrysene and triphenylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene, azaarenes and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (carbonyl-OPAHs) were all associated with EGFR-TKI-dependent reduced cell viability after 72-h exposure to the PM2.5. The findings suggest the coal emissions could influence the response of EGFR-TKI in lung cancer cells in Xuanwei.

  11. Contribution of heavy metals to toxicity of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Caenorhabditis elegans with wild-type or susceptible genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingmei; Wu, Quli; Liao, Kai; Yu, Peihang; Cui, Qiuhong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-02-01

    Contribution of chemical components in coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to its toxicity is largely unclear. We focused on heavy metals in PM2.5 to investigate their contribution to toxicity formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Among 8 heavy metals examined (Fe, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni), Pb, Cr, and Cu potentially contributed to PM2.5 toxicity in wild-type nematodes. Combinational exposure to any two of these three heavy metals caused higher toxicity than exposure to Pb, Cr, or Cu alone. Toxicity from the combinational exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu at the examined concentrations was higher than exposure to PM2.5 (100 mg/L). Moreover, mutation of sod-2 or sod-3 gene encoding Mn-SOD increased susceptibility in nematodes exposed to Fe, Zn, or Ni, although Fe, Zn, or Ni at the examined concentration did not lead to toxicity in wild-type nematodes. Our results highlight the potential contribution of heavy metals to PM2.5 toxicity in environmental organisms.

  12. Spatio-temporal models to estimate daily concentrations of fine particulate matter in Montreal: Kriging with external drift and inverse distance-weighted approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yuddy; St-Onge, Benoît; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental and health problem, especially in urban agglomerations. Estimating personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) remains a great challenge because it requires numerous point measurements to explain the daily spatial variation in pollutant levels. Furthermore, meteorological variables have considerable effects on the dispersion and distribution of pollutants, which also depends on spatio-temporal emission patterns. In this study we developed a hybrid interpolation technique that combined the inverse distance-weighted (IDW) method with Kriging with external drift (KED), and applied it to daily PM2.5 levels observed at 10 monitoring stations. This provided us with downscaled high-resolution maps of PM2.5 for the Island of Montreal. For the KED interpolation, we used spatio-temporal daily meteorological estimates and spatial covariates as land use and vegetation density. Different KED and IDW daily estimation models for the year 2010 were developed for each of the six synoptic weather classes. These clusters were developed using principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical classification. The results of the interpolation models were assessed with a leave-one-station-out cross-validation. The performance of the hybrid model was better than that of the KED or the IDW alone for all six synoptic weather classes (the daily estimate for R(2) was 0.66-0.93 and for root mean square error (RMSE) 2.54-1.89 μg/m(3)).

  13. Fine particulate matter leads to reproductive impairment in male rats by overexpressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi-Ning; Yan, Chao; Liu, Dong-Yao; Peng, Jin-Pu; Chen, Jin-Jun; Zhou, Yue; Long, Chun-Lan; He, Da-Wei; Lin, Tao; Shen, Lian-Ju; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-17

    Maintenance of male reproductive function depends on normal sperm generation during which process Sertoli cells play a vital role. Studies found that fine particulate matter (PM) causes decreased male sperm quality, mechanism of which unestablished. We aim to investigate the definite mechanism of PM impairment on male reproduction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily exposed to normal saline (NS) or PM2.5 with the doses of 9 mg/kg.b.w and 24 mg/kg.b.w. via intratracheal instillation for seven weeks. Reproductive function was tested by mating test and semen analysis after last exposure. Testes were collected to assess changes in histomorphology, and biomarkers including connexin 43 (Cx43), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt). Male rats exposed to PM2.5 showed noticeable decreased fertility, significantly reduced sperm count, increased sperm abnormality rate and severe testicular damage in histomorphology. After PM2.5 exposure, the levels of Cx43 was significantly downregulated, and SOD was upregulated and downregulated significantly with different dose, respectively. Protein expression of PI3K and p-Akt dramatically enhanced, and the later one being located in Sertoli cells, the upward or declining trend was in dose dependent. PM2.5 exposure leads to oxidative stress impairment via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on male reproduction in rats.

  14. A quantitative assessment of source contributions to fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated and hydroxylated derivatives in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiqiu; Cheng, Yubo; Qiu, Xinghua; Lin, Yan; Cao, Jing; Hu, Di

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives are of great concern due to their adverse health effects. However, source identification and apportionment of these compounds, particularly their nitrated and hydroxylated derivatives (i.e., NPAHs and OHPAHs), in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Hong Kong are still lacking. In this study, we conducted a 1-year observation at an urban site in Hong Kong. PM2.5-bound PAHs and their derivatives were measured, with median concentrations of 4590, 44.4 and 31.6 pg m(-3) for ∑21PAHs, ∑13NPAHs, and ∑12OHPAHs, respectively. Higher levels were observed on regional pollution days than on long regional transport (LRT) or local emission days. Based on positive matrix factorization analysis, four sources were determined: marine vessels, vehicle emissions, biomass burning, and a mixed source of coal combustion and NPAHs secondary formation. Coal combustion and biomass burning were the major sources of PAHs, contributing over 85% of PAHs on regional and LRT days. Biomass burning was the predominant source of OHPAHs throughout the year, while NPAHs mainly originated from secondary formation and fuel combustion. For benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-based PM2.5 toxicity, the mixed source of coal combustion and NPAHs secondary formation was the major contributor, followed by biomass burning and vehicle emissions.

  15. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter respiratory disease remain inconsistent. The short-term, population-based association between the respiratory clinic visits of children and PM2.5 exposure levels were investigated by considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. This analysis was separately performed on three respiratory disease categories that were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance database, which includes 41 districts in the Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air pollution on human health.

  16. Porous Ca-based bead sorbents for simultaneous removal of SO₂, fine particulate matters, and heavy metals from pilot plant sewage sludge incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yosep; Hwang, Gukhwa; Kim, Donghyun; Park, Soyeon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a porous calcium-based sorbent was prepared for simultaneous removal of SO2, particulate matter (PM), and heavy metals generated during incineration of sewage sludge. The prepared sorbent was confirmed to have a 3-dimensional-network pore structure, a high specific surface area of 68.5m(2)/g, and gas permeability of 1.12 × 10(-10)m(2). Laboratory-scale tests indicated that there was an improvement in the performance of SO2 removal as the porosity and the specific surface area of the sorbent increased. Additionally, increasing reaction temperature led to greater SO2 removal. Meanwhile, the SL-4 and LS-3 sorbents prepared in this study were installed for operation during pilot tests treating the sewage sludge combustion gas generated by a fluidized incinerator in order to compare and evaluate their feasibility for use in industrial applications. The results showed that the reactivity between SO2 and the starting material of the sorbent (Ca(OH)2>CaCO3), as well as the high specific surface area of the sorbent, were confirmed to be critical factors that improved the performance of SO2 removal. Notably, the results confirmed that both fine PM (≤ 1 μm) and heavy metals were simultaneously removed with increasing efficiency over the time of operation.

  17. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  18. Mercury, trace elements and organic constituents in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA: A combined approach to sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Engle, M.A.; Orem, W.H.; Bunnell, J.E.; Lerch, H.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; McCord, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with U.S. air quality regulatory standards for atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is based on meeting average 24 hour (35 ?? m-3) and yearly (15 ??g m-3) mass-per-unit-volume limits, regardless of PM2.5 composition. Whereas this presents a workable regulatory framework, information on particle composition is needed to assess the fate and transport of PM2.5 and determine potential environmental/human health impacts. To address these important non-regulatory issues an integrated approach is generally used that includes (1) field sampling of atmospheric particulate matter on filter media, using a size-limiting cyclone, or with no particle-size limitation; and (2) chemical extraction of exposed filters and analysis of separate particulate-bound fractions for total mercury, trace elements and organic constituents, utilising different USGS laboratories optimised for quantitative analysis of these substances. This combination of sampling and analysis allowed for a more detailed interpretation of PM2.5 sources and potential effects, compared to measurements of PM2.5 abundance alone. Results obtained using this combined approach are presented for a 2006 air sampling campaign in Shenandoah National Park (Virginia, USA) to assess sources of atmospheric contaminants and their potential impact on air quality in the Park. PM2.5 was collected at two sampling sites (Big Meadows and Pinnacles) separated by 13.6 km. At both sites, element concentrations in PM2.5 were low, consistent with remote or rural locations. However, element/Zr crustal abundance enrichment factors greater than 10, indicating anthropogenic input, were found for Hg, Se, S, Sb, Cd, Pb, Mo, Zn and Cu, listed in decreasing order of enrichment. Principal component analysis showed that four element associations accounted for 84% of the PM 2.5 trace element variation; these associations are interpreted to represent: (1) crustal sources (Al, REE); (2) coal combustion (Se, Sb), (3) metal production

  19. [Variation characteristics of fine particulate matter PM2.5 concentration in three urban recreational forests in Hui Mountain of Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Yan-Ying; Wang, Qian

    2013-09-01

    It is of significance to understand the controlling effects of urban forest on atmospheric fine particulate matter PM2.5 pollution. This paper monitored the variations of atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in three typical urban recreational forests (Cinnamomum camphora, Pinus elliotii, and Quercus variabilis ) in the Hui Mountain of Wuxi City during the day time (5:00 am-19:00 pm) in autumn and winter, 2011 and in spring and summer, 2012. The meteorological factors were observed simultaneously. The average annual PM2.5 concentration in the three recreational forests was lower than that above the nearby roads, and this concentration in C. camphora and P. elliotii forests was lower than that in Q. variabilis forest. The average annual PM2.5 concentration in the forests and above the nearby roads was lower than the background value in the downtown area of the City. The PM2.5 concentration in the three recreational forests was the lowest in summer, followed by in autumn, and the highest in spring. In addition, the PM2.5 concentration was the lowest in P. elliotii forest in spring, summer, and winter, and in C. camphora forest in autumn, but relatively higher in Q. variabilis forest in all seasons. The diurnal variation of the PM2.5 concentration in the three forests in four seasons all showed nearly "one peak and one vale", with the peak and vale appeared at 7:00-9:00 and 15:00-19:00, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration was significantly correlated with the air moisture and temperature in four seasons, and significantly correlated with the light intensity in winter. Mild winds throughout the seasons had little effects on the PM2.5 concentration.

  20. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Indoor and Outdoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Retirement Communities of the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Delfino, Ralph J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted at three retirement homes in the Los Angeles Basin during two separate phases (cold and warm) between 2005 and 2006. Indoor-to-outdoor relationships of PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined and sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were evaluated using a molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model. Indoor levels of elemental carbon (EC) along with metals and trace elements were found to be significantly affected by outdoor sources. EC, in particular, displayed very high indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) mass ratios accompanied by strong I/O correlations, illustrating the significant impact of outdoor sources on indoor levels of EC. Similarly, indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes were strongly correlated with their outdoor components and displayed I/O ratios close to unity. On the other hand, concentrations of n-alkanes and organic acids inside the retirement communities were dominated by indoor sources (e.g. food cooking and consumer products), as indicated by their I/O ratios, which exceeded unity. Source apportionment results revealed that vehicular emissions were the major contributor to both indoor and outdoor PM2.5, accounting for 39 and 46% of total mass, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of vehicular sources to indoor levels was generally comparable to its corresponding outdoor estimate. Other water-insoluble organic matter (other WIOM), which accounts for emissions from uncharacterized primary biogenic sources, displayed a wider range of contributions, varying from 2 to 73% of PM2.5, across all sites and phases of the study. Lastly, higher indoor than outdoor contribution of other water-soluble organic matter (other WSOM) was evident at some of the sites, suggesting the production of secondary aerosols as well as direct emissions from primary sources (including cleaning or other consumer products) at the

  1. Intrauterine exposure to fine particulate matter as a risk factor for increased susceptibility to acute broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A; Perera, Frederica P; Spengler, John D; Mroz, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Flak, Elżbieta; Majewska, Renata; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-07-01

    Over the last decades many epidemiologic studies considered the morbidity patterns for respiratory diseases and lung function of children in the context of ambient air pollution usually measured in the postnatal period. The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood. The study included 214 children who had measurements of personal prenatal PM2.5 exposure and regularly collected data on the occurrence of acute bronchitis and pneumonia diagnosed by a physician from birth over the seven-year follow-up. The effect of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was adjusted in the multivariable logistic models for potential confounders, such as prenatal and postnatal ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), city residence area as a proxy of postnatal urban exposure, children's sensitization to domestic aeroallergens, and asthma. In the subgroup of children with available PM2.5 indoor levels, the effect of prenatal exposure was additionally adjusted for indoor exposure as well. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for incidence of recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections (five or more spells of bronchitis and/or pneumonia) recorded in the follow-up significantly correlated in a dose-response manner with the prenatal PM2.5 level (OR=2.44, 95%CI: 1.12-5.36). In conclusion, the study suggests that prenatal exposure to PM2.5 increases susceptibility to respiratory infections and may program respiratory morbidity in early childhood. The study also provides evidence that the target value of 20μg/m(3) for the 24-h mean level of PM2.5 protects unborn babies better than earlier established EPA guidelines.

  2. Benefits of Decreased Mortality Risk from Reductions in Primary Mobile Source Fine Particulate Matter: A Limited Data Approach for Urban Areas Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Susan L; Belova, Anna; Huang, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We developed an approach to estimate the public health benefits resulting from transportation projects or environmental actions that reduce mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in select urban areas worldwide when input data are limited or when a rapid order-of-magnitude assessment is needed. For a given reduction in direct PM2.5 emissions, we can use this approach to quantify (1) the subsequent reduction in ambient primary PM2.5 concentration in the urban area; (2) the public health benefits associated with mortality risk reductions, measured in terms of avoided premature deaths; and (3) the economic value of the reduced mortality risk. To illustrate our approach, we estimated the impact of a 100-metric-ton reduction in primary PM2.5 mobile source emissions in the year 2010 for 42 large, global cities. Our estimates of public health benefits and their economic value varied by city, as did the sensitivity to key assumptions and inputs. The estimated number of premature deaths avoided per 100-metric-ton reduction in PM2.5 emissions ranged from 12 to 202. City-level variability in these estimates was driven by the magnitude of the reduction in ambient PM2.5 concentration, the size of the urban population, and the baseline PM2.5 concentration. The economic value of mortality risk reductions per 100-metric-ton reduction in PM2.5 emissions ranged from $2 million to $328 million in 2010 U.S. dollars. Income per capita was the most important driver of the variability in the economic values across countries.

  3. Comparison of speciation sampler and PC-BOSS fine particulate matter organic material results obtained in Lindon, Utah, during winter 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cory; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Olson, Neal; Long, Russell W

    2008-01-01

    The Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) has been previously verified as being capable of measuring total fine particulate matter (PM2.5), including semi-volatile species. The present study was conducted to determine if the simple modification of a commercial speciation sampler with a charcoal denuder followed by a filter pack containing a quartz filter and a charcoal-impregnated glass (CIG) fiber filter would allow for the measurement of total PM2.5, including semi-volatile organic material. Data were collected using an R&P (Rupprecht and Pastasnik Co., Inc.) Partisol Model 2300 speciation sampler; an R&P Partisol speciation sampler modified with a BOSS denuder, followed by a filter pack with a quartz and a CIG filter; a Met One spiral aerosol speciation sampler (SASS); and the PC-BOSS from November 2001 to March 2002 at a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) sampling site in Lindon, UT. Total PM2.5 mass, ammonium nitrate (both nonvolatile and semi-volatile), ammonium sulfate, organic carbon (both non-volatile and semi-volatile), and elemental carbon were determined on a 24-hr basis. Results obtained with the individual samplers were compared to determine the capability of the modified R&P speciation sampler for measuring total PM2.5, including semi-volatile components. Data obtained with the modified speciation sampler agreed with the PC-BOSS results. Data obtained with the two unmodified speciation samplers were low by an average of 26% because of the loss of semi-volatile organic material from the quartz filter during sample collection.

  4. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system, and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM 2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO 2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50 m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO 2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  5. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, S. E.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Zeinali, M.; Minjares, R.

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM2.5) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m-3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants.

  6. Near-road enhancement and solubility of fine and coarse particulate matter trace elements near a major interstate in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Michelle M.; Burke, Janet M.; Norris, Gary A.; Kovalcik, Kasey D.; Pancras, J. Patrick; Landis, Matthew S.

    2016-11-01

    Communities near major roadways are disproportionately affected by traffic-related air pollution which can contribute to adverse health outcomes. The specific role of particulate matter (PM) from traffic sources is not fully understood due to complex emissions processes and physical/chemical properties of PM in the near-road environment. To investigate the spatial profile and water solubility of elemental PM species near a major roadway, filter-based measurements of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) PM were simultaneously collected at multiple distances (10 m, 100 m, and 300 m) from Interstate I-96 in Detroit, Michigan during September-November 2010. Filters were extracted in water, followed by a hot acid extraction, and analyzed by magnetic sector field high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS) to quantify water-soluble and acid-soluble trace elements for each PM size fraction. PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 species measured in the near-road samples included elements associated with traffic activity, local industrial sources, and regional pollution. Metals indicative of brake wear (Ba, Cu) were dramatically enriched near the roadway during downwind conditions (factor of 5 concentration increase), with the largest increase within 100 m of the roadway. Moderate near-roadway increases were observed for crustal elements and other traffic-related PM (Fe, Ca), and the lowest increases observed for regional PM species (S). Water solubility varied by PM species and size, and for PM2.5 included highly (S, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ba), moderately (Cu, Mn, Sb, Pb), and minimally (Fe, Ti) water-soluble species, with lower water solubility for most species in PM10-2.5. Results from this study indicate that water-soluble PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 metals, particularly from brake/tire wear, were enhanced in the near-roadway environment which may have human health implications.

  7. 环境空气颗粒物及其组分对呼吸系统健康的影响%Impacts of airborne particulate matter and its components on respiratory system health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽敏; 周芸; 张庄; 孙维伟; 穆阁; 陈卫红

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, particulate air pollution has been a global environmental problem. Numerous studies has shown that long-term exposure to high level of airborne particulate matter (PM) can damage human health. Respiratory system, as a direct portal to contact with particulate matter, can be more susceptible to airborne particulates. Summarizing latest five-year epidemiological research, the present review is focused on the effects of PM on respiratory system health in different age groups. In detail, we investigated the harmful effect of PM, or its components on three common respiratory diseases, including lung function decline, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. The result showed that, to a certain degree, PM could induce the decline of lung function, the development and the exacerbation of COPD and asthma by oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. And it may prompt that exposure to PM can be an improtant risk factor for the respiratory system health.%空气颗粒物(PM)污染目前已成为全球环境问题。大量研究表明,长期暴露于高水平PM会损害人类健康。而呼吸系统作为人体接触外界PM的门户,受到环境PM的危害更为严重。本文结合近期国内外人群的流行病学调查资料,分别对PM暴露对不同年龄层人群呼吸系统健康的影响进行综述,探讨了颗粒物或其组分对人体肺功能改变、慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)以及哮喘影响。结果发现在一定程度上PM可通过氧化应激和炎性反应等作用引起肺功能的下降,也可引起COPD发病,加快哮喘的病程进展,提示PM的暴露可能是影响呼吸系统健康的一个重要危险因素。

  8. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: A case study of Irish Sea beaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, A.J., E-mail: Alan.Cresswell@glasgow.ac.uk; Sanderson, D.C.W.

    2012-10-15

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16 l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq {sup 137}Cs within large areas (10-20 km{sup 2} h{sup -1}), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15 m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km{sup 2} h{sup -1} can detect buried {sup 137}Cs sources of 0.5 MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq {sup 137}Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at < 15 m ground clearance and < 2 m s{sup -1} ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Validated Monte Carlo simulations used to model mobile gamma spectrometry

  9. Association of cardiopulmonary health effects with source-appointed ambient fine particulate in Beijing, China: a combined analysis from the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation (HVNR) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Wei, Hongying; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Hao, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Qin, Yu; Lv, Haibo; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Xinbiao

    2014-03-18

    Previous studies have associated ambient particulate chemical constituents with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects. However, specific pollution sources behind the cardiopulmonary health effects of ambient particles are uncertain. We examined the cardiopulmonary health effects of fine particles (PM2.5) from different pollution sources in Beijing, China, among a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study subjects were repeatedly examined for a series of cardiopulmonary health indicators during three 2-month-long study periods (suburban period, urban period 1, and urban period 2) in 2010-2011 before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution levels and contents. Daily ambient PM2.5 mass samples were collected over the study and measured for 29 chemical constituents in the laboratory. Source appointment for ambient PM2.5 was performed using Positive Matrix Factorization, and mixed-effects models were used to estimate the cardiopulmonary effects associated with source-specific PM2.5 concentrations. Seven PM2.5 sources were identified as traffic emissions (12.0%), coal combustion (22.0%), secondary sulfate/nitrate (30.2%), metallurgical emission (0.4%), dust/soil (12.4%), industry (6.9%), and secondary organic aerosol (9.9%). Ambient PM2.5 in the suburban campus had larger contributions from secondary sulfate/nitrate (41.8% vs. 22.9%-26.0%) and metallurgical emission (0.7% vs. 0.3%) as compared to that in the urban campus), whereas PM2.5 in the urban campus had larger contributions from traffic emissions (13.0%-16.3% vs. 5.1%), coal combustion (21.0%-30.7% vs. 10.7%), and secondary organic aerosol (9.7%-12.0% vs. 8.7%) as compared to that in the suburban campus. Potential key sources were identified for PM2.5 effects on inflammatory biomarkers (secondary sulfate/nitrate and dust/soil), blood pressure (coal combustion and metallurgical emission), and pulmonary function (dust/soil and industry). Analyses using another

  10. Impacts of historical climate and land cover changes on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Tai, Amos P. K.; Liao, Hong

    2016-08-01

    To examine the effects of changes in climate, land cover and land use (LCLU), and anthropogenic emissions on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia, we perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data. Our results indicate that climate change alone could lead to a decrease in wintertime PM2.5 concentration by 4.0-12.0 µg m-3 in northern China, but to an increase in summertime PM2.5 by 6.0-8.0 µg m-3 in those regions. These changes are attributable to the changing chemistry and transport of all PM2.5 components driven by long-term trends in temperature, wind speed and mixing depth. The concentration of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is simulated to increase by 0.2-0.8 µg m-3 in both summer and winter in most regions of East Asia due to climate change alone, mostly reflecting higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions under warming. The impacts of LCLU change alone on PM2.5 (-2.1 to +1.3 µg m-3) are smaller than that of climate change, but among the various components the sensitivity of SOA and thus organic carbon to LCLU change (-0.4 to +1.2 µg m-3) is quite significant especially in summer, which is driven mostly by changes in biogenic VOC emissions following cropland expansion and changing vegetation density. The combined impacts show that while the effect of climate change on PM2.5 air quality is more pronounced, LCLU change could offset part of the climate effect in some regions but exacerbate it in others. As a result of both climate and LCLU changes combined, PM2.5 levels are estimated to change by -12.0 to +12.0 µg m-3 across East Asia between the two periods. Changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating PM2.5 air quality in East Asia during the study period, but climate and LCLU changes could lead to a substantial

  11. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  13. Fine particulate air pollution and the progression of carotid intima-medial thickness: a prospective cohort study from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D Adar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has been linked to cardiovascular disease, possibly via accelerated atherosclerosis. We examined associations between the progression of the intima-medial thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery, as an indicator of atherosclerosis, and long-term PM2.5 concentrations in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. METHODS AND RESULTS: MESA, a prospective cohort study, enrolled 6,814 participants at the baseline exam (2000-2002, with 5,660 (83% of those participants completing two ultrasound examinations between 2000 and 2005 (mean follow-up: 2.5 years. PM2.5 was estimated over the year preceding baseline and between ultrasounds using a spatio-temporal model. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were examined using mixed models adjusted for confounders including age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic indicators. Among 5,362 participants (5% of participants had missing data with a mean annual progression of 14 µm/y, 2.5 µg/m(3 higher levels of residential PM2.5 during the follow-up period were associated with 5.0 µm/y (95% CI 2.6 to 7.4 µm/y greater IMT progressions among persons in the same metropolitan area. Although significant associations were not found with IMT progression without adjustment for metropolitan area (0.4 µm/y [95% CI -0.4 to 1.2 µm/y] per 2.5 µg/m(3, all of the six areas showed positive associations. Greater reductions in PM2.5 over follow-up for a fixed baseline PM2.5 were also associated with slowed IMT progression (-2.8 µm/y [95% CI -1.6 to -3.9 µm/y] per 1 µg/m(3 reduction. Study limitations include the use of a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis, some loss to follow-up, and the lack of estimates for air pollution concentrations prior to 1999. CONCLUSIONS: This early analysis from MESA suggests that higher long-term PM2.5 concentrations are associated with increased IMT progression and that greater reductions in PM2.5 are

  14. Photoacoustic study of airborne and model aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebic-Juretic, A.; Zetsch, C.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particulates of either natural or anthropogenic origin constitute a significant portion of atmospheric pollution. Environmental xenobiotics, among which are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, often adsorb to aerosols and as such are transported through the atmosphere w

  15. Proposal for a European standard dealing with measuring methods for fine particulate emissions of solid-fuel fired furnaces; Vorschlag einer europaeischen Staubmessnorm fuer Feststoff-Feuerstaetten - Ausarbeitung und Untersuchung eines Typenpruef-Messverfahrens fuer Staubemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaegauf, Ch. [Oekozentrum, Langenbruck (Switzerland); Griffin, T. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz/ITFE, Muttenz (Switzerland)

    2007-10-15

    The European standards for type testing of solid fuel burning appliances require only the measurement of carbon monoxide emissions. Many European countries urge the standardisation committees to establish standards for the regulation of fine particulate emissions from flue gases since they face exceeding threshold values of particulate matter in the ambient air. The Technical Committee CEN/TC 295 for the standardisation of solid fuel burning appliances assigned the Centre for Appropriate Technology in Langenbruck, Switzerland with the development of a European Technical Specification (CEN TS) for the determination of particulate emission. The new draft of the TS is based on constant volume sampling (CVS) of the entire flue gas flow in a dilution tunnel. The scientific research has been done in the Swiss test laboratory for solid fuel burning appliances and boilers at the University of Applied Sciences, in Basle. The TS is designed in such a way that it can be integrated into the test cycles required by various European standards. The investigation covered work on parameters such as dilution factor, sampling temperature and isokinetics. Tests with a wood log burning appliance and a pellet stove showed that emissions in the dilution tunnel were between 7% and 26% for the pellet stove and from 40% up to 160% higher if they were sampled directly from the stack using heated gravimetric filters. It was demonstrated that the differences between the emissions seen in the dilution tunnel and those from the stack increased along with increasing levels of incomplete combustion. (author)

  16. Near-road enhancement and solubility of fine and coarse particulate matter trace elements near a major interstate in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities near major roadways are disproportionately affected by traffic-related air pollution which can contribute to adverse health outcomes. The specific role of particulate matter (PM) from traffic sources is not fully understood due to complex emissions processes and physi...

  17. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  18. Fine particulate matter measurements in Swiss restaurants, cafés and bars: what is the effect of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, A.; Kooijman, C.; Breuer, M.; Bohler, P.; Zund, T.; Wenk, S.; Roosli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed 124 measurements of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 95 hospitality venues such as restaurants, bars, cafés, and a disco, which had differing smoking regulations. We evaluated the impact of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas on mean PM(2.5) concentration, taking rel

  19. Exposure to fine particulate matter during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth among women in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter ≤ 2.5 um in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB). • OBJECTIVE: We classified PTB into four categories (20-27, 28-31, 32-34, and 35-36 weeks completed gestation) and estimated risk differences (RDs) f...

  20. Speciation of nickel in airborne particulate matter by means of sequential extraction in a micro flow system and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuichtjohann, L; Jakubowski, N; Gladtke, D; Klocko, D; Broekaert, J A

    2001-12-01

    A four-stage sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of nickel has been applied to ambient aerosol samples. The determination of the soluble, sulfidic, metallic and oxidic Ni fractions in particulate matter was carried out by graphite furnace (electrothermal) atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). An EDTA solution, a mixture of diammonium citrate and hydrogen peroxide, and a KCuCl3 solution were used as leaching agents for the determination of the soluble, sulfidic and metallic species, respectively, and nitric acid was used for the determination of oxidic compounds after microwave digestion of particulate matter sampled on filters. A new micro scale filter holder placed in a closed flow injection analysis (FIA) system for use in nickel speciation by means of sequential extraction, and the results of the optimisation of the extraction conditions are described. The temperature program for ETAAS was optimised for all extraction solutions with the aid of temperature curves. Pyrolysis temperatures of 900. 600 and 1,000 degrees C were found to be optimum for EDTA, hydrogen peroxide plus ammonium citrate and KCuCl3-containing solutions, respectively. Airborne dust was sampled on lilters at two locations near to a metallurgical plant in Dortmund, Germany. Concentrations in the low ng m(-3) range down to the detections limits (0.1-0.3 ng m(-3)) and various nickel species were found to be present in the collected dust. The mean fractions of total nickel (sampling period of one month) were found to contain 36+20% of soluble, 6 +/- 4% of sulfidic, 11 +/- 15% of metallic and 48 +/- 18% of oxidic nickel.

  1. Characterization of trace metals of risk to human health in airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) at two sites in Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Ramírez-Muñiz, Martín; Carbajal-Romero, Patricia; Cosío-Ramírez, Ricardo; Esquivel-Hernández, Benjamín

    2009-04-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two locations in Guadalajara: Centro and Miravalle, during 2007. The first site (Centro) is located downtown and characterized by high vehicular traffic. Miravalle is in the southern part of the city, and influenced by emissions from high industrial and vehicular activity. Samples were collected for 24 h and the annual median concentrations of PM2.5 observed were 44.1 and 52.8 microg m(-3) at Centro and Miravalle, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 observed at the Miravalle site was significantly higher (p Cluster Analysis and the enrichment factor (EF) based on the concentrations of each element indicated that the main source of particulates at Centro was of geological origin, while Miravalle receives emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Both contribute to the chemical composition of PM2.5 in Guadalajara.

  2. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects. December 1, 2016 - EPA proposes air quality determinations for eleven areas designated "nonattainment" for the 24-hour fine particle standards. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  3. Sub-parts-per-billion determination of nitro-substituted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter and soil by electron capture-Tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, M; Minero, C; Pelizzetti, E; Fontana, M; De Maria, R

    1996-12-01

    A procedure for the determination of nitro-substiruted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) on crude air-particulate and soil extracts is introduced. Elimination of purification and fractionation procedures was made possible by the use of both a selective ionization method, such as electron-capture chemical ionization, and a specific fragmentation process, in an experiment of tandem mass spectrometry (gas chromatography-electron capture tandem mass spectrometry). Different mass spectrometric procedures were compared. The best performance was observed when the nitro-PAH molecular ions [M](-) were mass-selected by the first analyzer under multiple reaction monitoring conditions and then fragmented to NO 2 (-) (m/z 46). Detection limits were on the order of hundreds of femtograms, as determined in extracts of real environmental samples. This corresponds approximately to 5-15 pg of nitro-PAH per cubic meter of air sampled. Calibration curves were linear over 3 orders of magnitude. Applications to contamination from motor vehicle combustion and the iron industry are briefly discussed.

  4. Evolving Pb isotope signatures of London airborne particulate matter (PM 10)-constraints from on-filter and solution-mode MC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Stephen R; Horstwood, Matthew S A; Davy, Pamela; Pashley, Vanessa; Spiro, Baruch; Smith, Steve

    2008-07-01

    Pb isotope compositions of biologically significant PM(10) atmospheric particulates from a busy roadside location in London UK were measured using solution- and laser ablation-mode MC-ICP-MS. The solution-mode data for PM(10) sampled between 1998-2001 document a dramatic shift to increasingly radiogenic compositions as leaded petrol was phased out. LA-MC-ICP-MS isotope analysis, piloted on a subset of the available samples, is shown to be a potential reconnaissance analytical technique. PM(10) particles trapped on quartz filters were liberated from the filter surface, without ablating the filter substrate, using a 266 nm UV laser and a dynamic, large diameter, low-fluence ablation protocol. The Pb isotope evolution noted in the London data set obtained by both analytical protocols is similar to that observed elsewhere in Western Europe following leaded petrol elimination. The data therefore provide important baseline isotope composition information useful for continued UK atmospheric monitoring through the early 21(st) century.

  5. Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie;

    2015-01-01

    To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF......), lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein-D (SPD) were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2...

  6. Fast inverse distance weighting-based spatiotemporal interpolation: a web-based application of interpolating daily fine particulate matter PM2:5 in the contiguous U.S. using parallel programming and k-d tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-09-03

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  7. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate

  8. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  9. Combined effects of exposure to dim light at night and fine particulate matter on C3H/HeNHsd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Matthew K; Kovalycsik, Taylor; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-11-01

    Air and light pollution contribute to fetal abnormalities, increase prevalence of cancer, metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A component of air pollution, particulate matter, and the phenomenon of dim light at night (dLAN) both result in neuroinflammation, which has been implicated in several CNS disorders. The combinatorial role of these pollutants on health outcomes has not been assessed. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, with intact melatonin production, were used to model humans exposed to circadian disruption by dLAN and contaminated environmental air. We hypothesized exposure to 2.5 μm of particulate matter (PM2.5) and dLAN (5lx) combines to upregulate neuroinflammatory cytokine expression and alter hippocampal morphology compared to mice exposed to filtered air (FA) and housed under dark nights (LD). We also hypothesized that exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN provokes anxiety-like and depressive-like responses. For four weeks, four groups of mice were simultaneously exposed to ambient concentrated PM2.5 or FA and/or dLAN or LD. Following exposure, mice underwent several behavioral assays and hippocampi were collected for qPCR and morphological analyses. Our results are generally comparable to previous PM2.5 and dLAN reports conducted on mice and implicate PM2.5 and dLAN as potential factors contributing to depression and anxiety. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN upregulated neuroinflammatory cytokines and altered CA1 hippocampal structural changes, as well as provoked depressive-like responses (anhedonia). However, combined, PM2.5 and dLAN exposure did not have additive effects, as hypothesized, suggesting a ceiling effect of neuroinflammation may exist in response to multiple pollutants.

  10. Seasonal and spatial variation of trace elements in multi-size airborne particulate matters of Beijing, China: Mass concentration, enrichment characteristics, source apportionment, chemical speciation and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiajia; Tian, Hezhong; Cheng, Ke; Lu, Long; Wang, Yuxuan; Wu, Ye; Zhu, Chuanyong; Liu, Kaiyun; Zhou, Junrui; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Jing; Hao, Jiming

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal and spatial variation characteristics of 19 elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Zn) in TSP/PM10/PM2.5 samples were investigated, which were collected from April 2011 to January 2012 simultaneously at an urban downtown site, a traffic roadside site, a suburban site, and a rural site in Beijing. The elevated concentrations of several toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, etc.) in particles revealed that the contamination of toxic elements in Beijing could not be neglected. Positive matrix factorization method (PMF) was applied for source apportionment of trace elements in PM, and three factors (crust related sources, combustion sources, and traffic and steel industrial related sources) were identified. Furthermore, the chemical speciation and bioavailability of various elements were identified by applying European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure. Our results showed that eight toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) exhibited higher mobility in PM2.5 than in PM10. Notably, elements of As, Cd, Pb and Zn were presented with higher mobility than the other elements, and these elements were lightly to release into the environment and easily available to human body. Additionally, As, Cd, Pb and Zn also accounted for higher percentages in the bound to mobile fractions at the central urban areas of Beijing. Therefore, special concerns should be paid to these toxic trace elements which had relatively high mobility in fine particles, when planning and implementing the comprehensive air pollution mitigation policies in Beijing.

  11. Seasonal variations and evidence for the effectiveness of pollution controls on water-soluble inorganic species in total suspended particulates and fine particulate matter from Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Arimoto, Richard; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Renjian; Li, Xuxiang; Du, Na; Okuda, Tomoaki; Nakao, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) samples were collected over Xi'an for a 1-yr period to characterize the seasonal variations of water-soluble inorganic ions and to evaluate the effectiveness of the pollution policies and controls during the past 10 yr. Mass concentrations of five cations (sodium [Na+], potassium [K+], ammonium [NH4+], calcium [Ca2+], and magnesium [Mg2+]) and four anions (fluoride [F-], chloride [Cl-], nitrate [NO3-], and sulfate [SO4(2-)]) were determined by ion chromatography. The yearly arithmetic-mean mass concentrations of the total measured water-soluble ions in TSP and PM2.5 were 83.9 +/- 58.4 and 45 +/- 34.3 microg x m(-3). The most abundant ions in TSP were SO4(2-), NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+; whereas in PM2.5 the dominant ions were SO4(2-), NH4 +, and NO3-. Most of the ions were more concentrated in the PM2.5 than in TSP, but two exceptions were Ca2+ and Mg2+. Comparisons of the molar ratios of Mg2+/Ca2+ in TSP indicated that fugitive dust was the main source for these two ions, and the influence of soil dust from outside of the city was most evident during dust storms. The mass concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3-, , NH4+, and K+ in TSP were highest in winter and lowest in spring, but Ca2+ was much higher in spring than other seasons because of suspended mineral dust. In PM2.5, NO3- and K+ also showed winter maxima, but SO4(2-) and NH4+ were highest in summer. Calculations of ion equivalents showed that TSP samples were more alkaline than PM2.5, the latter being weakly acidic in winter and autumn. High sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios occurred in summer and autumn, and there was evidence for the formation of ammonium bisulfate in TSP, ammonium sulfate in PM2.5, and ammonium nitrate in both fractions. Comparisons with the results of prior studies indicate that pollution controls in Xi'an have reduced the levels of air pollution over the past 10 yr. The SO4

  12. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław A. Jędrychowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fi ne particulate matter (PM2.5 and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measured in non-asthmatic children. Material and Methods: The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fi ne particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. Results: The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive signifi cant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042. The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58–2.66 ppm than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47–1.73 ppm and the difference was statistically signifi cant (p = 0.036. As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057. In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children’s cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Conclusion: Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to

  13. Spatiotemporal Interpolation Methods for the Application of Estimating Population Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in the Contiguous U.S. and a Real-Time Web Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate spatiotemporal interpolation is critical to the assessment of relationships between environmental exposures and health outcomes. A powerful assessment of human exposure to environmental agents would incorporate spatial and temporal dimensions simultaneously. This paper compares shape function (SF-based and inverse distance weighting (IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods on a data set of PM2.5 data in the contiguous U.S. Particle pollution, also known as particulate matter (PM, is composed of microscopic solids or liquid droplets that are so small that they can get deep into the lungs and cause serious health problems. PM2.5 refers to particles with a mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers. Based on the error statistics results of k-fold cross validation, the SF-based method performed better overall than the IDW-based method. The interpolation results generated by the SF-based method are combined with population data to estimate the population exposure to PM2.5 in the contiguous U.S. We investigated the seasonal variations, identified areas where annual and daily PM2.5 were above the standards, and calculated the population size in these areas. Finally, a web application is developed to interpolate and visualize in real time the spatiotemporal variation of ambient air pollution across the contiguous U.S. using air pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s AirNow program.

  14. Spatiotemporal Interpolation Methods for the Application of Estimating Population Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in the Contiguous U.S. and a Real-Time Web Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Zhou, Xiaolu; Kalo, Marc; Piltner, Reinhard

    2016-07-25

    Appropriate spatiotemporal interpolation is critical to the assessment of relationships between environmental exposures and health outcomes. A powerful assessment of human exposure to environmental agents would incorporate spatial and temporal dimensions simultaneously. This paper compares shape function (SF)-based and inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods on a data set of PM2.5 data in the contiguous U.S. Particle pollution, also known as particulate matter (PM), is composed of microscopic solids or liquid droplets that are so small that they can get deep into the lungs and cause serious health problems. PM2.5 refers to particles with a mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers. Based on the error statistics results of k-fold cross validation, the SF-based method performed better overall than the IDW-based method. The interpolation results generated by the SF-based method are combined with population data to estimate the population exposure to PM2.5 in the contiguous U.S. We investigated the seasonal variations, identified areas where annual and daily PM2.5 were above the standards, and calculated the population size in these areas. Finally, a web application is developed to interpolate and visualize in real time the spatiotemporal variation of ambient air pollution across the contiguous U.S. using air pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AirNow program.

  15. Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gabriela Karottki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF, lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16 and surfactant protein-D (SPD were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC, weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity.

  16. Inhibition of the WNT/β-catenin pathway by fine particulate matter in haze: Roles of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Yun; Cao, Jun-Ji; Lee, Chii-Hong; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huynh, Thanh-Tuan; Han, Yong-Ming; Li, Xiang-Dong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-05-01

    Air pollution might have a great impact on pulmonary health, but biological evidence in response to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in size (PM2.5) has been lacking. Physicochemical characterization of haze PM2.5 collected from Beijing, Xian and Hong Kong was performed. Biological pathways were identified by proteomic profiling in mouse lungs, suggesting that WNT/β-catenin is important in the response to haze PM2.5. Suppression of β-catenin levels, activation of caspase-3 and alveolar destruction, as well as IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ production, were observed in the lungs. The inhibition of β-catenin, TCF4 and cyclin D1 was observed in vitro in response to haze PM2.5. The inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling, apoptosis-related results (caspase-3 and alveolar destruction), and inflammation, particularly including caspase-3 and alveolar destruction, were more highly associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze PM2.5. In conclusion, decreased WNT/β-catenin expression modulated by haze PM2.5 could be involved in alveolar destruction and inflammation during haze episodes.

  17. Hypersensitivity of prediabetic JCR:LA-cp rats to fine airborne combustion particle-induced direct and noradrenergic-mediated vascular contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Spencer D; Dreher, Kevin L; Kelly, Sandra E; Russell, James C

    2006-04-01

    Particulate matter with mean aerodynamic diameter JCR:LA-cp rat. Residual oil fly ash leachate (ROFA-L) was studied using aortic rings from young-adult, obese, insulin-resistant rats and lean normal rats in vitro. Contractile response to phenylephrine and relaxant response to acetylcholine were determined in the presence and absence of L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). In a separate series of studies, the direct contractile effects of ROFA-L on repeated exposure were determined. ROFA-L (12.5 microg ml(-1)) increased phenylephrine-mediated contraction in obese (p < 0.05), but not in lean rat aortae, with the effect being exacerbated by L-NAME, and it reduced acetylcholine-mediated relaxation of both obese and lean aortae (p < 0.0001). Initial exposure of aortae to ROFA-L caused a small contractile response (<0.05 g), which was markedly greater on second exposure in the obese (approximately 0.6 g, p < 0.0001) aortae but marginal in lean (approximately 0.1 g) aortae. Our data demonstrate that bioavailable constituents of oil combustion particles enhance noradrenergic-mediated vascular contraction, impair endothelium-mediated relaxation, and induce direct vasocontraction in prediabetic rats. These observations provide the first direct evidence of the causal properties of PM(2.5) and identify the pathophysiological role of the early prediabetic state in susceptibility to environmentally induced cardiovascular disease. These are important implications for public health and public policy.

  18. 厦门冬季PM2.5颗粒物中细菌和真核微型生物群落组成及其来源分析%Community composition and environmental sources of bacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms in fine air particulate (PM2.5) of Xiamen in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖旭; 胡安谊; 杨晓永; 陈进生; 于昌平; 林建清

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent frequent occurrence of fog and haze,the sources,components,migration and transformation of fine air particulate (PM2.5) have received increasing attention. However,little is known about microbial community associated with PM2.5. Here,we analyzed community composition and environmental sources of bacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms in PM2.5 using T-RFLP and clone library sequencing. Our results indicated that species richness of PM2.5 microbial communities assessed based on T-RFLP (i.e. TRF) were higher than those of clone libraries,implying that T-RFLP provide a sensitive and rapid approach to monitor airborne microbial community. Moreover,both of T-RFLP and clone library sequencing revealed highly diverse PM2.5 bacterial and eukaryotic microbial communities. BLAST analysis indicated that 2% of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and nearly half (42%) of eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene sequences from PM2.5 are distantly related to known sequences (<97% similarity). The results of RDP Classifier analysis indicated that PM2.5 bacterial community was mainly composed of Bacteroidetes,Actinobacteria,Firmicutes and Proteobacteria,accounting for 2.91%、10.68%、41.75%and 44.66%respectively,while PM2.5 eukaryotic microbial community were numerically dominated by Stramenopiles, Alveolata, Metazoa, Viridiplantae and Fungi, accounting for 5%、7%、15%、15%and 20%respectively. However, 39% of eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene sequences could not be assigned into any known eukaryotic phyla, suggesting that further studies are needed to shed light on eukaryotic airborne community. Taken together with the findings of a previous winter study investigating airborne microbial community in Xiamen, these results indicated that the airborne microbial community in Xiamen displays high temporal variation, and also airborne microbes may originate from various environments. Although Xiamen is a typical coastal city in China, freshwater, soils, sediments, wastewater and animal feces might be

  19. Incident Ischemic Heart Disease After Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Accounting for 2 Forms of Survivor Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Sadie; Neophytou, Andreas M; Brown, Daniel M; Noth, Elizabeth M; Hammond, S Katharine; Cullen, Mark R; Eisen, Ellen A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the heart disease risks associated with occupational, rather than traffic-related, exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5). We examined long-term exposure to PM2.5 in cohorts of aluminum smelters and fabrication workers in the United States who were followed for incident ischemic heart disease from 1998 to 2012, and we addressed 2 forms of survivor bias. Left truncation bias was addressed by restricting analyses to the subcohort hired after the start of follow up. Healthy worker survivor bias, which is characterized by time-varying confounding that is affected by prior exposure, was documented only in the smelters and required the use of marginal structural Cox models. When comparing always-exposed participants above the 10th percentile of annual exposure with those below, the hazard ratios were 1.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 2.52) and 3.95 (95% CI: 0.87, 18.00) in the full and restricted subcohorts of smelter workers, respectively. In the fabrication stratum, hazard ratios based on conditional Cox models were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.02) and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.37) per 1 mg/m(3)-year in the full and restricted subcohorts, respectively. Long-term exposure to occupational PM2.5 was associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease among aluminum manufacturing workers, particularly in smelters, after adjustment for survivor bias.

  20. Manganese minerals and associated fine particulates in the streambed of Pinal Creek, Arizona, U.S.A.: a mining-related acid drainage problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Carol J.; Hem, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Pinal creek drainage basin in Arizona is a good example of the principal non-coal source of mining-related acid drainage in the U.S.A., namely copper mining. Infiltration of drainage waters from mining and ore refining has created an acid groundwater plume that has reacted with calcite during passage through the alluvium, thereby becoming less acid. Where O2 is present and the water is partially neutralized, iron oxides have precipitated and, farther downstream where the pH of the stream water is near neutral, high-Mn crusts have developed. Trace metal composition of several phases in the Pinal Creek drainage basin illustrates the changes caused by mining activities and the significant control Mn-crusts and iron oxide deposits exert on the distribution and concentration of trace metals. The phases and locales considered are the dissolved phase of Webster Lake, a former acid waste disposal pond; selected sections of cores drilled in the alluvium within the intermittent reach of Pinal Creek; and the dissolved phase, suspended sediments, and streambed deposits at specified locales along the perennial reach of Pinal creek. In the perennial reach of Pinal Creek, manganese oxides precipitate from the streamflow as non-cemented particulates and coatings of streambed material and as cemented black crusts. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the non-cemented manganese oxides precipitate in the reaction sequence observed in previous laboratory experiments using simpler solution composition, Mn3O4 to MnOOH to an oxide of higher oxidation number usually silicates. ?? 1992.

  1. Methods for Characterizing Fine Particulate Matter Using Satellite Remote-Sensing Data and Ground Observations: Potential Use for Environmental Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Niskar, Amanda S.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental / hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC s) pilot study of Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta. It described a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM2.5 concentrations using B-Spline and inverse distance weighting (IDW) surfacing techniques and leveraging National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM2.5 from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM2.5 estimates derived from NASA s satellite data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM2.5 estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM2.5 not only provides a more complete daily representation of PM2.5 than either data set alone would allow, but it also reduces the errors in the PM2.5 estimated surfaces. The results of this paper have shown that the daily IDW PM2.5 surfaces had smaller errors, with respect to observations, than those of the B-Spline surfaces in the year studied. However the IDW mean annual composite surface had more numerical artifacts, which could be due to the interpolating nature of the IDW that assumes that the maxima and minima can occur only at the observation points. Finally, the methods discussed in this paper improve temporal and spatial resolutions and establish a foundation for environmental public health linkage and association studies for which determining the concentrations of an environmental hazard such as PM2.5 with good accuracy levels is critical.

  2. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  3. Urban airborne lead: X-ray absorption spectroscopy establishes soil as dominant source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Pingitore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the dramatic decrease in airborne lead over the past three decades, there are calls for regulatory limits on this potent pediatric neurotoxin lower even than the new (2008 US Environmental Protection Agency standard. To achieve further decreases in airborne lead, what sources would need to be decreased and what costs would ensue? Our aim was to identify and, if possible, quantify the major species (compounds of lead in recent ambient airborne particulate matter collected in El Paso, TX, USA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used synchrotron-based XAFS (x-ray absorption fine structure to identify and quantify the major Pb species. XAFS provides molecular-level structural information about a specific element in a bulk sample. Pb-humate is the dominant form of lead in contemporary El Paso air. Pb-humate is a stable, sorbed complex produced exclusively in the humus fraction of Pb-contaminated soils; it also is the major lead species in El Paso soils. Thus such soil must be the dominant source, and its resuspension into the air, the transfer process, providing lead particles to the local air. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current industrial and commercial activity apparently is not a major source of airborne lead in El Paso, and presumably other locales that have eliminated such traditional sources as leaded gasoline. Instead, local contaminated soil, legacy of earlier anthropogenic Pb releases, serves as a long-term reservoir that gradually leaks particulate lead to the atmosphere. Given the difficulty and expense of large-scale soil remediation or removal, fugitive soil likely constrains a lower limit for airborne lead levels in many urban settings.

  4. Exploiting Satellite Remote-Sensing Data in Fine Particulate Matter Characterization for Serving the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN): The HELIX-Atlanta Experience and NPOESS Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the U.S. National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) led a project in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects were conducted to develop methods to better characterize exposure; link health and environmental datasets; and analyze spatial/temporal relationships. This paper describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(sub 2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the CDC's pilot study of HELIX-Atlanta. It describes a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM(sub 2.5) concentrations using spatial surfacing techniques and leveraging NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM(sub 2.5) from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM(sub 2.5) estimates derived from NASA's MODIS data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM(sub 2.5) estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM(sub 2.5), may provide a more complete daily representation of PM(sub 2.5), than either data set alone would allow, and can reduce the errors in the PM(sub 2.5) estimated surfaces. Future work in this area should focus on combining MODIS column measurements with profile information provided by satellites like the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The Visible Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aerosol

  5. Short-term effects of fine particulate air pollution on emergency room visits for cardiac arrhythmias: a case-crossover study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Weng, Hsu-Huei; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between fine particles (PM₂.₅) levels and number of emergency room (ER) visits for cardiac arrhythmias in Taipei, Taiwan. ER visits for cardiac arrhythmias and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2006-2010. The relative risk (RR) of ER visits was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased numbers of ER cardiac arrhythmia visits were significantly associated with PM₂.₅ on both warm days (>23°C) and cool days (arrhythmias, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM₂.₅ levels remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) or ozone (O₃) on both warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM₂.₅ increase the risk of number of ER visits for cardiac arrhythmias.

  6. 地铁颗粒物PM2.5的SEM和微束XRF分析%Study on airborne particulate matter in PM2.5 in Shanghai city's subway by SEM and SR-XRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永兴; 包良满; 雷前涛

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the composition, morphology and structure of airborne particulate matter in PM2.5 in Shanghai city's subway and urban street were studied using SEM-EDS and synchrotron radiation technique micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (XRF). SEM results showed that subway particles had a flat surface in combination with parallel scratches and sharp edges and looked like metal sheets or flakes, whose morphology was obvious different from that of urban street particles. Furthermore, the atomic composition of typical subway particles was analyzed by EDS. The results showed that oxygen and iron dominated the mass of the particles. It is a relative airtight microenvironment for the people who works in the subway stations or takes the subways every day. The work suggested that great attentions should be paid to the influence of subway's particles on the health of people in subways.%采用扫描电镜和X-射线能谱分析(SEM-EDS)以及同步辐射X射线荧光分析(SR-XRF)技术,对地铁PM25颗粒物样品进行了形貌及元素成分分析.SEM结果表明地铁颗粒物形貌不同于室外颗粒物,地铁颗粒物粒径较大,形状不规则,具有片状刮擦特性.EDS分析表明地铁单颗粒物中Fe、O元素成分含量最高,铁氧化物是地铁颗粒物的主要成分.结果表明,地铁大气环境明显有别于地铁外环境,地铁在运行过程中产生了大量富含对人体有害的金属颗粒物.地铁环境对城市人群健康的影响需要引起重视.

  7. Stability under irradiation of a fine dispersion of oxides in a ferritic matrix; Stabilite sous irradiation de particules d'oxydes finement dispersees dans des alliages ferritiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnet, I

    1999-07-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels are being considered for high temperature, high fluence nuclear applications, like fuel pin cladding in Fast Breeder Reactors. ODS alloys offer improved out of pile strength characteristics at temperature above 550 deg.C and ferritic-martensitic matrix is highly swelling resistant. A clad in an ODS ferritic steel, call DY (Fe-13Cr-1,5Mo+TiO{sub 2}+Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been irradiated in the experimental reactor Phenix. Under irradiation oxide dissolution occurs. Microstructural observations indicated that oxide evolution is correlated with the dose and consist in four phenomena: the interfaces of oxide particles with the matrix become irregular, the uniform distribution of the finest oxide (< 20 nm) disappear, the modification of oxide composition, and a halo of fine oxides appear around the larger oxides. The use of such a material requires a study of oxide stability under irradiation, since the oxide particles provide the desired mechanical properties. The study is based on two types of alloys, the DY and four ferritic steels Fe-9Cr-1Mo reinforced by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO or MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. These materials were irradiated with charged particles in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of dissolution. Irradiation with 1 MeV Helium does not induce any modification, neither in the chemical modification of the particles nor in their spatial and size distribution. Since most of the energy of helium ions is lost by inelastic interaction, this result proves that this kind of interaction does not induce oxide dissolution. Irradiation with 1 MeV or 1.2 MeV electrons leads to a significant dissolution with a radius decrease proportional to the dose. These experiments prove that oxide dissolution can be induced by Frenkel pairs alone, provided that metallic atoms are displaced. The comparison between irradiation with ions (displacements cascades) and electrons (Frenkel

  8. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 yr−1 was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 yr−1 due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3 particles (0.1 μg m−3 yr−1 was attributed to the spatial variability of NH3 in Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with wildland fires in southeast and northwest US that are sensitive to climate changes. The four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its sources originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries along the coast. This approach allowed for quantitatively assessing the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of

  9. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 per year was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 per year due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3− particles (0.1 μg m−3 per year was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential

  10. Highly-resolved Modeling of Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Fine Particulate Matter in Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high-resolution data on air pollutant emissions and concentrations are needed to understand human exposures and for both policy and pollutant management purposes. An important step in this process is also quantification of uncertainties. We present a spatially explicit and highly resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah, and trace gas concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particles (PM2.5) within Salt Lake City. We assess the validity of this approach by comparing measured concentrations against simulated values derived from combining the emissions inventory with an atmospheric model. The emissions inventory for the criteria pollutants was constructed using the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual to hourly scales and from county-level to 500 m x 500 m resolution. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach for large roadway links with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were derived from automatic traffic responder data. The emissions inventory for CO2 was obtained from the Hestia emissions data product at an hourly, building, facility, and road link resolution. The AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion models were used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly temporal and 500 m x 500 m spatial resolution. Modeled results were compared against measurements from a mobile lab equipped with trace gas measurement equipment traveling on pre-determined routes in the Salt Lake City area. The comparison between both approaches to concentration estimation highlights spatial locations and hours of high variability/uncertainty. Results presented here will inform understanding of variability and

  11. Concentration, spatial and size distribution of airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria in broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adell, E.; Moset, V.; Yang Zhao, Yang; Cerisuelo, A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2011-01-01

    In livestock houses, particulate matter (PM) and airborne microorganism are two of the most relevant air pollutants. Particulate matter may carry microorganisms, the inhalation of which can cause detrimental health effects. The aim of this study was to study the spatial distribution of airborne aero

  12. Analysis methods for airborne radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ala-Heikkilä, Jarmo J

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is an analysis method well suitable for monitoring airborne radioactivity. Many of the natural radionuclides and a majority of anthropogenic nuclides are prominent gamma-ray emitters. With gamma-ray spectrometry different radionuclides are readily observed at minute concentrations that are far from health hazards. The gamma-ray spectrometric analyses applied in air monitoring programmes can be divided into particulate measurements and gas measurements. I...

  13. The Characteristics of deposition of airborne particulate matters with different size on certain plants%园林植物滞留不同粒径大气颗粒物的特征及规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松婷; 李新宇; 李延明

    2014-01-01

    为研究常用园林植物滞留大气颗粒物的能力,本文以北京市常用园林植物为例,应用直接采样、电镜分析和统计分析的方法,对选定园林植物滞留不同粒径大气颗粒物的特征及规律进行了系统分析。结果表明:(1)园林植物滞留的颗粒物形状为不规则块体、球体和聚合体,通过对比分析得出,滞留大气颗粒物能力由高到低的微形态结构依次是蜡质结构>绒毛>沟槽>条状突起,并且这些微形态结构越密集、深浅差别越大,越有利于滞留大气颗粒物。(2)以园林植物叶片滞留颗粒物的数量进行统计时,得出园林植物叶片表面大部分为PM10(Dp≤10μm),均在98%以上,而PM2.5(Dp≤2.5μm)均在90%以上,粗颗粒物(Dp>10μm)的数量对总体数量的贡献非常小,均在2%以下;以体积进行统计时,得出PM10的体积在总体积中的比例在50%以上,对颗粒物总体积贡献最大,滞留的PM2.5体积占总体积8.5%-17.6%,粗颗粒物(Dp>10μm)体积占总体积20%以上。(3)对园林植物滞留颗粒物累积规律分析得出:在相同观测叶面积下,园林植物滞尘10 d的叶表面颗粒物数量较滞尘5 d的叶表面颗粒物数量均有所增加,增幅最大的是小叶黄杨(Buxus microphylla),增幅最小的是月季(Rosa chinensis),通过方差分析得出绦柳(Salix matsudana f.pendula)叶表面颗粒物数量显著低于除银杏(Ginkgo biloba)之外的其它7种树种,大叶黄杨(Euonymus japonicus)、小叶黄杨和国槐( Sophora japonica)叶表面滞留颗粒物的数量较多,并且显著高于月季、银杏和绦柳叶表面滞留的颗粒物数量;滞尘10 d后园林植物叶表面滞留的颗粒物的总面积均未超过观测叶面积的25%,至于叶片持续滞留颗粒物多少天后达到饱和状态仍需进一步研究。%In order to research retention capacity of airborne

  14. Preparation of spherical fine particulate pigments within water-in-oil emulsions and their properties. (II). ; Formation mechanism and characteristic of spherical fine particulate pigment of tartrazine. W/O emulsion wo mochiita kyujo biryushi ganryo no chosei to seishitsu(dai 2 ho). ; Kiiro 4 go kyujo biryushi ganryo no seisei kiko to tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, T.; Iwano, K.; Hotta, H.; Takano, S.; Tsutsumi, H. (Kao Corporation, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-20

    The previous report explained that an excellent spherical particulate pigment with a grain size of 0.5 mm or less can be obtained by preparing multinuclear aluminum lakes from acidic dyes and multinuclear aluminum salt using water droplets in a W/O emulsion as reaction fields. This paper describes preparing pigments varying the charging concentrations of the pigments in a W/O emulsion and the droplet particle size to discuss the mechanism of forming the pigments. As a result, it was found that the particle sizes in the produced pigments have a clear correlation with the charging concentrations of the pigments and the droplet particle sizes in the W/O emulsion. A pigment produced in the W/O emulsion forms only in its own droplets, and reflects its particle sizes. Films dispersed with pigments having different particle sizes were prepared to discuss their tinting abilities, whereas it was clarified that the smaller the particle size, the higher the tinting ability and the higher saturation in colored paint films. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Toward Understanding Prevalence of Airborne Microorganisms in a Hot-Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hameed A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine prevalence of microorganisms in the air state and those associated particulate matter (PM in a hot arid environment (Makkah city, Saudi Arabia in relation to time of the day, PM concentration and meteorological conditions during the period between July and September 2014. PM and black smoke samples were collected on cellulose nitrate membrane filters during the daytime (8.00 am - 20.00 pm and the nighttime (20.00 pm - 8.00 am. PMs, filters were eluted in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soya agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes associated PM, respectively. Airborne microorganisms were collected using an Andersen two stage impactor sampler equipped with Petri plates containing the previously mentioned agar media. The Andersen two-stage viable cascade impactor sampler separates particles into coarse (≥8 µm and fine (≤8 µm size fractions. Airborne microorganisms were taken at three day time-scales: in the morning (8 am - 10 am, at the afternoon (13.00 pm - 16.00 pm and in the evening (22.00 pm - 1.00 am. The average concentrations of PM (149.5 µg/m3 and smoke (57.03 µg/m3 were higher in the daytime and nighttime, respectively. The greatest concentrations of microorganisms associated PM were found in the daytime, however the peak concentration of airborne microorganisms was found in the evening time. Fine microbial fraction constituted ~60% - 75.9% of the total microbial concentrations. Positive correlations were found between bacteria with PM concentration in the daytime and meteorological conditions at the nighttime. Temperature and relative humidity positively affected survivability of microorganisms associated PM at the nighttime and airborne fungi as well. This study helps understand distribution pattern of microorganisms in the atmosphere of a hot-arid environment.

  16. Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in the New York City Metropolitan area using Hierarchical Bayesian Model estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephanie A; Insaf, Tabassum Z; Hall, Eric S; Talbot, Thomas O; Huff, Amy K

    2016-11-01

    An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate concentrations. The general approach for research designed to analyze health impacts of exposure to PM2.5 is to use concentration data from the nearest ground-based air quality monitor(s), which typically have missing data on the temporal and spatial scales due to filter sampling schedules and monitor placement, respectively. To circumvent these data gaps, this research project uses a Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) to generate estimates of PM2.5 in areas with and without air quality monitors by combining PM2.5 concentrations measured by monitors, PM2.5 concentration estimates derived from satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, and Community-Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model predictions of PM2.5 concentrations. This methodology represents a substantial step forward in the approach for developing representative PM2.5 concentration datasets to correlate with inpatient hospitalizations and emergency room visits data for asthma and inpatient hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF) using case-crossover analysis. There were two key objective of this current study. First was to show that the inputs to the HBM could be expanded to include AOD data in addition to data from PM2.5 monitors and predictions from CMAQ. The second objective was to determine if inclusion of AOD surfaces in HBM model algorithms results in PM2.5 air pollutant concentration surfaces which more accurately predict hospital admittance and emergency room visits for MI, asthma, and HF. This study focuses on the New York City, NY metropolitan and surrounding areas during the 2004-2006 time period, in order to compare the health outcome impacts with those from previous studies and focus on any

  17. 妊娠期细颗粒物的暴露对胎儿影响的研究进展%Impact of Maternal Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter on Pregnancy Outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋苹; 邵勇

    2016-01-01

    近年来,已有大量临床研究、流行病学调查资料、动物研究结果等表明妊娠期孕妇细颗粒物(PM2.5)的暴露导致了死胎、流产、胎儿生长受限、低体质量儿、早产等不良妊娠结局,其具体致病机制目前尚不清楚。现有的研究表明,PM2.5导致的死胎、流产、先天畸形可能与其遗传毒性损伤作用有关,胎儿生长受限与PM2.5造成的胎盘功能障碍密切相关,而PM2.5所致的胎膜结构改变是未足月胎膜早破及早产的一个重要原因。以国内外发表的大量流行病学调查资料为基础,对妊娠期母体PM2.5的暴露对胎儿生长发育的影响进行综述。%Recently, it has been showed in clinical, epidemiological and animal studies that maternal exposure to air fine particulate matter during pregnancy can resulted in stillbirth, abortion, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, while the potential mechanisms is uncertain. As studies have proved, PM2.5 may cause DNA injury that leads to stillbirth, abortion and congenital abnormalities, it can also change the function of placenta to restrict fetal growth. Besides, PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy can also induce changes in the construction of placenta that may be a key point to preterm premature rupture of membrane and preterm birth. This review will provide a summary of the adverse pregnancy outcomes of PM2.5 exposure on the developing fetus.

  18. Cytotoxicity to alveolar macrophages of airborne particles and waste incinerator fly-ash fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, H; Gercken, G

    1988-01-01

    A waste incinerator fly ash was separated into different grain-size fractions by sieving and sedimentation in butanol. The element content of each fraction was determined by atomic absorption and emission spectrometry. The fly-ash fractions, an eluted fine fly-ash fraction and an eluted airborne dust were analysed microscopically for particle size and numbers, together with standard quartz DQ 12 and three element-analysed airborne dusts. Rabbit alveolar macrophages, isolated by lung lavage, were incubated for 24 h with the particulates, the two eluates and a mixed element compound solution corresponding to the element concentrations of one airborne dust. At the end of incubation, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-galactosidase and acid phosphatase were determined in medium and cell lysates. Cytotoxicity was expressed as ratio of extracellular to total LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) activity. Release of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase was correlated positively with LDH release, whereas the total activity of acid phosphatase decreased with increasing LDH release. Cytotoxicity of the dusts was correlated with particle numbers, and As, Sb and Pb contents. The contribution of As to particle toxicity is discussed. Eluates of dusts did not affect rabbit alveolar macrophage viability.

  19. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a large city of southeastern Po Valley (Bologna, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tositti, L; Brattich, E; Masiol, M; Baldacci, D; Ceccato, D; Parmeggiani, S; Stracquadanio, M; Zappoli, S

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the results of an experimental research project carried out in Bologna, a midsize town in central Po valley, with the aim at characterizing local aerosol chemistry and tracking the main source emissions of airborne particulate matter. Chemical speciation based upon ions, trace elements, and carbonaceous matter is discussed on the basis of seasonal variation and enrichment factors. For the first time, source apportionment was achieved at this location using two widely used receptor models (principal component analysis/multi-linear regression analysis (PCA/MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF)). Four main aerosol sources were identified by PCA/MLRA and interpreted as: resuspended particulate and a pseudo-marine factor (winter street management), both related to the coarse fraction, plus mixed combustions and secondary aerosol largely associated to traffic and long-lived species typical of the fine fraction. The PMF model resolved six main aerosol sources, interpreted as: mineral dust, road dust, traffic, secondary aerosol, biomass burning and again a pseudo-marine factor. Source apportionment results from both models are in good agreement providing a 30 and a 33% by weight respectively for PCA-MLRA and PMF for the coarse fraction and 70% (PCA-MLRA) and 67% (PMF) for the fine fraction. The episodic influence of Saharan dust transport on PM10 exceedances in Bologna was identified and discussed in term of meteorological framework, composition, and quantitative contribution.

  20. 北京地区大气细颗粒物的个体暴露水平%Personal exposure levels to atmospheric fine particulate matters in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫伟奇; 张潇尹; 郎凤玲; 曹军

    2014-01-01

    From December, 2012to April, 2013, measurements of personal exposure levels to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing were conducted using laser dust monitor (Model LD6S) with the method of daily tracking for single participant, and the different participants’ time-activity journals were also collected to calculate the daily averaged exposure levels and merge application. During the monitoring period, the ambient PM2.5 concentrations issued by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Centre were recorded synchronously. The local mean concentrations of PM2.5 in winter and in spring were 127µg/m3and 69 µg/m3, respectively, and the former was much higher than the latter. The median value of personal daily exposure level was 54µg/m3and the averaged ratio to the ambient PM2.5 concentration was 0.60. The averaged indoor exposure fraction reached 80%of the total exposure, and the outdoor exposure and the traffic exposure separately accounted for about 10%. There was no significant difference between the exposure levels of different populations and different seasons. As the ambient PM2.5 concentration exceeded 75µg/m3, a significant correlation existed between the ambient PM2.5 concentration and the PM2.5 concentrations in different microenvironments, including residential house, office, restaurant, bus and street.%于2012年12月至2013年4月采用LD6S型微电脑激光粉尘仪在北京地区采取单人逐日跟踪的方式记录了多名个体对大气细颗粒物(PM 2.5)的暴露水平,同时收集研究对象的时间-活动日志,计算日平均暴露水平,再进行多人多日合并处理.并于研究时段内同步记录北京市环境保护监测中心发布的空气质量监测数据.结果表明,研究期间北京地区冬季与春季PM 2.5的平均浓度分别为127,69µg/m3.个体日均暴露水平中值为54µg/m3,与大气质量浓度的平均比值为0.60.个体室内暴露分量均值达到总暴露量的80%,

  1. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  2. Ambient Background Particulate Compositiion Outdoor Natural Background: Interferents/Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    FIGURES 1. Map of UK Sampling Locations, Lizard, Pershore, Birmingham, Lichfield 10 2. Mean UK Airborne Pollen, Fungi , and Bacteria and/or their Sum... Airborne Pollen, Fungi , and Bacteria and/or their Sum @ Four Locations 12 4. TOTAL VS CULTURABLE MEASUREMENTS OF NATURAL OUTDOOR BACTERIA 10...characterize exposures to particulate matter in an effort to access the health effects on military personnel in the Middle East. For approximately 1 year

  3. Exposure to the elemental carbon, organic carbon, nitrate and sulfate fractions of fine particulate matter and risk of preterm birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been consistently associated with preterm birth (PTB) to varying degrees, but roles of PM2.5 species have been less studied.OBJECTIVE:We estimated risk differences (RD) of PTB (reported per 106 pr...

  4. Oxidation damage of airborne fine particulate matter on brains of rats%大气细颗粒物对大鼠脑组织的氧化损伤效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莉; 杨东升; 孟紫强

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)对大鼠脑组织的毒性作用机制.方法将32只雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为低、中、高(1.5,7.5,37.5 mg/kg)3个剂量染毒组和生理盐水对照组.气管注入染毒后24 h处死大鼠,测定脑组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性和谷胱甘肽(GSH)、硫代巴比妥酸反应物(TBARS)含量.结果经PM2.5染毒后大鼠脑组织的SOD、CAT活性出现显著的剂量依赖性下降趋势;高浓度组GSH含量显著降低;GSH-Px活性在不同剂量染毒后虽出现下降趋势,脂质过氧化水平(LPO)也有所升高,但与对照组之间差异无统计学意义.各染毒组SOD/TBARS比值显著降低(P<0.05),TBARS/GSH-Px比值则在高浓度染毒后较对照组明显升高(P<0.05).结论PM2.5可引起大鼠脑组织的氧化损伤,是一种神经毒性因子.

  5. Pavement wear and airborne dust pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Snilsberg, Brynhild

    2008-01-01

    In several large cities in Norway the traffic volume is high. The use of studded tires and other friction enhancing measures during winter leads to significant pavement wear, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of airborne particulate matter, often exceeding the limits set in the ambient air regulation. This represents a nuisance or health risk for people being exposed to the pollution. According to regulations set by the European Union particulate matter is measured and regulate...

  6. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of

  7. Determination of arsenic in air particulates and diesel exhaust particulates by spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. Talebi; M. Abedi

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of trace arsenic by spectrophotometry. The proposed method is rapid, simple,and inexpensive. This method can be used for sensitive determination of trace arsenic in environmental samples and especially in air particulates. The results obtained by this method as a proposed method were compared with those obtained by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry as a popular reported method for the determination of arsenic and an excellent agreement was found between them. The method was also used for determination of arsenic associated with airborne particulate matter and diesel exhaust particulates.The results showed that considerable amount of arsenic are associated with diesel engine particulates. The variation in concentration of arsenic was also investigated. The atmospheric concentration of arsenic was different in different sampling stations was dependent to the traffic density.

  8. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  9. Current concepts on airborne particles and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence of associations between environmental particulate concentrations and both acute and chronic health effects has grown with numerous recent studies conducted in the US and other countries. An association between short-term changes in particulate levels and acute mortality now seems certain. The association is consistent among studies and coherent among indicators of mortality and morbidity. Effects observed at surprisingly low pollution levels have raised concern for current exposures even in modestly polluted cities. Toxicology did not predict the acute mortality effect, and causal mechanisms are difficult to rationalize. Present data suggest that the fine fraction of particulate pollution is more toxic than larger particles, but the contribution of specific particulate species is poorly understood.

  10. Composición química y reconstrucción másica del material particulado suspendido en el aire de Bogotá Chemical composition and mass closure for airborne particulate matter in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Néstor Y.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El material particulado, medido como PM10, es el contaminante que más afecta la calidad del aire en Bogotá. Conocer la composición del material particulado es crucial para en- tender cuáles son las fracciones químicas que más aportan a ese contaminante e identificar posibles fuentes generadoras de él. En este artículo se presenta el resultado de la caracterización de especies iónicas, fracciones carbonáceas, meta- les y elementos minerales del material particulado en dos puntos de Bogotá. Con base en los resultados de caracterización se realiza un análisis de neutralidad iónica y reconstrucción másica para comparar la consistencia de los resulta- dos obtenidos. La composición es diferente para cada sector, pero en general las fracciones que más aportan al material particulado son la geológica (asociada a polvo fugitivo y re- suspendido, entre el 37 y 42%; las fracciones carbonáceas, que son las que más aportan, entre un 12 y 11% para el car- bono elemental y un 43 y 34% para materia orgánica; la fracción iónica se encontró entre un 5 y 8%.Particulate matter, measured as PM10, is the most concerning airborne pollutant in Bogotá. Determining its chemical com- position is important for understanding its potential effects and to estimate various sources’ contribution to such pollution. This paper gives the results of characterizing the ionic species, carbonaceous material, metals and crustal elements present in airborne PM10 in Bogotá. An ion charge balance and mass reconstruction were done for determining consistency between chemical characterization and gravimetric PM10. The composition was different in each area; however, the fractions contributing most to PM10 were crustal, 37% to 42% was related to fugitive and suspended dust, 12% to 11% was related to carbonaceus fractions, 43% to elemental carbon, 34% for organic matter and 5% to 8% for ionic fractions.

  11. Characterisation of airborne particles and associated organic components produced from incense burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Yang; Bell, Jennifer; Wenger, John; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Airborne particles generated from the burning of incense have been characterized in order to gain an insight into the possible implications for human respiratory health. Physical characterization performed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed incense particulate smoke mainly consisted of soot particles with fine and ultrafine fractions in various aggregated forms. A range of organic compounds present in incense smoke have been identified using derivatisation reactions coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 19 polar organic compounds were positively identified in the samples, including the biomass burning markers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, as well as a number of aromatic acids and phenols. Formaldehyde was among 12 carbonyl compounds detected and predominantly associated with the gas phase, whereas six different quinones were also identified in the incense particulate smoke. The nano-structured incense soot particles intermixed with organics (e.g. formaldehyde and quinones) could increase the oxidative capacity. When considering the worldwide prevalence of incense burning and resulting high respiratory exposures, the oxygenated organics identified in this study have significant human health implications, especially for susceptible populations.

  12. Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the most important factors contributing to air pollution. Epidemiological studies have related increased levels of atmospheric particulate matter to premature human mortality caused by cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, a limited number of investigations have focused on the contribution of airborne desert dust particles. Here we assess the effects of dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (DU2.5) on human mortality for the year 2005. We used the EMAC atmospheric-chemistry general circulation model at high resolution to simulate global atmospheric dust concentrations. We applied a health impact function to estimate premature mortality for the global population of 30 yr and older, using parameters from epidemiological studies. We estimate a global cardiopulmonary mortality of about 402 000 in 2005. The associated years of life lost are about 3.47 million per year. We estimate the global fraction of the cardiopulmonary deaths caused by atmospheric desert dust to be about 1.8%, though in the 20 countries most affected by dust this is much higher, about 15-50%. These countries are primarily found in the so-called "dust belt" from North Africa across the Middle East and South Asia to East Asia

  13. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  14. Fine Particle Matter (PM2.5) Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fine particulate matter or PM2.5 (total mass of particles below 2.5 micron is diameter) is known to cause adverse health effects in humans.See the following websites...

  15. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  16. Anne Fine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Anne Fine with an introduction and aside on the role of children’s literature in our lives and development, and our adult perceptions of the suitability of childhood reading material.Since graduating from Warwick in 1968 with a BA in Politics and History, Anne Fine has written over fifty books for children and eight for adults, won the Carnegie Medal twice (for Goggle-Eyes in 1989 and Flour Babies in 1992, been a highly commended runner-up three times (for Bill’s New Frock in 1989, The Tulip Touch in 1996, and Up on Cloud Nine in 2002, been shortlisted for the Hans Christian Andersen Award (the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books, 1998, undertaken the positon of Children’s Laureate (2001-2003, and been awarded an OBE for her services to literature (2003. Warwick presented Fine with an Honorary Doctorate in 2005.Philip Gaydon’s interview with Anne Fine was recorded as part of the ‘Voices of the University’ oral history project, co-ordinated by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  18. Diesel particulate filter design simulation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Simulation is a powerful tool in the design and analysis of diesel particulate filters. Various models have been developed in the last three decades and great improvements have been made in terms of model comprehensiveness and accuracy. However, simulation of diesel particulate filter is still not a reliable resort to fine-tuning of diesel particulate filter and much effort is still needed. To promote the development of effective simulation models, first, the various models are viewed. Their characteristics and application occasions are discussed. Second, regarding the limitations of these models, some key submodels are introduced, which are pressure drop model in the wall, filtration model, and soot oxidation model. Finally, some conclusions are made and further researches are recommended.

  19. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  20. Aromatic Radicals-Acetylene Particulate Matter Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    atmosphere1. In addition to acute respiratory problems, long-term effects include lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases , as studied by Pope at al...problems such as ischemic heart disease , fatal arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure4,5. Strategies to reduce fine particulate matter (PM...acetylene reaction have been made by Fahr and Stein15, who deduced an Arrhenius expression in a 4 temperature range between 1000 and 1330 K in

  1. An overview of fine particulate matter(PM 2.5)on the mechanism of the injury of respiratory system%大气细颗粒物(PM 2.5)对呼吸系统的损伤作用机制概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠娅; 沈若冰; 余小萍

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) is the main component of air pollution,which can enter deeply into respiratory department,leading to a variety of respiratory disease.According to the researches,it may be caused by body oxidative stress,inflammatory reaction,immune dysfunction,DNA damage,calcium homeostasis imbalance,neurogenic inflammation.The article is circled on the mechanism of PM 2.5 on respiratory injury.%大气细颗粒物(PM 2.5)是空气污染的主要成分,可以进入呼吸道深部,导致各种呼吸系统疾病,据研究可能与其能引起机体氧化应激、炎症反应、免疫功能失调、DNA 损伤、钙稳态失衡、神经源性炎症有关。本文就 PM 2.5对呼吸系统的损伤作用机制作一综述。

  2. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...

  3. Health effects of atmospheric particulates: a medical geology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S

    2008-01-01

    In this review, atmospheric particulates as composite airborne earth materials often containing both natural and anthropogenic components were examined in the context of medical geology. Despite a vast number of both experimental and epidemiological studies confirming the direct and indirect links between atmospheric particulates and human health, the exact nature of mechanisms affecting the particulate-induced pathogenesis largely remains unexplored. Future in depth research on these areas would be most successful if potential mechanisms are examined with reference to the physical (e.g., size, shape and surface), chemical, mineralogical and source characteristics of particulate matters. The underlying goal of this review was to present the relevant terminology and processes proposed in the literature to explain the interfaces and interactions between atmospheric particles and human body within the framework of "atmospheric particle cycles." The complexities of the interactions were demonstrated through case studies focusing on particulate matter air pollution and malignant mesothelioma occurrences due to environmental exposure to erionite-a fibrous zeolite mineral. There is an urgent need for a standard protocol or speciation methods applicable to earth-materials to guide and streamline studies on etiology of mineral-induced diseases. This protocol or speciation methods should provide relevant procedures to determine the level and extent of physical, chemical and mineralogical heterogeneity of particulate matters as well as quantitative in-situ particulate characteristics.

  4. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Bangkok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajanapoom, Nitaya

    1999-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the association between PM10 and visibility, and to determine whether the variations in daily mortality were associated with fluctuations in daily PM10 and visibility levels, in Bangkok during 1992-1997. Mortality data were extracted from death certificates, provided by the Bureau of Registration Administration. PM10 data were obtained from three monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, and visibility data were obtained from two monitoring stations operated by the Department of Meteorology. PM10 was regressed on visibility using multiple regression. Inverse and significant association was found between PM10 and visibility, after controlling for relative humidity, minimum temperature, and winter indicator variable. Positive association was found between total mortality and PM10, in Poisson regression model while controlling for long-term trends, season, and variations in weather. Five-day moving average of PM10 was significantly and most strongly associated with total mortality from non-external causes; a 2.3% (95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (30 μg/m3) increase in PM10. When PM10 was replaced with visibility, a 1.3% (95% CI = 0.4, 2.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (1.5 km) decrease in visibility. Lagged effects up to three day lags prior to death with similar patterns were observed for both PM10 and visibility. The findings suggest the possibility of using visibility as a surrogate for fine particulate matter. This approach is feasible because visibility data are usually routinely recorded at airports throughout the world. On the other hand, given the large number of population living in Bangkok, the small but significant percent excess deaths attributable to airborne particle exposure is an important public health concern.

  5. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  6. Heavy metal composition of particulate matter in rural and urban residential built environments in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar, ZA; Colbeck, I.; Ali, Z; Ahmed, S

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals in outdoor and indoor airborne particulate matter (PM) and dust in different residential built environmentsat two rural and one urban site in Pakistan were analysed. An eight stage non-viable impactor (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) loaded with EMP 2000 glass microfiber filter papers (Whatman, England) was used to collect airborne PM.The indoordust samples (settled dust) were collected from different indoor surfaces (floor, cupboards) in living rooms and kitchens...

  7. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  8. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release...

  9. Chemical partitioning of fine particle-bound metals on haze-fog and non-haze-fog days in Nanjing, China and its contribution to human health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiming; Wu, Hongfei; Wang, Qin'geng; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying; Sun, Yixuan; Qian, Xin; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Information on chemical partitioning and associated risk of airborne metals, particularly during a haze-fog episode, is limited. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected during a severe haze-fog event in winter and non-haze-fog periods in summer and fall from an urban region of a typical Chinese mega-city, Nanjing. The particulate-bound metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) were chemically fractionated in a four-step sequential extraction procedure and human health risk was assessed. During the haze-fog episode, PM2.5 was extremely elevated with a mean concentration of 281 μg/m3 (range: 77-431 μg/m3), whereas the mean PM2.5 concentrations in summer and fall periods were 86 μg/m3 (range: 66-111 μg/m3) and 77 μg/m3 (range: 42-131 μg/m3), respectively. All elements had significantly higher concentrations and many metals exceeded relevant limits on haze-fog days. K, Na, Sr, Zn, Mo, Ca, Cd, Mg, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cr and As all showed relatively high proportions of the soluble and exchangeable fraction and strong bio-accessible potential. High temperature and humidity may increase the bio-accessible fraction of many airborne metals. The hazard index for potential toxic metals was 0.115, which was lower than the safe limit (1). However, the combined carcinogenic risk was 1.32 × 10- 6 for children and 5.29 × 10- 6 for adults, with both values being higher than the precautionary criterion (10- 6). Results of this study provide information for the behavior and risk mitigation of airborne metals.

  10. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  11. 40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... corrected to standard conditions. (C) Particulate sampling filters. (1) Fluorocarbon-coated glass fiber... section by numeric identifier. (A) Filters. Glass fiber filter paper is permitted for the fine particulate... specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. (iii) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements must...

  12. Airborne Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — AFRL's Airborne Evaluation Facility (AEF) utilizes Air Force Aero Club resources to conduct test and evaluation of a variety of equipment and concepts. Twin engine...

  13. ESEM-EDX characterisation of airborne particles from an industrialised area of northern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordanidis, A.; Buckman, J.; Triantafyllou, A.G.; Asvesta, A. [Technology Educational Institute for Western Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to characterise individual airborne particles collected from the Ptolemais-Kozani region (Western Macedonia), northern Greece. Throughout a 1-year period (March 2003 to February 2004), we collected several filters that captured airborne particles at seven sampling sites distributed throughout the area. The airborne particles captured on the filters were then characterised by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The particles were categorised as geogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic. The main anthropogenic airborne particles were fly ash (released from lignite-fired power plants) and carbonaceous (soot and char) and metalliferous (mainly iron- and copper-enriched) particulates. We present here characteristic ESEM and EDX spectra for the airborne particles and underline the presence of characteristic primary and secondary sulphates.

  14. Spatial variability of fine particles in Parisian streets

    OpenAIRE

    Duché, Sarah; Beltrando, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    International audience; To study the spatial variability of airborne particles and to evaluate the personal and tourist exposure to fine particles in Paris, measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) concentrations have been made in Parisian streets in different mode of transport (bus, bike and walking), using a portable sensor. We use also meteorological parameters sensor (temperature,humidity and wind speed), a camera to view traffic and a GPS to compare with particles levels. PM2.5 levels are ...

  15. Characterization and estimation of human airway deposition of size-resolved particulate-bound trace elements during a recent haze episode in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sailesh N; Betha, Raghu; Huang, Xian; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-03-01

    Toxic elements present in airborne particulate matter (PM) are associated with human health effects; however, their toxic characteristics depend on the source of their origins and their concentrations in ambient air. Twenty four elements (Al, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Te, Tl, and Zn) in 12 different size fractions of PM ranging from 10 nm to 10 μm were characterized in Singapore during two different atmospheric conditions (smoke haze and non-haze periods) in 2012 for the first time. In addition, their possible sources were identified based on backward air trajectory analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The health implications of inhalable particles were assessed using a human airway deposition model, the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model (MPPD). The results concerning particle-bound trace elements are interpreted in terms of coarse (PM2.5-10), fine (PM2.5), ultrafine (PM0.01-0.1, 0.01 μm haze episode and the non-haze period in coarse, fine, ultrafine, and nano particles varied from 1.2 (Bi) to 6.6 (Co). Both the PCA and backward trajectory analysis revealed that trans-boundary biomass-burning emissions from Indonesia were primarily responsible for enhanced concentrations of particulate-bound elements during the smoke haze episode. The particle depositions in the respiratory system were higher during the smoke haze episode compared to the non-haze period. The study finds that ultrafine and nano particles present in the atmosphere have higher tendencies to be deposited into the deeper parts of the respiratory system, compared to coarse and fine particles.

  16. Relationship between indoor and outdoor carbonaceous particulates in roadside households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Tsuruho, K. [Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Tamura, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Mizuno, T. [Mie University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry for Materials; Kuroda, K. [Osaka City University Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous particulates in indoor and outdoor air at roadside private households were measured in Osaka, Japan. The particulate samples were collected on filters using a portable AND sampler capable of separating particles into three different size ranges: over 10 {mu}m, 2-10 {mu}m (coarse) and below 2 {mu}m (fine) in aerodynamic diameter. The filters were weighed and then analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermal oxidation using a CHN CORDER. The results showed that indoor fine PM concentration is considerably affected by fine EC and the fine EC in indoor air is significantly correlated to that in outdoor air, r = 0.86 (n = 30, p < 0.001). A simple estimation from EC content ratio in diesel exhaust particles indicated that about 30% of indoor particulates of less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) were contributed from diesel exhaust. Additionally, the size characteristics of outdoor PM at roadside and background sites were examined using Andersen Cascade Impactors. (author)

  17. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  18. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  19. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  20. Toxic effects of indoor and outdoor airborne particles relevant to carcinogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heussen, G.A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The mutagenicity of indoor and outdoor airborne particulate matter (APM) has been demonstrated by previous in vitro studies (Alink et al., 1983; Van Houdt et al., 1984, 1986, 1987). The aim of the present thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the mode of action of AIM in the pathogen

  1. Characteristics of airborne bacteria in Mumbai urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangamma, S

    2014-08-01

    Components of biological origin constitute small but a significant proportion of the ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). However, their diversity and role in proinflammatory responses of PM are not well understood. The present study characterizes airborne bacterial species diversity in Mumbai City and elucidates the role of bacterial endotoxin in PM induced proinflammatory response in ex vivo. Airborne bacteria and endotoxin samples were collected during April-May 2010 in Mumbai using six stage microbial impactor and biosampler. The culturable bacterial species concentration was measured and factors influencing the composition were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). The biosampler samples were used to stimulate immune cells in whole blood assay. A total of 28 species belonging to 17 genera were identified. Gram positive and spore forming groups of bacteria dominated the airborne culturable bacterial concentration. The study indicated the dominance of spore forming and human or animal flora derived pathogenic/opportunistic bacteria in the ambient air environment. Pathogenic and opportunistic species of bacteria were also present in the samples. TNF-α induction by PM was reduced (35%) by polymyxin B pretreatment and this result was corroborated with the results of blocking endotoxin receptor cluster differentiation (CD14). The study highlights the importance of airborne biological particles and suggests need of further studies on biological characterization of ambient PM.

  2. Airborne Emissions from Si/FeSi Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Ida; Grådahl, Svend; Tranell, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    The management of airborne emissions from silicon and ferrosilicon production is, in many ways, similar to the management of airborne emissions from other metallurgical industries, but certain challenges are highly branch-specific, for example the dust types generated and the management of NO X emissions by furnace design and operation. A major difficulty in the mission to reduce emissions is that information about emission types and sources as well as abatement and measurement methods is often scarce, incomplete and scattered. The sheer diversity and complexity of the subject presents a hurdle, especially for new professionals in the field. This article focuses on the airborne emissions from Si and FeSi production, including greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, airborne particulate matter also known as dust, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The aim is to summarize current knowledge in a state-of-the-art overview intended to introduce fresh industry engineers and academic researchers to the technological aspects relevant to the reduction of airborne emissions.

  3. Airborne Emissions from Si/FeSi Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Ida; Grådahl, Svend; Tranell, Gabriella

    2017-02-01

    The management of airborne emissions from silicon and ferrosilicon production is, in many ways, similar to the management of airborne emissions from other metallurgical industries, but certain challenges are highly branch-specific, for example the dust types generated and the management of NO X emissions by furnace design and operation. A major difficulty in the mission to reduce emissions is that information about emission types and sources as well as abatement and measurement methods is often scarce, incomplete and scattered. The sheer diversity and complexity of the subject presents a hurdle, especially for new professionals in the field. This article focuses on the airborne emissions from Si and FeSi production, including greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, airborne particulate matter also known as dust, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The aim is to summarize current knowledge in a state-of-the-art overview intended to introduce fresh industry engineers and academic researchers to the technological aspects relevant to the reduction of airborne emissions.

  4. Source Apportionment of Fine Particles in Xinzhen, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Xiang-chun; ZHANG; Gui-ying; XIAO; Cai-jin; WANG; Ping-sheng; WANG; Xing-hua; HUA; Long; YAO; Yong-gang; YUAN; Guo-jun; NI; Bang-fa

    2013-01-01

    As the capital city of China,Beijing often suffers from hazy weather recently.In order to improve air quality,it is of great importance to perform source apportionment and source trajectory.A total of 140airborne particulate matter samples were collected at Xinzhen from May,2007 to July,2013 and their chemical compositions were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission(PIXE)and Energy Disperse-X

  5. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  6. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of fine and PM10 in the Desert Southwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Desert Southwest Coarse Particulate Matter Study was undertaken in Pinal County, Arizona, to better understand the origin and impact of sources of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM) in rural, arid regions of the U.S. southwestern desert. The desert southwest experiences ...

  7. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Müller-Germann

    Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  8. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Germann, Isabell; Vogel, Bernhard; Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöschl, Ulrich; Després, Viviane R

    2015-01-01

    Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm) and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8) and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS). The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm), the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  9. Hazy weather formation and visibility deterioration resulted from fine particulate (PM2.5)pollutions in Guangdong and Hong Kong%粤港细粒子(PM2.5)污染导致能见度下降与灰霾天气形成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兑; 刘放汉; 梁延刚; 毕雪岩; 李菲; 谭浩波; 廖碧婷; 陈慧忠

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the environmental effects of fine particulate aerosols( PM2.5 )in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) , long-Lerm mereorological data and high-resolution of atmospheric composition observations in the PRD and Hong Kong, as well as satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)data, were used to analyze the long-term variation trends of PM2. s-induced haze weather formation and visibility deterioration. The results indicated that the pollution of aerosols worsened over the PRD in recent years. The cloud of aerosol occurred all year round, with an area of heavy pollution locatcd inthe western side of the Pearl River Estuary. The haze weather mainly occurred from October to next April, resulting in visibility deterioration. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the frequency of hazy weather obviously increased and visibility dramatically deteriorated over the PRD. There were three majorvisibility deterioration fluctuations accompanied with the development of economy, arising from dust pollution, the sulphate and dust pollution, and The dust, sulphate, and automobile exhaust pollution caused by photochemical process, respectively. There was no indication that the long-term tendency offog and light fog days was affected by human activities or economical development, and its fluctuation was governed by the intrinsically inter-annual andinter-decadal variations of climate. The deterioration of visibility was strongly associated with fine particle pollutions over the PRD. Half of monthly mean PM10 observations exceeded the mean critical value of national second graded standard (70 μg·m^-3 ) , and all of mean PM2 5 values exceeded the meancritical value of U. S. national standard (35 μg·m^-3). Some mean values of PM2 s almost reached twice the standard value, indicating high fine particle concentrations. The ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 was also very high about 51% -79%. Monthly mean black carbon aerosol concentration was up to 5.0 ~9.1μg·m^-3. Therefore, the

  10. Characterization of Size-Fractionated Airborne Particles Inside an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Acute Toxicity Testing in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Ho; Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, Barbara; Touati, Abderrahmane; Krantz, Q Todd; Dye, Janice A; Linak, William P; Gullett, Brian; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-10-06

    Disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in landfills, incinerators, or at rudimentary recycling sites can lead to the release of toxic chemicals into the environment and increased health risks. Developing e-waste recycling technologies at commercial facilities can reduce the release of toxic chemicals and efficiently recover valuable materials. While these e-waste operations represent a vast improvement over previous approaches, little is known about environmental releases, workplace exposures, and potential health impacts. In this study, airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured at various locations within a modern U.S.-based e-waste recycling facility that utilized mechanical processing. In addition, composite size fractionated PM (coarse, fine and ultrafine) samples were collected, extracted, chemically analyzed, and given by oropharyngeal aspiration to mice or cultured with lung slices for lung toxicity tests. Indoor total PM concentrations measured during the study ranged from 220 to 1200 μg/m(3). In general, the coarse PM (2.5-10 μm) was 3-4 times more abundant than fine/ultrafine PM (10 times) observed for Zn and Sb, modest enrichments (>5 times) for Cu and Sr, and minor enrichments (>2 times) for Cr, Cd, Mn, Ca, Fe, and Ba. Negligible enrichment (<2 times) or depletion (<1 time) were observed for Al, Mg, Ti, Si, and V. The coarse PM fraction elicited significant pro-inflammatory responses in the mouse lung at 24 h postexposure compared to the fine and ultrafine PM, and similar toxicity outcomes were observed in the lung slice model. We conclude that exposure to coarse PM from the facility caused substantial inflammation in the mouse lung and enrichment of these metals compared to levels normally present in the ambient PM could be of potential health concern.

  11. Univers de Particules

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Dans l’Univers, tout est fait de particules. Mais d’où viennent-elles? Quelle est l’origine des lois de la nature? Au rez-de-chaussée du Globe de la science et de l’innovation, l’exposition permanente « Univers de particules » vous invite à un voyage vers le Big Bang en explorant le CERN. Avec à la clé des réponses aux questions: pourquoi cette recherche ? Comment accélérer des particules ? Comment les détecter ? Quelles sont les théories sur la matière et sur l’Univers aujourd’hui ? Quelles retombées pour notre vie quotidienne ?

  12. Endotoxin in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle mass of ambient aerosols. A temporo-spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Joachim; Pitz, Mike; Bischof, Wolfgang; Krug, Norbert; Borm, Paul J. A.

    Objectives: We collected fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particulate matter fractions in two areas ˜80 km apart and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Here we report on temporo-spatial variation of endotoxin content in the collected particles. Methods: Dichotomous Anderson samplers were used to collect 21 weekly samples of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in both towns from January to June 2002. Each Teflon filter was water extracted and endotoxin was measured by a chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate method. Endotoxin concentrations were expressed per mg of fine or mg of coarse mass and per sampled air volume (m 3). Results: For both cities, the mean endotoxin content in PM 2.5 was 1.2 EU mg -1; however the endotoxin content in the coarse fraction was ˜10 times higher compared to the fine mass fractions. Although endotoxin content is highly variable over time, a good correlation was observed between the two town sites for both fine ( r=0.85) and coarse PM ( r=0.88). The fluctuations of weekly endotoxin means were high in both areas suggesting a strong temporal dependence on particle source and composition. The endotoxin content in particles collected during May and June were two to four times higher than concentrations measured during the winter and early spring weeks. Conclusions: Ambient airborne endotoxin concentrations were detected in coarse and fine particle fraction, but 10-fold higher in the coarse PM. The strong seasonality and the week to week fluctuation of endotoxin content in PM indicate different biologic PM properties which might affect results of time series studies on short-term effects as well as in vitro studies and human exposure studies.

  13. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  14. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  15. Indoor airborne infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne infection from person to person is an indoor phenomenon. The infectious organisms are atomized by coughing, sneezing, singing, and even talking. The smallest droplets evaporate to droplet nuclei and disperse rapidly and randomly throughout the air of enclosed spaces. Droplet nuclei have negligible settling velocity and travel wherever the air goes. Outdoors, dilution is so rapid that the chance of inhaling an infectious droplet nucleus is minimal. Measles and other childhood contagions, the common respiratory virus infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and Legionnaires' Disease are typically airborne indoors. In analyzing a measles outbreak, the probability that a susceptible person would breathe a randomly distributed quantum of airborne infection during one generation of an outbreak was expressed mathematically. Estimates of the rate of production of infectious droplet nuclei ranged between 93 and 8 per min, and the concentration in the air produced by the index case was about 1 quantum per 5 m/sup 3/ of air. Infectious aiborne particles are thus few and far between. Control of indoor airborne infection can be approached through immunization, therapeutic medication, and air disinfection with ultraviolet radiation.

  16. Airborne Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Jakobsen, Henrik Byrial; Paulsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted f...

  17. Bioaccessibility of palladium and platinum in urban aerosol particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Christoph; Limbeck, Andreas; Hann, Stephan

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate potential health hazards caused by environmental Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), bioaccessibility of the metals in question needs to be assessed. To gain appropriate data, airborne particulate matter samples of different size fractions (total suspended particles as well as PM10 and PM2.5) were taken in downtown Vienna, an urban site primarily polluted by traffic. Total PGE concentrations in these samples were in the low picogram per cubic meter range, as determined by ID-ICP-MS after microwave digestion. For elimination of elements interfering with the accurate quantification, the digested samples were subjected to a cleaning procedure involving cation exchange. For determination of the bioaccessible fraction, it was assumed that inhaled particles are removed from the respiratory system by mucociliary clearance and subsequently ingested. Accordingly, the solubility of PGE in synthetic gastric juice was investigated by batch extraction of particulate matter samples followed by microwave assisted UV-digestion, cation exchange cleanup and ID-ICP-MS. The acquired data was used to calculate the bioaccessible fraction of Pd and Pt in airborne particulate matter. Average GIT-extractable fractions for Pd and Pt in TSP were 41% and 27%, in PM10 34% and 26%, respectively, thus exceeding previously determined values for bioaccessibility of PGE from ground catalyst materials by up to an order of magnitude.

  18. Geochemical Characterization of Rain Water Particulate Material on a Coastal Sub-Tropical Region in SE: Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, E. V.; Paiva, R. P.; WASSERMAN, J.C.; Lacerda,L. D.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne contamination has been of concern for a number of scientist in temperate regions. In the tropics, a very small amount of data is available. In this work, rain water particulate material was monitored in two sites in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil): the first (Sepetiba), subjected to high inputs of metals from industrial activities and the second (Iguaba), subjected to very mild contamination. Particulate material was obtained by filtration of rain water samples. The filters were analys...

  19. Origin of particulate matter and gaseous precursors in the Paris Megacity: Results from intensive campaigns, long term measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Petetin, Hervé; Zhang, Qijie; Prevot, André S. H.; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Rosso, Amandine; Crippa, Monica; Zotter, Peter; Freutel, Fredericke; Poulain, Laurent; Freney, Evelyne; Sellegri, Karine; Drewnick, Frank; Borbon, Agnès; Wiedensohler, Aflred; Pandis, Spyros N.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties on the origin of primary and secondary particulate matter and its gaseous precursors in megacities is still large and needs to be reduced. A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns (MEGAPOLI) and from additional one year observations (PARTICULATE and FRANCIPOL), revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was a surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The data set of urban local and advected PM concentrations in the Paris area were used for a thorough evaluation of the CHIMERE model and revealed error compensation for the local and advected components of organic matter and nitrate. During spring time, CHIMERE simulations overestimate the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate peaks to NH3, because (i) they underestimate the urban background NH3 levels, probably due to neglecting enhanced NH3 emissions for larger temperatures, and because they overestimate HNO3. However, from an ensemble of mobile Max-DOAS NO2 column and airborne NOy measurements around Paris, no clear sign on a NOx emission bias in the TNO-Airparif data set was made evident. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Implementation

  20. Effect of environmental variables in turkey confinement houses on airborne Aspergillus and mycoflora composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey, M C; Trampel, D W; Richard, J L; Bundy, D S; Hoffman, L J; Meyer, V M; Cox, D F

    1995-03-01

    Environmental conditions and airborne mycoflora were measured concurrently in 10 turkey confinement houses during warm and cold weather. The following variables in the environment were measured: numbers of feed- and litter-associated yeast and mold fungi, temperature, relative humidity, airspeed, carbon dioxide and ammonia concentration, airborne bacteria, and airborne particulate mass, particle number, and particle size distribution. Winter air in turkey confinement houses contained significantly higher concentrations of Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, and Mucor sp. and significantly lower concentrations of Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Alternaria sp. when compared with summer air. Significantly greater numbers of Mucor sp. were recovered per cubic meter of air where the current turkey flock was present less than 100 d when compared to houses where the current flock resided 100 d or more. Management decisions regarding control of the internal environment of turkey confinement houses apparently influence airborne mycoflora composition.

  1. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption and offi......Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption.......5 emissions within a specific “wood burning living area”, but one Danish study exists [4]. In previous inventories distinct combustion air operation modes and the growing penetration of automate wood-burning stoves have not been considered. The present work aims to discuss opportunities for improving...... Portuguese combustion practices in laboratory tests. This study highlights that the previous PM2.5 emission inventories in Denmark and Portugal did not consider the possible variations on fuel moisture, dimensions of wood-logs and air-inlet operation patterns, although they are very important, especially...

  2. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  3. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of Japanese cedar pollens and total suspended particulates: A case study at a kindergarten in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi [Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Bohseidai, Isehara-shi, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Ichiban-cho 8, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Nishikawa, Junko; Sakamoto, Miho; Shimizu, Tomomi; Matsuki, Hideaki [Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Bohseidai, Isehara-shi, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) caused by allergenic cedar and cypress pollens is one of major economic and health issues in Japan. The present study reported here aimed to provide basic data to understand the status of early life exposures to airborne cedar and cypress pollens in school settings. In particular, the study investigated relationships between indoor and outdoor concentrations of airborne cedar and cypress pollens and total suspended particulates (TSP) in a kindergarten in Japan. Overall, outdoor concentrations of the airborne pollens and TSP were higher than the indoor concentrations, i.e., indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios of 0.043-0.055 and 0.545 for the airborne pollens and TSP, respectively. The smaller I/O ratios for the pollens were expected because the larger pollen grains (20-30 {mu}m in diameter) were less likely penetrated to indoor environment than for smaller airborne particulates. The present study also found increased TSP concentrations during the pollen season was likely attributed to increased airborne pollen concentrations. By understanding the status of indoor and outdoor concentrations of airborne cedar and cypress pollens in school settings, early life exposures to these allergenic pollens should be effectively minimized to prevent subsequent progression to JCP symptoms. (author)

  4. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations and bioaerosol on each floor at a building in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeon-Ju; Jeong, Na-Na; Chi, Woo-Bae; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Jun, Si-Moon; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in buildings are mostly sourced from the transport of outdoor particles through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and generation of particle within the building itself. We investigated the concentrations and characteristic of indoor and outdoor particles and airborne bacteria concentrations across four floors of a building located in a high-traffic area. In all the floors we studied (first, second, fifth, and eighth), the average concentrations of particles less than 10 μm (PM10) in winter for were higher than those in summer. On average, a seasonal variation in the PM10 level was found for the first, fifth, and eighth floors, such that higher values occurred in the winter season, compared to the summer season. In addition, in winter, the indoor concentrations of PM10 on the first, fifth, and eighth floors were higher than those of the outdoor PM10. The maximum level of airborne bacteria concentration was found in a fifth floor office, which held a private academy school consisting of many students. Results indicated that the airborne bacteria remained at their highest concentration throughout the weekday period and varied by students' activity. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and slope of linear approximation for the concentrations of particulate matter were used to evaluate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter. These results can be used to predict both the indoor particle levels and the risk of personal exposure to airborne bacteria.

  5. Particulate air pollutants, APOE alleles and their contributions to cognitive impairment in older women and to amyloidogenesis in experimental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciottolo, M; Wang, X; Driscoll, I; Woodward, N; Saffari, A; Reyes, J; Serre, M L; Vizuete, W; Sioutas, C; Morgan, T E; Gatz, M; Chui, H C; Shumaker, S A; Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Finch, C E; Chen, J C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air and its interactions with APOE alleles may contribute to the acceleration of brain aging and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurodegenerative effects of particulate air pollutants were examined in a US-wide cohort of older women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) and in experimental mouse models. Residing in places with fine PM exceeding EPA standards increased the risks for global cognitive decline and all-cause dementia respectively by 81 and 92%, with stronger adverse effects in APOE ɛ4/4 carriers. Female EFAD transgenic mice (5xFAD+/−/human APOE ɛ3 or ɛ4+/+) with 225 h exposure to urban nanosized PM (nPM) over 15 weeks showed increased cerebral β-amyloid by thioflavin S for fibrillary amyloid and by immunocytochemistry for Aβ deposits, both exacerbated by APOE ɛ4. Moreover, nPM exposure increased Aβ oligomers, caused selective atrophy of hippocampal CA1 neurites, and decreased the glutamate GluR1 subunit. Wildtype C57BL/6 female mice also showed nPM-induced CA1 atrophy and GluR1 decrease. In vitro nPM exposure of neuroblastoma cells (N2a-APP/swe) increased the pro-amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We suggest that airborne PM exposure promotes pathological brain aging in older women, with potentially a greater impact in ɛ4 carriers. The underlying mechanisms may involve increased cerebral Aβ production and selective changes in hippocampal CA1 neurons and glutamate receptor subunits. PMID:28140404

  6. Predicted responses for a particulate detection system in a continuous stack monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tries, Mark A; Holloman, Ryan L; Bobe, Leo M

    2002-10-01

    Predicted counting rate responses were developed for a particulate detection system that is used for continuous monitoring for the presence of radioactive particulates in the effluent air from a research reactor. The particulate detection system consists of a moving filter paper assembly, a plastic scintillation detector, and a rate meter output, and is part of a comprehensive stack monitoring system. A predicted response was derived for the case of a steady-state activity distribution across the surface of the moving filter paper that is in proximity to the detector and was determined to be 1.59 x 10(7) cpm per unit airborne concentration of 138Cs (expressed in units of Bq cm(-3)), where 138Cs was used as an indicator for a hypothetical fission product release. The corresponding response model provided by the manufacturer was found to underestimate airborne activity concentrations by about an order of magnitude. A predicted response also was derived for the case of a rapid change in airborne activity concentration, which was formulated based on the kinetics of the rate meter circuit and was used to establish alarm settings and detection limits for the particulate detection system.

  7. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  8. Quarry fines and waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2009-01-01

    Quarry fines and waste are an innevitable consequence of the extraction, processing and transportation of construction aggregate. This article summarises the production of quarry fines, detailing where and how much is produced and how the industry is tackling quarry fines minimisation.

  9. Particulate matter dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

  10. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy)