WorldWideScience

Sample records for airborne fallout mapping

  1. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T. [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M. [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  2. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs on a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and NaI system (5`x5`). Both systems produced similar maps. The average {sup 137}Cs fallout within the area (lakes and ponds included) was 88 kBq m{sup -2,} the maximum value being 161 kBq m{sup -2}. In an emergency the HPGe is superior to NaI because of its better energy resolution, giving possibility to obtain nuclide-specific results. (au).

  3. Carborne fallout mapping - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P.; Nikkinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the summer 1995 altogether 8,625 spectrometric and 3,108 dose-rate measurements were performed in Padasjoki Auttoinen village using carborne measuring devices. As a result {sup 137}Cs fallout and dose-rate maps were produced. The highest measured values in the test area II were 160 kBq m{sup -2} for fallout and 0.22 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} for dose-rate. One hot spot was found beside the test area (dose rate 0.31 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}). On the cultivated areas the measured count rates in {sup 137}Cs-window are three to four times lower than in the forest areas in average, indicating an altered depth profile of caesium. (au).

  4. Airborne measurements of fission product fall-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.; Korsbech, U.

    1992-12-01

    During 1993 the Danish Emergency Management Agency will install an airborne [gamma]-ray detector system for area survey of contamination with radioactive nuclides - primarily fission products that may be released during a heavy accident at a nuclear power plant or from accidents during transport of radioactive material. The equipment is based on 16 liter NaI(TI) crystals and multichannel analysers from Exploranium (Canada). A preliminary investigation of the possibilities for detection of low and high level contamination - and the problems that may be expected during use of the equipment, and during interpretation of the measured data, is described. Several days after reactor shut-down some of the nuclides can be identified directly from the measured spectrum, and contamination levels may be determined within a factor two. After several weeks, most fission products have decayed. Concentrations and exposure rates can be determined with increasing accuracy as time passes. Approximate calibration of the equipment for measurements of surface contamination and natural radioactivity can be performed in the laboratory. Further checks of equipment should include accurate measurements of the spectrum resolution. Detectors should be checked individually, and all together. Further control of dead time and pulse pile-up should be performed. Energy calibration, electronics performance and data equipment should be tested against results from the original calibration. (AB).

  5. Mapping permafrost with airborne electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B. J.; Ball, L. B.; Bloss, B. R.; Kass, A.; Pastick, N.; Smith, B. D.; Voss, C. I.; Walsh, D. O.; Walvoord, M. A.; Wylie, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost is a key characteristic of cold region landscapes, yet detailed assessments of how the subsurface distribution of permafrost impacts the environment, hydrologic systems, and infrastructure are lacking. Data acquired from several airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys in Alaska provide significant new insight into the spatial extent of permafrost over larger areas (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers) than can be mapped using ground-based geophysical methods or through drilling. We compare several AEM datasets from different areas of interior Alaska, and explore the capacity of these data to infer geologic structure, permafrost extent, and related hydrologic processes. We also assess the impact of fires on permafrost by comparing data from different burn years within similar geological environments. Ultimately, interpretations rely on understanding the relationship between electrical resistivity measured by AEM surveys and the physical properties of interest such as geology, permafrost, and unfrozen water content in the subsurface. These relationships are often ambiguous and non-unique, so additional information is useful for reducing uncertainty. Shallow (upper ~1m) permafrost and soil characteristics identified from remotely sensed imagery and field observations help to constrain and aerially extend near-surface AEM interpretations, where correlations between the AEM and remote sensing data are identified using empirical multivariate analyses. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) measurements quantify the contribution of unfrozen water at depth to the AEM-derived electrical resistivity models at several locations within one survey area. AEM surveys fill a critical data gap in the subsurface characterization of permafrost environments and will be valuable in future mapping and monitoring programs in cold regions.

  6. A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data for mapping low level contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. E-mail: hka@iau.dtu.dk; Korsbech, U.; Bargholz, K.; Hovgaard, J

    1999-12-01

    A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data has been developed. It is based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method introduced by Hovgaard in 1997. The new technique opens for mapping of very low contamination levels. It is tested with data from Latvia where the remaining contamination from the 1986 Chernobyl accident together with fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests includes {sup 137}Cs at levels often well below 1 kBq/m{sup 2} equivalent surface contamination. The limiting factors for obtaining reliable results are radon in the air, spectrum stability and accurate altitude measurements.

  7. Airborne measurements of fission product fall-out. An investigation of possibilities and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.; Korsbech, U.

    1992-12-01

    During 1993 the Danish Emergency Management Agency will install an airborne {gamma}-ray detector system for area survey of contamination with radioactive nuclides - primarily fission products that may be released during a heavy accident at a nuclear power plant or from accidents during transport of radioactive material. The equipment is based on 16 liter NaI(TI) crystals and multichannel analysers from Exploranium (Canada). A preliminary investigation of the possibilities for detection of low and high level contamination - and the problems that may be expected during use of the equipment, and during interpretation of the measured data, is described. Several days after reactor shut-down some of the nuclides can be identified directly from the measured spectrum, and contamination levels may be determined within a factor two. After several weeks, most fission products have decayed. Concentrations and exposure rates can be determined with increasing accuracy as time passes. Approximate calibration of the equipment for measurements of surface contamination and natural radioactivity can be performed in the laboratory. Further checks of equipment should include accurate measurements of the spectrum resolution. Detectors should be checked individually, and all together. Further control of dead time and pulse pile-up should be performed. Energy calibration, electronics performance and data equipment should be tested against results from the original calibration. (AB).

  8. Thermal Mapping Airborne Simulator for Small Satellite Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance, inexpensive, airborne simulator that will serve as the prototype for a small satellite based imaging system capable of mapping thermal anomalies...

  9. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced airborne imaging system for fire detection/mapping is proposed. The goal of the project is to improve control and management of wildfires in order to...

  10. Airborne Measurement in the Ash Plume from Mount Sakurajima: Analysis of Gravitational Effects on Dispersion and Fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Eliasson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash concentrations in the plume from Sakurajima volcano in Japan are observed from airplanes equipped with optical particle counters and GPS tracking devices. The volcano emits several puffs a day. The puffs are also recorded by the Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory. High concentrations are observed in the puffs and fallout driven by vertical air current, called streak fallout. Puffs dispersion is analyzed by the classical diffusion-advection method and a new gravitational dispersion method. The fluid mechanic of the gravitational dispersion, streak fallout, and classical diffusion-advection theory is described in three separate appendices together with methods to find the time gravitational dispersion constant and the diffusion coefficient from satellite photos. The diffusion-advection equation may be used to scale volcanic eruptions so the same eruption plumes can be scaled to constant flux and wind conditions or two eruptions can be scaled to each other. The dispersion analyses show that dispersion of volcanic plumes does not follow either theories completely. It is most likely diffusion in the interface of the plume and the ambient air, together with gravitational flattening of the plumes core. This means larger boundary concentration gradients and smaller diffusion coefficients than state of the art methods can predict.

  11. Tropical forest carbon assessment: integrating satellite and airborne mapping approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, Gregory P, E-mail: gpa@stanford.ed [Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Large-scale carbon mapping is needed to support the UNFCCC program to reduce deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Managers of forested land can potentially increase their carbon credits via detailed monitoring of forest cover, loss and gain (hectares), and periodic estimates of changes in forest carbon density (tons ha{sup -1}). Satellites provide an opportunity to monitor changes in forest carbon caused by deforestation and degradation, but only after initial carbon densities have been assessed. New airborne approaches, especially light detection and ranging (LiDAR), provide a means to estimate forest carbon density over large areas, which greatly assists in the development of practical baselines. Here I present an integrated satellite-airborne mapping approach that supports high-resolution carbon stock assessment and monitoring in tropical forest regions. The approach yields a spatially resolved, regional state-of-the-forest carbon baseline, followed by high-resolution monitoring of forest cover and disturbance to estimate carbon emissions. Rapid advances and decreasing costs in the satellite and airborne mapping sectors are already making high-resolution carbon stock and emissions assessments viable anywhere in the world.

  12. Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Automated Map Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula

    2016-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and multispectral information is for the first time directly available for 3D ALS point clouds. This article discusses the potential of this new single-sensor technology in map updating, especially in automated object detection and change detection. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from a random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral intensity information is useful for land cover classification, also when considering ground surface objects and classes, such as roads. An out-of-bag estimate for classification error was about 3% for separating classes asphalt, gravel, rocky areas and low vegetation from each other. For buildings and trees, it was under 1%. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral features based on several channels were more useful that those based on one channel. Automatic change detection utilizing the new multispectral ALS data, an old digital surface model (DSM) and old building vectors was also demonstrated. Overall, our first analyses suggest that the new data are very promising for further increasing the automation level in mapping. The multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and intensity images produced from the data do not include shadows. These are significant advantages when the development of automated classification and change detection procedures is considered.

  13. Forest species mapping using airborne hyperspectral APEX data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagliabue Giulia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate mapping of forest species is a very important task in relation to the increasing need to better understand the role of the forest ecosystem within environmental dynamics. The objective of this paper is the investigation of the potential of a multi-temporal hyperspectral dataset for the production of a thematic map of the dominant species in the Forêt de Hardt (France. Hyperspectral data were collected in June and September 2013 using the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX sensor, covering the visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared spectral regions with a spatial resolution of 3 m by 3 m. The map was realized by means of a maximum likelihood supervised classification. The classification was first performed separately on images from June and September and then on the two images together. Class discrimination was performed using as input 3 spectral indices computed as ratios between red edge bands and a blue band for each image. The map was validated using a testing set selected on the basis of a random stratified sampling scheme. Results showed that the algorithm performances improved from an overall accuracy of 59.5% and 48% (for the June and September images, respectively to an overall accuracy of 74.4%, with the producer’s accuracy ranging from 60% to 86% and user’s accuracy ranging from 61% to 90%, when both images (June and September were combined. This study demonstrates that the use of multi-temporal high-resolution images acquired in two different vegetation development stages (i.e., 17 June 2013 and 4 September 2013 allows accurate (overall accuracy 74.4% local-scale thematic products to be obtained in an operational way.

  14. Airborne VLF measurements and mapping of ground conductivity in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Laust B.; Persson, Lena; Bastani, Mehrdad; Byström, Sören

    2009-03-01

    Airborne VLF data are routinely collected by The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) as part of its bedrock mapping programme. In this paper we demonstrate that the novel Tensor VLF technique developed at Uppsala University and SGU can provide useful qualitative and quantitative information about the electrical conductivity distribution in the upper few hundred meters. Single transmitter scalar VLF maps emphasize those conductive structures that have dominant strikes in the direction of the transmitter. The tensor tipper (essentially the vertical magnetic field from currents along the strike direction) calculated from multiple transmitters is dependent only upon the underlying conductivity structure. Transformation of the tipper into the peaker (the horizontal divergence) has proven to enhance the lateral resolution while the transformation to the apparent resistivity can be used to discriminate different rock types. Two case histories from the application of VLF data are presented in this study. Two dimensional structures can be quantitatively modelled by modern inversion methods developed originally for deep electromagnetic MT soundings. Direct inversion of the real and imaginary parts of the tipper provides more quantitative information about the subsurface resistivity distribution.

  15. Urban area structuring mapping using an airborne polarimetric SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetto, Elisabeth; Malak, Charbel

    2009-09-01

    For several years, image classification and pattern recognition algorithms have been developed for the land coverage mapping using radar and multispectral imagery with medium to large pixel size. As several satellites now distribute submetric-pixel and metric-pixel images (for example QUICKBIRD,TERRASAR-X), the research turns to the study of the structure of cities: building structuring, grassy areas, road networks, etc, and the physical description of the urban surfaces. In that context, we propose to underline new potentialities of submetric-pixel polarimetric SAR images. We deal with the characterization of roofs and the mapping of trees. For that purpose, a first analysis based on photo-interpretation and the assessement of several polarimetric descriptors is carried out. Then, an image classification scheme is built using the polarimetric H/alpha-Wishart algorithm, followed by a decision tree. This one is based on the most pertinent polarimetric descriptors and aims at reducing the classification errors. The result proves the potential of such data. Our work relies on an image of a suburban area, acquired by the airborne RAMSES SAR sensor of ONERA.

  16. Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, William E.; Steele, Bradley; Nelson, Graham; Truscott, Antony; Itzler, Mark; Entwistle, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 15 years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and private industry have been developing airborne LiDAR systems based on arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors capable of detecting a single photon. The extreme sensitivity of GmAPD detectors allows operation of LiDAR sensors at unprecedented altitudes and area collection rates in excess of 1,000 km2/hr. Up until now the primary emphasis of this technology has been limited to defense applications despite the significant benefits of applying this technology to non-military uses such as mapping, monitoring critical infrastructure and disaster relief. This paper briefly describes the operation of GmAPDs, design and operation of a Geiger-mode LiDAR, a comparison of Geiger-mode and traditional linear mode LiDARs, and a description of the first commercial Geiger-mode LiDAR system, the IntelliEarth™ Geospatial Solutions Geiger-mode LiDAR sensor.

  17. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An autonomous airborne imaging system for earth science research, disaster response, and fire detection is proposed. The primary goal is to improve information to...

  18. Airborne geophysical mapping of environmental features - examples from Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michael; Appleton, James; Beamish, David; Cuss, Robert; Van Dam, Christiaan; Jones, David; Lahti, Mari; Miles, Jon; Rawlins, Barry; Scheib, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Northern Ireland completed a low-level regional airborne geophysical survey of Northern Ireland during 2005-6 as part of the Tellus Project. The survey was flown by the Joint Airborne Geoscience Capability, a partnership of the British Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Finland. The aircraft, a De Havilland Twin Otter, was equipped with two magnetometer sensors, a four-frequency electromagnetic system and a 256-channel gamma-ray spectrometer. The traverse-...

  19. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C.; Bresson, J.; Chiffot, T.; Guillot, L. [Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L`Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  20. The Impact on Geological and Hydrogeological Mapping Results of Moving from Ground to Airborne TEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sapia, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Viezzoli, A.; Aarhus Geophysics Aps; Jørgensen, F.; Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland; Oldenborger, G. A.; Geological Survey of Canada; Marchetti, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems have been used for many groundwater exploration purposes. This contribution of airborne geophysics for both groundwater resource mapping and water quality evaluations and management has increased dramatically over the past ten years, proving how these systems are appropriate for large-scale and efficient groundwater surveying. One of the major reasons for its popularity is the time and cost efficiency in producin...

  1. Airborne Lidar: Advances in Discrete Return Technology for 3D Vegetation Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Ussyshkin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional discrete return airborne lidar systems, used in the commercial sector for efficient generation of high quality spatial data, have been considered for the past decade to be an ideal choice for various mapping applications. Unlike two-dimensional aerial imagery, the elevation component of airborne lidar data provides the ability to represent vertical structure details with very high precision, which is an advantage for many lidar applications focusing on the analysis of elevated features such as 3D vegetation mapping. However, the use of conventional airborne discrete return lidar systems for some of these applications has often been limited, mostly due to relatively coarse vertical resolution and insufficient number of multiple measurements in vertical domain. For this reason, full waveform airborne sensors providing more detailed representation of target vertical structure have often been considered as a preferable choice in some areas of 3D vegetation mapping application, such as forestry research. This paper presents an overview of the specific features of airborne lidar technology concerning 3D mapping applications, particularly vegetation mapping. Certain key performance characteristics of lidar sensors important for the quality of vegetation mapping are discussed and illustrated by the advanced capabilities of the ALTM-Orion, a new discrete return sensor manufactured by Optech Incorporated. It is demonstrated that advanced discrete return sensors with enhanced 3D mapping capabilities can produce data of enhanced quality, which can represent complex structures of vegetation targets at the level of details equivalent in some aspects to the content of full waveform data. It is also shown that recent advances in conventional airborne lidar technology bear the potential to create a new application niche, where high quality dense point clouds, enhanced by fully recorded intensity for multiple returns, may provide sufficient

  2. Pulse Compression with Very Low Sidelobes in an Airborne Rain Mapping Rada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, A.; Durden, S.; Im, E.; Li, F.; Ricketts, W.; Wilsons, W.

    1993-01-01

    The pulse compression system for an airborne rain mapping rada is described. This system uses time domain weighting of the transmit pulse and is able to achive a pulse compression sidelobe level of -55 dB. This is significantly lower than any values previously reported in the open literature.

  3. Mapping of the DOME-C area in Antarctica by an airborne L-band radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl;

    2014-01-01

    A 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature close to the yearly mean temperature — well suited for calibration checks...

  4. Airborne L-band radiometer mapping of the dome-C area in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl;

    2015-01-01

    A 350 km × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome-C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature (TB) close to the yearly mean temperature-well suited for calibration...

  5. Statewide Mapping of Aboveground Biomass by Integrating Airborne Lidar Data and National Forestry Inventory Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; McRoberts, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The freely available airborne lidar data at the sub-national level in the United States provide unprecedented opportunities for mapping large-area yet accurate information about vegetation structure, biomass, and carbon. However, the challenge of processing massive lidar data and extracting useful information is huge. This study is to conduct a statewide mapping study of aboveground biomass (AGB) by integrating airborne lidar data and FIA (Forest Inventory and Analysis) plot data for the whole state of Minnesota. We will share our experience and lessons in issues including 1) automatic generation of Digital Terrain Model from point cloud, 2) classification of vegetation returns, 3) calculation of AGB from FIA plots using different allometric models, 4) statistical modeling of AGB by integrating with FIA plots, and 5) assessing the uncertainty of mapped AGB.

  6. Mapping methane emission sources over California based on airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T.; Guha, A.; Peischl, J.; Misztal, P. K.; Jonsson, H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2011-12-01

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) has created a need to accurately characterize the emission sources of various greenhouse gases (GHGs) and verify the existing state GHG inventory. Methane (CH4) is a major GHG with a global warming potential of 20 times that of CO2 and currently constitutes about 6% of the total statewide GHG emissions on a CO2 equivalent basis. Some of the major methane sources in the state are area sources where methane is biologically produced (e.g. dairies, landfills and waste treatment plants) making bottom-up estimation of emissions a complex process. Other potential sources include fugitive emissions from oil extraction processes and natural gas distribution network, emissions from which are not well-quantified. The lack of adequate field measurement data to verify the inventory and provide independently generated estimates further contributes to the overall uncertainty in the CH4 inventory. In order to gain a better perspective of spatial distribution of major CH4 sources in California, a real-time measurement instrument based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) was installed in a Twin Otter aircraft for the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emissions Research in Natural Ecosystems Transects) campaign, where the driving research goal was to understand the spatial distribution of biogenic VOC emissions. The campaign took place in June 2011 and encompassed over forty hours of airborne CH4 and CO2 measurements during eight unique flights which covered much of the Central Valley and its eastern edge, the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta and the coastal range. The coincident VOC measurements, obtained through a high frequency proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTRMS), aid in CH4 source identification. High mixing ratios of CH4 (> 2000 ppb) are observed consistently in all the flight transects above the Central Valley. These high levels of CH4 are accompanied by high levels of methanol which is an important

  7. WIDE-AREA MAPPING OF FOREST WITH NATIONAL AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING AND FIELD INVENTORY DATASETS

    OpenAIRE

    Monnet, J.-M.; C. Ginzler; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory w...

  8. Airborne laser swath mapping of the Denton Hills, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: Applications for structural and glacial geomorphic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terry; Csathó, Beata

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution digital elevation data acquired by airborne laser scanning (ALS) for the Denton Hills, along the coastal foothills of the Royal Society Range, Transantarctic Mountains, are examined for applications to bedrock and glacial geomorphic mapping. Digital elevation models (DEMs), displayed as shaded-relief images and slope maps, portray geomorphic landscape features in unprecedented detail across the region. Structures of both ductile and brittle origin, ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Quaternary, can be mapped from the DEMs. Glacial features, providing a record of the limits of grounded ice, of lake paleoshorelines, and of proglacial lake-ice conveyor deposits, are also prominent on the DEMs. The ALS-derived topographic data have great potential for a range of mapping applications in regions of ice-free terrain in Antarctica

  9. How the fallout from Chernobyl was detected and measured in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial observations of the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden and Norway are described. Characterization and mapping of the fallout are given. Improving of reactor accident consequence modelling is treated

  10. Airborne magnetic mapping of volcanic areas - state-of-the-art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supper, Robert; Paoletti, Valeria; Okuma, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally airborne magnetics surveys in volcanology are used for mapping regional geological features, fault zones and to develop a magnetic model of the volcanic subsurface. Within an Austrian-Italian-Japanese cooperation, several volcanic areas including Mt. Vesuvius, Ischia, Campi Flegreii and Aeolian Islands in Italy and Socorro Island in Mexico were mapped by high-resolution magnetic mapping during the last 15 years. In this paper, general conclusions from this long-term cooperation project on airborne magnetics in volcanic areas will be summarised. Basically the results showed the results from airborne magnetics could be used for three major purposes: 1. Developing a rough model for the magnetisation below the volcano down to several kilometres by applying advanced magnetic inversion algorithms helped to define the possible depth of the current or past magma chamber. Due to the complexity of the subsurface of volcanic areas, inversion of data was much dependent on constraints coming from other geoscientific disciplines. 2. After applying certain steps of reduction (topographic correction, field transformation) and a combination of source selective filtering, important regional structural trends could be derived from the alignment of the residual magnetic anomalies. 3. On the other hand during recent years, research has also focused on repeated measurements of the magnetic field of volcanic areas (differential in respect of time = differential magnetic measurements - DMM) using airborne sensors. Long-term temporal magnetic field variations in active volcanic areas can be caused by a changing size of the magma chamber or a general rise in temperature. This is caused by the fact that magnetization disappears, when a magnetic material is warmed up over a certain temperature (Curie- temperature). In consequence the resulting total magnetic field changes. Therefore, determining areas showing changes in the magnetic field could help to select areas where a

  11. Positional Accuracy of Airborne Integrated Global Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems for Mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Hothem, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution airborne and satellite image sensor systems integrated with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) may offer a quick and cost-effective way to gather accurate topographic map information without ground control or aerial triangulation. The Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing of aerial photography was used in this project to examine the positional accuracy of integrated GPS/INS for terrain mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona. The research application in this study yielded important information on the usefulness and limits of airborne integrated GPS/INS data-capture systems for mapping.

  12. Airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic mapping of groundwater salinity in the Machile–Zambezi Basin, southwestern Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Vest Christiansen, Anders; Tembo, Alice;

    2015-01-01

    is an efficient tool for mapping groundwater quality variations and has been used extensively to explore the Kalahari sediments, e.g., in Botswana and Namibia. Recently, airborne and groundbased mapping of groundwater salinity was conducted in the Machile–Zambezi Basin, southwestern Zambia, using the versatile...

  13. Towards Automatic Single-Sensor Mapping by Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahokas, E.; Hyyppä, J.; Yu, X.; Liang, X.; Matikainen, L.; Karila, K.; Litkey, P.; Kukko, A.; Jaakkola, A.; Kaartinen, H.; Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of the Optech Titan multispectral airborne laser scanner in the fields of mapping and forestry. Investigation was targeted to six land cover classes. Multispectral laser scanner data can be used to distinguish land cover classes of the ground surface, including the roads and separate road surface classes. For forest inventory using point cloud metrics and intensity features combined, total accuracy of 93.5% was achieved for classification of three main boreal tree species (pine, spruce and birch).When using intensity features - without point height metrics - a classification accuracy of 91% was achieved for these three tree species. It was also shown that deciduous trees can be further classified into more species. We propose that intensity-related features and waveform-type features are combined with point height metrics for forest attribute derivation in area-based prediction, which is an operatively applied forest inventory process in Scandinavia. It is expected that multispectral airborne laser scanning can provide highly valuable data for city and forest mapping and is a highly relevant data asset for national and local mapping agencies in the near future.

  14. Maps of radioactive fallout on soils presented by the S.C.P.R.I. in may and june 1986; Cartes des retombees radioactives au sol presentees par le SCPRI en mai et juin 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The management of the radiological risk at the spring 1986 has been marked by two major elements, that have to be replaced in their historical context: the national plan at this time was not configured to monitor in a homogenous and representative way the whole of the national territory because it targeted the environment of nuclear sites. Furthermore, the S.C.P.R.I. had not modeling numerical tools allowing to produce in real time a developed cartography of radioactive fallout. Then, the results of measures that have contributed to establish the fallout maps on soils have allowed to get only partial and incomplete representations in view of the diversity and the complexity of the real situation. Twenty years ago, the belief of the risk management in our country was centred, more than today, on the notion of global population and not on recognition of persons or particular groups. (N.C.)

  15. Flight investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to oil rigs using airborne weather and mapping radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Phillips, J. D.; Sturgeon, W. R.; Hunting, A. W.; Pate, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne weather and mapping radar is a near-term, economical method of providing 'self-contained' navigation information for approaches to offshore oil rigs and its use has been rapidly expanding in recent years. A joint NASA/FAA flight test investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico was initiated in June 1978 and conducted under contract to Air Logistics. Approximately 120 approaches were flown in a Bell 212 helicopter by 15 operational pilots during the months of August and September 1978. The purpose of the tests was to collect data to (1) support development of advanced radar flight director concepts by NASA and (2) aid the establishment of Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria by the FAA. The flight test objectives were to develop airborne radar approach procedures, measure tracking errors, determine accpetable weather minimums, and determine pilot acceptability. Data obtained will contribute significantly to improved helicopter airborne radar approach capability and to the support of exploration, development, and utilization of the Nation's offshore oil supplies.

  16. Bedrock mapping of buried valley networks using seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenborger, G. A.; Logan, C. E.; Hinton, M. J.; Pugin, A. J.-M.; Sapia, V.; Sharpe, D. R.; Russell, H. A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In glaciated terrain, buried valleys often host aquifers that are significant groundwater resources. However, given the range of scales, spatial complexity and depth of burial, buried valleys often remain undetected or insufficiently mapped. Accurate and thorough mapping of bedrock topography is a crucial step in detecting and delineating buried valleys and understanding formative valley processes. We develop a bedrock mapping procedure supported by the combination of seismic reflection data and helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data with water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes complete depiction of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. Instead, we leverage the complementary strengths of seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data for accurate local detection of the sediment-bedrock interface and for spatially extensive coverage, respectively. Seismic reflection data are used to define buried valley morphology in cross-section beneath survey lines distributed over a regional area. A 3D model of electrical conductivity is derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data and used to extrapolate buried valley morphology over the entire survey area. A spatially variable assignment of the electrical conductivity at the bedrock surface is applied to different features of the buried valley morphology identified in the seismic cross-sections. Electrical conductivity is then used to guide construction of buried valley shapes between seismic sections. The 3D locus of points defining each morphological valley feature is constructed using a path optimization routine that utilizes deviation from the assigned electrical conductivities as the cost function. Our resulting map represents a bedrock surface of unprecedented detail with more

  17. Area-Based Mapping of Defoliation of Scots Pine Stands Using Airborne Scanning LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Hyyppä

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mapping of changes in the distribution of insect-caused forest damage remains an important forest monitoring application and challenge. Efficient and accurate methods are required for mapping and monitoring changes in insect defoliation to inform forest management and reporting activities. In this research, we develop and evaluate a LiDAR-driven (Light Detection And Ranging approach for mapping defoliation caused by the Common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.. Our method requires plot-level training data and airborne scanning LiDAR data. The approach is predicated on a forest canopy mask created by detecting forest canopy cover using LiDAR. The LiDAR returns that are reflected from the canopy (that is, returns > half of maximum plot tree height are used in the prediction of the defoliation. Predictions of defoliation are made at plot-level, which enables a direct integration of the method to operational forest management planning while also providing additional value-added from inventory-focused LiDAR datasets. In addition to the method development, we evaluated the prediction accuracy and investigated the required pulse density for operational LiDAR-based mapping of defoliation. Our method proved to be suitable for the mapping of defoliated stands, resulting in an overall mapping accuracy of 84.3% and a Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 0.68.

  18. A universal airborne LiDAR approach for tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Mascaro, Joseph; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Vaudry, Romuald; Rasamoelina, Maminiaina; Hall, Jefferson S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2012-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is fast turning the corner from demonstration technology to a key tool for assessing carbon stocks in tropical forests. With its ability to penetrate tropical forest canopies and detect three-dimensional forest structure, LiDAR may prove to be a major component of international strategies to measure and account for carbon emissions from and uptake by tropical forests. To date, however, basic ecological information such as height-diameter allometry and stand-level wood density have not been mechanistically incorporated into methods for mapping forest carbon at regional and global scales. A better incorporation of these structural patterns in forests may reduce the considerable time needed to calibrate airborne data with ground-based forest inventory plots, which presently necessitate exhaustive measurements of tree diameters and heights, as well as tree identifications for wood density estimation. Here, we develop a new approach that can facilitate rapid LiDAR calibration with minimal field data. Throughout four tropical regions (Panama, Peru, Madagascar, and Hawaii), we were able to predict aboveground carbon density estimated in field inventory plots using a single universal LiDAR model (r ( 2 ) = 0.80, RMSE = 27.6 Mg C ha(-1)). This model is comparable in predictive power to locally calibrated models, but relies on limited inputs of basal area and wood density information for a given region, rather than on traditional plot inventories. With this approach, we propose to radically decrease the time required to calibrate airborne LiDAR data and thus increase the output of high-resolution carbon maps, supporting tropical forest conservation and climate mitigation policy. PMID:22033763

  19. Airborne Hyperspectral Survey of Afghanistan 2007: Flight Line Planning and HyMap Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, K. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data were acquired over Afghanistan with the HyMap imaging spectrometer (Cocks and others, 1998) operating on the WB-57 high altitude NASA research aircraft (http://jsc-aircraft-ops.jsc.nasa.gov/wb57/index.html). These data were acquired during the interval of August 22, 2007 to October 2, 2007, as part of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) project 'Oil and Gas Resources Assessment of the Katawaz and Helmand Basins'. A total of 218 flight lines of hyperspectral remote sensing data were collected over the country. This report describes the planning of the airborne survey and the flight lines that were flown. Included with this report are digital files of the nadir tracks of the flight lines, including a map of the labeled flight lines and corresponding vector shape files for geographic information systems (GIS).

  20. Mapping of traditional settlements by unmanned airborne vehicles towards architectural restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Skoutelis, Nikolaos; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Tsatsarounos, Stelios; Tsitonaki, Anna; Zervos, Panagiotis

    2015-06-01

    Conservation and restoration of traditional settlements are amongst the actions that international directives proclaim in order to protect our cultural heritage. Towards this end, a mandatory base step in all archaeological and historical practices includes the surveying and mapping of the study area. Often, new, unexplored or abandoned settlements are considered, where dense vegetation, damaged structures and ruins, incorporation of newer structures and renovation characteristics make the precise surveying procedure a labor intensive and time consuming procedure. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) have been effectively incorporated into several cultural heritage projects mainly for mapping archeological sites. However, the majority of relevant publications lack of quantitative evaluation of their results and when such a validation is provided it is rather a procedural error estimation readily available from the software used, without independent ground truth verification. In this study, a low-cost custom-built hexacopter prototype was employed to deliver accurate mapping of the traditional settlement of Kamariotis in east Crete, Greece. The case of Kamariotis settlement included highly dense urban structures with continuous building forms, curved walls and missing terraces, while wild vegetation made classic geodetic surveying unfeasible. The resulting maps were qualitatively compared against the ones derived using Google Earth and the Greek Cadastral Orthophoto Viewing platforms to evaluate their applicability for architectural mapping. Moreover, the overall precision of the photogrammetric procedure was compared against geodetic surveying.

  1. Relics of Mining Activities in West Bohemia - Mapping by Airborne Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltýnová, M.; Pavelka, K.

    2013-07-01

    The part of the Czech Republic - West Bohemia is well known for mining activities, different types of raw materials have been extracted from mines near Jáchymov, Sokolov and other sites since medieval times till today. There are original maps of some sites, as well there is effort of some geologists to find and map relics of mining activities (such as digs visible in terrain) by land survey. The quality of these available maps is unfortunately questionable - due to its age or used methods. Our aim was to find resource useful for searching for these sites, than to use field survey to confirm our findings. We used available digital terrain model (DTM) based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology to map relics of mining activities in West Bohemia. The Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre started in 2008 project for terrain mapping using the ALS method. The aim of mapping was to get authentic and detailed DTM of the Czech Republic. About 2/3 of area is currently covered by the DTM based on ALS, this year the mapping should be complete. The dataset is characterised by the density of 1-2 points/m2 and the standard deviation in altitude of model points is up to 30 cm (in forested areas). We had DTM in form of shaded surface for one third of the Czech Republic. The shaded surface enables to highlight terrain break lines, which is suitable for archaeological research. Terrain modifications caused by human activity are characterized by terrain break lines, local tops or pits, which do not fit to local geomorphology. Visual image interpretation of the dataset is in the process.

  2. Millimeter-Wave Airborne Interferometry for High-accuracy Topography Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Wu, X.; Rodriguez, E.

    2011-12-01

    In April 2009, an airborne Ka-band single pass interferometric SAR (GLISTIN-A) was demonstrated as a modification to the UAVSAR system. GLISTIN-A was developed under the NASA International Polar Year program to demonstrate swath-mapping for ice-surface topography. Instrument performance confirmed swath widths over the ice between 5-7km, with height precisions ranging from 30cm-3m at a 3m x 3m posting. However processing challenges were encountered on several fronts to achieve the required accuracies including, aircraft motion sensitivity, multipath and systematic drifts. A combination of processor optimization, a modified phase-screen and motion-compensation implementations were able to minimize the impact of these systematic error sources. Funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office, upgrades are currently underway to improve the performance (swath >10km) and portability of GLISTIN-A. The upgraded GLISTIN-A will be compatible with the GlobalHawk making Antarctica regional mapping feasible. Beyond this, the surface water and ocean topography (SWOT) mission slated for launch in 2019, needs an airborne sensor to support pre-mission phenomenology measurements and mission calibration and valibration (cal/val). SWOT is unique and distinct from precursor ocean altimetry missions in some notable regards: 1) 100km+ of swath will provide complete ocean elevation coverage, 2) in addition the land surface water will be mapped for storage measurement and discharge estimation and 3) Ka-band single-pass interferometry will produce the 2-D water surface elevation (WSE) maps. In support of SWOT, en-route to Greenland, GLISTIN-A collected a limited amount of data over surface-water targets in North Dakota. While instructive as a preliminary validation of Ka-band interferometry over inland water bodies, further application is limited because GLISTIN-A itself was not designed to address SWOT needs. While ideal for a the ice topography mapping application, the combination of

  3. Volumetric evolution of Surtsey, Iceland, from topographic maps and scanning airborne laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J.B.; Williams, R.S.; Frawley, J.J.; Krabill, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The volumetric evolution of Surtsey has been estimated on the basis of digital elevation models derived from NASA scanning airborne laser altimeter surveys (20 July 1998), as well as digitized 1:5,000-scale topographic maps produced by the National Land Survey of Iceland and by Norrman. Subaerial volumes have been computed from co-registered digital elevation models (DEM's) from 6 July 1968, 11 July 1975, 16 July 1993, and 20 July 1998 (scanning airborne laser altimetry), as well as true surface area (above mean sea level). Our analysis suggests that the subaerial volume of Surtsey has been reduced from nearly 0.100 km3 on 6 July 1968 to 0.075 km3 on 20 July 1998. Linear regression analysis of the temporal evolution of Surtsey's subaerial volume indicates that most of its subaerial surface will be at or below mean sea-level by approximately 2100. This assumes a conservative estimate of continuation of the current pace of marine erosion and mass-wasting on the island, including the indurated core of the conduits of the Surtur I and Surtur II eruptive vents. If the conduits are relatively resistant to marine erosion they will become sea stacks after the rest of the island has become a submarine shoal, and some portions of the island could survive for centuries. The 20 July 1998 scanning laser altimeter surveys further indicate rapid enlargement of erosional canyons in the northeastern portion of the partial tephra ring associated with Surtur I. Continued airborne and eventually spaceborne topographic surveys of Surtsey are planned to refine the inter-annual change of its subaerial volume.

  4. Airborne-temperature-survey maps of heat-flow anomalies for exploration geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgrande, N. K.

    1982-11-01

    Precise airborne temperature surveys depicted small predawn surface temperature differences related to heat flow anomalies at the Long Valley, California, KGRA. Zones with conductive heat flow differences of 45 + or - 16 nu cal/sq cm(s) has predawn surface temperature differences of 1.4 + or - 0.3 C. The warmer zones had hot water circulating in a shallow (less than 60-m-deep) aquifer. Hot wate is a useful geochemical indicator of geothermal and mineral resource potential. The precise airborne temperature survey method recorded redundant infrared scanner signals at two wavelengths (10 to 12 micrometers and 4.5 to 5.5 micrometers) and two elevations (0.3 km and 1.2 km). Ground thermistor probes recorded air and soil temperatures during the survey overflights. Radiometric temperatures were corrected for air path and reflected sky radiation effects. Corrected temperatures were displayed in image form with color coded maps which depicted 0.24 C temperature differences.

  5. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Reeves, James B.; Lang, Megan W.; Oesterling, Robert A.; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400–2450 nm, ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n = 315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R2 > 0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 × 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  6. Processing of airborne lidar bathymetry data for detailed sea floor mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael

    2014-10-01

    Airborne bathymetric lidar has proven to be a valuable sensor for rapid and accurate sounding of shallow water areas. With advanced processing of the lidar data, detailed mapping of the sea floor with various objects and vegetation is possible. This mapping capability has a wide range of applications including detection of mine-like objects, mapping marine natural resources, and fish spawning areas, as well as supporting the fulfillment of national and international environmental monitoring directives. Although data sets collected by subsea systems give a high degree of credibility they can benefit from a combination with lidar for surveying and monitoring larger areas. With lidar-based sea floor maps containing information of substrate and attached vegetation, the field investigations become more efficient. Field data collection can be directed into selected areas and even focused to identification of specific targets detected in the lidar map. The purpose of this work is to describe the performance for detection and classification of sea floor objects and vegetation, for the lidar seeing through the water column. With both experimental and simulated data we examine the lidar signal characteristics depending on bottom depth, substrate type, and vegetation. The experimental evaluation is based on lidar data from field documented sites, where field data were taken from underwater video recordings. To be able to accurately extract the information from the received lidar signal, it is necessary to account for the air-water interface and the water medium. The information content is hidden in the lidar depth data, also referred to as point data, and also in the shape of the received lidar waveform. The returned lidar signal is affected by environmental factors such as bottom depth and water turbidity, as well as lidar system factors such as laser beam footprint size and sounding density.

  7. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Cover Using Fused Airborne LIDAR and Satellite Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmehr, Ebadat G.; Amati, Marco; Fraser, Clive S.

    2016-06-01

    Urban green spaces, particularly urban trees, play a key role in enhancing the liveability of cities. The availability of accurate and up-to-date maps of tree canopy cover is important for sustainable development of urban green spaces. LiDAR point clouds are widely used for the mapping of buildings and trees, and several LiDAR point cloud classification techniques have been proposed for automatic mapping. However, the effectiveness of point cloud classification techniques for automated tree extraction from LiDAR data can be impacted to the point of failure by the complexity of tree canopy shapes in urban areas. Multispectral imagery, which provides complementary information to LiDAR data, can improve point cloud classification quality. This paper proposes a reliable method for the extraction of tree canopy cover from fused LiDAR point cloud and multispectral satellite imagery data. The proposed method initially associates each LiDAR point with spectral information from the co-registered satellite imagery data. It calculates the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) value for each LiDAR point and corrects tree points which have been misclassified as buildings. Then, region growing of tree points, taking the NDVI value into account, is applied. Finally, the LiDAR points classified as tree points are utilised to generate a canopy cover map. The performance of the proposed tree canopy cover mapping method is experimentally evaluated on a data set of airborne LiDAR and WorldView 2 imagery covering a suburb in Melbourne, Australia.

  8. Land cover mapping in Latvia using hyperspectral airborne and simulated Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Filipovs, Jevgenijs; Brauns, Agris; Taskovs, Juris; Erins, Gatis

    2016-08-01

    Land cover mapping in Latvia is performed as part of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) initiative every six years. The advantage of CLC is the creation of a standardized nomenclature and mapping protocol comparable across all European countries, thereby making it a valuable information source at the European level. However, low spatial resolution and accuracy, infrequent updates and expensive manual production has limited its use at the national level. As of now, there is no remote sensing based high resolution land cover and land use services designed specifically for Latvia which would account for the country's natural and land use specifics and end-user interests. The European Space Agency launched the Sentinel-2 satellite in 2015 aiming to provide continuity of free high resolution multispectral satellite data thereby presenting an opportunity to develop and adapted land cover and land use algorithm which accounts for national enduser needs. In this study, land cover mapping scheme according to national end-user needs was developed and tested in two pilot territories (Cesis and Burtnieki). Hyperspectral airborne data covering spectral range 400-2500 nm was acquired in summer 2015 using Airborne Surveillance and Environmental Monitoring System (ARSENAL). The gathered data was tested for land cover classification of seven general classes (urban/artificial, bare, forest, shrubland, agricultural/grassland, wetlands, water) and sub-classes specific for Latvia as well as simulation of Sentinel-2 satellite data. Hyperspectral data sets consist of 122 spectral bands in visible to near infrared spectral range (356-950 nm) and 100 bands in short wave infrared (950-2500 nm). Classification of land cover was tested separately for each sensor data and fused cross-sensor data. The best overall classification accuracy 84.2% and satisfactory classification accuracy (more than 80%) for 9 of 13 classes was obtained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with 109 band

  9. Airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping of snow depth and albedo in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, USA by the NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Operational hydrologic simulation and forecasting in snowmelt-dominated watersheds currently relies on indices of snow accumulation and melt from measurements at a small number of point locations or geographically-limited manual surveys. These data sources cannot adequately characterize the spatial distribution of snow depth/water equivalent, which is the primary determinant of snowpack volume and runoff rates. The NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory's airborne laser scanning system maps snow depth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, and is paired with a hyperspectral imager to provide an unprecedented snowpack monitoring capability and enabling a new operational paradigm. We present the initial results from this new application of multi-temporal LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping. During the snowmelt seasons of 2013 and 2014, the ASO mapped snow depth and albedo in the Uncompahgre River Basin in Colorado's Upper Colorado River Basin on a nominally monthly basis. These products enable an assessment and comparison of spatial snow accumulation and melt processes in two years with very different snowmelt hydrographs.

  10. Temperature and emissivity separation and mineral mapping based on airborne TASI hyperspectral thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Yan, Bokun; Dong, Xinfeng; Zhang, Shimin; Zhang, Jingfa; Tian, Feng; Wang, Runsheng

    2015-08-01

    Thermal infrared remote sensing (8-12 μm) (TIR) has great potential for geologic remote sensing studies. TIR has been successfully used for terrestrial and planetary geologic studies to map surface materials. However, the complexity of the physics and the lack of hyperspectral data make the studies under-investigated. A new generation of commercial hyperspectral infrared sensors, known as Thermal Airborne Spectrographic Imager (TASI), was used for image analysis and mineral mapping in this study. In this paper, a combined method integrating normalized emissivity method (NEM), ratio algorithm (RATIO) and maximum-minimum apparent emissivity difference (MMD), being applied in multispectral data, has been modified and used to determine whether this method is suitable for retrieving emissivity from TASI hyperspectral data. MODTRAN 4 has been used for the atmospheric correction. The retrieved emissivity spectra matched well with the field measured spectra except for bands 1, 2, and 32. Quartz, calcite, diopside/hedenbergite, hornblende and microcline have been mapped by the emissivity image. Mineral mapping results agree with the dominant minerals identified by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction and spectroscopic analyses of field samples. Both of the results indicated that the atmospheric correction method and the combined temperature-emissivitiy method are suitable for TASI image. Carbonate skarnization was first found in the study area by the spatial extent of diopside. Chemical analyses of the skarn samples determined that the Au content was 0.32-1.74 g/t, with an average Au content of 0.73 g/t. This information provides an important resource for prospecting for skarn type gold deposits. It is also suggested that TASI is suitable for prospect and deposit scale exploration.

  11. Comparison of Northern Ireland radon maps based on indoor radon measurements and geology with maps derived by predictive modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J.D., E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Miles, J.C.H. [Health Protection Agency (HPA) - Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Young, M. [Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, Colby House, Stranmillis Court, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5BJ, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential mapping method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for mapping radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential map generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the map based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential predicted from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-prediction could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air. - Research Highlights: {yields} A new radon map for Northern Ireland is derived from indoor radon and geology data. {yields} Linear regression used to map radon potential (RP) from airborne and soil data. {yields} Gamma-ray spectrometry estimated U is the most significant independent variable. {yields} RP maps based on separate models for distinct geological terrains are most effective. {yields} Under-prediction of RP may be caused by loss of radon from surface rocks and soils.

  12. Mapping Forest Species Composition Using Imaging Spectrometry and Airborne Laser Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabzadeh, H.; Morsdorf, F.; Leiterer, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-09-01

    Accurate mapping of forest species composition is an important aspect of monitoring and management planning related to ecosystem functions and services associated with water refinement, carbon sequestration, biodiversity, and wildlife habitats. Although different vegetation species often have unique spectral signatures, mapping based on spectral reflectance properties alone is often an ill-posed problem, since the spectral signature is as well influenced by age, canopy gaps, shadows and background characteristics. Thus, reducing the unknown variation by knowing the structural parameters of different species should improve determination procedures. In this study we combine imaging spectrometry (IS) and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data of a mixed needle and broadleaf forest to differentiate tree species more accurately as single-instrument data could do. Since forest inventory data in dense forests involve uncertainties, we tried to refine them by using individual tree crowns (ITC) position and shape, which derived from ALS data. Comparison of the extracted spectra from original field data and the modified one shows how ALS-derived shape and position of ITCs can improve separablity of the different species. The spatially explicit information layers containing both the spectral and structural components from the IS and ALS datasets were then combined by using a non-parametric support vector machine (SVM) classifier.

  13. Evaluating Sentinel-2 for Lakeshore Habitat Mapping Based on Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Stratoulias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of lakeshore ecosystems requires fine-scale information to account for the high biodiversity typically encountered in the land-water ecotone. Sentinel-2 is a satellite with high spatial and spectral resolution and improved revisiting frequency and is expected to have significant potential for habitat mapping and classification of complex lakeshore ecosystems. In this context, investigations of the capabilities of Sentinel-2 in regard to the spatial and spectral dimensions are needed to assess its potential and the quality of the expected output. This study presents the first simulation of the high spatial resolution (i.e., 10 m and 20 m bands of Sentinel-2 for lakeshore mapping, based on the satellite’s Spectral Response Function and hyperspectral airborne data collected over Lake Balaton, Hungary in August 2010. A comparison of supervised classifications of the simulated products is presented and the information loss from spectral aggregation and spatial upscaling in the context of lakeshore vegetation classification is discussed. We conclude that Sentinel-2 imagery has a strong potential for monitoring fine-scale habitats, such as reed beds.

  14. Wide-Area Mapping of Forest with National Airborne Laser Scanning and Field Inventory Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, J.-M.; Ginzler, C.; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory were used to calibrate estimation models for mean and maximum height, basal area, stem density, mean diameter and stem volume. When stratification was performed based on ALS acquisition settings and geographical criteria, satisfactory prediction models were obtained for volume (R2 = 0.61 with a root mean square error of 47 %) and basal area (respectively 0.51 and 45 %) while height variables had an error lower than 19%. This case study shows that the use of nationwide ALS and field datasets for forest resources mapping is cost efficient, but additional investigations are required to handle the limitations of the input data and optimize the accuracy.

  15. The use of airborne electromagnetic for efficient mapping of salt water intrusion and outflow to the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper; Ribeiro, Joana;

    2010-01-01

    not only the salt-fresh water boundary in the coastal zone, but also the mixing of fresh-salt-water on the seaside. Even freshwater layers under several meters of brackish water can be mapped. Sufficient depth of investigation is obtained by time domain methods as they have a significant higher......Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) is an efficient tool for mapping groundwater resources in sedimentary environments. AEM delivers a very high data coverage and results in high-resolution electrical images of the subsurface. In particular the time domain methods (TEM) are well suited for mapping o0f...

  16. A New Method for Processing Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry Data for Mapping Low Level Contaminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim;

    1999-01-01

    where the remaining contamination from the 1986 Chernobyl accident together with fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests includes Cs-137 at levels often well below 1 kBq/m(2) equivalent surface contamination. The limiting factors for obtaining reliable results are radon in the air, spectrum...

  17. A complex geo-scientific strategy for landslide hazard mitigation ─ from airborne mapping to ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaritz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After a large landslide event in Sibratsgfäll/Austria several exploration methods were evaluated on their applicability to investigate and monitor landslide areas. The resulting optimised strategy consists of the combined application of airborne electromagnetics, ground geoelectrical measurements and geoelectrical monitoring combined with hydrological and geological mapping and geotechnical modelling. Interdisciplinary communication and discussion was the primary key to assess this complicated hazard situation.

  18. Estimation of shub height for fuel-type mapping combining airborne LiDAR and simultaneous color infrared ortho imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ria??o, David; Chuvieco, Emilio; Susan L Ustin; Salas, Javier; Ridr??guez P??rez, Jos?? Ram??n; Ribeiro, Luis M.; Viegas, Domingos X.; Moreno, Jos?? M.; Fern??ndez, Helena

    2007-01-01

    P. 341-348 A fuel-type map of a predominantly shub-land area in central Portugal was generated for a fire research experimental site, by combining airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), and simultaneous color infrared ortho imaging. Since the vegetation canopy and the ground are too close together to be easily discerned by LiDAR pulses, standard of processing LiDAR data did not provide an accurate estimate of shrub height

  19. Evaluation of the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for mapping subtle lithological variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), flown aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft in 1987 and 1989, used four linear arrays and four individual spectrometers to collect data simultaneously from the 224 bands in a scanned 614 pixel-wide swath perpendicular to the aircraft direction. The research had two goals. One was to evaluate the AVIRIS data. The other was to look at the subtle lithological variation at the two test sites to develop a better understanding of the regional geology and surficial processes. The geometric characteristics of the data, adequacy of the spatial resolution, and adequacy of the spectral sampling interval are evaluated. Geologic differences at the test sites were mapped. They included lithological variation caused by primary sedimentary layering, facies variation, and weathering; and subtle mineralogical differences caused by hydrothermal alterations of igneous and sedimentary rocks. The investigation used laboratory, field, and aircraft spectral measurements; known properties of geological materials; digital image processing and spectrum processing techniques; and field geologic data to evaluate the selected characteristics of the AVIRIS data.

  20. Semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage from airborne laser scanning using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due Trier, Øivind; Salberg, Arnt-Børre; Holger Pilø, Lars; Tonning, Christer; Marius Johansen, Hans; Aarsten, Dagrun

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes to use deep learning to improve semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. Automatic detection methods, based on traditional pattern recognition, have been applied in a number of cultural heritage mapping projects in Norway for the past five years. Automatic detection of pits and heaps have been combined with visual interpretation of the ALS data for the mapping of deer hunting systems, iron production sites, grave mounds and charcoal kilns. However, the performance of the automatic detection methods varies substantially between ALS datasets. For the mapping of deer hunting systems on flat gravel and sand sediment deposits, the automatic detection results were almost perfect. However, some false detections appeared in the terrain outside of the sediment deposits. These could be explained by other pit-like landscape features, like parts of river courses, spaces between boulders, and modern terrain modifications. However, these were easy to spot during visual interpretation, and the number of missed individual pitfall traps was still low. For the mapping of grave mounds, the automatic method produced a large number of false detections, reducing the usefulness of the semi-automatic approach. The mound structure is a very common natural terrain feature, and the grave mounds are less distinct in shape than the pitfall traps. Still, applying automatic mound detection on an entire municipality did lead to a new discovery of an Iron Age grave field with more than 15 individual mounds. Automatic mound detection also proved to be useful for a detailed re-mapping of Norway's largest Iron Age grave yard, which contains almost 1000 individual graves. Combined pit and mound detection has been applied to the mapping of more than 1000 charcoal kilns that were used by an iron work 350-200 years ago. The majority of charcoal kilns were indirectly detected as either pits on the circumference, a central mound, or both

  1. Mapping beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Sobhan, Istiak

    2009-06-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.). Airborne HyMap images and data on forest structural attributes were collected from the Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive performances of vegetation indices (VI) derived from all possible two-band combinations (VI ( i, j) = ( Ri - Rj)/( Ri + Rj), where Ri and Rj = reflectance in any two bands) were evaluated using calibration ( n = 33) and test ( n = 20) data sets. The potential of partial least squares (PLS) regression, a multivariate technique involving several bands was also assessed. New VIs based on the contrast between reflectance in the red-edge shoulder (756-820 nm) and the water absorption feature centred at 1200 nm (1172-1320 nm) were found to show higher correlations with the forest structural parameters than standard VIs derived from NIR and visible reflectance (i.e. the normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI). PLS regression showed a slight improvement in estimating the beech forest structural attributes (prediction errors of 27.6%, 32.6% and 46.4% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively) compared to VIs using linear regression models (prediction errors of 27.8%, 35.8% and 48.3% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively). Mean DBH was the best predicted variable among the stand parameters (calibration R2 = 0.62 for an exponential model fit and standard error of prediction = 5.12 cm, i.e. 25% of the mean). The predicted map of mean DBH revealed high heterogeneity in the beech forest structure in the study area. The spatial variability of mean DBH occurs at less than 450 m. The DBH

  2. Using High-Resolution Airborne LiDAR-Data for Landslide Mapping in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, N.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the increasing frequency of natural disasters like floods and landslides, the active remote sensing technique LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), has become a topic of great interest to the Federal State Government of Styria, Federal Republic of Austria. In a perennial project from 2008 to 2012 high-resolution 3D Airborne LiDAR Data of the Province of Styria, an area about 16.000km2 in south-eastern Austria were collected. These data were processed to create Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Surface Models (DSM) at 1m resolution with a vertical accuracy of 15 [cm] and a positional accuracy of 40 [cm]. High resolution DTMs can be used in different geo-related applications like geomorphological mapping or natural hazard mapping. DTMs show because of its high accuracy various natural and anthropogenic terrain features such as erosion scarps, alluvial fans, landslides, old creeks, topographic edges and karstforms, as well as walking paths and roads and in addition to that LiDAR data allows the detection and outlining of these different geomorphological and anthropogenic features with the help of ArcGIS 10 geoprocessing and analysing techniques, mathematical, statistical and image processing methods and the open source scripting language Python. As a result complex workflows and new geoprocessing tools can be implemented in an ArcGIS 10 workspace and are provided as easy to use toolbox contents. The landslide phenomena take in centre stage of the research work of the author. Thereby the main focus is targeted on sliding movements out of soils and bedrock. Factors like gravity take effect on slope stability directly and cause complex mass movements with a downslope directed, gliding movement of bed- and/or loose-rock as well as soil material. In this paper the author presents the result of her master thesis, an automatic ArcGIS 10 landslide mapping tool using high-resolution LiDAR data in the rock masses of the Eastern Alps (Province of Styria, Austria

  3. Use of airborne multispectral scanner data to map alteration related to roll-front uranium migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-enhanced airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) images have been used to detect and map red oxidized alteration related to roll-front uranium migration in the southern Powder River basin, Wyoming. Information in the 0.4- to 1.1-μm spectral region was used to produce a color ratio composite image, upon which the red-altered areas can be differentiated. The red-altered and incipiently altered sandstones result from the migration of a roll-front (or geochemical cell) through the sandstone in the direction of the hydrologic gradient. Most uranium deposits in the Powder River basin occur at the boundary between this oxidized sandstone and reduced sandstone. Therefore, the ability to detect and map this alteration reliably can provide important information about the potential for uranium mineralization down gradient from the altered areas, at the surface in an area of interest. Spectral reflectance studies indicate that a shift in the absorption band edge from 0.52 μm (for goethitic sandstone) to 0.58 μm (for hematitic sandstone) and an intensification of an absorption band at 0.85 μm (for hematitic sandstone) are the bases for identifying the red-altered sandstone as green anomalous areas on the color ratio composite image. Some of the incipiently altered sandstone also appears green, whereas unaltered material and white-altered sandstone appear as blue to cyan colors. Therefore, the composite image is useful in discriminating hematitic sandstone from goethitic sandstone. At high densities (>65%), vegetation masks the sandstones on the color ratio composite image. Artemisia tridentata (sage) and Stipa comata (grass) are the species that have the greatest individual effect on the image

  4. Mapping of macro and micro nutrients of mixed pastures using airborne AisaFENIX hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, Gábor; Yule, I. J.

    2016-07-01

    On-farm assessment of mixed pasture nutrient concentrations is important for animal production and pasture management. Hyperspectral imaging is recognized as a potential tool to quantify the nutrient content of vegetation. However, it is a great challenge to estimate macro and micro nutrients in heterogeneous mixed pastures. In this study, canopy reflectance data was measured by using a high resolution airborne visible-to-shortwave infrared (Vis-SWIR) imaging spectrometer measuring in the wavelength region 380-2500 nm to predict nutrient concentrations, nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn) copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) in heterogeneous mixed pastures across a sheep and beef farm in hill country, within New Zealand. Prediction models were developed using four different methods which are included partial least squares regression (PLSR), kernel PLSR, support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR) algorithms and their performance compared using the test data. The results from the study revealed that RFR produced highest accuracy (0.55 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.78; 6.68% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 26.47%) compared to all other algorithms for the majority of nutrients (N, P, K, Zn, Na, Cu and Mg) described, and the remaining nutrients (S and Mn) were predicted with high accuracy (0.68 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.86; 13.00% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 14.64%) using SVR. The best training models were used to extrapolate over the whole farm with the purpose of predicting those pasture nutrients and expressed through pixel based spatial maps. These spatially registered nutrient maps demonstrate the range and geographical location of often large differences in pasture nutrient values which are normally not measured and therefore not included in decision making when considering more effective ways to utilized pasture.

  5. Comparative analysis of different retrieval methods for mapping grassland leaf area index using airborne imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzberger, Clement; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Immitzer, Markus; Schlerf, Martin; Skidmore, Andrew; le Maire, Guerric

    2015-12-01

    Fine scale maps of vegetation biophysical variables are useful status indicators for monitoring and managing national parks and endangered habitats. Here, we assess in a comparative way four different retrieval methods for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in grassland: two radiative transfer model (RTM) inversion methods (one based on look-up-tables (LUT) and one based on predictive equations) and two statistical modelling methods (one partly, the other entirely based on in situ data). For prediction, spectral data were used that had been acquired over Majella National Park in Italy by the airborne hyperspectral HyMap instrument. To assess the performance of the four investigated models, the normalized root mean squared error (nRMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) between estimates and in situ LAI measurements are reported (n = 41). Using a jackknife approach, we also quantified the accuracy and robustness of empirical models as a function of the size of the available calibration data set. The results of the study demonstrate that the LUT-based RTM inversion yields higher accuracies for LAI estimation (R2 = 0.91, nRMSE = 0.18) as compared to RTM inversions based on predictive equations (R2 = 0.79, nRMSE = 0.38). The two statistical methods yield accuracies similar to the LUT method. However, as expected, the accuracy and robustness of the statistical models decrease when the size of the calibration database is reduced to fewer samples. The results of this study are of interest for the remote sensing community developing improved inversion schemes for spaceborne hyperspectral sensors applicable to different vegetation types. The examples provided in this paper may also serve as illustrations for the drawbacks and advantages of physical and empirical models.

  6. Local-scale flood mapping on vegetated floodplains from radiometrically calibrated airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Radosław; Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Groom, Geoff; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge about the magnitude of localised flooding of riverine areas is crucial for appropriate land management and administration at regional and local levels. However, detection and delineation of localised flooding with remote sensing techniques are often hampered on floodplains by the presence of herbaceous vegetation. To address this problem, this study presents the application of full-waveform airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for detection of floodwater extent. In general, water surfaces are characterised by low values of backscattered energy due to water absorption of the infrared laser shots, but the exact strength of the recorded laser pulse depends on the area covered by the targets located within a laser pulse footprint area. To account for this we analysed the physical quantity of radiometrically calibrated ALS data, the backscattering coefficient, in relation to water and vegetation coverage within a single laser footprint. The results showed that the backscatter was negatively correlated to water coverage, and that of the three distinguished classes of water coverage (low, medium, and high) only the class with the largest extent of water cover (>70%) had relatively distinct characteristics that can be used for classification of water surfaces. Following the laser footprint analysis, three classifiers, namely AdaBoost with Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest, were utilised to classify laser points into flooded and non-flooded classes and to derive the map of flooding extent. The performance of the classifiers is highly dependent on the set of laser points features used. Best performance was achieved by combining radiometric and geometric laser point features. The accuracy of flooding maps based solely on radiometric features resulted in overall accuracies of up to 70% and was limited due to the overlap of the backscattering coefficient values between water and other land cover classes. Our point-based classification methods assure a high

  7. Probabilistic change mapping from airborne LiDAR for post-disaster damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, A.; Runyon, S. C.; Kruse, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    When both pre- and post-event LiDAR point clouds are available, change detection can be performed to identify areas that were most affected by a disaster event, and to obtain a map of quantitative changes in terms of height differences. In the case of earthquakes in built-up areas for instance, first responders can use a LiDAR change map to help prioritize search and recovery efforts. The main challenge consists of producing reliable change maps, robust to collection conditions, free of processing artifacts (due for instance to triangulation or gridding), and taking into account the various sources of uncertainty. Indeed, datasets acquired within a few years interval are often of different point density (sometimes an order of magnitude higher for recent data), different acquisition geometries, and very likely suffer from georeferencing errors and geometric discrepancies. All these differences might not be important for producing maps from each dataset separately, but they are crucial when performing change detection. We have developed a novel technique for the estimation of uncertainty maps from the LiDAR point clouds, using Bayesian inference, treating all variables as random. The main principle is to grid all points on a common grid before attempting any comparison, as working directly with point clouds is cumbersome and time consuming. A non-parametric approach based on local linear regression was implemented, assuming a locally linear model for the surface. This enabled us to derive error bars on gridded elevations, and then elevation differences. In this way, a map of statistically significant changes could be computed - whereas a deterministic approach would not allow testing of the significance of differences between the two datasets. This approach allowed us to take into account not only the observation noise (due to ranging, position and attitude errors) but also the intrinsic roughness of the observed surfaces occurring when scanning vegetation. As only

  8. Mapping Natura 2000 Habitat Conservation Status in a Pannonic Salt Steppe with Airborne Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Zlinszky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Natura 2000 Habitat Conservation Status is currently evaluated based on fieldwork. However, this is proving to be unfeasible over large areas. The use of remote sensing is increasingly encouraged but covering the full range of ecological variables by such datasets and ensuring compatibility with the traditional assessment methodology has not been achieved yet. We aimed to test Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS as a source for mapping all variables required by the local official conservation status assessment scheme and to develop an automated method that calculates Natura 2000 conservation status at 0.5 m raster resolution for 24 km2 of Pannonic Salt Steppe habitat (code 1530. We used multi-temporal (summer and winter ALS point clouds with full-waveform recording and a density of 10 pt/m2. Some required variables were derived from ALS product rasters; others involved vegetation classification layers calculated by machine learning and fuzzy categorization. Thresholds separating favorable and unfavorable values of each variable required by the national assessment scheme were manually calibrated from 10 plots where field-based assessment was carried out. Rasters representing positive and negative scores for each input variable were integrated in a ruleset that exactly follows the Hungarian Natura 2000 assessment scheme for grasslands. Accuracy of each parameter and the final conservation status score and category was evaluated by 10 independent assessment plots. We conclude that ALS is a suitable data source for Natura 2000 assessments in grasslands, and that the national grassland assessment scheme can successfully be used as a GIS processing model for conservation status, ensuring that the output is directly comparable with traditional field based assessments.

  9. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  10. Classifying airborne radiometry data with Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering: A tool for geological mapping in context of rainforest (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelet, G.; Truffert, C.; Tourlière, B.; Ledru, P.; Perrin, J.

    2006-09-01

    In highly weathered environments, it is crucial that geological maps provide information concerning both the regolith and the bedrock, for societal needs, such as land-use, mineral or water resources management. Often, geologists are facing the challenge of upgrading existing maps, as relevant information concerning weathering processes and pedogenesis is currently missing. In rugged areas in particular, where access to the field is difficult, ground observations are sparsely available, and need therefore to be complemented using methods based on remotely sensed data. For this purpose, we discuss the use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) on eU, K and eTh airborne gamma-ray spectrometry grids. The AHC process allows primarily to segment the geophysical maps into zones having coherent U, K and Th contents. The analysis of these contents are discussed in terms of geochemical signature for lithological attribution of classes, as well as the use of a dendrogram, which gives indications on the hierarchical relations between classes. Unsupervised classification maps resulting from AHC can be considered as spatial models of the distribution of the radioelement content in surface and sub-surface formations. The source of gamma rays emanating from the ground is primarily related to the geochemistry of the bedrock and secondarily to modifications of the radioelement distribution by weathering and other secondary mechanisms, such as mobilisation by wind or water. The interpretation of the obtained predictive classified maps, their U, K, Th contents, and the dendrogram, in light of available geological knowledge, allows to separate signatures related to regolith and solid geology. Consequently, classification maps can be integrated within a GIS environment and used by the geologist as a support for mapping bedrock lithologies and their alteration. We illustrate the AHC classification method in the region of Cayenne using high-resolution airborne radiometric data

  11. Weekly LiDAR snow depth mapping for operational snow hydrology - the NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; McGurk, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Operational hydrologic simulation and forecasting in snowmelt-dominated watersheds currently relies on indices of snow accumulation and melt from measurements at a small number of point locations or geographically-limited manual surveys. These data sources cannot adequately characterize the spatial distribution of snow depth/water equivalent, which is the primary determinant of snowpack volume and runoff rates. The NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory's airborne laser scanning system maps snow depth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, providing an unprecedented snowpack monitoring capability and enabling a new operational paradigm. In the Spring of 2013, the ASO mapped snow depth in the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Yosemite National Park on a nominally weekly basis, and provided fast-turnaround spatial snow depth and water equivalent maps to the operators of Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, the water supply for 2.5 million people on the San Francisco peninsula. These products enabled more accurate runoff simulation and optimal reservoir management in a year of very low snow accumulation. We present the initial results from this new application of multi-temporal LiDAR mapping in operational snow hydrology.

  12. The Utility and Validity of Kinematic GPS Positioning for the Geosar Airborne Terrain Mapping Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam; Hensley, Scott; Chapin, Elaine; Kroger, Peter; Hussain, Mushtaq; Allred, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    GeoSAR is an airborne, interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) system for terrain mapping, currently under development by a consortium including NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., a California mapping sciences company, and the California Department of Conservation (CaIDOC), with funding provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Topographic Engineering Center (TEC) and the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). IFSAR data processing requires high-accuracy platform position and attitude knowledge. On 9 GeoSAR, these are provided by one or two Honeywell Embedded GPS Inertial Navigation Units (EGI) and an Ashtech Z12 GPS receiver. The EGIs provide real-time high-accuracy attitude and moderate-accuracy position data, while the Ashtech data, post-processed differentially with data from a nearby ground station using Ashtech PNAV software, provide high-accuracy differential GPS positions. These data are optimally combined using a Kalman filter within the GeoSAR motion measurement software, and the resultant position and orientation information are used to process the dual frequency (X-band and P-band) radar data to generate high-accuracy, high -resolution terrain imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). GeoSAR requirements specify sub-meter level planimetric and vertical accuracies for the resultant DEMS. To achieve this, platform positioning errors well below one meter are needed. The goal of GeoSAR is to obtain 25 cm or better 3-D positions from the GPS systems on board the aircraft. By imaging a set of known point target corner-cube reflectors, the GeoSAR system can be calibrated. This calibration process yields the true position of the aircraft with an uncertainty of 20- 50 cm. This process thus allows an independent assessment of the accuracy of our GPS-based positioning systems. We will present an overview of the GeoSAR motion measurement system, focusing on the use of GPS and the blending of position data from the

  13. Airborne Multispectral LIDAR Data for Land-Cover Classification and Land/water Mapping Using Different Spectral Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, S.; Shaker, A.; El-Rabbany, A.; LaRocque, P. E.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data is widely used in remote sensing applications, such as topographic and landwater mapping. Recently, airborne multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, are available, thus allows recording a diversity of intensity values from different land features. In this study, three normalized difference feature indexes (NDFI), for vegetation, water, and built-up area mapping, were evaluated. The NDFIs namely, NDFIG-NIR, NDFIG-MIR, and NDFINIR-MIR were calculated using data collected at three wavelengths; green: 532 nm, near-infrared (NIR): 1064 nm, and mid-infrared (MIR): 1550 nm by the world's first airborne multispectral LiDAR sensor "Optech Titan". The Jenks natural breaks optimization method was used to determine the threshold values for each NDFI, in order to cluster the 3D point data into two classes (water and land or vegetation and built-up area). Two sites at Scarborough, Ontario, Canada were tested to evaluate the performance of the NDFIs for land-water, vegetation, and built-up area mapping. The use of the three NDFIs succeeded to discriminate vegetation from built-up areas with an overall accuracy of 92.51%. Based on the classification results, it is suggested to use NDFIG-MIR and NDFINIR-MIR for vegetation and built-up areas extraction, respectively. The clustering results show that the direct use of NDFIs for land-water mapping has low performance. Therefore, the clustered classes, based on the NDFIs, are constrained by the recorded number of returns from different wavelengths, thus the overall accuracy is improved to 96.98%.

  14. Defining and Verifying Research Grade Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    The first and primary goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), operated jointly by the University of Florida and the University of California, Berkeley, is to make "research grade" ALSM data widely available at affordable cost to the national scientific community. Cost aside, researchers need to know what NCALM considers research grade data and how the quality of the data is verified, to be able to determine the likelihood that the data they receive will meet their project specific requirements. Given the current state of the technology it is reasonable to expect a well planned and executed survey to produce surface elevations with uncertainties less than 10 centimeters and horizontal uncertainties of a few decimeters. Various components of the total error are generally associated with the aircraft trajectory, aircraft orientation, or laser vectors. Aircraft trajectory error is dependent largely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, aircraft orientation on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) observations, and laser vectors on the scanning and ranging instrumentation. In addition to the issue of the precision or accuracy of the coordinates of the surface points, consideration must also be given to the point-to-point spacing and voids in the coverage. The major sources of error produce distinct artifacts in the data set. For example, aircraft trajectory errors tend to change slowly as the satellite constellation geometry varies, producing slopes within swaths and offsets between swaths. Roll, pitch and yaw biases in the IMU observations tend to persist through whole flights, and created distinctive artifacts in the swath overlap areas. Errors in the zero-point and scale of the laser scanner cause the edges of swaths to turn up or down. Range walk errors cause offsets between bright and dark surfaces, causing paint stripes to float above the dark surfaces of roads. The three keys to producing

  15. Airborne geophysical mapping as an innovative methodology for landslide investigation: evaluation of results from the Gschliefgraben landslide, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Supper

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In September 2009, a complex airborne geophysical survey was performed in the large landslide affected area of the Gschliefgraben valley, Upper Austria, in order to evaluate the usability of this method for landslide detection and mapping. An evaluation of the results, including different remote sensing and ground based methods, proved that airborne geophysics, especially the airborne electromagnetic method, has a high potential for landslide investigation. This is due to its sensitivity to fluid and clay content and porosity, which are parameters showing characteristic values in landslide prone structures. Resistivity distributions in different depth levels as well as depth-slices along selected profiles are presented and compared with ground geoelectrical profiles for the test area of Gschliefgraben. Further interesting results can be derived from the radiometric survey, whereas the naturally occurring radioisotopes 40K and 232Th, as well as the man-made nuclide 137Cs have been considered. While the content of potassium and thorium in the shallow subsurface layer is expressively related to the lithological composition, the distribution of caesium is mainly determined by mass wasting processes.

  16. Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Adam J.; Villarosa, Gustavo; Rose, William I.; Delmelle, Pierre; Prata, Alfred J.; Viramonte, José G.

    2012-01-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, provided a rare opportunity to measure the long-range transport of volcanic emissions and characteristics of a widely-dispersed terrestrial ash deposit. Airborne ash mass, quantified using thermal infrared satellite remote sensing, ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 Tg during the period 3-7 May 2008. A high level of spatiotemporal correspondence was observed between cloud trajectories and changes in surface reflectivity, which was inferred to indicate ash deposition. The evolution of the deposit was mapped for the first time using satellite-based observations of surface reflectivity. The distal (>80 km) ash deposit was poorly sorted and fine grained, and mean particle size varied very little beyond a distance >300 km. There were three particle size subpopulations in fallout at distances >300 km which mirror those identified in fallout from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, known to have a high propensity for aggregation. Discrete temporal sampling and characterisation of fallout demonstrated contributions from specific eruptive phases. Samples collected at the time of deposition were compared to bulk samples collected months after deposition and provided some evidence for winnowing. Experimentally-derived ash leachates had near-neutral pH values and charge balance which indicates minimal quantities of adsorbed acids. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed surface enrichments in Ca, Na and Fe and the presence of coatings of mixed Ca-, Na- and Fe-rich salts on ash particles prior to deposition. Low S:Cl ratios in leachates indicate that the eruption had a low S content, and high Cl:F ratios imply gas-ash interaction within a Cl-rich environment. We estimate that ash fallout had potential to scavenge ∼42% of total S released into the atmosphere prior to deposition. XPS analyses also revealed ash particle surfaces were strongly enriched in Fe (in contrast to the results from bulk leachate

  17. Regional Scale Rain-Forest Height Mapping Using Regression-Kriging of Spaceborne and Airborne LiDAR Data: Application on French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fayad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR data has been successfully used to estimate forest parameters such as canopy heights and biomass. Major limitation of LiDAR systems (airborne and spaceborne arises from their limited spatial coverage. In this study, we present a technique for canopy height mapping using airborne and spaceborne LiDAR data (from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS. First, canopy heights extracted from both airborne and spaceborne LiDAR were extrapolated from available environmental data. The estimated canopy height maps using Random Forest (RF regression from airborne or GLAS calibration datasets showed similar precisions (~6 m. To improve the precision of canopy height estimates, regression-kriging was used. Results indicated an improvement in terms of root mean square error (RMSE, from 6.5 to 4.2 m using the GLAS dataset, and from 5.8 to 1.8 m using the airborne LiDAR dataset. Finally, in order to investigate the impact of the spatial sampling of future LiDAR missions on canopy height estimates precision, six subsets were derived from the initial airborne LiDAR dataset. Results indicated that using the regression-kriging approach a precision of 1.8 m on the canopy height map was achievable with a flight line spacing of 5 km. This precision decreased to 4.8 m for flight line spacing of 50 km.

  18. Fallout From Nuclear Tests (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Cyril L. [Cornell University

    1966-01-01

    Fallout refers to the radioactive debris that settles to the surface of the earth following nuclear explosions. Apprehension and a degree of controversy have resulted from lack of knowledge of the nature of fallout, from its association with nuclear armaments, and the involvement of personal convictions. This booklet is intended to increase understanding by presenting information about fallout gained by scientists in recent years. It will summarize the important findings on which there is general agreement and indicate the areas of disagreement and those requiring further study.

  19. Mapping of Ice in the Odden by Satellite and Airborne Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Hansen, K.Q.; Valeur, H.;

    1999-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the ice conditions in the Odden area of the Greenland Sea was carried out using data from active and passive microwave sensors, supplemented by airborne data. The study focuses on the 1992-1993 winter season, the only winter during the period 1993-1995 in which an Odden fea...

  20. Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of a two-color airborne lidar system in the systematic study of a major oceanographic feature is reported here for the first time. An excimer pumped dye laser was optically and electronically integrated into the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar for simultaneous use with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The output beams exit the laser system along parallel paths after being produced on an alternating pulse basis at a combined rate of 12.5 pps. Results are presented for missions flown over a Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring (WCR) as well as over shelf, slope, Gulf Stream, and Sargasso Sea waters. From the airborne data a high coherence is shown between the two-color chlorophyll a data and between the Nd:YAG chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin responses within each of these water masses. However, distinct differences in the response patterns of these photopigments are shown to exist between the differing water masses. At certain of the boundaries separating the water masses a sharp transition is seen to occur, while at others a wider transition zone was observed in which the correlation between the photopigments appears to degrade.

  1. Wetland inundation mapping and change monitoring using landsat and airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a new approach for mapping wetland inundation change using Landsat and LiDAR intensity data. In this approach, LiDAR data were used to derive highly accurate reference subpixel inundation percentage (SIP) maps at the 30-m resolution. The reference SIP maps were then used to est...

  2. Airborne radiometric data - A tool for reconnaissance geological mapping using a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clustering technique is applied to radioelement data, and the resulting cluster map is compared with a digitized geological map within a GIS software package. The cross tabulation clearly identifies those geological units that have a distinctive radioelement response. By reclassifying the map overlay and imposing a color coding scheme that enhances bedrock geology classes, the relationship between the bedrock geology and radioelement response is enhanced. The degree of correlation between the two cartographic images is site dependent, rather than global. Areas where the two maps differ indicate zones of possible interest for field verification of published field maps for the purposes of mineral exploration. 13 refs

  3. Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

    2013-04-01

    Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

  4. Discriminating Irrigated and Rainfed Maize with Diurnal Fluorescence and Canopy Temperature Airborne Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Rossini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential of airborne remote sensing images to detect water stress in maize. Visible and near infrared CASI (Itres Research Ltd., Calgary, AL, Canada and thermal AHS-160 (Sensytech Inc., Beverly, MA, USA data were acquired at three different times during the day on a maize field (Zea mays L. grown with three different irrigation treatments. An intensive field campaign was also conducted concurrently with image acquisition to measure leaf ecophysiological parameters and the leaf area index. The analysis of the field data showed that maize plants were experiencing moderate to severe water stress in rainfed plots and a weaker stress condition in the plots with a water deficit imposed between stem elongation and flowering. Vegetation indices including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI computed from the CASI images, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (F760 and canopy temperature (Tc showed different performances in describing the water stress during the day. During the morning overpass, NDVI was the index with the highest discriminant power due to the sensitivity of NDVI to maize canopy structure, affected by the water irrigation treatment. As the day progressed, processes related to heat dissipation through plant transpiration became more and more important and at midday Tc showed the best performances. Furthermore, Tc retrieved from the midday image was the only index able to distinguish all the three classes of water status. Finally, during the afternoon, PRI and F760 showed the best performances. These results demonstrate the feasibility to detect water stress using thermal and optical airborne data, pointing out the importance of careful planning of the airborne surveys as a function of the specific aims of the study.

  5. Evaluation of airborne geophysical surveys for large-scale mapping of contaminated mine pools: draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, R. W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States). Geosciences Div.

    2006-12-28

    Decades of underground coal mining has left about 5,000 square miles of abandoned mine workings that are rapidly filling with water. The water quality of mine pools is often poor; environmental regulatory agencies are concerned because water from mine pools could contaminate diminishing surface and groundwater supplies. Mine pools are also a threat to the safety of current mining operations. Conversely, mine pools are a large, untapped water resource that, with treatment, could be used for a variety of industrial purposes. Others have proposed using mine pools in conjunction with heat pumps as a source of heating and cooling for large industrial facilities. The management or use of mine pool water requires accurate maps of mine pools. West Virginia University has predicted the likely location and volume of mine pools in the Pittsburgh Coalbed using existing mine maps, structure contour maps, and measured mine pool elevations. Unfortunately, mine maps only reflect conditions at the time of mining, are not available for all mines, and do not always denote the maximum extent of mining. Since 1999, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been evaluating helicopter-borne, electromagnetic sensing technologies for the detection and mapping of mine pools. Frequency domain electromagnetic sensors are able to detect shallow mine pools (depth < 50 m) if there is sufficient contrast between the conductance of the mine pool and the conductance of the overburden. The mine pools (conductors) most confidently detected by this technology are overlain by thick, resistive sandstone layers. In 2003, a helicopter time domain electromagnetic sensor was applied to mined areas in southwestern Virginia in an attempt to increase the depth of mine pool detection. This study failed because the mine pool targets were thin and not very conductive. Also, large areas of the surveys were degraded or made unusable by excessive amounts of cultural electromagnetic noise that obscured the

  6. Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Doyle, E; Fenton, D; Organo, C

    2011-06-01

    The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps.

  7. Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Doyle, E; Fenton, D; Organo, C

    2011-06-01

    The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps. PMID:21617292

  8. Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J D [British Geological Survey (BGS), Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Doyle, E [Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI), Beggars Bush, Haddington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Fenton, D; Organo, C, E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.uk [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII), 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2011-06-01

    The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km x 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps.

  9. MAPPING URBAN TREE CANOPY COVER USING FUSED AIRBORNE LIDAR AND SATELLITE IMAGERY DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Parmehr, Ebadat G.; Amati, Marco; Fraser, Clive S.

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces, particularly urban trees, play a key role in enhancing the liveability of cities. The availability of accurate and up-to-date maps of tree canopy cover is important for sustainable development of urban green spaces. LiDAR point clouds are widely used for the mapping of buildings and trees, and several LiDAR point cloud classification techniques have been proposed for automatic mapping. However, the effectiveness of point cloud classification techniques for automated tree e...

  10. Area-Based Mapping of Defoliation of Scots Pine Stands Using Airborne Scanning LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Hyyppä; Michael A. Wulder; Juha Hyyppä; Ville Kankare; Markus Holopainen; Mikko Vastaranta; Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa; Tuula Kantola

    2013-01-01

    The mapping of changes in the distribution of insect-caused forest damage remains an important forest monitoring application and challenge. Efficient and accurate methods are required for mapping and monitoring changes in insect defoliation to inform forest management and reporting activities. In this research, we develop and evaluate a LiDAR-driven (Light Detection And Ranging) approach for mapping defoliation caused by the Common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.). Our method requires plot-level...

  11. Ecosystem Mapping Approaches Based on Vegetation Structure Using NEON Prototype Airborne LiDAR and Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, K.; Emery, W. J.; Barnett, D.; Petroy, S. B.; Meier, C. L.; Wessman, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing is a powerful tool for measuring the current state of vegetation and monitoring changes over time with repeated data collections. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is especially well suited for mapping 3D vegetation structure. In 2010, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) contracted LiDAR and hyperspectral airborne data collections over the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS). Ground truth campaigns were also conducted in 2010, 2011, and 2014 including structural measurements and generation of species lists for a set of ground validation plots. The vegetation communities at OSBS can be characterized by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) classification system, with a large area of the property belonging to the Sandhill community. For this study, classification algorithm training locations are hand selected for each FNAI community type using photo-interpretation. A series of LiDAR metrics are calculated on the discrete return point clouds and derived digital elevation (DEM) and canopy height models (CHM). A decision tree classification algorithm is run using R package "rpart". A main goal of the project is to relate the LiDAR metrics used by the decision tree to direct canopy structural quantities. For instance, the canopy 75th minus the 50th percentile height in the LiDAR point clouds are related to the uniformity and light penetration in the upper canopy. A prototype of the decision tree achieved a classification accuracy of 89% on the training data itself, suggesting that some locations in different FNAI vegetation communities have similar structure and could not be distinguished in the LiDAR metrics used. An improved decision tree is currently under development which will include more training locations and more LiDAR metrics as input features. Results from this improved model will be presenting using the NEON ground truth locations as an independent and quantitative validation measure of the decision tree

  12. VNIR-SWIR-TIR hyperspectral airborne campaign for soil and sediment mapping in semi-arid south african environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Eisele, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Airborne hyperspectral remote sensing techniques has been proven to offer efficient procedures for soil and sediment mineralogical mapping in arid areas on larger scales. Optical methods based on traditional remote sensing windows using the solar reflective spectral wavelength range from the visible-near infrared (VNIR: 0.4-1.1 μm) to the short-wave infrared region (SWIR: 1.1-2.5 μm) allow mapping of common soil properties such as iron oxides, textural characteristics and organic carbon. However, soil mapping in semi-arid environments using VNIR-SWIR is currently limited due to specific spectral characteristics. Challenges appear in such environments due to the common presence of sandy soils (coarse textured) which grain size distribution is driven by the dominant mineral, quartz (SiO2), and which lacks any distinctive Si-O bond related spectral features within the VNIR-SWIR. Furthermore, another challenge is represented by the common presence of other specific spectral features due to different salts (gypsum, halite) or coatings of different forms (cyanobacteria, iron-oxides and/or -oxyhydroxides) for which few studies exists or that oft prevent detection of any other potential spectral feature of e.g. soil organics. In this context, more methodological developments are needed to overcome current limitations of hyperspectral remote sensing for arid areas, and to extent its scope using the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength region within the atmospheric window between 8 and 14 μm (longwave infrared). In 2015 an extensive VNIR-SWIR-TIR airborne hyperspectral dataset consisting of HySpex-VNIR, HySpex-SWIR (NEO) and Hyper-Cam (TELOPS) data has been acquired in various Namibian and South African landscapes part of the Dimap/GFZ campaign in the frame of the BMBF-SPACES Geoarchive project. Research goals are 1) to demonstrate the capabilities to extract information from such a dataset and 2) to demonstrate the potential of advanced hyperspectral remote sensing

  13. Mapping Changes in a Recovering Mine Site with Hyperspectral Airborne HyMap Imagery (Sotiel, SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Buzzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral high spatial resolution HyMap data are used to map mine waste from massive sulfide ore deposits, mostly abandoned, on the Iberian Pyrite Belt (southwest Spain. Mine dams, mill tailings and mine dumps in variable states of pyrite oxidation are recognizable. The interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing requires specific algorithms able to manage high dimensional data compared to multispectral data. The routine of image processing methods used to extract information from hyperspectral data to map geological features is explained, as well as the sequence of algorithms used to produce maps of the mine sites. The mineralogical identification capability of algorithms to produce maps based on archive spectral libraries is discussed. Trends of mineral growth differ spectrally over time according to the geological setting and the recovery state of the mine site. Subtle mineralogical changes are enhanced using the spectral response as indicators of pyrite oxidation intensity of the mine waste piles and pyrite mud tailings. The changes in the surface of the mill tailings deserve a detailed description, as the surfaces are inaccessible to direct observation. Such mineralogical changes respond faithfully to industrial activities or the influence of climate when undisturbed by human influence.

  14. Ecosystem services - from assessements of estimations to quantitative, validated, high-resolution, continental-scale mapping via airborne LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    "Ecosystem services" defined vaguely as "nature's benefits to people" are a trending concept in ecology and conservation. Quantifying and mapping these services is a longtime demand of both ecosystems science and environmental policy. The current state of the art is to use existing maps of land cover, and assign certain average ecosystem service values to their unit areas. This approach has some major weaknesses: the concept of "ecosystem services", the input land cover maps and the value indicators. Such assessments often aim at valueing services in terms of human currency as a basis for decision-making, although this approach remains contested. Land cover maps used for ecosystem service assessments (typically the CORINE land cover product) are generated from continental-scale satellite imagery, with resolution in the range of hundreds of meters. In some rare cases, airborne sensors are used, with higher resolution but less covered area. Typically, general land cover classes are used instead of categories defined specifically for the purpose of ecosystem service assessment. The value indicators are developed for and tested on small study sites, but widely applied and adapted to other sites far away (a process called benefit transfer) where local information may not be available. Upscaling is always problematic since such measurements investigate areas much smaller than the output map unit. Nevertheless, remote sensing is still expected to play a major role in conceptualization and assessment of ecosystem services. We propose that an improvement of several orders of magnitude in resolution and accuracy is possible through the application of airborne LIDAR, a measurement technique now routinely used for collection of countrywide three-dimensional datasets with typically sub-meter resolution. However, this requires a clear definition of the concept of ecosystem services and the variables in focus: remote sensing can measure variables closely related to "ecosystem

  15. Airborne mapping of chemical plumes in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Paul E.; Thomas, Mark J.; Kroutil, Robert T.; Combs, Roger; Cummings, Alan S.; Miller, Dave; Curry, Tim; Shen, Sylvia S.

    2006-05-01

    Infrared airborne spectral measurements were collected over the Gulf Coast area during the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. These measurements allowed surveillance for potentially hazardous chemical vapor releases from industrial facilities caused by storm damage. Data was collected with a mid-longwave infrared multispectral imager and a hyperspectral Fourier transform infrared spectrometer operating in a low altitude aircraft. Signal processing allowed detection and identification of targeted spectral signatures in the presence of interferents, atmospheric contributions, and thermal clutter. Results confirmed the presence of a number of chemical vapors. All detection results were immediately passed along to emergency first responders on the ground. The chemical identification, location, and vapor species concentration information were used by the emergency response ground teams for identification of critical plume releases and subsequent mitigation.

  16. Mapping methane sources and emissions over California from direct airborne flux and VOC source tracer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Misztal, P. K.; Peischl, J.; Karl, T.; Jonsson, H. H.; Woods, R. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying the contributions of methane (CH4) emissions from anthropogenic sources in the Central Valley of California is important for validation of the statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and subsequent AB32 law implementation. The state GHG inventory is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The 'bottom-up' emission factors for CH4 have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate 'top-down' measurements to characterize emission rates. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agricultural and industry intensive region with large concentration of dairies and livestock operations, active oil and gas fields and refining operations, as well as rice cultivation all of which are known CH4 sources. In order to gain a better perspective of the spatial distribution of major CH4 sources in California, airborne measurements were conducted aboard a Twin Otter aircraft for the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emissions Research in Natural Ecosystems Transects) campaign, where the driving research goal was to understand the spatial distribution of biogenic VOC emissions. The campaign took place in June 2011 and encompassed over forty hours of low-altitude and mixed layer airborne CH4 and CO2 measurements alongside coincident VOC measurements. Transects during eight unique flights covered much of the Central Valley and its eastern edge, the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta and the coastal range. We report direct quantification of CH4 fluxes using real-time airborne Eddy Covariance measurements. CH4 and CO2 were measured at 1-Hz data rate using an instrument based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) along with specific VOCs (like isoprene, methanol, acetone etc.) measured at 10-Hz using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer - Eddy Covariance (PTRMS-EC) flux system. Spatially resolved eddy covariance

  17. Mapping the Spectral Soil Quality Index (SSQI Using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarin Paz-Kagan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality (SQ assessment has numerous applications for managing sustainable soil function. Airborne imaging spectroscopy (IS is an advanced tool for studying natural and artificial materials, in general, and soil properties, in particular. The primary goal of this research was to prove and demonstrate the ability of IS to evaluate soil properties and quality across anthropogenically induced land-use changes. This aim was fulfilled by developing and implementing a spectral soil quality index (SSQI using IS obtained by a laboratory and field spectrometer (point scale as well as by airborne hyperspectral imaging (local scale, in two experimental sites located in Israel and Germany. In this regard, 13 soil physical, biological, and chemical properties and their derived soil quality index (SQI were measured. Several mathematical/statistical procedures, consisting of a series of operations, including a principal component analysis (PCA, a partial least squares-regression (PLS-R, and a partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA, were used. Correlations between the laboratory spectral values and the calculated SQI coefficient of determination (R2 and ratio of performance to deviation (RPD were R2 = 0.84; RPD = 2.43 and R2 = 0.78; RPD = 2.10 in the Israeli and the German study sites, respectively. The PLS-DA model that was used to develop the SSQI showed high classification accuracy in both sites (from laboratory, field, and imaging spectroscopy. The correlations between the SSQI and the SQI were R2 = 0.71 and R2 = 0.7, in the Israeli and the German study sites, respectively. It is concluded that soil quality can be effectively monitored using the spectral-spatial information provided by the IS technology. IS-based classification of soils can provide the basis for a spatially explicit and quantitative approach for monitoring SQ and function at a local scale.

  18. Mapping forest species composition using imaging spectrometry and airborne laser scanner data

    OpenAIRE

    Torabzadeh, Hossein; Morsdorf, Felix; Leiterer, Reik; Schaepman, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mapping of forest species composition is an important aspect of monitoring and management planning related to ecosystem functions and services associated with water refinement, carbon sequestration, biodiversity, and wildlife habitats. Although different vegetation species often have unique spectral signatures, mapping based on spectral reflectance properties alone is often an ill-posed problem, since the spectral signature is as well influenced by age, canopy gaps, shadows and backg...

  19. MAPPING FOREST SPECIES COMPOSITION USING IMAGING SPECTROMETRY AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNER DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Torabzadeh, H.; Morsdorf, F; Leiterer, R.; Schaepman, M E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mapping of forest species composition is an important aspect of monitoring and management planning related to ecosystem functions and services associated with water refinement, carbon sequestration, biodiversity, and wildlife habitats. Although different vegetation species often have unique spectral signatures, mapping based on spectral reflectance properties alone is often an ill-posed problem, since the spectral signature is as well influenced by age, canopy gaps, shadows ...

  20. Mapping Forest Height in Alaska Using GLAS, Landsat Composites, and Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Peterson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation structure, including forest canopy height, is an important input variable to fire behavior modeling systems for simulating wildfire behavior. As such, forest canopy height is one of a nationwide suite of products generated by the LANDFIRE program. In the past, LANDFIRE has relied on a combination of field observations and Landsat imagery to develop existing vegetation structure products. The paucity of field data in the remote Alaskan forests has led to a very simple forest canopy height classification for the original LANDFIRE forest height map. To better meet the needs of data users and refine the map legend, LANDFIRE incorporated ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data into the updating process when developing the LANDFIRE 2010 product. The high latitude of this region enabled dense coverage of discrete GLAS samples, from which forest height was calculated. Different methods for deriving height from the GLAS waveform data were applied, including an attempt to correct for slope. These methods were then evaluated and integrated into the final map according to predefined criteria. The resulting map of forest canopy height includes more height classes than the original map, thereby better depicting the heterogeneity of the landscape, and provides seamless data for fire behavior analysts and other users of LANDFIRE data.

  1. Black-backed woodpecker habitat suitability mapping using conifer snag basal area estimated from airborne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Planes, Á.; Garcia, M.; Siegel, R.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Occupancy and habitat suitability models for snag-dependent wildlife species are commonly defined as a function of snag basal area. Although critical for predicting or assessing habitat suitability, spatially distributed estimates of snag basal area are not generally available across landscapes at spatial scales relevant for conservation planning. This study evaluates the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) to 1) identify individual conifer snags and map their basal area across a recently burned forest, and 2) map habitat suitability for a wildlife species known to be dependent on snag basal area, specifically the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus). This study focuses on the Rim Fire, a megafire that took place in 2013 in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, creating large patches of medium- and high-severity burned forest. We use forest inventory plots, single-tree ALS-derived metrics and Gaussian processes classification and regression to identify conifer snags and estimate their stem diameter and basal area. Then, we use the results to map habitat suitability for the black-backed woodpecker using thresholds for conifer basal area from a previously published habitat suitability model. Local maxima detection and watershed segmentation algorithms resulted in 75% detection of trees with stem diameter larger than 30 cm. Snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 91.8 % and conifer snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 84.8 %. Finally, Gaussian process regression reliably estimated stem diameter (R2 = 0.8) using height and crown area. This work provides a fast and efficient methodology to characterize the extent of a burned forest at the tree level and a critical tool for early wildlife assessment in post-fire forest management and biodiversity conservation.

  2. Mapped minerals at Questa, New Mexico, using airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data -- Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livo, K. Eric; Clark, Roger N.

    2002-01-01

    This preliminary study for the First Quarterly Report has spectrally mapped hydrothermally altered minerals useful in assisting in assessment of water quality of the Red River. Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data was analyzed to characterize mined and unmined ground at Questa, New Mexico. AVIRIS data covers the Red River drainage north of the river, from between the town of Questa on the west, to east of the town of Red River. The data was calibrated and analyzed using U.S. Geological Survey custom software and spectral mineral library. AVIRIS data was tested for spectral features that matched similar features in the spectral mineral library. Goodness-of-fit and band-depth were calculated for each comparison of spectral features and used to identify surface mineralogy. Mineral distribution, mineral associations, and AVIRIS pixel spectra were examined. Mineral maps show the distribution of iron hydroxides, iron sulfates, clays, micas, carbonates, and other minerals. Initial results show a system of alteration suites that overprint each other. Quartz-sericite-pyrite (QSP) alteration grading out to propylitic alteration (epidote and calcite) was identified at the Questa Mine (molybdenum porphyry) and a similar alteration pattern was mapped at the landslide (?scar?) areas. Supergene weathering overprints the altered rock, as shown by jarosite, kaolinite, and gypsum. In the spectral analysis, hydrothermally altered ground appears to be more extensive at the unmined Goat Hill Gulch and the mined ground, than the ?scars? to the east. Though the ?scars? have similar overall altered mineral suites, there are differences between the ?scars? in sericite, kaolinite, jarosite, gypsum, and calcite abundance. Fieldwork has verified the results at the central unmined ?scar? areas.

  3. Mapping beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Sobhan, I.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters includ

  4. The Price of Precision: Large-Scale Mapping of Forest Structure and Biomass Using Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing provides one of the best means for acquiring detailed information on forest structure. However, its application over large areas has been limited largely because of its expense. Nonetheless, extant data exist over many states in the U.S., funded largely by state and federal consortia and mainly for infrastructure, emergency response, flood plain and coastal mapping. These lidar data are almost always acquired in leaf-off seasons, and until recently, usually with low point count densities. Even with these limitations, they provide unprecedented wall-to-wall mappings that enable development of appropriate methodologies for large-scale deployment of lidar. In this talk we summarize our research and lessons learned in deriving forest structure over regional areas as part of NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS). We focus on two areas: the entire state of Maryland and Sonoma County, California. The Maryland effort used low density, leaf-off data acquired by each county in varying epochs, while the on-going Sonoma work employs state-of-the-art, high density, wall-to-wall, leaf-on lidar data. In each area we combine these lidar coverages with high-resolution multispectral imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) and in situ plot data to produce maps of canopy height, tree cover and biomass, and compare our results against FIA plot data and national biomass maps. Our work demonstrates that large-scale mapping of forest structure at high spatial resolution is achievable but products may be complex to produce and validate over large areas. Furthermore, fundamental issues involving statistical approaches, plot types and sizes, geolocation, modeling scales, allometry, and even the definitions of "forest" and "non-forest" must be approached carefully. Ultimately, determining the "price of precision", that is, does the value of wall-to-wall forest structure data justify their expense, should consider not only carbon market applications

  5. Mapping tree health using airborne laser scans and hyperspectral imagery: a case study for a floodplain eucalypt forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendryk, Iurii; Tulbure, Mirela; Broich, Mark; McGrath, Andrew; Alexandrov, Sergey; Keith, David

    2016-04-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are two complementary remote sensing technologies that provide comprehensive structural and spectral characteristics of forests over large areas. In this study we developed two algorithms: one for individual tree delineation utilizing ALS and the other utilizing ALS and HSI to characterize health of delineated trees in a structurally complex floodplain eucalypt forest. We conducted experiments in the largest eucalypt, river red gum forest in the world, located in the south-east of Australia that experienced severe dieback over the past six decades. For detection of individual trees from ALS we developed a novel bottom-up approach based on Euclidean distance clustering to detect tree trunks and random walks segmentation to further delineate tree crowns. Overall, our algorithm was able to detect 67% of tree trunks with diameter larger than 13 cm. We assessed the accuracy of tree delineations in terms of crown height and width, with correct delineation of 68% of tree crowns. The increase in ALS point density from ~12 to ~24 points/m2 resulted in tree trunk detection and crown delineation increase of 11% and 13%, respectively. Trees with incorrectly delineated crowns were generally attributed to areas with high tree density along water courses. The accurate delineation of trees allowed us to classify the health of this forest using machine learning and field-measured tree crown dieback and transparency ratios, which were good predictors of tree health in this forest. ALS and HSI derived indices were used as predictor variables to train and test object-oriented random forest classifier. Returned pulse width, intensity and density related ALS indices were the most important predictors in the tree health classifications. At the forest level in terms of tree crown dieback, 77% of trees were classified as healthy, 14% as declining and 9% as dying or dead with 81% mapping accuracy. Similarly, in terms of tree

  6. Airborne mapping of radioactive contamination. Results from a test in Finland, RESUME95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, S.; Smethurst, M.A. [Geological Survey of Norway (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Geological Survey of Norway participated in the exercise RESUME95 (Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment 95) in Finland, during August 1995. The purpose of the exercise was to 1) test preparedness in the Nordic countries for accidents involving the release and dispersal of radioactive material, 2) compare results from the different teams participating in the exercise, 3) establish routines for the exchange of data and 4) investigate the possibility of international assistance in the event of nuclear accidents. The Geological Survey of Norway carried out a survey over three test areas (area I, II and III). All three areas were contaminated with man made radionuclides in the days following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The Cesium-137 contamination level was reported to be about 50 kBq/m{sup 2} in area I, and this area was used for calibration. In area II mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration was carried out. Detection of hidden artificial radiation sources were the main purpose in area III. This report describes the exercise - RESUME95, field operations, calibration, mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration and detection of hidden point sources. Results are presented as colour maps. (au).

  7. Generation of Land Cover Maps through the Fusion of Aerial Images and Airborne LiDAR Data in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images and aerial images with high spatial resolution have improved visual interpretation capabilities. The use of high-resolution images has rapidly grown and has been extended to various fields, such as military surveillance, disaster monitoring, and cartography. However, many problems were encountered in which one object has a variety of spectral properties and different objects have similar spectral characteristics in terms of land cover. The problems are quite noticeable, especially for building objects in urban environments. In the land cover classification process, these issues directly decrease the classification accuracy by causing misclassification of single objects as well as between objects. This study proposes a method of increasing the accuracy of land cover classification by addressing the problem of misclassifying building objects through the output-level fusion of aerial images and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data. The new method consists of the following three steps: (1 generation of the segmented image via a process that performs adaptive dynamic range linear stretching and modified seeded region growth algorithms; (2 extraction of building information from airborne LiDAR data using a planar filter and binary supervised classification; and (3 generation of a land cover map using the output-level fusion of two results and object-based classification. The new method was tested at four experimental sites with the Min-Max method and the SSI-nDSM method followed by a visual assessment and a quantitative accuracy assessment through comparison with reference data. In the accuracy assessment, the new method exhibits various advantages, including reduced noise and more precise classification results. Additionally, the new method improved the overall accuracy by more than 5% over the comparative evaluation methods. The high and low patterns between the overall and building accuracies were similar. Thus, the new

  8. Morphologic dating of fault scarps using airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, G.E.; Delong, S.; Prentice, C.; Blisniuk, K.; Arrowsmith, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Models of fault scarp morphology have been previously used to infer the relative age of different fault scarps in a fault zone using labor-intensive ground surveying. We present a method for automatically extracting scarp morphologic ages within high-resolution digital topography. Scarp degradation is modeled as a diffusive mass transport process in the across-scarp direction. The second derivative of the modeled degraded fault scarp was normalized to yield the best-fitting (in a least-squared sense) scarp height at each point, and the signal-to-noise ratio identified those areas containing scarp-like topography. We applied this method to three areas along the San Andreas Fault and found correspondence between the mapped geometry of the fault and that extracted by our analysis. This suggests that the spatial distribution of scarp ages may be revealed by such an analysis, allowing the recent temporal development of a fault zone to be imaged along its length.

  9. Demonstration of radar reflector detection and ground clutter suppression using airborne weather and mapping radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. J.; Bull, J. S.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A navigation system which utilizes minimum ground-based equipment is especially advantageous to helicopters, which can make off-airport landings. Research has been conducted in the use of weather and mapping radar to detect large radar reflectors overland for navigation purposes. As initial studies have not been successful, investigations were conducted regarding a new concept for the detection of ground-based radar reflectors and eliminating ground clutter, using a device called an echo processor (EP). A description is presented of the problems associated with detecting radar reflectors overland, taking into account the EP concept and the results of ground- and flight-test investigations. The echo processor concept was successfully demonstrated in detecting radar reflectors overland in a high-clutter environment. A radar reflector target size of 55 dBsm was found to be adequate for detection in an urban environment.

  10. Evaluation of airborne image data for mapping riparian vegetation within the Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Staid, Matthew I.; Plescia, Jeffrey B.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined various types of remote-sensing data that have been acquired during a 12-month period over a portion of the Colorado River corridor to determine the type of data and conditions for data acquisition that provide the optimum classification results for mapping riparian vegetation. Issues related to vegetation mapping included time of year, number and positions of wavelength bands, and spatial resolution for data acquisition to produce accurate vegetation maps versus cost of data. Image data considered in the study consisted of scanned color-infrared (CIR) film, digital CIR, and digital multispectral data, whose resolutions from 11 cm (photographic film) to 100 cm (multispectral), that were acquired during the Spring, Summer, and Fall seasons in 2000 for five long-term monitoring sites containing riparian vegetation. Results show that digitally acquired data produce higher and more consistent classification accuracies for mapping vegetation units than do film products. The highest accuracies were obtained from nine-band multispectral data; however, a four-band subset of these data, that did not include short-wave infrared bands, produced comparable mapping results. The four-band subset consisted of the wavelength bands 0.52-0.59 µm, 0.59-0.62 µm, 0.67-0.72 µm, and 0.73-0.85 µm. Use of only three of these bands that simulate digital CIR sensors produced accuracies for several vegetation units that were 10% lower than those obtained using the full multispectral data set. Classification tests using band ratios produced lower accuracies than those using band reflectance for scanned film data; a result attributed to the relatively poor radiometric fidelity maintained by the film scanning process, whereas calibrated multispectral data produced similar classification accuracies using band reflectance and band ratios. This suggests that the intrinsic band reflectance of the vegetation is more important than inter-band reflectance differences in

  11. Characterization of airborne uranium from test firing of XM774 ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland, to characterize the airborne depleted uranium (DU) resulting from the test firings of 105-mm, APFSDS-T XM774 ammunition. The goal was to obtain data pertinent to evaluations of human inhalation exposure to the airborne DU. Data was desired concerning the following: (1) size distribution of airborne DU; (2) quantity of airborne DU; (3) dispersion of airborne DU from the target vicinity; (4) amount of DU deposited on the ground; (5) solubility of airborne DU compounds in lung fluid; and (6) oxide forms of airborne and fallout DU. The experiments involved extensive air sampling for total airborne DU particulates and respirable DU particles both above the targets and at distances downwind. Fallout and fragments were collected around the target area. High-speed movies of the smoke generated from the impact of the penetrators were taken to estimate the cloud volumes. Results of the experiments are presented

  12. Fallout forecasting: 1945-1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed hazards of fallout from the detonations of nuclear devices in the atmosphere have always been the concern of those involved in the Test Program. Even before the Trinity Shot (TR-2) of July 16, 1945, many very competent, intelligent scientists and others from all fields of expertise tried their hand at the prediction problems. This resume and collection of parts from reports, memoranda, references, etc., endeavor to chronologically outline prediction methods used operationally in the field during Test Operations of nuclear devices fired into the atmosphere

  13. Fallout forecasting: 1945-1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.R. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The delayed hazards of fallout from the detonations of nuclear devices in the atmosphere have always been the concern of those involved in the Test Program. Even before the Trinity Shot (TR-2) of July 16, 1945, many very competent, intelligent scientists and others from all fields of expertise tried their hand at the prediction problems. This resume and collection of parts from reports, memoranda, references, etc., endeavor to chronologically outline prediction methods used operationally in the field during Test Operations of nuclear devices fired into the atmosphere.

  14. Now You See It… Now You Don’t: Understanding Airborne Mapping LiDAR Collection and Data Product Generation for Archaeological Research in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a description of airborne mapping LiDAR, also known as airborne laser scanning (ALS, technology and its workflow from mission planning to final data product generation, with a specific emphasis on archaeological research. ALS observations are highly customizable, and can be tailored to meet specific research needs. Thus it is important for an archaeologist to fully understand the options available during planning, collection and data product generation before commissioning an ALS survey, to ensure the intended research questions can be answered with the resultant data products. Also this knowledge is of great use for the researcher trying to understand the quality and limitations of existing datasets collected for other purposes. Throughout the paper we use examples from archeological ALS projects to illustrate the key concepts of importance for the archaeology researcher.

  15. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  16. Worldwide fallout of plutonium from nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 238Pu and /sup 239,240/Pu fallout from nuclear weapons tests and the SNAP-9A navigational satellite burnup are presented for the years through 1980. Data abstracted from the literature were taken from the stratosphere, atmosphere, and from deposition and surface soil. Over 7300 data entries are included in the 23 tables. The tables are sorted by medium (stratosphere, atmosphere, and deposition near the surface and soil, nuclide, hemisphere, and longitude going from west to east, and are arranged in chronological order. Latitudes are also provided. Fallout levels in SI units (becquerels), calculated from the original readings, and the references from which the original data were taken are given in the report. The appendix is a map showing the various sites from which data were obtained

  17. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  18. The InSAeS4 Airborne X-Band Interferometric SAR System: A First Assessment on Its Imaging and Topographic Mapping Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Perna; Carmen Esposito; Tiago Amaral; Paolo Berardino; Giuseppe Jackson; João Moreira; Antonio Pauciullo; Eurico Vaz Junior; Christian Wimmer; Riccardo Lanari

    2016-01-01

    We present in this work a first assessment of the imaging and topographic mapping capabilities of the InSAeS4 system, which is a single-pass interferometric airborne X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In particular, we first provide a brief description of the InSAeS4 sensor. Then, we discuss the results of our analysis on the SAR and interferometric SAR products relevant to the first flight-test campaign. More specifically, we have exploited as reference the GPS measurements relevant to n...

  19. Mapping Spatial Patterns of Posidonia oceanica Meadows by Means of Daedalus ATM Airborne Sensor in the Coastal Area of Civitavecchia (Central Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marcelli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of sea bed covers and seagrass in coastal waters is of key importance in monitoring and managing Mediterranean shallow water environments often subject to both increasing anthropogenic impacts and climate change effects. In this context we present a methodology for effective monitoring and mapping of Posidonia oceanica (PO meadows in turbid waters using remote sensing techniques tested by means of LAI (Leaf Area Index point sea truth measurements. Preliminary results using Daedalus airborne sensor are reported referring to the PO meadows at Civitavecchia site (central Tyrrhenian sea where vessel traffic due to presence of important harbors and huge power plant represent strong impact factors. This coastal area, 100 km far from Rome (Central Italy, is characterized also by significant hydrodynamic variations and other anthropogenic factors that affect the health of seagrass meadows with frequent turbidity and suspended sediments in the water column. During 2011–2012 years point measurements of several parameters related to PO meadows phenology were acquired on various stations distributed along 20 km of coast between the Civitavecchia and S. Marinella sites. The Daedalus airborne sensor multispectral data were preprocessed with the support of satellite (MERIS derived water quality parameters to obtain here improved thematic maps of the local PO distribution. Their thematic accuracy was then evaluated as agreement (R2 with the point sea truth measurements and regressive modeling using an on purpose developd method.

  20. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  1. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  2. Mapping Savanna Tree Species at Ecosystem Scales Using Support Vector Machine Classification and BRDF Correction on Airborne Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the spatial distribution of plant species in savannas provides insight into the roles of competition, fire, herbivory, soils and climate in maintaining the biodiversity of these ecosystems. This study focuses on the challenges facing large-scale species mapping using a fusion of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery. Here we build upon previous work on airborne species detection by using a two-stage support vector machine (SVM classifier to first predict species from hyperspectral data at the pixel scale. Tree crowns are segmented from the lidar imagery such that crown-level information, such as maximum tree height, can then be combined with the pixel-level species probabilities to predict the species of each tree. An overall prediction accuracy of 76% was achieved for 15 species. We also show that bidirectional reflectance distribution (BRDF effects caused by anisotropic scattering properties of savanna vegetation can result in flight line artifacts evident in species probability maps, yet these can be largely mitigated by applying a semi-empirical BRDF model to the hyperspectral data. We find that confronting these three challenges—reflectance anisotropy, integration of pixel- and crown-level data, and crown delineation over large areas—enables species mapping at ecosystem scales for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem function.

  3. From HYSOMA to ENSOMAP - A new open source tool for quantitative soil properties mapping based on hyperspectral imagery from airborne to spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Rabe, Andreas; Foerster, Saskia; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Soil spectroscopy from the visible-near infrared to the short wave infrared has been shown to be a proven method for the quantitative prediction of key soil surface properties in the laboratory, field, and up to airborne studies for exposed soils in appropriate surface conditions. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors within the next 3 to 5 years (EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, SHALOM), a great potential for the global mapping and monitoring of soil properties is appearing. This potential can be achieved only if adequate software tools are available, as shown by the increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products from the geoscience community that have neither the capacity nor the expertise to deliver these soil products. In this context, recently many international efforts were tuned toward the development of robust and easy-to-access soil algorithms to allow non-remote sensing experts to obtain geoscience information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In particular, several algorithms for geological and mineral mapping were recently released such as the U.S. Geological Survey Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM) software, or the GFZ EnMAP Geological Mapper. For quantitative soil mapping and monitoring, the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral Soil Mapper) software interface was developed at GFZ under the EUFAR (www.eufar.net) and the EnMAP (www.enmap.org) programs. HYSOMA was specifically oriented toward digital soil mapping applications and has been distributed since 2012 for free as IDL plug-ins under the IDL-virtual machine at www.gfz-potsdam.de/hysoma under a close source license. The HYSOMA interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. With more than 100 users around the world

  4. Fallout radiation effects analysis methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-31

    Fallout radiation is viewed by the weapons effects community as a potentially serious impediment to maintaining or restoring critical National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) telecommunication capabilities in a nuclear environment. The OMNCS' Electromagnetic Pulse Mitigation Program is designed, in part, to identify the survival probability (survivability) of the nation's NSEP telecommunications infrastructure against fallout radiation effects. The OMNCS (Office of the Manager National Communications System) is developing a balanced approach consisting of fallout radiation stress tests on the electronic piece-parts and the use of estimated performance measures of telecommunication network elements in network simulation models to predict user connectivity levels. It is concluded that, given limited available data, the proposed method can predict fallout radiation effects on network telecommunication equipment. The effects of fallout radiation are small at low dosage levels (bin 1 and bin 2). More pronounced variations in equipment performance were exhibited for radiation dosage in the 1k-5k Rads(Si) bin. Finally, the results indicate that by increasing the sample size to approximately 200 samples, the statistical quality of survivability predictions can be significantly improved.

  5. Collaborative Cyber-infrastructures for the Management of the UNESCO-IGCP Research Project "Forecast of tephra fallout"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Cordoba, G.

    2009-04-01

    Tephra fallout following explosive volcanic eruptions produces several hazardous effects on inhabitants, infrastructure, and property and represents a serious threat for communities located around active volcanoes. In order to mitigate the effects on the surrounding areas, scientists and civil decision-making authorities need reliable short-term forecasts during episodes of eruptive crisis and long-term probabilistic maps to plan territorial policies and land use. Modelling, together with field studies and volcano monitoring, constitutes an indispensable tool to achieve these objectives. The UNESCO-IGCP research project proposal "Forecast of tephra fallout" has the aim to produce a series of tools capable to elaborate both short-term forecasts and long-term hazard assessments using the cutting-edge models for tephra transport and sedimentation. A special project website will be designed to supply a set of models, procedures and expertise to several Latino-American Institutes based in countries seriously threatened by this geo-hazard (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Nicaragua). This will proportionate to the final users a tool to elaborate short-term forecasts of tephra deposition on the ground, and determine airborne ash concentrations (a quantity of special relevance for aerial navigation safety) during eruptions and emergencies. The project web-site will have a public section and a password-protected area to exchange information and data among participants and, eventually, to allow remote execution of high-resolution mesoscale meteorological forecasts at the BSC facilities. The public website section will be updated periodically and will include sections describing the project objectives and achievements as well as the hazard maps for the investigated volcanoes, and will be linked to other relevant websites such as IAVCEI, IGCP, IUGS and UNESCO homepages. A part of the public section of the website will be devoted to disseminate achieved

  6. Spectral Unmixing of Forest Crown Components at Close Range, Airborne and Simulated Sentinel-2 and EnMAP Spectral Imaging Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Clasen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest biochemical and biophysical variables and their spatial and temporal distribution are essential inputs to process-orientated ecosystem models. To provide this information, imaging spectroscopy appears to be a promising tool. In this context, the present study investigates the potential of spectral unmixing to derive sub-pixel crown component fractions in a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem. However, the high proportion of foliage in this complex vegetation structure leads to the problem of saturation effects, when applying broadband vegetation indices. This study illustrates that multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA can contribute to overcoming this challenge. Reference fractional abundances, as well as spectral measurements of the canopy components, could be precisely determined from a crane measurement platform situated in a deciduous forest in North-East Germany. In contrast to most other studies, which only use leaf and soil endmembers, this experimental setup allowed for the inclusion of a bark endmember for the unmixing of components within the canopy. This study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional endmembers markedly improves the accuracy. A mean absolute error of 7.9% could be achieved for the fractional occurrence of the leaf endmember and 5.9% for the bark endmember. In order to evaluate the results of this field-based study for airborne and satellite-based remote sensing applications, a transfer to Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA and simulated Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP and Sentinel-2 imagery was carried out. All sensors were capable of unmixing crown components with a mean absolute error ranging between 3% and 21%.

  7. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6 m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  8. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  9. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  10. Application Analysis of Airborne SAR Aerial Triangulation in the Western Mapping Project%西部测图工程机载SAR影像空三加密应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆利娜

    2013-01-01

    This paper systematically expounds airborne SAR image aerial triangulation principle and methods based on deep analysis of the western mapping project airborne SAR image data. The paper makes the in - depth analysis and summarizes the key technical problems of aerial triangulation.%在对西部测图工程机载SAR影像资料情况深入分析的基础上,对机载SAR影像空三加密原理方法进行了系统的阐述,对空三加密关键技术问题进行了较为深入的分析总结.

  11. Mapping methane concentrations from a controlled release experiment using the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Aubrey, A. D.; Green, R. O.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) are well suited for monitoring local methane sources by covering large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve emissions. As part of a field campaign with controlled methane releases at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), a number of methane plumes were clearly visible at multiple flux rates and flight altitudes. Images of plumes appeared consistent with wind directions measured at ground stations and were present for fluxes as low as 14.2 cubic meters of methane per hour, equivalent to 0.09 kt/year. Direct comparison of results from AVIRISng and plume dispersion models is ongoing and will be used to assess the potential of constraining emission fluxes using AVIRISng. Methane plumes observed at RMOTC with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) will also be presented. This controlled release experiment was used to determine the methane sensitivity of AVIRISng and inform sensor design for future imaging spectrometers that could constrain natural and anthropogenic methane emissions on local and regional scales. Imaging spectrometers permit direct attribution of emissions to individual point sources which is particularly useful given the large uncertainties associated with anthropogenic emissions, including industrial point source emissions and fugitive methane from the oil and gas industry. Figure caption: a. AVIRISng true color image indicating tube trailer (TT), meteorological tower (MT), and release point (RP). b. Prominent methane plume and measured enhancements for 70.8 cubic meters per hour methane flux is consistent with wind speed and direction (see arrow) measured by meteorological tower. A linear transect is shown in red and corresponds to enhancements shown in c. d. True color image showing release point (RP). e. Smaller methane plume for 14.2 cubic meters per hour flux. f. Methane

  12. The 4-Corners methane hotspot: Mapping CH4 plumes at 60km through 1m resolution using space- and airborne spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, C.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hook, S. J.; Green, R. O.; Thompson, D. R.; Kort, E. A.; Hulley, G. C.; Vance, N.; Bue, B. D.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The SCIAMACHY instrument onboard the European research satellite ENVISAT detected a large methane hotspot in the 4-Corners area, specifically in New Mexico and Colorado. Total methane emissions in this region were estimated to be on the order of 0.5Tg/yr, presumably related to coal-bed methane exploration. Here, we report on NASA efforts to augment the TOPDOWN campaign intended to enable regional methane source inversions and identify source types in this area. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory was funded to fly two airborne imaging spectrometers, viz. AVIRIS-NG and HyTES. In April 2015, we used both instruments to continuously map about 2000km2 in the 4-Corners area at 1-5m spatial resolution, with special focus on the most enhanced areas as observed from space. During our weeklong campaign, we detected more than 50 isolated and strongly enhanced methane plumes, ranging from coal mine venting shafts and gas processing facilities through individual well-pads, pipeline leaks and outcrop. Results could be immediately shared with ground-based teams and TOPDOWN aircraft so that ground-validation and identification was feasible for a number of sources. We will provide a general overview of the JPL-led mapping campaign efforts and show individual results, derive source strength estimates and discuss how the results fit in with space borne estimates.

  13. Vegetation and topography mapping with an airborne laser altimeter using a high-efficiency laser and a scannable field-of-view telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, J.B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Coyle, D. B.

    1996-11-01

    A medium altitude airborne laser altimeter system has been designed and developed at NASA`s Goddard Space Flight Center to map surface height distributions (SHDs) across wide, nadir-centered, swaths. Instrument performance, data product quality, and the satellite-like footprint sizes are maintained using novel laser output and receiver field of view (FOV) scanning techniques. The laser transmitter was custom designed and built at GSFC to achieve 10% wallplug efficiency in a compact, rugged package. The laser output pulse is 2 nsec full width half max (FWHM) at a repetition rate of 500 Hz and with 6 mJ of output power evenly split into 1.064 nm and 0.532 nm wavelengths. A multiple-pass pump scheme along with variable conductance heatpipes (VCHPs) combine to increase the laser efficiency. The telescope was custom designed to have a throughput of > 85%, 20 cm aperture, 6{degrees} potential FOV, 0.5 {degrees} instantaneous FOV that is rapidly positioned anywhere in the potential FOV within 2 msec, permitting wide-swath scanning as well as real-time nadir control of the scan swath. The return echoes are recorded using a 500 MHz, 8-bit waveform digitizer. Possible applications range from simple topographic mapping to 3-dimensional vegetation structure determination. Tree heights, canopy architecture, and surface roughness can easily be extracted from the return echo. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Radioecological sensitivity. Danish fallout data revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish fallout data covering four decades are interpreted in terms of radioecological sensitivity. The radioecological sensitivity is the time-integrated radionuclide concentration in an environmental sample from a unit ground deposition (e.g. Bq y kg-1 per Gq m-2). The fallout data comprise observed levels of the radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in precipitation, grass, milk, beef and diet. The data are analysed with different types of radioecological models: traditional UNSCEAR models and more recent dynamic models. The traditional models provide empirical relationships between the annual fallout from precipitation and the annual average levels in grass, milk, beef and diet. The relationships may be derived from spreadsheet calculations. ECOSYS and FARMLAND represent more recent radioecological models, which are available as software for personal computers. These models are more mechanistic and require information on a range of topics, e.g. mode of deposition, nuclide dependent and nuclide independent parameters. The more recent models do not reproduce the fallout data better than the traditional models. But the general features of the more recent models make them suited for prediction of radiological consequences of routine and accidental releases in areas where limited radioecological data are available. The work is part of the NKS/BOK-2.1 project on Important Nordic Food Chains aiming at characterising radioecological sensitivity and variability across the Nordic countries. (au)

  15. Ionizing radiation, cancer induction and radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred years of observations of ionizing radiation have led to a number of major discoveries, including [1] ionizing radiation induces gene mutations in animals at a rate linearly proportional to dose, [2] certain cancers are induced by relatively high doses at a rate that is linearly proportional to the dose, [3] exposure of the fetus to very low doses of x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of cancer developing during childhood, and [4] many cancers result from somatic mutations in genes that control the normal growth and differentiation of cells. Cancers induced by ionizing radiation are likely therefore to result from somatic mutations, as first predicted by H. J. Muller in 1927. Large scale man-made releases of radioactive fallout have occurred and pose a cancer hazard. A special case is the risk of thyroid cancer to infants who ingest the radioiodines in such fallout. Ongoing epidemiological studies of persons exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 may eventually help to quantify risks associated with very low radiation doses and low dose rates. Governments and societies will need to be better prepared to cope with any future releases of radioactive fallout. (author)

  16. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan;

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation......) the status of the airborne interferometry activities at DCRS, including the present system configuration, recent results, and some scientific applications of the system....

  17. Geodetic Imaging Lidar: Applications for high-accuracy, large area mapping with NASA's upcoming high-altitude waveform-based airborne laser altimetry Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. B.; Rabine, D.; Hofton, M. A.; Citrin, E.; Luthcke, S. B.; Misakonis, A.; Wake, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full waveform laser altimetry has demonstrated its ability to capture highly-accurate surface topography and vertical structure (e.g. vegetation height and structure) even in the most challenging conditions. NASA's high-altitude airborne laser altimeter, LVIS (the Land Vegetation, and Ice Sensor) has produced high-accuracy surface maps over a wide variety of science targets for the last 2 decades. Recently NASA has funded the transition of LVIS into a full-time NASA airborne Facility instrument to increase the amount and quality of the data and to decrease the end-user costs, to expand the utilization and application of this unique sensor capability. Based heavily on the existing LVIS sensor design, the Facility LVIS instrument includes numerous improvements for reliability, resolution, real-time performance monitoring and science products, decreased operational costs, and improved data turnaround time and consistency. The development of this Facility instrument is proceeding well and it is scheduled to begin operations testing in mid-2016. A comprehensive description of the LVIS Facility capability will be presented along with several mission scenarios and science applications examples. The sensor improvements included increased spatial resolution (footprints as small as 5 m), increased range precision (sub-cm single shot range precision), expanded dynamic range, improved detector sensitivity, operational autonomy, real-time flight line tracking, and overall increased reliability and sensor calibration stability. The science customer mission planning and data product interface will be discussed. Science applications of the LVIS Facility include: cryosphere, territorial ecology carbon cycle, hydrology, solid earth and natural hazards, and biodiversity.

  18. Biodiversity Mapping via Natura 2000 Conservation Status and Ebv Assessment Using Airborne Laser Scanning in Alkali Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, A.; Deák, B.; Kania, A.; Schroiff, A.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    Biodiversity is an ecological concept, which essentially involves a complex sum of several indicators. One widely accepted such set of indicators is prescribed for habitat conservation status assessment within Natura 2000, a continental-scale conservation programme of the European Union. Essential Biodiversity Variables are a set of indicators designed to be relevant for biodiversity and suitable for global-scale operational monitoring. Here we revisit a study of Natura 2000 conservation status mapping via airbone LIDAR that develops individual remote sensing-derived proxies for every parameter required by the Natura 2000 manual, from the perspective of developing regional-scale Essential Biodiversity Variables. Based on leaf-on and leaf-off point clouds (10 pt/m2) collected in an alkali grassland area, a set of data products were calculated at 0.5 ×0.5 m resolution. These represent various aspects of radiometric and geometric texture. A Random Forest machine learning classifier was developed to create fuzzy vegetation maps of classes of interest based on these data products. In the next step, either classification results or LIDAR data products were selected as proxies for individual Natura 2000 conservation status variables, and fine-tuned based on field references. These proxies showed adequate performance and were summarized to deliver Natura 2000 conservation status with 80% overall accuracy compared to field references. This study draws attention to the potential of LIDAR for regional-scale Essential Biodiversity variables, and also holds implications for global-scale mapping. These are (i) the use of sensor data products together with habitat-level classification, (ii) the utility of seasonal data, including for non-seasonal variables such as grassland canopy structure, and (iii) the potential of fuzzy mapping-derived class probabilities as proxies for species presence and absence.

  19. BIODIVERSITY MAPPING VIA NATURA 2000 CONSERVATION STATUS AND EBV ASSESSMENT USING AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING IN ALKALI GRASSLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zlinszky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is an ecological concept, which essentially involves a complex sum of several indicators. One widely accepted such set of indicators is prescribed for habitat conservation status assessment within Natura 2000, a continental-scale conservation programme of the European Union. Essential Biodiversity Variables are a set of indicators designed to be relevant for biodiversity and suitable for global-scale operational monitoring. Here we revisit a study of Natura 2000 conservation status mapping via airbone LIDAR that develops individual remote sensing-derived proxies for every parameter required by the Natura 2000 manual, from the perspective of developing regional-scale Essential Biodiversity Variables. Based on leaf-on and leaf-off point clouds (10 pt/m2 collected in an alkali grassland area, a set of data products were calculated at 0.5 ×0.5 m resolution. These represent various aspects of radiometric and geometric texture. A Random Forest machine learning classifier was developed to create fuzzy vegetation maps of classes of interest based on these data products. In the next step, either classification results or LIDAR data products were selected as proxies for individual Natura 2000 conservation status variables, and fine-tuned based on field references. These proxies showed adequate performance and were summarized to deliver Natura 2000 conservation status with 80% overall accuracy compared to field references. This study draws attention to the potential of LIDAR for regional-scale Essential Biodiversity variables, and also holds implications for global-scale mapping. These are (i the use of sensor data products together with habitat-level classification, (ii the utility of seasonal data, including for non-seasonal variables such as grassland canopy structure, and (iii the potential of fuzzy mapping-derived class probabilities as proxies for species presence and absence.

  20. FALLOUT RADIATION: EFFECTS ON THE SKIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A.; Cronkite, E. P.; Bond, V. P.

    1963-02-06

    Until recently it has been generally assumed that injury to the skin from ionizing radiation was not a serious hazard associated with the detonation of nuclear dcvices. However, in 1954 the importance of this hazard became apparent when widespread lesions of the skin developed in a large group of people accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in the Marshall Islands following the experimental detonation of a large nuclear device. The accident in the Marshall Islands affords an example of large numbers of lesions of the skin in human beings from the fallout. Studies have been documented and will be referred to frequently in this chapter. The possibility of such accidents must be considered seriously in view of the increasingly widespread use of radioisotopes.

  1. The InSAeS4 Airborne X-Band Interferometric SAR System: A First Assessment on Its Imaging and Topographic Mapping Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Perna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this work a first assessment of the imaging and topographic mapping capabilities of the InSAeS4 system, which is a single-pass interferometric airborne X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR. In particular, we first provide a brief description of the InSAeS4 sensor. Then, we discuss the results of our analysis on the SAR and interferometric SAR products relevant to the first flight-test campaign. More specifically, we have exploited as reference the GPS measurements relevant to nine Corner Reflectors (CRs deployed over the illuminated area during the campaign and a laser scanner Digital Elevation Model (DEM. From the analysis carried out on the CRs we achieved a mean geometric resolution, for the SAR products, of about 0.14 m in azimuth and 0.49 m in range, a positioning misalignment with standard deviation of 0.07 m in range and 0.08 m in azimuth, and a height error with standard deviation of 0.51 m. From the comparison with the laser scanner DEM we estimated a height error with standard deviation of 1.57 m.

  2. New technologies to improve the monitoring of tephra fallouts from Etna: the collaborative system Tefranet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronico, Daniele; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Merenda, Riccardo; Reitano, Danilo; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lodato, Luigi; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    During early December 2015, Mt. Etna (Italy) produced 4 paroxysmal events from the Voragine crater in just 3 days. This activity caused ash and lapilli fallout over a wide area extending from the volcanic slopes up to ~100 km from the volcano, affecting numerous villages and the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria. Monitoring this kind of volcanic activity in order to know the dispersal of tephra fallout in quasi-real time can prove challenging, especially when several paroxysmal events follow each other as during these latest eruptions in December. To tackle similar recurring periods of frequent activity, which have occurred a number of times at Etna over recent years, we devised a collaborative system named Tefranet. The system is easy to use but at the same time designed to rapidly retrieve useful georeferenced information on tephra fallouts from Etna's explosive activity. Tefranet includes a mobile application and a web site, with particular attention to an administration backend tool, making owners of smartphones or other mobile devices participants. The system aims to involve citizens living not only in eastern Sicily (i.e. the area most affected by fallout based on the prevailing winds blowing on Etna), but also those resident at some distance, in areas potentially covered by tephra (more than 60-80 km from the volcano) and that are difficult to reach before the original amounts of tephra on the ground may become altered by anthropic (e.g. car traffic) and atmospheric (wind and rain) factors. The Tefranet community will be informed by the INGV specialists via mobile device in case explosive activity resumes, with users able to visualize all the tephra signals on a map in real time. All kinds of information concerning start/end of the tephra fallout, estimation of the clast dimensions, thickness of the deposit, level of tephra cover on the ground, will be welcomed, especially if accompanied by photos of the deposit and of the eruption plume. Here, we

  3. Mapping asbestos-cement roofing with the use of APEX hyperspectral airborne imagery: Karpacz area, Poland – a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Krówczyńska Małgorzata; Wilk Ewa; Pabjanek Piotr; Zagajewski Bogdan; Meuleman Koen

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos and asbestos containing products are harmful to human health, and therefore its use has been legally forbidden in the EU. Since there is no adequate data on the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland, the objective of this study was to map asbestos-cement roofing with the use of hyperspectral APEX data (288 bands at the spatial resolution of 2.7 m) in the Karpacz area (southwest Poland). A field survey constituted the basis for training and verification polygons in the classific...

  4. Radioactive fallout in Norway in 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholastic achievement of Norwegian children born in 1965 has been analysed in relation to date of birth and school address, in order to examine a possible effect of radioactive fallout during their fetal period. The Western regions of the country had an order of magnitude higher fallout contamination than the Eastern region. There was in the Western region a pronounced seasonal variation in e.g. 137Cs content of milk. The results indicate a deficiency in scholastic achievement in the West cohort corresponding to the coincidence of the most sensitive fetal period (8-15 weeks post conception) with the 1964 late summer increase in 137Cs content of milk. The dose from fallout is several orders of magnitude too low to explain the observed deficiency quantitatively in consonance with the Hiroshima-Nagasaki findings. It is suggested that the explaination may be found be way of a repair induction lag hypothesis, related to the microdosimetric conditions at background dose rate level. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Surface Energy Balance models for mapping evapotranspiration using very high resolution airborne remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, George

    Agriculture is the largest (90%) consumer of all fresh water in the world. The consumptive use of water by vegetation represented by the process evapotranspiration (ET) has a vital role in the dynamics of water, carbon and energy fluxes of the biosphere. Consequently, mapping ET is essential for making water a sustainable resource and also for monitoring ecosystem response to water stress and changing climate. Over the past three decades, numerous thermal remote sensing based ET mapping algorithms were developed and these have brought a significant theoretical and technical advancement in the spatial modeling of ET. Though these algorithms provided a robust, economical, and efficient tool for ET estimations at field and regional scales, yet the uncertainties in flux estimations were large, making evaluation a difficult task. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the performance of widely used remote sensing based energy balance models, namely: the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Data used in this study was collected as part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional field campaign BEAREX (Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment) that was conducted during 2007 and 2008 summer cropping seasons at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas. Seventeen high resolution remote sensing images taken from multispectral sensors onboard aircraft and field measurements of the agro-meteorological variables from the campaign were used for model evaluation and improvement. Overall relative error measured in terms of mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) for instantaneous ET (mm h -1) were 22.7%, 23.2%, and 12.6% for SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS, respectively. SEBAL and METRIC performances for irrigated fields representing higher ET

  6. Mapping asbestos-cement roofing with the use of APEX hyperspectral airborne imagery: Karpacz area, Poland – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krówczyńska Małgorzata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos and asbestos containing products are harmful to human health, and therefore its use has been legally forbidden in the EU. Since there is no adequate data on the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland, the objective of this study was to map asbestos-cement roofing with the use of hyperspectral APEX data (288 bands at the spatial resolution of 2.7 m in the Karpacz area (southwest Poland. A field survey constituted the basis for training and verification polygons in the classification process. A SAM classification method was performed with the following classification results: 62% producer’s accuracy, 73% user’s accuracy and an overall accuracy of 95%. The asbestos-cement roofing for buildings may be discriminated with a high classification accuracy with the use of hyperspectral imagery. The vast majority of the classified buildings were characterised by their small area (i.e. residential type buildings, which reduced the overall accuracy of the classification.

  7. Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of atmospheric pollutants over urban areas by means of airborne DOAS spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravegnani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available tants, offering numerous advantages over conventional networks of in situ analysers. We propose some innovative solutions in the field of DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy remote systems, utilizing diffuse solar light as the radiation source. We examine the numerous potentialities of minor gas slant column calculations, applying the «off-axis» methodology for collecting the diffuse solar radiation. One of these particular approaches, using measurements along horizontal paths, has already been tested with the spectrometer installed on board the Geophysica aircraft during stratospheric flights up to altitudes of 20 km. The theoretical basis of these new measurement techniques using DOAS remote sensing systems are delineated to assess whether low altitude flights can provide 2D and 3D pollution tomography over metropolitan areas. The 2D or 3D trace gas total column mapping could be used to investigate: i transport and dispersion phenomena of air pollution, ii photochemical process rates, iii gas plume tomography, iv minor gas vertical profiles into the Planetary Boundary Layer and v minor gas flux divergence over a large area.

  8. The fate of airborne lead pollution in boreal forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Klaminder, Jonatan

    2005-01-01

    Lead has a more than three-millennia-long pollution history in Europe. Metal production, burning of coal and use of leaded petrol resulted in a significant pollution of the atmosphere. As a consequence of atmospheric fallout, the Swedish boreal forest is strongly contaminated by airborne lead pollution. High levels of lead in the soil and soil pore water are of concern because the soil fauna, plants and aquatic biota may respond negatively to this toxic element. The fate of the accumulated po...

  9. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities

  10. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  11. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  12. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  13. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities

  14. Evaluation of 7Be fallout spatial variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cosmogenic radionuclide beryllium-7 (Be) is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic particle reactions and is being used as a tracer for soil erosion and climatic processes research. After the production, 7Be bonds to aerosol particles in the atmosphere and is deposited on the soil surface with other radionuclide species by rainfall. Because of the high adsorption on soil particles and its short half-life of 53.2 days, this radionuclide follows of the erosion process and can be used as a tracer to evaluate the sediment transport that occurs during a single rain event or short period of rain events. A key assumption for the erosion evaluation through this radiotracer is the uniformity of the spatial distribution of the 7Be fallout. The 7Be method was elaborated recently and due to its few applications, some assumptions related to the method were not yet properly investigated yet, and the hypothesis of 7Be fallout uniformity needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 7Be fallout spatial distribution through the rain water 7Be activity analysis of the first five millimeters of single rain events. The rain water was sampled using twelve collectors distributed on an experimental area of about 300 m2 , located in the campus of Sao Paulo University, Piracicaba. The 7Be activities were measured using a 53% efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer from the Radioisotope laboratory of CENA. The 7Be activities in rain water varied from 0.26 to 1.81 Sq.L-1, with the highest values in summer and lowest in spring. In each one of the 5 single events, the spatial variability of 7Se activity in rain water was high, showing the high randomness of the fallout spatial distribution. A simulation using the 7Be spatial variability values obtained here and 7Se average reference inventories taken from the literature was performed determining the lowest detectable erosion rate estimated by 7Be model. The importance of taking a representative number of samples to determine the

  15. A Laacher See-eruption supplement to Tephrabase: Investigating distal tephra fallout dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Bazely, Oliver; Newton, Anthony J.;

    2011-01-01

    Tephrabase (www.tephrabase.org) is an online data repository and research tool for tephrochronological investigations in northern Europe. This paper presents and discusses an update to Tephrabase that contains geographic and, as far as available, geochemical data on 452 data-points for the widesp......Tephrabase (www.tephrabase.org) is an online data repository and research tool for tephrochronological investigations in northern Europe. This paper presents and discusses an update to Tephrabase that contains geographic and, as far as available, geochemical data on 452 data...... of the north-eastern fallout lobe are used to evaluate previous suggestions regarding the distribution of fallout from distinct eruption phases. The aim of the study is that future tephrochronological investigations can use this database and the revised distribution map for effectively targeting sites...

  16. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of 240Pu/239Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water 240Pu/239Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author)

  17. Glaciers in South Tyrol 1850 - 2006: application of Airborne Laser Scanner data, orthophotos and historical maps for the acquisition of recent and the reconstruction of past glacier extents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the densely populated high mountain areas of the Alps, glaciers are an important part of the cultural and natural landscape. During the warm summer months they are among the most important freshwater resources for economy sectors such as agriculture or industry, an important component for the tourism industry and of great significance for the production of energy from hydropower. However, they also constitute a potential cause of natural hazards. Due to their direct linkage to temperature and precipitation, glaciers are characterized as one of the best natural climate indicators. For that reason, mountain glaciers have become a key symbol for the ongoing discussion about climate, climate changes and the resulting consequences because their reactions can easily be observed and visualized. The main objective of this doctoral thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the regional South Tyrolean glacier development through a reconstruction and analysis of the glacier changes that have occurred since the climax of the Little Ice Age at around 1850. Glacier inventories, fieldwork and GIS-assisted reconstructions of historical and calculation of recent glacier topographies are used to depict, analyze and visualize the changes of the South Tyrolean glaciers between the maximum extent of approximately 1850 and the inventories of 1997 and 2006. In a comparison of recent, highly accurate glacier topographies mapped with ALS-methods (Airborne Laser Scanner) with a reconstruction of the Little Ice Age maximum South Tyrolean glaciers were detected to have lost 183.2 km2 or 66% of their glacier cover in approximately the last 150 years. This comparison also showed a loss in glacier volume of 9 km3 between 1850 and 2006, which corresponds to a mean ice thickness change of -49 m. These drastic losses in the glacier covered area and volume, which are mainly visible on the glacier tongues of large valley glaciers like Langtauferer- and Suldenferner, clearly show changes

  18. Airborne geophysical survey of the catastrophic landslide at Stože, Log pod Mangrtom, as a test of an innovative approach for landslide mapping in steep alpine terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baroň

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne geophysics is a promising method for investigating landslides. Here we present a case study of multisensor airborne geophysical survey at the catastrophic landslide Stože near Log pod Mangrtom in Slovenia, which was conducted in the framework of the European FP7th Project "SafeLand". Based on the survey itself and achieved results, we discuss applicability, limits, and benefits and costs of the method for investigating landslides in steep alpine terrains. Despite of several operational constraints, the airborne electromagnetic survey of the area well presented the lithological pattern and water saturation. The high resistivity regions mostly indicated drained slope scree and landslide mass, drained and loosened material of the moraine deposit in the tension zone of the landslide with present cracks and cavities. The minima of the resistivity pattern were attributed to the outcrop of marls rich in clay, to water-saturated moraine deposit above impermeable marls in the tension zone, and to water-saturated porous alluvial gravel and landslide scree along the Koritnica River. The magnetic survey proved to be inapplicable for such a small and rough area. The Potassium and Thorium maps, on the other hand, both well identified the regions of tension inside the landslide zone, outcrops of marls and dolomite, clay-rich colluvium, weathered zones along a regional tectonic fault, and alluvial deposits and deposits of debris flows, and the minima of the 137Cs clearly revealed the zones of material removal due to recent mass movements.

  19. Measurements of atmospheric fallout in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of studying the radioactive fallout present in Argentina from atmospheric nuclear explosions tests that have been conducted recently, an environmental monitoring program, outside the influence of nuclear facilities of Argentina, was undertaken during 1996 and 1997. The levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were analysed in samples of air, deposited material (rainwater), milk, an average meal of a standard man and food. During this period, a total of 630 radiochemical analysis were performed on 325 samples of the different matrices described. The concentration levels of the radionuclides analysed in the different environmental matrices are presented and are compared with the values obtained in the environmental monitoring program done during the period 1960-1981. (author)

  20. Chernobyl -- the fallout and the farmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident an increase in the levels of airborne radioactivity was first detected in Ireland during the period 2nd-4th May, 1986. Heavy rainfall resulted in significant ground deposition of this activity, and the environmental monitoring programme set up by the Nuclear Energy Board ( now the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland) has determined the distribution and level of radionuclides in the major food items consumed by the Irish population

  1. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests

  2. Airborne monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete system for tracking, mapping, and performing a composition analysis of a radioactive plume and contaminated area was developed at the NRCN. The system includes two major units : An airborne unit for monitoring and a ground station for analyzing. The airborne unit is mounted on a helicopter and includes file following. Four radiation sensor, two 2'' x 2'' Nal (Tl) sensors horizontally separated by lead shield for mapping and spectroscopy, and two Geiger Mueller (GM) tubes as part of the safety system. A multichannel analyzer card is used for spectroscopy. A navigation system, based on GPS and a barometric altitude meter, is used to locate the plume or ground data. The telemetry system, consisting of a transceiver and a modem, transfers all the data in real time to the ground station. An industrial PC (Field Works) runs a dedicated C++ Windows application to manage the acquired data. An independent microprocessor based backup system includes a recorder, display, and key pad. The ground station is based on an industrial PC, a telemetry system, a color printer and a modem to communicate with automatic meteorology stations in the relevant area. A special software controls the ground station. Measurement results are analyzed in the ground station to estimate plume parameters including motion, location, size, velocity, and perform risk assessment. (authors)

  3. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  4. Airborne gamma ray measurements conducted during an international trial in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; McConville, P.; Murphy, S.; Smith, J. [Scottish Univ. Research and Reactor Centre, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre (SURRC) contributed to the Resume 95 exercise by developing the calibration site at Vesivehmaa, and by participating in the airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) part of the study. This paper summarises the airborne survey results from the SURRC team. The AGS tasks included fallout mapping of a 6x3 km area in central Finland with nominal 150 m line spacing, and a time constrained search for an undisclosed number of hidden radioactive sources. Measurements at the calibration site were also taken to provide a basis for traceable cross comparison between each teams` quantification procedures at a single, well characterised, location. A full set of calibrated maps of Chernobyl deposition and natural radionuclides, together with overlays corresponding to topography, roads, rivers and lakes were finished during the survey and displayed at the end of the exercise. The main survey area (Area II) was found to have a mean {sup 137}Cs deposition of 64.4{+-}24.4 kBq m{sup -2}, based on the calibration appropriate to the Vesivehmaa site. The major point sources in Area III were discovered, although the collimated {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co sources were not. Retrospective analysis has shown that sources Cs3 and Cs4 were not significantly above local environmental levels in our data set; whereas the low activity {sup 60}Co source Co3 was detected. This confirms the improved sensitivity of AGS source searches to nuclides which are not already present as environmental contaminants. The collimated {sup 192}Ir was found both using scattered radiation and from full energy lines detected with a Ge detector. The {sup 99m}Tc was located using a ratio of low energy integrals from the NaI spectra. (EG). 28 refs.

  5. Fallout Concentration Various Environmental Samples in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing of nuclear weapons have been carried out by the advanced countries, such as United States, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan, since about 1945 until 1998. Nuclear weapons tests were conducted at various locations, on and above the earth's surface or underground or on and under the ocean's surface. Nuclear explosions caused the radionuclides of fission product, such as 131l, 89Sr, 90Sr, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 239Pu released to the atmospheric layer. In the atmospheric layer, the long-lived radionuclides, i.e, 90Sr dan 137Cs will be distributed into the environment as the fallout radionuclides, and deposited in the various environmental samples (soil, water, and biota). In general, at several locations in Indonesia the 90Sr and 137Cs in the various environmental samples still can be detected. The data of measurement results of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations were generally lower than that from some countries in the northern hemisphere. (author)

  6. Radioactive fallout in food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 1 of this review is designed to provide an up-dated background to the subject in relation to FAO's interests and responsibilities in scientifically accurate but non-technical language. Part 2 is concerned more specifically with the problems of radioactive fallout over pasture and cultivated soils. Moreover, it is mainly concerned with problems of international significance under peacetime conditions and which are likely only to arise as a result of a major nuclear reactor accident, or, possibly, some unintended nuclear explosion. However, relatively local problems of soil contamination could arise as a result of other kinds of accident. In the report the natural occurrence of radionuclides, and radiation exposure as a fact of life in the human environment, are indicated. Exposure to ionizing radiation from natural and man-made sources are compared. The behaviour and significance of radionuclides in ecosystems are briefly illustrated. Land-based nuclear powr stations and nuclear-powered ships and submarines are identified as the major potential accident hazards to agriculture or fisheries under peacetime conditions. 216 refs, figs and tabs

  7. Pu isotopes in soils collected downwind from Lop Nor: regional fallout vs. global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Ni, Youyi; Guo, Qiuju; Zheng, Jian; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-07-17

    For the first time, soil core samples from the Jiuquan region have been analyzed for Pu isotopes for radioactive source identification and radiological assessment. The Jiuquan region is in downwind from the Lop Nor Chinese nuclear test (CNT) site. The high Pu inventories (13 to 546 Bq/m(2)) in most of the sampling locations revealed that this region was heterogeneously contaminated by the regional fallout Pu from the CNTs. The contributions of the CNTs to the total Pu in soils were estimated to be more than 40% in most cases. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the soils ranged from 0.059 to 0.186 with an inventory-weighted average of 0.158, slightly lower than that of global fallout. This atom ratio could be considered as a mixed fingerprint of Pu from the CNTs. In addition, Pu in soils of Jiuquan region had a faster downward migration rate compared with other investigated places in China.

  8. Regional scale rain-forest height mapping using regression-kriging of spaceborne and airborne LiDAR data: application on French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Fayad, I.; Baghdadi, N.; Bailly, J.S.; Barbier, N.; Gond, V.; Hérault, B; El Hajj, M.; Fabre, F.; Perrin, J.

    2016-01-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing has been shown to be a good technique for the estimation of forest parameters such as canopy heights and above ground biomass. Whilst airborne LiDAR data are in general very dense but only available over small areas due to the cost of their acquisition, spaceborne LiDAR data acquired from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) have a coarser acquisition density associated with a global cover. It is therefore valuable to analyze the inte...

  9. First results on 236U levels in global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Quinto, F; Mino, K; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Whitehead, N; Yamamoto, M

    2009-07-01

    The global fallout (236)U level in soil was deduced from measurements of (236)U, (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs in surface soils which are solely influenced by global fallout. A total of 12 soil cores from the depths of 0-10, 0-20 and 0-30 cm were collected at a flat forest area in Japan. Concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (238)U were determined by alpha-particle spectrometry, while the (236)U/(238)U ratio was measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Consistent (236)U/(239)Pu ratios between 0.212 and 0.253 were found. Using this ratio, the total global fallout of (236)U on the earth is estimated to be as much as ca. 900 kg. This knowledge will contribute to the promotion of research on U isotopes, including (236)U, for the fields of geo-resources, waste management and geochemistry. PMID:19406452

  10. Fallout Radioactivity in Some Egyptian Lakes Bottom Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Egyptian environmental radioactivity monitoring program, the fallout radioactivity levels in Qarun, Bardawill and Ed ku lakes bottom sediments have been measured. The specific activities of 137Cs were measured using gamma ray spectrometer based on Hyper pure germanium detector. The specific activities of plutonium isotopes(238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Pu) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface battier detectors and liquid scintillation spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The activity ratios 239+240Pu/137Cs, 239+240Pu/241Pu, and 238Pu/ 239+240Pu were calculated. The results seemed to confirm that fallout radioactivity is mainly due to nuclear weapons testing fallout

  11. Indication of the radioactive fallout in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    On March 2011, a severe damage has occurred to Fukushima Di-iachi nuclear reactor complex in Japan following the huge earthquake and the resulting Tsunami. Consequently, vast amounts of radioactive fallout were released into the atmosphere and contaminated the environment in Japan. Soon after the accident, traces of anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in environmental samples collected in many parts in the northern hemisphere even very far away from Japan creating a global concern. There is no information about radioactive contamination in the Arabian Peninsula caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident. The first evidence of Fukushima radioactive fallout in Riyadh (24° 43' N, 46° 38' E), Saudi Arabia has been confirmed in April 8, 2011. The airborne fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured in air samples. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by identifying their characteristic gamma rays using a germanium detector. Their activity concentrations were studied as a function of time over a period of 20 days at the end of which they had mostly fallen below our limit of detection. The maximum activity concentration of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in air of, respectively, 323.7 ± 18.5, 17.2 ± 1.0 and 26.0 ± 1.8 μBq m(-3) were observed on April 10-11, 2011. The (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio values in air were presented and discussed. Finally, the effective doses to the public of Riyadh city from inhalation of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs due to contribution from Fukushima incident was found far below levels of concern. PMID:26650827

  12. Indication of the radioactive fallout in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    On March 2011, a severe damage has occurred to Fukushima Di-iachi nuclear reactor complex in Japan following the huge earthquake and the resulting Tsunami. Consequently, vast amounts of radioactive fallout were released into the atmosphere and contaminated the environment in Japan. Soon after the accident, traces of anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in environmental samples collected in many parts in the northern hemisphere even very far away from Japan creating a global concern. There is no information about radioactive contamination in the Arabian Peninsula caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident. The first evidence of Fukushima radioactive fallout in Riyadh (24° 43' N, 46° 38' E), Saudi Arabia has been confirmed in April 8, 2011. The airborne fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured in air samples. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by identifying their characteristic gamma rays using a germanium detector. Their activity concentrations were studied as a function of time over a period of 20 days at the end of which they had mostly fallen below our limit of detection. The maximum activity concentration of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in air of, respectively, 323.7 ± 18.5, 17.2 ± 1.0 and 26.0 ± 1.8 μBq m(-3) were observed on April 10-11, 2011. The (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio values in air were presented and discussed. Finally, the effective doses to the public of Riyadh city from inhalation of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs due to contribution from Fukushima incident was found far below levels of concern.

  13. Statistical analysis of fallout radionuclides transfer to paddy-field rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to atmosphere are transported through various pathways in biosphere and cause human exposure. Among these radionuclides transfer pathways, an ingestion of crops containing radionuclides is one of the dominant pathway for human exposure. For the safety assessment of nuclear facilities, it is important to understand the behavior of radionuclides in agricultural environment and to describe them in a mathematical model. In this paper, a statistical model is proposed for estimating the concentration of fallout radionuclides in paddy-field rice, the staple food for Japanese people. For describing behavior of fallout radionuclides in a paddy-field, a dynamic model and a statistical model have been proposed respectively. The model used in this study has been developed assuming that the amount of radionuclides transfer to brown rice (hulled rice) or polished rice through direct deposition of airborne radionuclides (the direct deposition pathway) and root uptake from a paddy soil (the root uptake pathway) are proportional to the deposition flux of radionuclides and concentration of radionuclides in paddy soil respectively. That is, the model has two independent variables; the deposition flux of radionuclides and the concentration of radionuclides in the paddy soil, and has single dependent variable; the concentration of radionuclides in brown rice or polished rice. The regression analysis is applied by using environmental monitoring data. Then the distribution of radionuclides between rice-bran (skin part of rice crop) and polished rice (core part) through both the direct deposition pathway and the root uptake pathway are evaluated by the model. (author)

  14. A survey of radioactive fallout data in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable attention has been directed by the scientific community to assessing the levels and fate of radionuclides in Arctic ecosystems. The following text and tables present available data and discussion of radionuclide fallout in Alaska. A literature search of 23 on-line databases (Table 1) using Alaska, Strontium (Sr), Cesium (Cs), Plutonium (Pu) and Radionuclide as constraint terms responded with 177 possible citations. After eliminating duplicate citations, 31 articles were available: 17 were relevant to the subject matter; the remainder addressed geologic issues. All of the cited literature addressed 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu as a result of radionuclide fallout from nuclear testing or accidental release

  15. Radioactive fallout over South Africa during 1974-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUCOR is routinely monitoring air and rainwater for radioactive fallout from atmospheric sources. Air humidity is continuously collected and analysed for tritium. Milk samples are obtained from a number of places throughout the country. These samples are analysed to detect timeously any build-up of radionuclides in soil and plants. Only a few atmosperic nuclear tests have been conducted (by China) since the previous report period of 1965 to 1973. The fallout from these sources over South Africa is extremely small and it is mainly cosmogenic radioactivity, viz 3H and 7Be, that is detected

  16. Behaviour of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides deposited on peat and urban surfaces in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the thesis the impact of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on Finland was studied in three aspects: (1) the areal distribution of Chernobyl fallout in Finland was determined by measuring peat samples, (2) the behaviour of fallout radionuclides was investigated in the combustion of peat in power plants, and (3) the removal rates of fallout radionuclides on urban surfaces were resolved

  17. Modeling the early-phase redistribution of radiocesium fallouts in an evergreen coniferous forest after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, P.; Gonze, M.-A.; Mourlon, Ch.

    2015-10-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the scientific community gained numerous data on the transfer of radiocesium in European forest ecosystems, including information regarding the short-term redistribution of atmospheric fallout onto forest canopies. In the course of international programs, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) developed a forest model, named TREE4 (Transfer of Radionuclides and External Exposure in FORest systems), 15 years ago. Recently published papers on a Japanese evergreen coniferous forest contaminated by Fukushima radiocesium fallout provide interesting and quantitative data on radioactive mass fluxes measured within the forest in the months following the accident. The present study determined whether the approach adopted in the TREE4 model provides satisfactory results for Japanese forests or whether it requires adjustments. This study focused on the interception of airborne radiocesium by forest canopy, and the subsequent transfer to the forest floor through processes such as litterfall, throughfall, and stemflow, in the months following the accident. We demonstrated that TREE4 quite satisfactorily predicted the interception fraction (20%) and the canopy-to-soil transfer (70% of the total deposit in 5 months) in the Tochigi forest. This dynamics was similar to that observed in the Höglwald spruce forest. However, the unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall (31% in 5 months) in the Tochigi forest could not be reproduced in our simulations (2.5%). Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed; and sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in deposition conditions was analyzed. - Highlights: • Transfer of radiocesium atmospheric fallout in evergreen forests was modeled. • The model was tested using observations from Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. • Model predictions of canopy interception and depuration agree with measurements. • Unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall for the

  18. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)

  19. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  20. Mercury, arsenic and selenium fall-out from an industrial complex studied by means of lichen transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinnes, E. (Inst. for Atomic Energy, Kjeller, Norway); Krog, H.

    1977-01-01

    Transplants of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes were subjected to neutron activation analysis in a study of air-borne pollution from an industrial complex in Sarpsborg, Norway. Compared with samples taken from the natural vegetation in the vicinity of the industrial complex, the transplant technique proved to be an efficient means of studying local mercury fall-out from industrial sources. The content of mercury in naturally occurring specimens of the same species was much lower than in the transplants. This may be due mainly to damage of the natural vegetation by SO/sub 2/ pollution. No significant increase in the concentration of arsenic or selenium was found in the natural vegetation or in the transplants in the neighborhood of the industrial complex, indicating that the release of these elements into the air from industrial works in Sarpsborg is low.

  1. Synergy of airborne LiDAR and Worldview-2 satellite imagery for land cover and habitat mapping: A BIO_SOS-EODHaM case study for the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücher, C. A.; Roupioz, L.; Kramer, H.; Bogers, M. M. B.; Jongman, R. H. G.; Lucas, R. M.; Kosmidou, V. E.; Petrou, Z.; Manakos, I.; Padoa-Schioppa, E.; Adamo, M.; Blonda, P.

    2015-05-01

    A major challenge is to develop a biodiversity observation system that is cost effective and applicable in any geographic region. Measuring and reliable reporting of trends and changes in biodiversity requires amongst others detailed and accurate land cover and habitat maps in a standard and comparable way. The objective of this paper is to assess the EODHaM (EO Data for Habitat Mapping) classification results for a Dutch case study. The EODHaM system was developed within the BIO_SOS (The BIOdiversity multi-SOurce monitoring System: from Space TO Species) project and contains the decision rules for each land cover and habitat class based on spectral and height information. One of the main findings is that canopy height models, as derived from LiDAR, in combination with very high resolution satellite imagery provides a powerful input for the EODHaM system for the purpose of generic land cover and habitat mapping for any location across the globe. The assessment of the EODHaM classification results based on field data showed an overall accuracy of 74% for the land cover classes as described according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) taxonomy at level 3, while the overall accuracy was lower (69.0%) for the habitat map based on the General Habitat Category (GHC) system for habitat surveillance and monitoring. A GHC habitat class is determined for each mapping unit on the basis of the composition of the individual life forms and height measurements. The classification showed very good results for forest phanerophytes (FPH) when individual life forms were analyzed in terms of their percentage coverage estimates per mapping unit from the LCCS classification and validated with field surveys. Analysis for shrubby chamaephytes (SCH) showed less accurate results, but might also be due to less accurate field estimates of percentage coverage. Overall, the EODHaM classification results encouraged us to derive the heights of

  2. Radar, geologic, airborne gamma ray and Landsat TM digital data integration for geological mapping of the Estrela granite complex (Para State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is focused on the geotectonic context of the Carajas Mineral Province, Amazon Craton, which represents the most important Brazilian Mineral Province and hosts iron, cooper, gold, manganese and nickel deposits. At the end of Archean age, during the techno-metamorphic evolution, moderated alkaline granitoids were generated, such as, Estrela Granite Complex (EGC). This work has used digital integration products with the purpose of study the granite suite, its host rock, and the surrounded area. The digital integrated data were gamma-ray and geological data with satellite images (SAR-SAREX e TM-Landsat). The geophysics data, originally in 32 bits and grid format, were interpolated and converted to 8 bits images. The geological data (facies map) was digitalized and converted to a raster format. The remote sensing images were geometrically corrected to guarantee an accuracy on the geological mapping. On the data processing phase, SAR images were digital integrated with gamma-ray data, TM-Landsat image and the raster facies map. The IHS transformation was used as the technique to integrate the multi-source data. On the photogeological interpretation, SAR data were extremely important to permit the extraction of the main tectonic lineaments which occur on the following directions: +/- N45W, +/- N70W, +/- NS, +/- N20E, +/- N45E e +/- N75E. This procedure was done both in analogic and automatic form, being the automatic process more useful to complement information in the extracting process. Among the digital products generated, SAR/GAMA products (uranium, thorium and total count) were the ones that give the most important contribution. The interpretation of the SAR/GAMA's products added to the field campaign have allowed to map the limits of units that occur in the region and four facies of the Estrela Granite Complex were detected. The origin of the granite suite might be related to a magmatic differentiation or to distinct intrusion pulses. The use of the

  3. Yttrium and lanthanides in human lung fluids, probing the exposure to atmospheric fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Censi, P., E-mail: censi@unipa.it [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); En.Bio.Tech. - Via Aquileia, 35 90100 Palermo (Italy); Tamburo, E. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); Speziale, S. [Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, 14473 (Germany); Zuddas, P. [Institut Genie de l' Environnement et Ecodeveloppement and Departement Sciences de la Terre, UMR 5125, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue R. Dubois, Bat GEODE 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Randazzo, L.A. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); En.Bio.Tech. - Via Aquileia, 35 90100 Palermo (Italy); Institut Genie de l' Environnement et Ecodeveloppement and Departement Sciences de la Terre, UMR 5125, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue R. Dubois, Bat GEODE 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Punturo, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia, 55 - 95129 Catania (Italy); Cuttitta, A. [I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); Arico, P. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy)

    2011-02-28

    Inhalation of airborne particles can produce crystallization of phosphatic microcrysts in intraaveolar areas of lungs, sometimes degenerating into pulmonary fibrosis. Results of this study indicate that these pathologies are induced by interactions between lung fluids and inhaled atmospheric dust in people exposed to volcanic dust ejected from Mount Etna in 2001. Here, the lung solid-liquid interaction is evaluated by the distribution of yttrium and lanthanides (YLn) in fluid bronchoalveolar lavages on selected individuals according the classical geochemical approaches. We found that shale-normalised patterns of yttrium and lanthanides have a 'V shaped' feature corresponding to the depletion of elements from Nd to Tb when compared to the variable enrichments of heavy lanthanides, Y, La and Ce. These features and concurrent thermodynamic simulations suggest that phosphate precipitation can occur in lungs due to interactions between volcanic particles and fluids. We propose that patterns of yttrium and lanthanides can represent a viable explanation of some pathology observed in patients after prolonged exposure to atmospheric fallout and are suitable to become a diagnostic parameter of chemical environmental stresses.

  4. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  5. Committee's report on ruthenium fall-out incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of the fall-out incident of November 11 and 12, 1959, by responsible parties (Health Physics Division and Operations Division personnel) established beyond reasonable doubt that the incident had its origin in the expulsion of particles, heavily contaminated with ruthenium, which had been detached from the walls of the electric fan housing and ducts in the off-gas system associated with the brick stack. All available evidence indicates that the particles were loosened during maintenance work on the exhaust damper and the bearings of the electric fan and were carried up the stack in two bursts as particulate fall-out when this fan was put back into service. Radiographic and chemical analysis showed the activity to be almost entirely ruthenium (Ru106) and its daughter rhodium (Rh106) with very little, if any, strontium being present. This report summarizes the findings and sets forth the conclusions and recommendations of the Committee asked to investigate the incident

  6. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    CERN Document Server

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  7. In-situ measurements of the radioactive fallout deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korun, M.; Martinčič, R.; Pucelj, B.

    1991-02-01

    An improved method to determine radionuclide concentrations in soil and the radioactive fallout deposit is presented. The approach is based on in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements performed with a portable high resolution gamma spectrometer and on calculations of the depth distribution based on the energy dependence of the attenuation of gamma rays in soil. The results are compared with laboratory analysis of collected soil samples.

  8. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Lelieveld, J.; KUNKEL, D.; M. G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of ma...

  9. The development of radioactive glass surrogates for fallout debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of glass that emulates fallout is desired by the nuclear forensics community for training and measurement exercises. The composition of nuclear fallout is complex, with widely varying isotopic compositions (Fahey et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(47):20207-20212, 2010; Bellucci et al., Anal Chem 85:7588-7593, 2013; Wallace et al., J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 2013; Belloni et al., J Environ Radioact 102:852-862, 2011; Freiling, Science 139:1058-1059, 1963; Science 133:1991-1999, 1961; Bunney and Sam Government Report: Naval Ordinance Laboratory, White Oak, 1971). As the gaseous cloud traverses from hotter to cooler regions of the atmosphere, the processes of condensation and nucleation entrain environmental materials, vaporized nuclear materials and fission products. The elemental and isotopic composition of the fission products is altered due to chemical fractionation (i.e. the fission product composition that would be expected from fission of the original nuclear material is altered by differences in condensation rates of the elements); the fallout may be enriched or depleted in volatile or refractory fission products. This paper describes preliminary work to synthesize, irradiate and fractionate the fission product content of irradiated particulate glass using a thermal distillation 2 h after irradiation. The glass was synthesized using a solution-based polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate. (Izrael, Radioactive fallout after nuclear explosions and accidents, 2002) Uranium was incorporated into the glass particulate at trace concentrations during polymerization. The particulate was subjected to a short thermal neutron irradiation then heated to 1,273 K approximately 2 h after the end of irradiation. Fission products of 133,134,135I, 132,134Te, 135Xe, 138Cs and 91,92Sr were observed to be distilled from the particulate. The results of these preliminary studies are discussed. (author)

  10. Distribution of fallout cesium-137 in the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique was developed for simple analysis of 137Cs concentrations in water, sediments, and biota in the fractional picocurie per liter range. These measurements are important, since fallout 137Cs will be present in estuarine environments for a generation. The concentration of 137Cs in water is important to studies of distribution coefficients, or concentration factors between water and sediment or organisms. Fallout 137Cs is also a natural tracer, making possible experiments on a span of space and time that is impossible with intentionally added tracers. Thus, one can determine an approximate residence time for a body of brackish water with a few 137Cs concentration measurements, given the average depth and typical fallout deposition rate. This estimate is good enough for first estimates as to the capacity of the body of water for various pollutants. Measurements at several sites, and at all seasonal conditions, can be used to solve the mass and concentration balance equations that more rigorously describe the hydrography of the estuary. (U.S.)

  11. On the integration of Airborne full-waveform laser scanning and optical imagery for Site Detection and Mapping: Monteserico study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, R.; Guariglia, A.; Lacovara, B.; Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.

    2009-04-01

    This paper analyses the capability of airborne LiDAR derived data in the recognition of archaeological marks. It also evaluates the benefits to integrate them with aerial photos and very high resolution satellite imagery. The selected test site is Monteserico, a medieval village located on a pastureland hill in the North East of Basilicata (Southern Italy). The site, attested by documentary sources beginning from the 12th century, was discovered by aerial survey in 1996 [1] and investigated in 2005 by using QuickBird imagery [2]. The only architectural evidence is a castle, built on the western top of the hill; whereas on the southern side, earthenware, pottery and crumbling building materials, related to the medieval settlement, could be observed. From a geological point of view, the stratigraphic sequence is composed of Subappennine Clays, Monte Marano sands and Irsina conglomerates. Sporadic herbaceous plants grow over the investigated area. For the purpose of this study, a full-waveform laser scanning with a 240.000 Hz frequency was used. The average point density value of dataset is about 30 points/m2. The final product is a 0.30 m Digital Surface Models (DSMs) accurately modelled. To derive the DSM the point cloud of the ALS was filtered and then classified by applying appropriate algorithms. In this way surface relief and archaeological features were surveyed with great detail. The DSM was compared with other remote sensing data source such as oblique and nadiral aerial photos and QuickBird imagery, acquired in different time. In this way it was possible to evaluate, compare each other and overlay the archaeological features recorded from each data source (aerial, satellite and lidar). Lidar data showed some interesting results. In particular, they allowed for identifying and recording differences in height on the ground produced by surface and shallow archaeological remains (the so-called shadow marks). Most of these features are visible also by the optical

  12. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout: Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement (ORPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, OEsteraas (Norway)); Smethurst, M.A. (Univ. of Exeter and Avalonia Geophysics, Cornwall Campus, Penryn (United Kingdom)); Andersson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K. (Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Reykjavik (Iceland))

    2011-10-15

    In recent years carborne gamma spectrometry has expanded from its role as a geological survey platform to serving as a useful asset in the field of emergency response to radiological and nuclear situations. Its two main applications are searching for orphan sources and for surveying in the aftermath of an accident involving the release of radioactive materials. Despite this expansion, the opportunities for gaining practical experience in the field are limited by cost considerations and practicability. These limitations are exacerbated by the fact that data generated and displayed in the field differ significantly from gamma spectral data generated in a laboratory environment. As a means of exercising existing emergency measuring/surveying capability and introducing carborne measurements to a larger group, a virtual exercise was devised. The exercise ORPEX (Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement) featured two typical emergency scenarios in which carborne measuring systems might be deployed: firstly a search for multiple orphan sources and secondly surveying to delineate patchy fallout from a local release point. In the first scenario, synthetic spectral data were generated for imaginary point sources and inserted into genuine carborne measurements from in the Trondheim area of Norway. Participants were presented with a typical software tool and data in a range of typical formats and asked to report the source locations and isotopes within a time limit. In the second scenario, synthetic spectral data representing fallout from a local fire involving radioactive material were added to real carborne data from the Trondheim area. Participants were asked to produce maps that identify and characterise the regions of contamination within the same time limit. Fourteen individual organisations from seven different countries supplied results. Results from participants indicate that for strong sources of isotopes with simple spectra featuring

  14. Monitoring Fallout From Fukushima, Japan After Nuclear Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, on March 23rd, 2011, following the radioactivity releases after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, the first arrival of the airborne fission products 131I in Heilongjiang province the northeast of China, were detected

  15. Rainfall erosivity in catchments contaminated with fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Cerdan, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 resulted in the fallout of significant quantities of radiocesium over the Fukushima region. After reaching the soil surface, radiocesium is quickly bound to fine soil particles. Thereafter, rainfall and snowmelt run-off events transfer particle-bound radiocesium downstream. Characterizing the precipitation regime of the fallout-impacted region is thus important for understanding post-deposition radiocesium dynamics. Accordingly, 10 min (1995-2015) and daily precipitation data (1977-2015) from 42 meteorological stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP were analyzed. Monthly rainfall erosivity maps were developed to depict the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall erosivity for catchments entirely contained within this radius. The mean average precipitation in the region surrounding the FDNPP is 1420 mm yr-1 (SD 235) with a mean rainfall erosivity of 3696 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 1327). Tropical cyclones contribute 22 % of the precipitation (422 mm yr-1) and 40 % of the rainfall erosivity (1462 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 637)). The majority of precipitation (60 %) and rainfall erosivity (82 %) occurs between June and October. At a regional scale, rainfall erosivity increases from the north to the south during July and August, the most erosive months. For the remainder of the year, this gradient occurs mostly from northwest to southeast. Relief features strongly influence the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity at a smaller scale, with the coastal plains and coastal mountain range having greater rainfall erosivity than the inland Abukuma River valley. Understanding these patterns, particularly their spatial and temporal (both inter- and intraannual) variation, is important for contextualizing soil and particle-bound radiocesium transfers in the Fukushima region. Moreover, understanding the impact of tropical cyclones will be important for managing sediment and sediment-bound contaminant

  16. Airborne Magnetic and Electromagnetic Data map Rock Alteration and Water Content at Mount Adams, Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington: Implications for Lahar Hazards and Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C. A.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Horton, R.; Breit, G.; John, D.

    2007-12-01

    High resolution helicopter-borne magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) data flown over the rugged, ice-covered, highly magnetic and mostly resistive volcanoes of Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount Baker, along with rock property measurements, reveal the distribution of alteration, water and hydrothermal fluids that are essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards and understanding hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly reduces the magnetization and resistivity of volcanic rock resulting in clear recognition of altered rock by helicopter magnetic and EM measurements. Magnetic and EM data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses of hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region, in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit, and in much of the central cone of Mount Baker. We identify the Sunset Amphitheater region and steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams as likely sources for future debris flows. In addition, the EM data identified water-saturated rocks in the upper 100-200 m of the three volcanoes. The water-saturated zone could extend deeper, but is beyond the detection limits of the EM data. Water in hydrothermal fluids reacts with the volcanic rock to produce clay minerals. The formation of clay minerals and presence of free water reduces the effective stress, thereby increasing the potential for slope failure, and acts, with entrained melting ice, as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. Therefore, knowing the distribution of water is also important for hazard assessments. Finally, modeling requires extremely low

  17. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  18. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-03-23

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels.

  19. Thermoluminescence studies of NTS-related fallout exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible health effects from fallout radiation resulting from atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the 1950's and 60's was refocused in 1979 by the report of apparent increases in childhood leukemias in regions downwind of the NTS. A program is discussed which established a dosimetry technique for the measurement of low doses of radiation in common building bricks. A considerable amount of technique development has been in progress throughout the course of the pilot study. Since its development, considerable progress has been made on increasing the accuracy and reliability of the technique

  20. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  1. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Evaluation of {sup 7}Be fallout spatial variability; Avaliacao da variabilidade espacial do fallout do {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Victor Meriguetti

    2011-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide beryllium-7 (Be) is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic particle reactions and is being used as a tracer for soil erosion and climatic processes research. After the production, {sup 7}Be bonds to aerosol particles in the atmosphere and is deposited on the soil surface with other radionuclide species by rainfall. Because of the high adsorption on soil particles and its short half-life of 53.2 days, this radionuclide follows of the erosion process and can be used as a tracer to evaluate the sediment transport that occurs during a single rain event or short period of rain events. A key assumption for the erosion evaluation through this radiotracer is the uniformity of the spatial distribution of the {sup 7}Be fallout. The {sup 7}Be method was elaborated recently and due to its few applications, some assumptions related to the method were not yet properly investigated yet, and the hypothesis of {sup 7}Be fallout uniformity needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 7}Be fallout spatial distribution through the rain water {sup 7}Be activity analysis of the first five millimeters of single rain events. The rain water was sampled using twelve collectors distributed on an experimental area of about 300 m2 , located in the campus of Sao Paulo University, Piracicaba. The {sup 7}Be activities were measured using a 53% efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer from the Radioisotope laboratory of CENA. The {sup 7}Be activities in rain water varied from 0.26 to 1.81 Sq.L{sup -}1, with the highest values in summer and lowest in spring. In each one of the 5 single events, the spatial variability of {sup 7}Se activity in rain water was high, showing the high randomness of the fallout spatial distribution. A simulation using the {sup 7}Be spatial variability values obtained here and {sup 7}Se average reference inventories taken from the literature was performed determining the lowest detectable erosion rate estimated by {sup 7}Be model

  3. Freshwater and Alpine ecosystem response to Chernobyl fallout in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and agricultural research programmes were initiated in Norway in June 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The main fallout in Norway occurred on 28 and 29 April and had an extremely patchy distribution between 60 and 66 deg. C N. In Lake Hoeysjoeen in the county of North Troendelag, high radioactivity was found in the sediment and in all levels of the food chains from vegetation to fish, including phytoplankton, zooplankton, bottom animals, brown trout and Arctic char. Food chains for both wild and domestic animals are studied in the Alpine areas of central Norway. High seasonal variation has been found in the radiocaesium load of reindeer. Such a variation is a result of the high radioactivity (up to more than 100 kBq/kg dry weight) in lichens, the only winter food for reindeer. Also there are indications of increased calf mortality and chromosomal aberrations in the blood cells of the reindeer in nutrient poor areas with heavy fallout. In mountain pastures where sheep and goats graze, a sharp increase in meat and goat milk radiocaesium occurred during the late pasture season in 1988. This was caused by the large number of mushrooms with high levels of radioactivity. Present research in Norway will have to be continued in order to develop further national and international co-operation among scientists and institutions with whom biologists had little or no contact previously. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs

  4. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  5. Cryospheric Applications of Modern Airborne Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. Lower-cost equipment, more powerful software, and simplified methods have lowered the barriers-to-entry significantly and now allow repeat-mapping of cryospheric dynamics that were previously too expensive to consider. The current state-of-the-art is the ability to use an airborne equipment package costing less than $20,000 to make topographic maps on landscape-scales at 10 cm pixel size with a vertical repeatability of about 10 cm. Nearly any surface change on the order of decimeters can be measured using these techniques through analysis of time-series of such maps. This presentation will discuss these new methods and their application to cryospheric dynamics such as the measurement of snow depth, coastal erosion, valley-glacier volume-change, permafrost thaw, frost heave of infrastructure, river bed geomorphology, and aufeis melt. Because of the expense of other airborne methods, by necessity measurements of these dynamics are currently most often made on the ground along benchmark transects that are then extrapolated to the broader scale. The ability to directly measure entire landscapes with equal or higher accuracy than transects eliminates the need to extrapolate them and the ability to do so at lower costs than transects may revolutionize the way we approach studying change in the cryosphere, as well as our understanding of the cryosphere itself.

  6. Airborne real-time mapping and monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Avbelj, Janja; Kurz, Franz

    2016-01-01

    In cases of large scale events and disasters public offices and organizations with security responsibilities as well as traffic authorities need accurate and reliable information for situation awareness. These pieces of information are used by the authorities to quickly meet decisions in order to safely and efficiently manage such events with the given resources. Particularly, information on the transportation system and traffic are of great importance, because the mobility of the public and ...

  7. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these

  8. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF2 with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Transport of fallout radiocesium and plutonium in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At five sites in a spruce stand and in a pine stand the vertical activity distributions were determined for sup239+240 Pu and sup137 Cs from the global fallout of weapon testing in the sixties as well as separately for Chernobyl-derived radiocesium. To evaluate the migration rates of these radionuclides in the various soil horinzons, a compartmental model was employed. The migration rates were smallest at the top of the mineral horizon, but increased again with increasing depth. In contrast, the mobility of Chernobyl-derived sup137 Cs is presently in all soil layers significantly higher, but decreases with time. The fixation of radiocesium by the clay particles of the soil is, therefore, a rather slow process

  11. Using fallout plutonium as a probe for erosion assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, W T; Fifield, L K; Tims, S G; Fujioka, T; Mueller, N

    2011-10-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the potential of using fallout plutonium (Pu), which originated from atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests, as a tool to investigate recent erosional processes within the lower Cotter water-supply catchment in the Australian Capital Territory. This catchment, which was predominantly pine plantation, was severely affected by a major bush fire in 2003. Accelerator mass spectrometry has been used to measure Pu in soil samples collected from a number of sites across the catchment. The results indicate that less than 1cm of surface soil had been lost since the early 1960s over much of the catchment. Areas of more erodible soil have, however, lost 2-4cm of topsoil, and a loss of ∼6cm of soil was identified at one particular site. PMID:20638160

  12. Accumulation of plutonium from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The body burden of 239,240Pu and 238Pu from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps was determined by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry through analyses of autopsy tissue samples. Comparing the body burden against the inhalation and ingestion intake of plutonium of these population groups the fractional absorption factor for plutonium from the human gastrointestinal tract and lungs was estinated. In addition, the determined tissue values were compared with those computed with the aid of the ICRP lung model and plutonium content of surface air in the Helsinki area. The 239,240Pu concentrations per wet weight of tissue descended in the order liver>lymph nodes>bone>lung>testes>muscle. A dependence of plutonium content of tissues on the amount of air inhaled by the person during the fallout period and, thus, on the age of the person, was shown. The skeletal distribution of plutonium in man was roughly similar to that reported for animals. The ratio of 239,240Pu content in vertebrae to that in ribs was 1.4, on the average, and the rib/femur ratio 1.0. The average body burden of 239,240Pu in adult southern Finn and Lapp males was estimated to be 1.2 pCi (44.4 mBq), of which about 51 per cent was located in liver and 40 per cent in skeleton. The estimates for the ingestion and inhalation intake of 239,240Pu during the period 1945-78 were 36 and 18 pCi (1.3, 0.67 Bq) and 540 and 13 pCi (19.9, 0.48 Bq) for southern Finn and Lapp males, respectively. The estimated fractional absorption factor of plutonium in humn GI-tract was of the order (6-9)x10-4 and in lungs (7.5-8.5)x10-2. (author)

  13. Quantifying Holocene and Anthropocene erosion rates with cosmogenic and fallout nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-lived cosmogenic nuclides, such as in-situ produced 14C in quartz, and fallout nuclides, such as 137Cs and 239,240Pu, are particularly suited to determine Holocene and/or anthropogenic rates of soil erosion. While fallout 137Cs has been widely used to study erosion processes, the methodology and application of the in-situ produced 14C and 239,240Pu are still somewhat experimental. In the case of in-situ 14C it are experimental/methodological obstacles that stand in the way of wider application, in the case of fallout plutonium it is down to neglect. This experimental/neglected status is a pity, since in situ 14C has the potential to allow resolving Holocene from longer-term Earth-surface process rates, whereas fallout Pu can be used to overcome difficulties in 137Cs methodology arising from the Chernobyl fallout (particularly in Europe) and the relative short half-life of radionuclides of Cs. The presentation will (i) introduce the intrinsic methodological benefits of in-situ produced radiocarbon and fallout plutonium, (ii) report on developmental work at CologneAMS to establish routine use of these nuclides and (iii) present a showcase application for fallout plutonium. (author)

  14. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  15. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V

    2008-12-15

    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  16. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  17. Study of the fallout of artificial iron-55. Application to the evaluation of the fallout of natural iron of stratospheric origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to study the iron-55 fallout to establish the world balance of this radioelement. The utilisation of this tracer enables the calculation of the input of natural iron of stratospheric origin to the Earth and the input through the atmosphere of natural iron to the oceans. We have shown that: iron-55 is essentially produced in nuclear explosions according to the 56Fe(n,2n)55Fe reaction; the iron-55 fallout obeys a 'stratospheric pattern' with a decay period between 9 and 11 months; by surface unit and at the same latitude, this fallout is 3.5 times more important on the Eastern part of the Northern Atlantic than over France. By comparison with the strontium-90 fallout, we established the world balance of the iron-55 fallout in the 1962-1965 period. This balance amounts to approximately 50 mega-curies for the iron-55 introduced into the atmosphere; 25.3 mega-curies of which fall down on the Earth during this period. We estimated at 6 x 106 tons per year the input of natural iron of stratospheric origin to the Earth and at 1.2 x 107 tons per year the input through the atmosphere of natural iron to the oceans. This latter figure represents 13 to 38 per cent of the amount of iron incorporated annually in the pelagic sediments. (author)

  18. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  19. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  20. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Puhakainen, M. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T.; Ahosilta, P.; Tenhunen, J. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  1. Determination of Volatility and Element Fractionation in Glassy Fallout Debris by SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Todd L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tenner, Travis Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bonamici, Chloe Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollington, Anthony Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to characterize glassy fallout debris using the Trinity Test and then characterize the U-isotopes of U3O8 reference materials that contain weaponized debris.

  2. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.)

  3. Estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented pertinent to the contamination of vegetation by plutonium and other radionuclides in aged fallout areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The standing biomass of vegetation estimated by nondestructive dimensional methods varied from about 200 to 600 g/m2 for the different fallout areas. Estimated inventories of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, and 235U in plants and their biological effects are discussed

  4. Dust fallout in Kuwait city: deposition and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, Jasem M; Alshuaibi, Arafat A

    2013-09-01

    Dust fallouts in Kuwait city was monitored on monthly basis during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 at 10 locations. The results of this study reveal that: (1) monthly dust deposition rates ranged from 0.002 to 0.32 kg/m(2) with average deposition rate of 0.053 kg/m(2) and annual average deposition rate of 0.59 kg/m(2), ranking the first out of 56 dust deposition rates observed throughout the world; (2) on average, about 55.9% of the settled dust have fine to very fine sand fraction sizes, while silt and clay comprise an average of 37.4 and 1.4% of the total sample, respectively; (3) the concentrations for Zn and Mo out of 15 other elements analyzed from the dust were up to 11 times higher than their soil background values in Kuwait, while Pb and Ni were about seven times higher; (4) Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn show maximum enrichment relative to the upper continental crustal component (Mn); (5) Sr, Zr and Zn show highest concretions among all collected samples; and (6) quartz and calcite were the dominant minerals in the dust samples. The distribution of the heavy metals in dust seems to be controlled mainly by the land uses and the volume of traffic emissions.

  5. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for. PMID:27067389

  6. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsson, M A; Arnalds, O; Palsson, S E; Howard, B J; Gudnason, K

    2005-01-01

    The retention of 137Cs in various types of Andosols in Iceland was investigated. Soils were sampled at 29 sites with varying precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 15 cm depths. The amount of radiocaesium present was quite variable, ranging between 300 and 4800 Bq m(-2) and correlated closely to total annual precipitation (r2=0.71). The majority of 137Cs, 82.7% on average, was retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil. The greatest penetration of 137Cs was observed for organic Histosols (76.3% in top 5 cm). The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with only 2-5% clay content and contain little organic matter (soils retained 74% of 137Cs in the top 5 cm. The results indicate that radiocaesium fallout is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferrihydrite. Most soils in Iceland are subject to severe and prolonged freezing and waterlogging; despite this, 137Cs is retained in the upper soil horizons and vertical migration is negligible in Icelandic Andosols. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils. PMID:15571875

  7. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention of 137Cs in various types of Andosols in Iceland was investigated. Soils were sampled at 29 sites with varying precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 15 cm depths. The amount of radiocaesium present was quite variable, ranging between 300 and 4800 Bq m-2 and correlated closely to total annual precipitation (r2 = 0.71). The majority of 137Cs, 82.7% on average, was retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil. The greatest penetration of 137Cs was observed for organic Histosols (76.3% in top 5 cm). The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with only 2-5% clay content and contain little organic matter (137Cs in the top 5 cm. The results indicate that radiocaesium fallout is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferrihydrite. Most soils in Iceland are subject to severe and prolonged freezing and waterlogging; despite this, 137Cs is retained in the upper soil horizons and vertical migration is negligible in Icelandic Andosols. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils

  8. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurgeirsson, M.A. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland)]. E-mail: ms@gr.is; Arnalds, O. [Agricultural Research Institute, Keldnaholt, IS-112 Reykjavik (Iceland); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland); Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2005-07-01

    The retention of {sup 137}Cs in various types of Andosols in Iceland was investigated. Soils were sampled at 29 sites with varying precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 15 cm depths. The amount of radiocaesium present was quite variable, ranging between 300 and 4800 Bq m{sup -2} and correlated closely to total annual precipitation (r{sup 2} = 0.71). The majority of {sup 137}Cs, 82.7% on average, was retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil. The greatest penetration of {sup 137}Cs was observed for organic Histosols (76.3% in top 5 cm). The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with only 2-5% clay content and contain little organic matter (<1%). Yet these soils retained 74% of {sup 137}Cs in the top 5 cm. The results indicate that radiocaesium fallout is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferrihydrite. Most soils in Iceland are subject to severe and prolonged freezing and waterlogging; despite this, {sup 137}Cs is retained in the upper soil horizons and vertical migration is negligible in Icelandic Andosols. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils.

  9. KFM: a homemade yet accurate and dependable fallout meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of +-25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM are presented. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM

  10. Dispersal and fallout simulations for urban consequences management (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Fernando F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wachtor, Adam J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Randy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patnik, Gopal [US NAVAL RESEARCH LAB.

    2010-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, biological, or radioactive releases from leaks, spills, fires, or blasts, may occur (intentionally or accidentally) in urban environments during warfare or as part of terrorist attacks on military bases or other facilities. The associated contaminant dispersion is complex and semi-chaotic. Urban predictive simulation capabilities can have direct impact in many threat-reduction areas of interest, including, urban sensor placement and threat analysis, contaminant transport (CT) effects on surrounding civilian population (dosages, evacuation, shelter-in-place), education and training of rescue teams and services. Detailed simulations for the various processes involved are in principle possible, but generally not fast. Predicting urban airflow accompanied by CT presents extremely challenging requirements. Crucial technical issues include, simulating turbulent fluid and particulate transport, initial and boundary condition modeling incorporating a consistent stratified urban boundary layer with realistic wind fluctuations, and post-processing of the simulation results for practical consequences management. Relevant fluid dynamic processes to be simulated include, detailed energetic and contaminant sources, complex building vortex shedding and flows in recirculation zones, and modeling of particle distributions, including particulate fallout, as well as deposition, re-suspension and evaporation. Other issues include, modeling building damage effects due to eventual blasts, addressing appropriate regional and atmospheric data reduction.

  11. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  12. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  13. Airborne Gamma-Ray Survey in Latvia 1995/96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Based on Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometry measurements performed with the Danish AGS equipment in 1995 and 1996 maps of the natural radioactivity have been produdced for selected areas in Latvia. The calibration of the quipment have been improved by comparisons with soil sample measurements....

  14. MLS airborne antenna research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  15. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  16. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  17. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  18. Environmental geophysics mapping salinity and water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Salinity and fresh water are two sides of the same coin, most conveniently measured by electrical conductivity; they can now be mapped rapidly in three dimensions using airborne electromagnetics (AEM). Recent developments in the calibration of airborne data against in-field measurements and addition

  19. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Arnalds, O.; Palsson, S.E.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Division of Environmental Monitoring and Emergency Preparedness, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2004-07-01

    In 2000-2002 the retention of {sup 137}Cs in various types of andosols, which are the most abundant soils in Iceland, was investigated. This is the first comprehensive attempt to determine radiocaesium levels and retention characteristics of Icelandic soils. Soils were sampled at 29 sites located near meteorological stations covering variation in precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0- 5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths. Several physical and chemical parameters were measured, such as organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, pH and clay mineral content. The radiocaesium activity is quite variable and ranges between 300 and 4800 Bq/m{sup 2} and correlates closely to total annual precipitation (r{sup 2}=0.9). Most of the radiocaesium is retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil, or 83% on average. The greatest penetration was observed for organic Histo-sols, where 6% of the total {sup 137}Cs was found at 10-15 cm depth compared to less than 3% for Andosols types. The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with low clay content and contain little organic matter (<1%). Yet these soils retained 74% of {sup 137}Cs in the top 5 cm in our study. The results clearly indicate that radioactive fallout caesium is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferri-hydrite. Winter frost, snow melt, crack flow, and animal activity seem to have little effect on the {sup 137}Cs distribution at the present sampling sites. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the aerial activity and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils. (author)

  20. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000-2002 the retention of 137Cs in various types of andosols, which are the most abundant soils in Iceland, was investigated. This is the first comprehensive attempt to determine radiocaesium levels and retention characteristics of Icelandic soils. Soils were sampled at 29 sites located near meteorological stations covering variation in precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0- 5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths. Several physical and chemical parameters were measured, such as organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, pH and clay mineral content. The radiocaesium activity is quite variable and ranges between 300 and 4800 Bq/m2 and correlates closely to total annual precipitation (r2=0.9). Most of the radiocaesium is retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil, or 83% on average. The greatest penetration was observed for organic Histo-sols, where 6% of the total 137Cs was found at 10-15 cm depth compared to less than 3% for Andosols types. The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with low clay content and contain little organic matter (137Cs in the top 5 cm in our study. The results clearly indicate that radioactive fallout caesium is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferri-hydrite. Winter frost, snow melt, crack flow, and animal activity seem to have little effect on the 137Cs distribution at the present sampling sites. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the aerial activity and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils. (author)

  1. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Zvarych, S I; Yoshchenko, V I; Levchuk, S E; Khomutinin, Y V; Maloshtan, I M; Protsak, V P

    2003-12-30

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr--7.7 x 10(14) Bq; 137Cs--2.8 x 10(15) Bq; 154Eu--1.4 x 10(13) Bq; 238Pu--7.2 x 10(12) Bq; 239+240Pu--1.5 x 10(13) Bq; 241Am--1.8 x 10(13) Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5+/-0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine. PMID:14630415

  2. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr-7.7x1014 Bq; 137Cs-2.8x1015 Bq; 154Eu-1.4x1013 Bq; 238Pu-7.2x1012 Bq; 239+240Pu-1.5x1013 Bq; 241Am-1.8x1013 Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5±0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine

  3. 基于机载激光雷达的寒温带典型森林高度制图研究%Typical forest height mapping in cold temperate zone using airborne LiDAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Based on the airborne LiDAR point cloud data and 66 sample plots data from field inventory of Chaocha Forest Farm in Genhe City, Inner Mongolia, we set the cold temperate primary and secondary forests as research subjects. The model training accuracy and estimating accuracy of different forest height models were compared ( crown area weighted height model, arithmetic mean height model, LiDAR percentile height model) , which were generated by field-measured forest height ( Lorey's height, crown area weighted height, arithmetic mean height) , LiDAR crown area weighted height, LiDAR arithmetic mean height and LiDAR percentile height, respectively. LiDAR crown area weighted height and LiDAR arithmetic mean height were extracted by double tangent tree crown recognition algorithm, and LiDAR percentile height was extracted from LiDAR point cloud directly. Then we investigated the applicability of the double tangent tree crown recognition algorithm in the study area, revealed the difference between Lorey's height and crown area weighted height, and determined the optimal explanatory variables and selected the optimal forest height model. Afterwards, the optimal tree height model was used to calculate the spatial distribution of forest height in the study area, which would provide reference data for subsequent studies of biomass and carbon storage. The results showed that the training accuracy and estimating accuracy of the field crown area weighted forest height model were well consistent with Lorey's height, yet slightly lower than the results of Lorey's height. And 50% percentile height was well fitted with the field-measured height (R2 = 0.869, RMSE = 1.366 m for Lorey's height, and R2 = 0.839, RMSE = 1.392 m for crown area weighted height) . Estimating accuracy of each independently validated sample plot was all higher than 85%, with the average accuracy of 94.73% and the highest accuracy of 99.78%. The average estimating accuracy for mixed forests was 96.72%, higher

  4. Airborne bathymetric charting using pulsed blue-green lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory and airborne experiments have proven the feasibility and demonstrated the techniques of an airborne pulsed laser system for rapidly mapping coastal water bathymetry. Water depths of 10 plus or minus 0.25 m were recorded in waters having an effective attenuation coefficient of 0.175 m. A 2-MW peak power Nd:YAG pulsed laser was flown at an altitude of 600 m. An advanced system, incorporating a mirror scanner, a high pulsed rate laser, and a good signal processor, could survey coastal zones at the rate of several square miles per hour.

  5. Airborne gamma spectrometry measurements in the context of the exercise ARM02; Aeroradiometrische Messungen im Rahmen der Uebung ARM02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, B.; Rybach, L. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Schwarz, G. [Swiss Nuclear Safety Authority, Villigen (Switzerland); Baerlocher, C. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-05-01

    The international exercise under the European Union project ECCOMAGS (European Coordination and Calibration of Mobile and Airborne Gamma Spectrometry) stood in the centre of the yearly airborne gamma spectrometry measurement flights which were carried out in the time of 27 -31 May 2002. The exercise was held in Southwest Scotland in the region of Dumfries and Galloway. Unfortunately due to difficulties with flight approvals for military aircrafts data could be taken in the exercise area only on the flight back to Switzerland. Immediately after returning to Switzerland the regular measurements around the nuclear power plants Beznau (KKB) and Leibstadt (KKL), around the intermediate storage facilities for radioactive waste (ZWILAG) and around the research facility Paul Scherrer Institute were performed. The flights took place in the context of the exercise ARM02 and were lead by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NAZ). Unfortunately just a few measurements in the common intercalibration areas could be taken on the flight back from the international exercise. Nevertheless comparisons of the results with those of other European teams could be made. These comparisons proved the good calibration of our equipment. On the flight back measurements were also carried out at great altitude above the sea. This data allowed to determine very well the background of the aircraft and the cosmic stripping ratios. In the context of the regular measurements in the environs of the nuclear facilities in Switzerland the areas around the nuclear power plants Beznau and Leibstadt and around the nuclear research facility Paul Scherrer Institute were measured. The results were very similar to the results of earlier measurements in the last years. The nuclear power plant Beznau couldn't be recognised on the activity maps. But the nuclear power plant Leibstadt could be identified by its direct radiation which is specific for this type of reactor (BWR). At the site of the Paul

  6. A first attempt to derive soil erosion rates from 137Cs airborne gamma measurements in two Alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bucher, Benno; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers is currently one of the most promising and effective approach for evaluating soil erosion magnitudes in mountainous grasslands. Conventional assessment or measurement methods are laborious and constrained by the topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. The 137Cs (half-life = 30.2 years) is the most frequently used FRN to study soil redistribution. However the application of 137Cs in alpine grasslands is compromised by the high heterogeneity of the fallout due to the origin of 137Cs fallout in the Alps, which is linked to single rain events occurring just after the Chernobyl accident when most of the Alpine soils were still covered by snow. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the 137Cs distribution in two study areas in the Central Swiss Alps: the Ursern valley (Canton Uri), and the Piora valley (Canton Ticino). In June 2015, a helicopter equipped with a NaI gamma detector flew over the two study sites and screened the 137Cs activity of the top soil. The use of airborne gamma measurements is particularly efficient in case of higher 137Cs concentration in the soil. Due to their high altitude and high precipitation rates, the Swiss Alps are expected to be more contaminated by 137Cs fallout than other parts of Switzerland. The airborne gamma measurements have been related to several key parameters which characterize the areas, such as soil properties, slopes, expositions and land uses. The ground truthing of the airborne measurements (i.e. the 137Cs laboratory measurements of the soil samples collected at the same points) returned a good fit. The obtained results offer an overview of the 137Cs concentration in the study areas, which allowed us to identify suitable reference sites, and to analyse the relationship between the 137Cs distribution and the above cited parameters. The authors also derived a preliminary qualitative and a quantitative assessment of soil redistribution

  7. Lineament mapping of vertical fractures of rock outcrops by remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarrese, Raffaella; Masciopinto, Costantino

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of hydrological processes within the vadose zone is usually difficult, especially in the presence of compact rock subsoil. The possibility of recognizing the trend of the structural lineaments in fractured systems has important fallout in the understanding water infiltration processes, especially when the groundwater flow is strongly affected by the presence of faults and fractures that constitute the preferred ways of water fluxes. This study aims to detect fracture lineaments on fractured rock formations from CASI hyperspectral airborne VNIR images, with a size of 60 cm of the spatial resolution, and collected during November 2014. Lineaments detected with such high resolution have been compared with the fracture lineaments detected by a Landsat 8 image acquired at the same time of the CASI acquisition. The method has processed several remote sensed images at different spatial resolution, and it has produced the visualization of numerous lineament maps, as result of the vertical and sub-vertical fractures of the investigated area. The study has been applied to the fractured limestone outcrop of the Murgia region (Southern Italy). Here the rock formation hosts a deep groundwater, which supplies freshwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. The number of the fractures allowed a rough estimation of the vertical average hydraulic conductivity of the rock outcrop. This value was compared with field saturated rock hydraulic conductivity measurements derived from large ring infiltrometer tests carried out on the same rock outcrop.

  8. Airborne field strength monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bredemeyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  9. Laser Systems For Use With Airborne Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsky, Joseph

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes a family of airborne laser systems in use for terrain profiling, surveying, mapping, altimetry, collision avoidance and shipboard landing systems using fixed and rotary wing aircraft as the platforms. The laser altimeter has also been used in systems compatible with the Army T-16 and. T-22 carrier missiles (platform). Both pulsed gallium arsenide and Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped, yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser rangefinders have been used for these applications. All of these systems use ACCI's advanced measurement techniques that permit range accuracies of 8 cm, single shot, 1 cm averaged, to be achieved. Pulse rates up to 4 Khz are employed for airborne profiling. This high data density rate provides 1 data point every 2" along the aircraft flight line at aircraft speed of 500 knots. Scanning modes for some applications are employed. Systems have been integrated with all current inertial navigation systems (Litton, Ferranti and Honeywell), as well as a number of microwave positioning systems. Removal of aircraft motion from the laser range measurements by use of an accelerometer is described. Flight data from a number of program performed by U.S. and Canadian Federal Agencies, in addition to those of commercial surveying and mapping companies are described.

  10. The Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Nuclear Fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-13

    In a previous paper, the composite exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for nuclear fallout was calculated using a simple theoretical photon-transport model. The theoretical model was used to fill in the gaps in the FGR-12 table generated by ORNL. The FGR-12 table contains the individual conversion factors for approximate 1000 radionuclides. However, in order to calculate the exposure rate during the first 30 minutes following a nuclear detonation, the conversion factors for approximately 2000 radionuclides are needed. From a human-effects standpoint, it is also necessary to have the dose rate conversion factors (DCFs) for all 2000 radionuclides. The DCFs are used to predict the whole-body dose rates that would occur if a human were standing in a radiation field of known exposure rate. As calculated by ORNL, the whole-body dose rate (rem/hr) is approximately 70% of the exposure rate (R/hr) at one meter above the surface. Hence, the individual DCFs could be estimated by multiplying the individual ECFs by 0.7. Although this is a handy rule-of-thumb, a more consistent (and perhaps, more accurate) method of estimating the individual DCFs for the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table is to use the linear relationship between DCF and total gamma energy released per decay. This relationship is shown in Figure 1. The DCFs for individual organs in the body can also be estimated from the estimated whole-body DCF. Using the DCFs given FGR-12, the ratio of the organ-specific DCFs to the whole-body DCF were plotted as a function of the whole-body DCF. From these plots, the asymptotic ratios were obtained (see Table 1). Using these asymptotic ratios, the organ-specific DCFs can be estimated using the estimated whole-body DCF for each of the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table. Although this procedure for estimating the organ-specific DCFs may over-estimate the value for some low gamma-energy emitters, having a finite value for the organ-specific DCFs in the table is

  11. Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Krabill, William B.; Buntzen, Rodney R.; Gilbert, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    The airborne lidar detection and cross-sectional mapping of submerged oceanic scattering layers are reported. The field experiment was conducted in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Assateague Island, VA. NASA's Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was operated in the bathymetric mode to acquire on-wavelength 532-nm depth-resolved backscatter signals from shelf/slope waters. Unwanted laser pulse reflection from the air-water interface was minimized by spatial filtering and off-nadir operation. The presence of thermal stratification over the shelf was verified by the deployment of airborne expendable bathythermographs. Optical beam transmission measurements acquired from a surface truthing vessel indicated the presence of a layer of turbid water near the sea floor over the inner portion of the shelf.

  12. Relevance of Fukushima Nuclear Accident to India: Nuclear Radiation Risk and Interventions to Mitigate Adverse Fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Kapil, Varshney Neha, Aslesh OP, Karmakar MG, Pandav Chandrakant S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental radiation release from Fukushima nuclear power following tsunami in Japan has once again highlighted the omnipotent risk of radiation injury in the today’s world. India is at a real risk from radiation fallout both due to nuclear power plant accidents and nuclear warfare threat. The risk from nuclear radiation accident in India is further increased by the region being endemic for iodine deficiency as adverse effects following nuclear radiation fallout like thyroid cancer is significantly higher in iodine deficient populations .There is need to institute disaster preparedness measures to mitigate the damage in case of a nuclear accident. Interventions to control adverse fallout of nuclear radiation include evacuation, sheltering and food controls as well as iodine prophylaxis

  13. Influence of the Chernobyl fallout on 137Cs wine activities on the Rhone valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of the Chernobyl fallout on 137CS wine activities on the Rhone valley. Some parts of the Rhone valley have been quite strongly, affected by the Chernobyl fallout, with 137Cs deposits sometimes higher than 20 000 Bq m-2. In those regions, most of agricultural surfaces are devoted to vineyards for famous vintages. This study shows that the consequences of the Chernobyl fallout in wine were visible but very weak. 137CS wine activities did not reached 1 Bq 1-1. Such limited consequences are linked to the date of the deposit, the first week of May 1986, at the beginning of vineyard plant foliar development. Since 1986, this activity has strongly decreased to be in 2000 close to those existing before the accident: some milli-becquerel per litre. 137Cs activities in soil, mainly contained within the 20 first centimeters, are weakly available for vineyard roots. (authors)

  14. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Eric; Angell, Christopher; Chodash, Perry

    2011-10-01

    We observed fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area beginning approximately 1 week after the earthquake. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. Soon after the observation of fallout in rainwater, we also observed low levels of Fukushima fallout in plant and food specimens collected in the the San Francisco area. This work was supported in part by the US Dept. of Homeland Security and by a Nuclear Non-Proliferation International Safeguards Graduate Fellowship (PAC) from the US Dept. of Energy.

  15. A dynamic approach to monitoring particle fallout in a cleanroom environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Radford L., III

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have correlated the particle fallout rates within cleanrooms to MIL-STD-1246 cleanliness levels. Unfortunately "cleanliness levels" are not linear and do not lead to easily understood increases with respect to either cleanroom class or time. Additionally, cleanroom "class" is rarely static but varies throughout the processing flow in accordance with the activity levels. A numerical evaluation of the particle fallout normalized to area coverage demonstrates a correlation that is directly proportional to both cleanroom class and exposure time, yielding a simple Class-Hour formulation. Application of this formulation allows for dynamic monitoring of the projected fallout rates using a standard air particle counter. The theoretical results compare favorably with historical data and recent studies.

  16. Observation of fallout deposition in an outdoor swimming pool 50 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), outdoor school swimming pools at Fukushima were decontaminated to curb the redistribution of radioactivity into downstream farmlands. In the process, the radioactivity concentrations of the pool water and sediment substances (residue) were measured to estimate the deposition density of the fallout. At a pool situated 50 km away from the NPP, the average concentrations of radiocesium (134+137Cs) for the water and residue were quantified as 170 Bq L−1 and 3.6 × 105 Bq kg−1, respectively. Taking account of the radioactivity concentrations and of the water balance in and around the pool, the deposition density of radiocesium, as of August 2011, was precisely determined to be 0.32 ± 0.03 MBq m−2 (k = 1). The density corroborated the previous results obtained by other methods, i.e., airborne surveys, in-situ Ge surveys and soil samplings at neighboring locations. Other than radiocesium, the only gamma-emitting nuclide detected was 110mAg, with a concentration of 560 Bq kg−1 in the residue. The radioactivity concentrations of 89Sr, 90Sr, 238Pu and 239+240Pu in the water were all less than the minimum detectable activities – 2, 0.1, 0.002 and 0.002 Bq L−1, respectively. - Highlights: • Deposition density of radiocesium was estimated at a swimming pool in Fukushima. • The density was determined with a small standard uncertainty of approximately 10%. • Water balance was simulated for estimating radioactivity budget in the pool. • Detected gamma-emitting nuclide was 110mAg other than radiocesium. • Radiocesium was much dominant compared with 89Sr, 90Sr, 110mAg, 238Pu and 239+240Pu

  17. Heavy metals and trace elements in atmospheric fall-out: Their relationship with topsoil and wheat element composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.A., E-mail: gbermudez@com.uncor.edu [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV), CONICET (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica General, FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Avda. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016 GCA), Cordoba (Argentina); Jasan, Raquel; Pla, Rita [Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAE), Presbitero Gonzalez y Aragon N Degree-Sign 15 (B1802AYA), Ezeiza (Argentina); Pignata, Maria L. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV), CONICET (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica General, FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Avda. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016 GCA), Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal and trace element deposition rates and concentrations in bulk samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anthropogenic vs. natural sources were identified using enrichment factors and PCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, U, Zn and lanthanides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main sources were a cement plant, chemical-mechanical industries, cities and mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metals in wheat grain were predicted by soil and bulk deposition composition. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the average concentrations and deposition rates of 28 elements in atmospheric bulk deposition and to elucidate associations among topsoil, bulk deposition and wheat element composition. The fluxes of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) deposition in Cordoba were higher than in other agro-ecosystems, which reflects both natural (geochemistry and topsoil removal) and anthropogenic sources. High lanthanide, uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations revealed the impact of an open cast uranium mine. The highest enrichment factors (EF) were those of Cu, Pb, Zn and nickel (Ni), with calcium (Ca) being the most prominent in the surroundings of a cement plant. Industries and the transport of airborne urban pollutants were the main anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and antimony (Sb). The concentrations of metals in wheat grain were predicted using the topsoil and atmospheric fall-out composition with R{sup 2} = 0.90, with the latter being the best explanatory variable. The present study highlights the potential health hazards of wheat consumption (Environmental Protection Agency) by the assessment of heavy metals in bulk atmospheric deposition.

  18. Elements of response on the mapping of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of estimations got with the help of the rain-deposit relationship with results of consolidated measurements, got on well controlled and referred samples is globally positive. These differences, in addition match with the uncertainties that have been previously estimated in the rain-deposit model. (N.C.)

  19. Brief Communication: The effect of submerged vents on probabilistic hazard assessment for tephra fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tonini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many volcanic systems are partially or entirely submerged, implying that vents may open underwater. The effect of submerged vents on probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA for tephra fallout has always been neglected, introducing potentially uncontrolled biases. We present a strategy to quantify the effect of submerged vents on PVHA for tephra fallout, based on a simplified empirical model where the efficiency of tephra production decreases as a function of the water depth above the eruptive vent. The method is then applied to Campi Flegrei caldera, comparing its results to those of two reference end-member models and their statistical mixing.

  20. The I.R.S.N.-2003 model of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conclusion, the whole of the method impreciseness, the sometime important variation between the very simplifying hypothesis used and the available data ( especially for the air contamination and the fallout of nuclear tests), the variations between the results of the model and the measurements, its incompatible results with these ones exposed and validated in the report I.P.S.N.-1997, lead to consider that the I.R.S.N.-2003 model does not allow a reliable quantitative estimation of Chernobylsk fallout and let alone the dosimetry estimations for which it has been used. (N.C.)

  1. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  2. Local fallout from nuclear test detonations. Volume 2. Compilation of fallout patterns and related test data. Supplement. Foreign nuclear tests. Sanitized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenthau, M.; Showers, R.L.

    1964-10-01

    The available fallout patterns and related test data for nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United Kingdom, the Republic of France, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, are included in this supplement to NDL-TR-34. The related test data for the British and French tests include: date and time of detonation, location of test site, total yield, fission yield, type of burst and placement, height of burst, cloud-top and -bottom heights, crater data, and wind information up to nuclear cloud-top height. No fallout patterns are available for any of the Soviet detonations. The list of Soviet detonations, which is as comprehensive as possible, contains the chronological order of the detonations, date, yield, type of burst and location of test site.

  3. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: McGrath Quadrangle (Alaska). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the months of July, August, and September 1979, an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over ten 30 x 10 NTMS quadrangle of West-Central Alaska. The results obtained over the McGrath map area are discussed. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps. The histograms and the multiparameter profiles are presented with the anomaly maps and flight path map in a separate volume

  4. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  5. Airborne gravity tests in the Italian area to improve the geoid model of Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barzaghi, R; Borghi, A; Keller, K;

    2009-01-01

    , the collocation method applied to compare and merge ground-based and airborne data proved to be efficient and reliable. The standard deviation of the discrepancies between airborne data and collocation upward continued gravity is, in both cases, less than 8 mgal. In the Maiella test, the gravity field obtained......Airborne gravimetry is an important method for measuring gravity over large unsurveyed areas. This technology has been widely applied in Canada, Antarctica and Greenland to map the gravity fields of these regions and in recent years, in the oil industry. In 2005, two tests in the Italian area were...... is characterized by strong gravity variations due to the geophysical and topographic structure of the area. The ground gravity coverage is also quite dense. It was thus possible to compare airborne gravity with the ground observed values in order to check the precision of the airborne gravimetry. The second...

  6. Research and Application on the Large Scale Topographic Map Surveying Based on Airborne-LiDAR data-A Case Study at Mountain City%基于机载LiDAR数据测绘大比例尺地形图的研究与应用--以山地城市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万华; 刘超祥; 原野

    2015-01-01

    Traditional large scale topographic mapping uses aerial photography,however,this method is limited to several external factors,for instance,the density of vegetation coverage,the photogrammetry projection error and the image shades,etc. Airborne-LiDAR uses Laser shots to fetch the information on earth. The Laser point holds three-dimension-al information and intensity of echo,this characteristic just makes up the short come of Traditional method. This article does research on large scale topographic mapping in mountain city using airborne-LiDAR data. In this case study,we found a normal production process and analyzed the accuracy of the results. The conclusion shows the result accuracy can be used for 1 : 2000 scale topographic mapping.%传统大范围的大比例尺地形图测制多采用航测的方法,但基于航摄影像匹配的航测方法本身存在着一定的局限性,机载LiDAR通过激光回波获取信息,激光具有一定的穿透性,在植被覆盖的区域也能获取一定数量的地面反射激光点;激光点云本身记录了三维坐标信息,各种物体顶部的激光点不存在投影差的问题,LiDAR数据的特点正好能弥补航摄影像的不足之处。本文通过研究基于机载LiDAR数据配合高分辨率数字正射影像在山地城市测制大比例尺地形图,探索出一套生产方法流程,以重庆测区为例,分析了该方法的可行性并对测图成果精度进行了系统性分析,结果表明,本试验中要素精度和DEM精度可以达到1:2000的测图要求。

  7. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  8. Compositae dermatitis from airborne parthenolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    suspected of causing airborne contact allergy, and its most important allergen is the sesquiterpene lactone (SQL) parthenolide (PHL). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (i) assess the allergenicity of feverfew-derived monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and their oxidized products in feverfew......-allergic patients and (ii) re-assess the role of PHL and other SQLs in airborne contact allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Feverfew-allergic patients were patch tested with extracts and fractions containing volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as well as extracts of airborne particles from flowering feverfew plants...

  9. Evaluating airborne multispectral digital video to differentiate giant Salvinia from other features in northeast Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant salvinia is one of the world’s most noxious aquatic weeds. Researchers employed airborne digital video imagery and an unsupervised computer analysis to derive a map showing giant salvinia and other aquatic and terrestrial features within a study site located in northeast Texas. The map had a...

  10. Airborne radiometric: Data evaluation and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne geophysical system of the BGR (German Geological Survey) consists of a helicopter equipped with an electromagnetic system with two transmittors and two receivers, a proton resonance magnetometer and a 16 L NaJ-crystal with four channel recording. All these data together with navigation data and flight altitude above ground are recorded each second on a nine track magnetic tape for further data evaluation. Different corrections have to be applied to the rough data such as: smoothing by means of a digital filter to reduce statistical noise, altitude correction, Compton-correction, and drift correction (cross-profile evaluation). Then the corrected measuring data are combined with the navigation data in order to be able to produce iso-line maps. The final results are presented as: line plots for U, Th, and K (and EM-data and magnetometer data); actual flight line plots; iso-line maps for U, Th, and K; iso-line maps for conductivity; depth of conducting layer; and magnetometry maps. The procedures of correction and evaluation of the above mentioned data as well as the calibration of the NaJ-detector in terms of ppm U, Th, and %K are dicussed in the paper. (author)

  11. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  12. Assessment of leukemia and thyroid disease in relation to fallout in Utah: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of one year's work on the effects of fallout on the development of leukemia and thyroid disease in humans residing in Utah. Divided into 37 subphases, this report evaluates the development of predictive models, the use of dosimetry, and various cohort studies. (FI)

  13. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), presents a summary evaluation of various shelter options for use in the case where the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The authors find that the FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. The authors also find that, in terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  14. Pine needle activity and the washing effect as a measure of fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout and natural radionuclides in pine needles are measured by Ge(Li) detector coupled with a multichannel analyser. Washing effect on pine needle activity is also measured by washing the samples with water and other chemicals. High extents of washing-out of activity were observed in case of running water and hydrochloric acid. (author)

  15. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  16. High-resolution NO₂ remote sensing from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Popp, C; Brunner, D.; Damm, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Buchmann, B

    2012-01-01

    We present and evaluate the retrieval of high spatial resolution maps of NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer. APEX is a novel instrument providing airborne measurements of unique spectral and spatial resolution and coverage as well as high signal stability. In this study, we use spectrometer data acquired over Zurich, Switzerland, in the morning and late afternoon during a flight campaign on a cloud-free summer d...

  17. Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-derived Radioactive Isotopes in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage and released the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawaii and in milk samples analyzed from the Big Island. Because the detected levels were significantly below levels of health concern, the state did not attempt to quantify the deposition of these nuclides on the islands. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of cesium and iodine, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed in March 2011. Mushroom and soil samples were collected along precipitation gradients on Oahu and the island of Hawaii and analyzed for cesium isotopes using gamma spectrometry. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of Cs-134, which has a shorter half-life of 2.06 years and the fact that Cs-134 and 137 were released from the severed power plant nearly in parity. We found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in both mushrooms and soil and the soil inventories ranged 2.2-60.9 Bq/m2 for Cs-137 and 16.1-445.8 Bq/m2 for I-131. Additionally, we found that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were correlated with precipitation gradients. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in Hawaii, however the activities detected were orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

  18. Distribution of Np and Pu in Swedish lichen samples (Cladonia stellaris) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Patric E-mail: patric.lindahl@radfys.lu.se; Roos, Per; Eriksson, Mats; Holm, Elis

    2004-07-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 237}Np and the two Pu isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, were determined in lichen samples (Cladonia stellaris) contaminated by fallout from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and the Chernobyl accident. The samples were collected at 18 locations in Sweden, from north to south, between 1986 and 1988 and analysed with high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Data on the activity ratios {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs measured previously were also included in this study for comparison. The {sup 237}Np activity concentration ranged from 0.08{+-}0.01 to 2.08{+-}0.17 mBq kg{sup -1}, depending on the location of the sampling site and time of collection. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity concentration ranged from 0.09{+-}0.01 to 4.09{+-}0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}, with the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio ranging between 0.16{+-}0.01 and 0.44{+-}0.03, the higher ratios indicating a combination of weapons test fallout and Chernobyl fallout. The {sup 237}Np/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios ranged between 0.06{+-}0.01 and 0.42{+-}0.04, the lower ratios indicating combination of weapons test fallout and Chernobyl fallout. At a well-defined sampling site at Lake Rogen (62.32 deg. N, 12.38 deg. E), additional lichen samples were collected between 1987 and 1998 to study the distribution of Np and Pu in different layers. The concentrations of the two elements follow each other quite well in the profile.

  19. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  20. A MATLAB GEODETIC SOFTWARE FOR PROCESSING AIRBORNE LIDAR BATHYMETRY DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pepe, M.; Prezioso, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to build three-dimensional models through technologies based on satellite navigation systems GNSS and the continuous development of new sensors, as Airborne Laser Scanning Hydrography (ALH), data acquisition methods and 3D multi-resolution representations, have contributed significantly to the digital 3D documentation, mapping, preservation and representation of landscapes and heritage as well as to the growth of research in this fields. However, GNSS systems led to the use...

  1. Overview and comparative analysis of digital airborne photogrammetric surveying systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tamše, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    In the thesis, three the most important digital airborne photogrammetric systems are described, as well as their comparative analysis and the application of this technology in Slovenia are presented. Digital technology is being constantly developed and use of aerial images is being increased. Traditionally, aerial images were mostly used for digital topographic mapping, nowadays their use is focused on producing digital orthophoto, which is being used in different areas. First, main character...

  2. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Meuleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB by using the Control Test Master (CTM, the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC, quality flagging (QF and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF, and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b helping the understanding of the Earth’s complex mechanisms.

  3. Dual-core mass-balance approach for evaluating mercury and210Pb atmospheric fallout and focusing to lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Fuller, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Determining atmospheric deposition rates of mercury and other contaminants using lake sediment cores requires a quantitative understanding of sediment focusing. Here we present a novel approach that solves mass-balance equations for two cores algebraically to estimate contaminant contributions to sediment from direct atmospheric fallout and from watershed and in-lake focusing. The model is applied to excess 210Pb and Hg in cores from Hobbs Lake, a high-altitude lake in Wyoming. Model results for excess 210Pb are consistent with estimates of fallout and focusing factors computed using excess 210Pb burdens in lake cores and soil cores from the watershed and model results for Hg fallout are consistent with fallout estimated using the soil-core-based 210Pb focusing factors. The lake cores indicate small increases in mercury deposition beginning in the late 1800s and large increases after 1940, with the maximum at the tops of the cores of 16-20 ??g/m 2year. These results suggest that global Hg emissions and possibly regional emissions in the western United States are affecting the north-central Rocky Mountains. Hg fallout estimates are generally consistent with fallout reported from an ice core from the nearby Upper Fremont Glacier, but with several notable differences. The model might not work for lakes with complex geometries and multiple sediment inputs, but for lakes with simple geometries, like Hobbs, it can provide a quantitative approach for evaluating sediment focusing and estimating contaminant fallout.

  4. South African Airborne Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne operations entail the delivery of ground troops and their equipment by air to their area of operations. They can also include the subsequent support of these troops and their equipment by air. Historically, and by definition, this would encompass delivery by fixed-wing powered aircraft, by glider, by parachute or by helicopter. Almost any troops can be delivered by most of these means. However, the technical expertise and physical as well as psychological demands required by parachuting have resulted in specialist troops being selected and trained for this role. Some of the material advantages of using parachute troops, or paratroops, are: the enormous strategic reach provided by the long-distance transport aircraft used to convey them; the considerable payload which these aircraft are capable of carrying; the speed with which the parachute force can deploy; and the fact that no infrastructure such as airfields are required for their arrival. Perhaps most attractively to cash-strapped governments, the light equipment scales of parachute units’ makes them economical to establish and maintain. There are also less tangible advantages: the soldiers selected are invariably volunteers with a willingness or even desire to tackle challenges; their selection and training produces tough, confident and aggressive troops, psychologically geared to face superior odds and to function independently from other units; and their initiative and self-reliance combined with a high level of physical fitness makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles.

  5. Airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1992-01-01

    Proper interpretation of airborne gravimetry and altimetry requires good knowledge of aircraft trajectory. Recent advances in precise navigation with differential GPS have made it possible to measure gravity from the air with accuracies of a few milligals, and to obtain altimeter profiles of terrain or sea surface correct to one decimeter. These developments are opening otherwise inaccessible regions to detailed geophysical mapping. Navigation with GPS presents some problems that grow worse with increasing distance from a fixed receiver: the effect of errors in tropospheric refraction correction, GPS ephemerides, and the coordinates of the fixed receivers. Ionospheric refraction and orbit error complicate ambiguity resolution. Optimal navigation should treat all error sources as unknowns, together with the instantaneous vehicle position. To do so, fast and reliable numerical techniques are needed: efficient and stable Kalman filter-smoother algorithms, together with data compression and, sometimes, the use of simplified dynamics.

  6. Wavelet Based Fractal Analysis of Airborne Pollen

    CERN Document Server

    Degaudenzi, M E

    1999-01-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen time series indicate that the system can be described by a low dimensional chaotic map. We apply the wavelet transform to study the multifractal characteristics of an a irborne pollen time series. We find the persistence behaviour associated to low pollen concentration values and to the most rare events of highest pollen co ncentration values. The information and the correlation dimensions correspond to a chaotic system showing loss of information with time evolution.

  7. Alternative analysis of airborne laser data collected within conventional multi-parameter airborne geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Andreas; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.; Schattauer, I.

    2010-05-01

    For the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as well as airborne electromagnetics it is of great importance to determine the distance between the geophysical sensor and the ground surface. Since radar altimeters do not penetrate vegetation, laser altimeters became popular in airborne geophysics over the past years. Currently the airborne geophysical platform of the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) is equipped with a Riegl LD90-3800VHS-FLP high resolution laser altimeter, measuring the distances according to the first and the last reflected pulse. The goal of the presented study was to explore the possibilities of deriving additional information about the survey area from the laser data and to determine the accuracy of such results. On one hand the difference between the arrival time of the first and the last reflected pulse can be used to determine the height of the vegetation. This parameter is for example important for the correction of damping effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements caused by vegetation. Moreover especially for groundwater studies at catchment scale, this parameter can also be applied to support the spatial assessment of evapotranspiration. In combination with the altitude above geoid, determined by a GPS receiver, a rough digital elevation model of the survey area can be derived from the laser altimetry. Based on a data set from a survey area in the northern part of Austria, close to the border with the Czech Republic, the reliability of such a digital elevation model and the calculated vegetation height was tested. In this study a mean deviation of -1.4m, with a standard deviation of ±3.4m, between the digital elevation model from Upper Austria (25m spatial resolution) and the determined elevation model was determined. We also found an obvious correlation between the calculated vegetation heights greater 15m and the mapped forest published by the ‘Department of Forest Inventory' of the ‘Federal Forest Office' of Austria

  8. The development of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry: case study in technological innovation and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne γ-ray spectrometry is now accepted as a technique with worldwide applications for geological mapping, mineral exploration and environmental monitoring. The first suggestions to use airborne radiation detectors for uranium exploration were made in 1943. Early results were disappointing; progress resulted from advances in nuclear instrumentation combined with recognition of the need for large detector-crystal arrays. Development of an effective operational system required the integration of geochemical and geological knowledge with nuclear physics, extending over two decades. The establishment of standards and calibration procedures allowed the first maps of surface radioelement concentrations based on quantitative airborne γ-ray spectrometry to be published in 1971. User-acceptance of the method grew from extensive demonstration of its capabilities, made obvious with the introduction of colour map displays. (author)

  9. SGA-WZ: A New Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation systems and gravimeters are now routinely used to map the regional gravitational quantities from an aircraft with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. However, airborne gravimeter of this kind is limited by the inaccuracy of the inertial sensor performance, the integrated navigation technique and the kinematic acceleration determination. As the GPS technique developed, the vehicle acceleration determination is no longer the limiting factor in airborne gravity due to the cancellation of the common mode acceleration in differential mode. A new airborne gravimeter taking full advantage of the inertial navigation system is described with improved mechanical design, high precision time synchronization, better thermal control and optimized sensor modeling. Apart from the general usage, the Global Positioning System (GPS after differentiation is integrated to the inertial navigation system which provides not only more precise altitude information along with the navigation aiding, but also an effective way to calculate the vehicle acceleration. Design description and test results on the performance of the gyroscopes and accelerations will be emphasized. Analysis and discussion of the airborne field test results are also given.

  10. ISRO's dual frequency airborne SAR pre-cursor to NISAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, V. Manavala; Suneela, T. J. V. D.; Bhan, Rakesh

    2016-05-01

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly embarked on NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) operating in L-band and S-band, which will map Earth's surface every 12 days. As a pre-cursor to the NISAR mission, ISRO is planning an airborne SAR (L&S band) which will deliver NISAR analogue data products to the science community. ISRO will develop all the hardware with the aim of adhering to system design aspects of NISAR to the maximum extent possible. It is a fully polarimetric stripmap SAR and can be operated in single, dual, compact, quasi-quad and full polarimetry modes. It has wide incidence angle coverage from 24°-77° with swath coverage from 5.5km to 15 km. Apart from simultaneous imaging operations, this system can also operate in standalone L/S SAR modes. This system is planned to operate from an aircraft platform with nominal altitude of 8000meters. Antenna for this SAR will be rigidly mounted to the aircraft, whereas, motion compensation will be implemented in the software processor to generate data products. Data products for this airborne SAR will be generated in slant & ground range azimuth dimension and geocoded in HDF5/Geotiff formats. This airborne SAR will help to prepare the Indian scientific community for optimum utilization of NISAR data. In-order to collect useful science data, airborne campaigns are planned from end of 2016 onwards.

  11. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  12. Advanced airborne geophysics for site and watershed characterization and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.; Hodges, G. [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2007-04-01

    Airborne geophysics systems now have the ability to make accurately map the conductivity of the earth's subsurface. This article provided details of various site characterization surveys conducted using helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. Recent improvements in computer software, the use of global positioning systems (GPS), lasers, and fiber optics have increased the ability of HEM systems to accurately map ground conditions. Airborne electromagnetic survey techniques were used to characterize the geological features and lithology of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) on the eastern shore of Clear Lake in California. Natural conduits for the movement of groundwater were identified. Data showed that acidic water and mercury from the mine were contaminating the lake. The data showed good agreement with results obtained from previous conventional geologic and hydrologic investigations. HEM surveys were also used to characterize conductive mine pools and groundwater plumes at areas in the eastern United States that contained abandoned surface and underground coal mines. HEM was used to delineate source areas and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing groundwater, and data obtained from the surveys were used to plan mitigation activities. The survey identified 11 mine pools, as well as flooded workings that had previously not been mapped. HEM surveys were also used to map water-bearing fractures in areas of crystalline bedrock in drought-ridden regions in Brazil. Information from the surveys was used to locate drill targets for water wells. A test survey was used to identify wellheads leaking methane in a privately-owned gas field in Wyoming. Five methane leakage plumes were detected as a result of the survey. HEM geophysical surveys have also been used to map conductivity variations due to changes in water salinity at the Biscayne aquifer in the Florida everglades. It was concluded that airborne and HEM surveys provide significant cost savings when

  13. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 1. Experiments on leys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E

    1998-12-31

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout. The aim was to get a description of the relative transfer to the harvest products of new clover-grass leys and old grass leys after initial depositions of tracer nuclides at different times during the growth period. The reduction in transfer with time, from deposition to sampling, depends partly on dilution by growth and partly on fall-off to the ground. The reduction half-time for the nuclide content showed a range 10 - 14 days. The data obtained in the experiments can extend the basis for prediction of the consequences of fallout events at different times to new as well as to old leys in the field 8 refs, 18 figs, 12 tabs

  14. Determination of soil loss by 137Cs fallout radionuclide in Ömerli watershed of İstanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KIZILTAŞ, Muhammet Sahip; HACIYAKUPOĞLU, Sevilay; Gökbulak, Ferhat; HIZAL, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion and sedimentation in watersheds are usually part of the information to be considered for soil and water conservation measures. Soil loss is generally estimated with models or measured with plot studies. Although fallout radionuclides (FRN) methodology provides a powerful technique for predicting the impacts of proposed land management strategies on soil erosion and sediment yield within river basins and estimates erosion based on fallout radioisotopes (Cs-137, Pb-210, Be-7) radio...

  15. HASL measurements of fallout following the September 26, 1976 Chinese nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from measurements of radioactivity in the fallout from the nuclear test conducted by the Peoples Republic of China on September 26th, 1976. These measurements were carried on through Monday, October 18th. Results of these measurements made in New York and New Jersey, including external radiation exposure, air concentrations, deposition and the concentration of radioiodine in milk, are reported. An estimate of the thyroid dose from milk consumption is also included

  16. Fallout in East Tennessee following Chinese nuclear tests of 1976 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fallout levels in East Tennessee following the Chinese nuclear tests of 1976 to 1978 are given. The environmental surveillance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are outlined, as well as their integration into the nationwide monitoring network. A method for rapid determination of 131I in milk is described; these levels in milk are highlighted, along with airfilter and rainwater data. Maximum radiological dose commitments, as a result of the recent tests, are presented

  17. The spatial distribution of caesium-137 over Northern Ireland from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, B. G.; Scheib, C.; Tyler, A.N.; Jones, D.; Webster, R; Young, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of caesium-137 (137Cs) across the land is of much interest because it can tell us about the redistribution of the radionuclide as a result of soil erosion, differential migration through the soil—or its complement, differential retention in the soil. Any such inferences from survey measurements depend on the assumption of a broadly even distribution from weapons testing fallout, and the substantial deposition of 137Cs in rain following the Chernobyl accide...

  18. Immunological effects of low dose radiation. Absent or minor effects of Chernobyl fallout in Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Bergan, T.D.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Melbye, O.J. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-01-01

    In this pilot study of those Norwegian individuals most heavily exposed to the Chernobyl Fallout, immunological parameters generally stayed within normal limits. However, some parameter, apparently within the assumed normal range did, in fact correlate to the estimated individual dose as assessed by wholebody counting of radiocaesium content. The small possible effects revealed in this study may represent real biological effects, but do not necessarily represent a health detriment. 43 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Radioactive fallout caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl: Observations April-May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma spectrum of 25 samples has been measured. The release has contained some 30 isotopes. Zr 95, Nb 95, Ru 103, Te 129, Te 131, Te 132, I 131, I 132, Cs 134, Cs 136, Cs 137, Ba 140, La 140 and Ce 141 have been most frequent. Te 132 and/or I 131 have constituted the major part of the enhanced activity, in the areas with increased fallout (G.B.)

  20. A simple model to estimate deposition based on a statistical reassessment of global fallout data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, S.E.; Howard, B.J.; Bergan, T.D.;

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. Monitoring of the resulting global fallout was carried out globally by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory and the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment as well as at national level by some countries. A corre......, allowing comparison with time series of activity concentrations for different environmental compartments, which is important for model validation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B; Chodash, Perry A

    2011-01-01

    We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public.

  2. Transfer of fallout radionuclides by Fukushima NPP accident from tree crown to forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Wakahara, T.; Kawamori, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The total deposition of radioactive materials in fallout samples for 137Cs ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. Experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. Approximate Cs-137 fallout in this area is 200-600k Bq/m2. We established 3 forest sites: broad leaf tree forest and two Japanese cedar forest plantation (young and mature). In each site we installed towers of 8-12 meters. Using these towers, we sampled tree leaves, and measure Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the laboratory, and also we have measure Cs-137, Cs-134 content at various height in each forest using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector (Ortech; Detective-EX). We also measured the throughfall, stem flow and litter fall inside of the forest. In each site, we establish the 20 m x 20 m plot to monitor the changes of fallout radionuclides through time with the portable HPGe detector. The monitoring is now ongoing but we found significant amount of Cs-134 and Cs-137 has been trapped by cedar forest plantations especially young trees, but not so much in broad leaf trees. The trapped Cs-137 and Cs-134 is then washed by rainfall and found into throughfall. Therefore, in forest ecosystems, the fallout has been still ongoing, and and effective remediation method in forested area (especially cedar plantation) can be removing the trees.

  3. Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was β burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references)

  4. Community health risk assessment after a fire with asbestos containing fallout

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgman, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A factory fire in Tranmere, Merseyside, England, deposited asbestos containing fallout in an urban area. There was considerable community anxiety for months after the incident. Therefore an assessment of the long term health risks of this acute environmental incident were requested by the local health authority.
METHODS—The facts of the incident were gathered and appraised from unpublished and press reports, involved personnel, and further analysis of material collected at the time...

  5. Time-dependent behaviour of radiocaesium: A new method to compare the mobility of weapons test and Chernobyl derived fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiocaesium (137Cs) originates primarily from two sources, atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, and the Chernobyl accident. It has not, to our knowledge, previously been possible statistically to compare changes in the environmental mobility of 137Cs from these two sources since the weapons test fallout varied in a complex manner over a number of years. A novel technique is presented for curve-fitting measurements with a time-dependent input function such as that for weapons test fallout. Different models were fitted to measurements of both pre- and post-Chernobyl 137Cs activity concentrations in five major Finnish rivers. It was shown that there was no significant difference in the temporal changes in 137Cs mobility from these two sources during the years after fallout. Transport parameters derived from weapons test measurements gave good predictions of the long-term contamination of these rivers by Chernobyl fallout. Changes in 137Cs activity concentrations in rivers after Chernobyl have previously been shown to decline as a result of slow sorption to clay minerals in catchment soils. It is shown that weapons test fallout also exhibited this slow decline over time. Rates of decline in 137Cs activity concentrations 10 years after fallout correspond to effective ecological half-lives (Teff) in the range 10-30 years. Removal of activity from the catchment was found to have no significant effect on the long-term decline in 137Cs activity concentrations in these rivers

  6. Variations of 129I in the atmospheric fallout of Tokyo, Japan: 1963-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Yuka; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric fallout samples collected from Tokyo between 1963 and 2003 were analyzed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in order to determine (129)I/(127)I ratios and to examine the deposition rate of (129)I and its secular variation in Tokyo. The (129)I/(127)I ratios in the atmosphere during 1963-1977 ranged from 1 × 10(-8) to 2 × 10(-8). This is roughly 4 orders of magnitude higher than pre-atomic levels, possibly due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The calculated monthly atmospheric deposition rates of (129)I differed from those produced by nuclear fallout of (90)Sr and (137)Cs, indicating that the variations in (129)I deposition are not influenced exclusively by either nuclear bomb testing or by the Chernobyl accident. After 1978, high (129)I depositions (up to 0.13 mBq/m(2)/month) were observed. The (129)I depositions started to increase markedly at the latter half of the 1970s. The secular variation of the estimated annual (129)I deposition in Tokyo showed a close relationship between the annual atmospheric discharge of (129)I from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. Therefore, the atmospheric fallout collected from Tokyo after the late 1970s is influenced primary by the (129)I discharge from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. PMID:22694935

  7. Estimation of the Adriatic sea water turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2004-01-01

    Systematic, long term measurements, starting in 1963, of 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water have been performed at four locations (cities of Rovinj, Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik) along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea. In addition, fallout samples were collected in the city of Zadar. 90Sr activity concentrations are in good correlation with the fallout activity, the coefficient of correlation being 0.72. After the nuclear moratorium on atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in 1960s, 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water exponentially dropped from 14.8 +/- 2.4 Bq/m3 in 1963 to 2.0 +/- 0.3 Bq/m3 in 2003. In the same period, the total annual 90Sr land surface deposit in Zadar fell by three orders of magnitude, from 713.3 Bq/m2 in 1963 to 0.4 Bq/m2 in 2003. Using strontium sea water and fallout data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic sea water and estimate its mean residence time in the Adriatic. By fitting the experimental d...

  8. Scoria Fallout Modeling and the 3 March 2015 VEI-2 Eruption of Villarica Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Johnson, J. B.; Bowman, D. C.; Ronan, T.; Brand, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2015, Villarrica volcano erupted a spectacular 1.5 km lava fountain and 6-8 km plume, depositing a thin (several mm or cm) layer of scoria tens of km toward the east and southeast. We show results of numeric models (the advection-diffusion equation solver Tephra2, and particle-tracking models) informed by NOMADS atmospheric data used to model this fallout. Models show strong winds (up to 25 m/s) toward the east and southeast concentrating the narrow deposit in those directions, and the vertical variation of wind direction predicts particle sorting along the wind-transverse direction. Both of these were observed in the field. We discuss the challenges faced by fallout models of scoria: because of its irregular shapes, high and variable porosity, and propensity to break apart on impact, aerodynamic properties are difficult to assess by physical observations. This introduces ambiguity when comparing models to observations. Finally, we demonstrate how short-term hazard predictions can benefit from the integration of fallout models with weather forecasts up to several days in advance, and how hazard communication to the public can benefit from snapshots and animations showing zones subject to tephra fall and time delays from eruption to impact.

  9. Three years of practical use of airborne gravity gradiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, E.

    2003-04-01

    BHP Billiton has successfully built and deployed three airborne gravity gradiometer (AGG) systems, (Newton, Einstein and Galileo) based upon the Bell Airspace (now Lockheed Martin) Gravity Gradient Instruments developed for the United States Department of Defense. A second-generation gradiometer (Feynman) is presently nearing completion. The GGI technology is based on groups of four (4) accelerometers where the accelerometers are equi-spaced on a circle. The configuration successfully rejects both common mode accelerations and rotations about the axis perpendicular to the plane of the complement. The GGI is mounted within an aircraft in a specially designed, inertially stabilized platform, which significantly reduces sensitivity to noise and turbulence. The BHP Billiton AGG Technology provides high quality gravity maps with a resolution and sensitivity to map gravity anomalies associated with both minerals and hydrocarbon deposits. To date the purpose built and designed hardware and data processing algorithms, in conjunction with several other geophysical survey instruments, have been deployed against a broad range of mineral and hydrocarbon targets, a total of over 300,000km of operational flights having been made. Data will also be presented on the in-flight sensitivity of a gravity gradiometer to the airborne environment. It will also outline some of the many unexpected problems that were encountered in the 18-month flight trials required to achieve satisfactory airborne operation.

  10. Airborne Gravity Gradiometry Resolves a Full Range of Gravity Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataragio, J.; Brewster, J.; Mims, J.

    2007-12-01

    Airborne Full Tensor Gradiometry (Air\\-FTGR) was flown at high altitude coincident with Airborne Gravity (AG) flown in 2003 in West Arnhem Land, Australia. A preliminary analysis of two data sets indicates that the Air\\-FTGR system has the capability of resolving intermediate to long wavelengths features that may be associated with relatively deeper geological structures. A comparison of frequency filtered slices and power spectral density (PSD) for both data sets using the short (> 5 km), intermediate (10 km) and long (20 km) wavelengths reveals that high altitude Air\\-FTGR data show greater response in high frequency anomalies than a conventional Airborne Gravity and matches well with the AG even at the longest wavelengths anomalies. The effect of line spacing and target resolution was examined between the two data sets. Reprocessed gradient and AG data at 2, 4 and 6 km line spacing suggest that Air\\-FTGR could be effectively flown at a comparatively wider line spacing to resolve similar targets the AG would resolve with tighter line spacing. Introduction Airborne Full Tensor Gradiometry (Air\\-FTGR) data have been available to the mining industry since 2002 and their use for geologic applications is well established. However, Air\\-FTGR data has been mostly considered and used in mapping and delineation of near surface geological targets. This is due to the fact that gravity gradiometer measurements are well suited to capture the high frequency signal associated with near\\-surface targets ( Li, 2001). This is possible because the gradiometer signal strength falls off with the cube of the distance to the target. Nonetheless, in recent years there has been an increasing demand from the mining, oil, and gas industry in utilizing Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometer as a mapping tool for both regional and prospect level surveys. Air\\-FTGR as a Regional Mapping Tool Several, relatively low altitude surveys have been successfully flown in Brazil, Canada and Australia

  11. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  12. Data fusion techniques for object space classification using airborne laser data and airborne digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong Yong

    The objective of this research is to investigate possible strategies for the fusion of airborne laser data with passive optical data for object space classification. A significant contribution of our work is the development and implementation of a data-level fusion technique, direct digital image georeferencing (DDIG). In DDIG, we use navigation data from an integrated system (composed of global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU)) to project three-dimensional data points measured with the University of Florida's airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) system onto digital aerial photographs. As an underlying math model, we use the familiar collinearity condition equations. After matching the ALSM object space points to their corresponding image space pixels, we resample the digital photographs using cubic convolution techniques. We call the resulting images pseudo-ortho-rectified images (PORI) because they are orthographic at the ground surface but still exhibit some relief displacement for elevated objects; and because they have been resampled using a interpolation technique. Our accuracy tests on these PORI images show that they are planimetrically correct to about 0.4 meters. This accuracy is sufficient to remove most of the effects of the central perspective projection and enable a meaningful fusion of the RGB data with the height and intensity data produced by the laser. PORI images may also be sufficiently accurate for many other mapping applications, and may in some applications be an attractive alternative to traditional photogrammetric techniques. A second contribution of our research is the development of several strategies for the fusion of data from airborne laser and camera systems. We have conducted our work within the sensor fusion paradigm formalized in the optical engineering community. Our work explores the fusion of these two types of data for precision mapping applications. Specifically, we combine three different types of

  13. Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

  14. Mapping invasive weeds and their control with spatial information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    We discuss applications of airborne multispectral digital imaging systems, imaging processing techniques, global positioning systems (GPS), and geographic information systems (GIS) for mapping the invasive weeds giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) and Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and fo...

  15. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  16. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  17. Applying airborne electromagnetics in 3D stochastic geohydrological modelling for determining groundwater protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Siemon, B.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) measurements provide information regarding the electrical properties of the subsurface for large spatial coverage in a limited time. In mapping and modelling for geological and geohydrological purposes, electrical properties (e.g. resistivity) need to be converted to r

  18. Regional-scale airborne electromagnetic surveying of the Yucatan karst aquifer (Mexico): geological and hydrogeological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Ottowitz, David; Supper, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    -spectral remote sensing imagery, shuttle radar topography data and frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data were used to map karst-aquifer structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Anomalous AEM responses correlated with topographic features and anomalous spectral reflectance of the terrain...

  19. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl fallout to meat and milk in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air, soil, forage, milk and meat samples were analysed for 137Cs and 134Cs following the Chernobyl accident. Deposition of fallout varied widely, the heaviest being in northwestern Hungary. Controlled experiments were conducted on State farms at four locations to determine the transfer coefficients from forage to the milk (Fm) of cows, sheep and goats and to the meat (Ff) of cows and sheep, goats and roe deer. Forage contaminated by Chernobyl fallout in late May of 1986 produced lower Fm and Ff values than worldwide fallout in the 1960s because the form of 137Cs deposited on forage was less available to cattle and sheep. The lower transfer has important implications for assessing the dose commitment of the human population. The second cutting of forage in 1986 and all cuttings in 1987 had greatly reduced concentrations of 137Cs but the Fm and Ff values were much higher, thereby suggesting that after removal of the original deposition the 137Cs in plants was in a more soluble form. Roe deer were fed the same hay as sheep for 50 days and the Ff was 0.35 for deer meat and 0.08 for sheep meat. Cattle fed the same hay produced beef with an Ff of 0.007. Potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate was fed at 0.3 or 0.6 g/d to lactating goats for 9 weeks. The Fm and Ff values were reduced to about 20% of those for the controls. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. PMID:26119579

  1. Gamma-ray thermoluminescence measurements: a record of fallout deposition in Hiroshima?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D

    2012-05-01

    In certain Hiroshima neighborhoods, radiation measurements using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) exceed what can be explained by the initial gamma-ray doses and uncertainties from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). This problem was not previously recognized as being isolated to certain parts of that city. The ratio between TLD measurements and DS02 dose calculations for gamma rays appear to grow larger than unity up to more than three with increasing ground range, but closer examination shows the excess TLD dose (0.1, 0.2, or possibly up to 0.8 Gray) is correlated with certain neighborhoods and could be due to radioactive fallout. At Nagasaki, the TLD measurements do not show this same excess, probably because there were no TLD measurements taken more than 800 m downwind (eastward) from the Nagasaki hypocenter, so that any small excess TLD dose was masked by larger initial gamma-ray doses of 25-80 Gray in the few downwind samples. The DS02 Report had noted many measurements lower than the DS02 calculation for several Nagasaki TLD samples, independent of ground range. This was explained as being the result of previously unaccounted urban shielding which was observed from Nagasaki pre-bomb aerial photos. However, the Hiroshima excess TLD dose issue was not resolved. If the excess TLD doses at Hiroshima are an indication of fallout, it may be possible to use additional TLD studies to make better estimates of the locations and radiation doses to survivors from the fallout after the bombings at both cities. PMID:22421931

  2. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment.

  3. Monitoring radioactive plumes by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R.L. [Exploranium, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Hovgaard, J. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkerod (Germany); Multala, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys using large volume sodium-iodide detectors are routinely flown throughout the world for mineral exploration and geological mapping. Techniques have now been developed to detect and map man-made sources of radiation. In Canada, airborne gamma-rays surveys have been flown around nuclear reactors to map {sup 41}Ar plumes from nuclear reactors and to calculate the dose rate at ground level. In May 1986, the Finnish Geological survey aircraft flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the aircraft flew through the plume, the aircraft became increasingly contaminated. By measuring the final aircraft contamination, the activity of the plume could be separated from the contamination due to the aircraft. Within 1 h of encountering the plume, the aircraft activity was comparable to the maximum levels found in the plume. From an analysis of the gamma-ray spectra, the concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 140}La within the plume were calculated as a function of time.

  4. Airborne measurements of spatial NO2 distributions during AROMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Seyler, André; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In September 2014 several European research groups conducted the ESA funded Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign to test and intercompare newly developed airborne observation sytsems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies. The IUP Bremen contributed to this campaign with its Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) on board a Cessna 207 turbo, operated by the FU Berlin. AirMAP allows the retrieval of integrated NO2 column densities in a stripe below the aircraft at a fine spatial resolution of up to 30 x 80 m2, at a typical flight altitude. Measurements have been performed over the city of Bucharest, creating for the first time high spatial resolution maps of Bucharest's NO2 distribution in a time window of approx. 2 hours. The observations were synchronised with ground-based car MAX-DOAS measurements for comparison. In addition, measurements were taken over the city of Berlin, Germany and at the Rovinari power plant, Romania. In this work the results of the research flights will be presented and conclusions will be drawn on the quality of the measurements, their applicability for satellite data validation and possible improvements for future measurements.

  5. Toxoplasma antibodies and retinochoroiditis in the Marshall Islands and their association with exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Kindermann, W.R.; Walls, K.W.; Heotis, P.M.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly universal serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was found to have occurred by adulthood in 517 Marshallese tested in 1981-1982. The prevalence and incidence of retinal lesions compatible with toxoplasmosis were 3.9% and 273 cases/year/100,000 seropositive persons, respectively, thus indicating a significant public health problem. Seronegativity was significantly more common in a subgroup of Marshallese that had received 110-190 rads of total-body gamma radiation as a consequence of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. Despite this finding there was no evidence of an increase in clinically significant lesions in exposed persons.

  6. New simple deposition model based on reassessment of global fallout data 1954 – 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, Sigurður Emil; Bergan, Tone D.; Howard, Brenda J.;

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. This testing is the major cause of distribution of man-made radionuclides over the globe and constitutes a background that needs to be considered when effects of other sources are estimated. The main radionuclides...... such as (a) over how large area can it be assumed that the concentration in precipitation is the same at any given time; (b) how does this agree with the observed latitude dependency of deposition density and (c) are the any other parameters that could be of use in a simple model describing global fallout...

  7. Somatic effects in man due to chronic radiation exposure: Health effects from fallout and radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed review containts a short introduction and the following chapters: 1. Background of nuclear technology with special emphasis on the production and toxicity of nuclear fuels; 2. The nuclear power industry (mainly dealing with the growth of the industry and the Chernobyl accident); 3. The use of nuclear weapons and their effects; 4. Health studies of populations around the Rocky Flats nuclear plant, the Windscale nuclear plant and the Savannah River nuclear installation; 5. Health studies of populations exposed to radioactive clouds and plumes, residing in a contaminated environment and ingesting food and water containing fallout radionuclides. (MG)

  8. Appendix to health and safety laboratory environmental quarterly. [Tabulated data on fallout radioactivity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    Data are tabulated on: the content of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr in monthly deposition at monitoring sites in the USA and other locations throughout the world; the content of /sup 90/Sr in milk samples collected in New York City; the content of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in samples of drinking water collected in New York City; and the content of fallout radionuclides and lead in samples of surface air collected at various world sites during 1976. (CH)

  9. The Wasteland violin:sonic modality and affective immersion in Fallout 3: New Vegas

    OpenAIRE

    Sallamo, L. (Lauri)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find new tools for examining the mechanics underlying the onset of emotive response and consequently the experience of immersion during gameplay. My method was to investigate how particular sound events and soundscapes may affect the gaming experience as a whole by analyzing the soundscape crafted for a game that mixes elements of two popular game genres in its sound design. The game used as the primary source in this study was Fallout 3: New Vegas by Obsi...

  10. Early detection of radioactive fall-out by gamma-spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rate, of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for Cs-137 and even lower for I-131...... For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components...

  11. Soluble and particle-associated fallout radionuclides in Mediterranean water and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From measurements in Mediterranean seawater and sediments, fallout 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239240Pu behaved mostly as soluble nuclides tracing Mediterranean water movement, whereas 55Fe and 241Am behaved more as particle-associated nuclides and were relatively rapidly removed to the sediments. Patterns of nuclide distribution within sediments showed depths of penetration in the order 55Fe > (239240Pu, 137Cs) > 241Am and were thought to result from biological mixing on nuclides whose arrival rates varied in the same order

  12. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit

  13. The transfer of fallout cesium-137 from browse to moose. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating the transfer of fallout cesium-137 from soil to browse to moose (Alces alces) to wolf (Canis lupis) to promote our understanding of the movement of radionuclides through natural food chains. The first part of this study is concerned with moose food habits. Early winter food habits of moose from Hecla Island and Manitoba Game Hunting Area 26 in south central and south eastern Manitoba were studied. In 86 rumen samples, 25 food types were identified. Three methods of food habit determination were used: (1) percentage occurrence of food types, (2) subjective abundance scores and (3) percentage dry weight. All three methods yielded very similar results

  14. 2001 North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program (NCFMP) Lidar: Phase 1B (Cape Fear and Lumber River Basins)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This airborne LiDAR terrain mapping data was acquired in the spring of 2001. The data were collected for the floodplain mapping program for the state of North...

  15. 2001 North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program (NCFMP) Lidar: Phase 1A (Neuse, Pasquotank, Tar-Pamlico, White Oak River Basins)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This airborne LiDAR terrain mapping data was acquired January through March 2001. The data were collected for the floodplain mapping program for the state of North...

  16. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  17. Topography and Vegetation Characterization using Dual-Wavelength Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.; Bradford, B.; Magruder, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring Earth surface dynamics at an ever increasing resolution has helped to support the characterization of local topography, including vegetated and urban environments. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to characterize vegetation and landscapes as it provides detailed three-dimensional spatial data with multiple elevation recordings for each laser pulse. The full waveform LIDAR receiver is unique in this aspect as it can capture and record the complete temporal history of the reflected signal, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and ground surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the utility of co-collected, dual-wavelength, full waveform LIDAR data to characterize vegetation and landscapes through the extraction of waveform features, including total waveform energy, canopy energy distribution, and foliage penetration metrics. Assessments are performed using data collected in May 2014 over Monterey, CA, including the Naval Postgraduate School campus area as well as the Point Lobos State Natural Reserve situated on the Monterey coast. The surveys were performed with the Chiroptera dual-laser LIDAR mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), which can collect both green (515nm) and near infrared (1064nm) waveforms simultaneously. Making use of the dual waveforms allows for detailed characterization of the vegetation and landscape not previously possible with airborne LIDAR.

  18. Report of the expert committee on the review of data on atmospheric fallout arising from British nuclear tests in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terms of reference of the committee were to review the published scientific literature and other relevant scientific data on the short and long-term effects of fallout arising from British nuclear tests in Australia; to comment on the adequacy of the data available and the collection methodology; to assess the fallout levels arising from each of the tests, the immediate and subsequent hazards from the fallout to the Australian population and individual Australians, including Australian personnel involved and aborigines in South Australia, and the adequacy of the criteria for safe firing of each of the tests. A comparison is made of radiation protection standards adopted during the nuclear test period with current standards. The recommendations include the setting up of a public inquiry to determine how the conduct and consequences of the British nuclear tests affected the health and well-being of Australians

  19. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  20. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  1. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  2. Vertical distribution and migration of global fallout Pu in forest soils in southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples collected in southwestern China were analyzed for Pu isotopes. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were around 0.18, which indicated the dominant source of global fallout. Consistent sub-surface maximums followed by exponential decline of 239+240Pu activities in the soil cores were observed. Most of the Pu has still remained in the 0–10 cm layers since its deposition. Convection velocities and dispersion coefficients for Pu migration in the soils were estimated by the convection–dispersion equation (CDE) model. The effective convection velocities and effective dispersion coefficients ranged from 0.05 to 0.11 cm/y and from 0.06 to 0.29 cm2/y, respectively. Other factors that control the vertical migration of Pu in soil besides precipitation, soil particle size distribution and organic matter were suggested. Long-term migration behaviors of Pu in the soils were simulated. The results provide the Pu background baseline for further environmental monitoring and source identification of non-global fallout Pu inputs in the future. - Highlights: • Pu isotopes in the soil cores collected in southwestern China were analyzed. • Background baseline data of Pu isotopes in the soils were given. • Parameters of convection–dispersion equation model for Pu migration were estimated. • Long-term migration behavior of Pu in soil was simulated

  3. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  4. Doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occuring radiation and from the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occuring radiation are extensively reviewed. The annual population weighted average dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from 222Rn and its daughters is estimated to be between 3.5 and 4.5 mSv. The average concentration of 220Rn daughters in Norwegian dwellings is most probably between 1.0 and 1.5 Bq m-3. The corresponding effective dose equivalent for 220Rn and its daughters is estimated to be between 0.4 and 0.6 mSv. The total annual collective dose equivalent from naturally occuring radiation in Norway is found to be between 21000 and 27000 man Sv. The doses to the Norwegian population from the Chernobyl fallout are briefly discussed. Based on the results of a ''food basket'' project and supplementary data from about 30000 measurements on food samples the first year after the reactor accident, the total annual effective dose equivalent from foodstuffs to an average Norwegian consumer during this first year is estimated to be 0.15 +-0.002 m Sv at the 95% confidence level. The per caput effective dose equivalent from external fallout gamma radiation in the first year after the Chernobyl accident, is approximately 82 μSv in Norway

  5. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  6. Vertical distribution and migration of global fallout Pu in forest soils in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-10-01

    Soil samples collected in southwestern China were analyzed for Pu isotopes. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were around 0.18, which indicated the dominant source of global fallout. Consistent sub-surface maximums followed by exponential decline of (239+240)Pu activities in the soil cores were observed. Most of the Pu has still remained in the 0-10 cm layers since its deposition. Convection velocities and dispersion coefficients for Pu migration in the soils were estimated by the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) model. The effective convection velocities and effective dispersion coefficients ranged from 0.05 to 0.11 cm/y and from 0.06 to 0.29 cm(2)/y, respectively. Other factors that control the vertical migration of Pu in soil besides precipitation, soil particle size distribution and organic matter were suggested. Long-term migration behaviors of Pu in the soils were simulated. The results provide the Pu background baseline for further environmental monitoring and source identification of non-global fallout Pu inputs in the future.

  7. Designing Shelter in New Buildings. A Manual for Architects on the Preliminary Designing of Shielding from Fallout Gamma Radiation in Normally Functioning Spaces in New Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Albert

    Analysis of radiation fallout prevention factors in new construction is presented with emphasis on architectural shielding principles. Numerous diagrams and charts illustrate--(1) radiation and fallout properties, (2) building protection principles, (3) details and planning suggestions, and (4) tabular data interpretation. A series of charts is…

  8. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  9. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  10. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  11. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  12. Ensemble modeling and statistical mapping of airborne radioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing and processing of chemicals and other substances takes place in densely populated areas world wide. Whilst this kind of industry is essential for society, the proximity to populated areas introduces great risks. Accidents such as Chernobyl underline the importance of minimizing the ris

  13. SIMULATION STUDY ON AIRBORNE SAR ECHO SIGNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Houbing; Liu Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Through analyzing the influence on echo signal by factors of kinematical parameters of airborne SAR platform and radar antenna direction, this letter, on the basis of classical SAR echo signal analogue algorithm, puts forward certain airborne SAR echo signal analogue algorithm of distance directional frequency domain pulse coherent accumulation, and goes through simulation. The simulation results have proved the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  14. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  15. Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Marthi, B; Shaffer, B. T.; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L

    1991-01-01

    Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

  16. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  17. Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andreas C.; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Seyler, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    NOx (NO and NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry and affect human health and the environment. Shipping emissions contribute substantially to the global emissions of anthropogenic NOx. Due to globalization and increased trade volume, the relative importance emissions from ships gain even more importance. The Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), developed at IUP Bremen, has been used to perform measurements of NO2 in the visible spectral range. The observations allow the determination of spatial distributions of column densities of NO2 below the aircraft. Airborne measurements were performed over Northern Germany and adjacent coastal waters during the NOSE (NO2 from Shipping Emissions) campaign in August 2013. The focus of the campaign activities was on shipping emissions, but NO2 over cities and power plants has been measured as well. The measurements have a spatial resolution below the order of 100 × 30 m2, and they reveal the large spatial variability of NO2 and the evolution of NO2 plumes behind point sources. Shipping lanes as well as plumes of individual ships are detected by the AirMAP instrument. In this study, first results from the NOSE campaign are presented for selected measurement areas.

  18. Airborne campaigns for CryoSat pre-launch calibration and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René; Skourup, Henriette;

    2010-01-01

    From 2003 to 2008 DTU Space together with ESA and several international partners carried out airborne and ground field campaigns in preparation for CryoSat validation; called CryoVEx: CryoSat Validation Experiments covering the main ice caps in Greenland, Canada and Svalbard and sea ice in the Ar......From 2003 to 2008 DTU Space together with ESA and several international partners carried out airborne and ground field campaigns in preparation for CryoSat validation; called CryoVEx: CryoSat Validation Experiments covering the main ice caps in Greenland, Canada and Svalbard and sea ice...... in the Arctic Ocean. The main goal of the airborne surveys was to acquire coincident scanning laser and CryoSat type radar elevation measurements of the surface; either sea ice or land ice. Selected lines have been surveyed along with detailed mapping of validation sites coordinated with insitu field work...

  19. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly. Final tabulation of monthly /sup 90/Sr fallout data: 1954--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the monthly /sup 90/Sr deposition data derived from a global network of stations started in 1954. This program was carried out to assess the distribution patterns and inventory the amount of fallout of radionuclies from atmospheric nuclear tests. In 1976, monthly deposition rates had diminished to the point where measurable levels of /sup 90/Sr were rarely observed.

  1. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, June 1, 1976--September 1, 1976. [Fallout radionuclides and Pb in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    Tabulated data are presented on the content of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr in fallout deposited at various world land sites; /sup 90/Sr in milk and drinking water samples from various locations; and the content of Pb in samples of surface air. (CH)

  2. Estimates of fallout in the continental U.S. from Nevada weapons testing based on gummed-film monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During periods of weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between 1951 and 1958, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) monitored daily fallout at about 100 sites in the U.S. using gummed-film collectors. These gummed-film data represent the only comprehensive set of actual measurements of fallout during this period for areas outside the immediate vicinity of the NTS. The measured beta activities originally reported by EML have been reviewed and reevaluated. This reevaluation corrected a number of errors in the original data set and allowed fairly accurate estimates to be made of specific radionuclide depositions from individual NTS shots. Estimates of the geographical and temporal variations in cumulative 137Cs and 131I depositions from all NTS shots through 1957 are presented, as well as estimates of the relative impact of particular shots and test series. The revised gummed-film estimates of total NTS fallout depositions are compared with estimates based on contemporary and historical soil sample analyses. These reevaluated gummed-film fallout deposition estimates are being extensively utilized in a number of ongoing programs to reconstruct the radiation exposure of the U.S. population from Nevada weapons testing

  3. Photographs and Pamphlet about Nuclear Fallout. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John M., Jr.

    In August 1945, the United States unleashed an atomic weapon against the Japanese at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and brought an end to World War II. These bombs killed in two ways -- by the blast's magnitude and resulting firestorm, and by nuclear fallout. After the Soviet Union exploded its first atom bomb in 1949, the Cold War waged between the two…

  4. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka...

  5. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Radioactive fallout in air and rain: results to the end of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of atmospheric particulate and rainwater have been collected from the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Results are presented of analyses of these samples for various fission products and certain other radionuclides. Average concentrations of Cs-137 in air in the United Kingdom in 1990 were 1% of those in 1986. They were attributable mainly to the resuspension of deposited activity resulting from the Chernobyl accident of April 1986. Plutonium concentrations in air and rainwater were a very small fraction of the National Radiological Protection Board's Generalised Derived Limit for members of the public. Estimates are given of the worldwide deposit of Cs-137 and Sr-90 to the end of 1990. The gamma and beta-ray dose rates from fallout at Chilton are estimated from the observed deposition. (author)

  8. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, D.; Evrard, O.; Lefevre, I.; Moreau-Guigon, E.; Alliot, F.; Chevreuil, M.; Mouchel, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Reducing environmental contamination constitutes a major challenge for industrialized countries. Furthermore, in the European Union, Water Framework Directive (WFD; Directive 2000/60/EC) requires that the member state water bodies reach good ecological and chemical status by 2015. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants considered as priority pollutants because of their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. They are mostly emitted by human activities such as household heating or road traffic. Although emissions have decreased during the last decades, a large amount of PAHs have been released into the atmosphere for the last two centuries. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number but most of them were restricted to the measurement of PAHs concentrations in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.). In this context, there remains a lack of knowledge about the transfers and, consequently, about the persistence of these compounds in the environment. This question is particularly acute in the Seine River basin where very high concentrations in PAHs are reported in sediment, thereby compromising the achievement of the good chemical status required by WFD. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Atmospheric fallout, soil, river water and sediment samples were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin during one year. Chemical analyses, restricted to 15 of the 16 PAHs selected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Contamination spectra were used to outline the potential origin of pollution. Measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. material that

  9. The Chernobyl fallout in Greece and its effects on the dating of archaeological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the fallout from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl have been monitored at various sites in Greece. Here we present the first estimates of gamma dose rates, an essential parameter in the dating of archaeological materials by thermoluminescence (TL) and ESR methods. The dose rates are derived from the long-lived radionuclides of 137Cs, 134Cs, 106Ru and 144Ce (with t1/2 ≥ 1 yr). The present dose rates vary between 30 and 60 mrad/yr, but maximum values of around 811 mrad/yr have also been recorded, for ground-surface exposures. These dose rate values must be regarded as very significant to TL and ESR dating of samples from now on and a correction factor should be applied. (orig.)

  10. Secret fallout. Low-level radiation from Hiroshima to Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, Professor of radiation physics at the University of Pittsburgh, presents evidence for the cumulative effects of low-level radiation on health. In the early 1960s, when nuclear testing created fallout radioactivity, Dr. Sternglass states that he discovered a related increase in fetal deaths, infant mortality, and certain kinds of cancer. Nuclear power plants became the topic of his studies in 1970, and he gathered data that he interprets to show that nuclear emissions have resulted in increased genetic defects, mental retardation, and death among newborns, as well as death due to lung disease in all age groups. Dr. Sternglass made headlines in 1979 by a study in which he links the decline in Scholastic Aptitude Test scores that has puzzled educators to past atomic testing. Most recently, he has looked at the evidence of the aftereffects of the Three-Mile Island incident

  11. Blast overpressure and fallout radiation dose models for casualty assessment and other purposes. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of blast overpressures and fallout radiation doses at points on a sufficiently fine grid, for any part or for the whole of the UK, and for any postulated attack, is an essential element in the systematic assessment of casualties, the estimation of numbers of homeless, and the evaluation of life-saving measures generally. Models are described which provide the required blast and dose values and which are intended to supersede existing models which were introduced in 1971. The factors which affect blast and, more particularly, dose values are discussed, and the way in which various factors are modelled is described. The models are incorporated into separate computer programs which are described, the outputs of which are stored on magnetic tape for subsequent use as required. (author)

  12. Body burden of fallout 137Cs in the inhabitants of Moscow in 1980-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several groups of people living in Moscow were measured for fallout 137Cs in 1980-1983. In vivo measurements of incorporated 137Cs were made with use of a whole-body counter. The minimum measurable activities of 137Cs were 37 and 17 Bq consequently for time of measurement 15 and 30 min. All persons measured were classified into four groups, personnel of whole-body counters laboratory, teenagers-sportsman, patients of a Moscow hospital (with heart and kidneys diseases) and normal adults-inhabitants of Moscow. The activity of 137Cs in the normal adults and patients was observed to decrease during the period of investigation. It was shown that by the end of 1983 the great majority of the results were similar and below the minimum measurable activity (for time of measurement 15 min)

  13. Atmospheric diffusion and fallout and alkaline materials produced by sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present works deals with a theoretic approach of the diffusion in air of colloidal Na2O coming out of sodium fires, consequent to sodium losses from the cooling circuit of a fast breeder reactor, in case of accident. The theoretical pattern has subsequently been applied to a numerical assessment of the Na2O concentration in air and on the ground (due to fallout), either inside or outside the sodium hall of the Cpv-1 facility at the Brasimone site. The assessment refers to the maximum credible accident 'pool burning', in the most unfavourable meteorological conditions. Protectionistic recomendations are given, and emergency procedures are described, in that concerns boot people professionally employed within the reactor site and the external population

  14. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  15. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  16. Modeling the fallout from stabilized nuclear clouds using the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory, has been configured to simulate the dispersion and deposition of nuclear materials from a surface-based nuclear detonation using publicly available information on nuclear explosions. Much of the information was obtained from “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons” by Glasstone and Dolan (1977). The model was evaluated against the measurements of nuclear fallout from six nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1957 at the Nevada Test Site using the global NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data as input. The model was able to reproduce the general direction and deposition patterns using the coarse NNRP data with Figure of Merit in Space (FMS – the percent overlap between predicted and measured deposition patterns) scores in excess of 50% for four of six simulations for the smallest dose rate contour, with FMS scores declining for higher dose rate contours. When WRF meteorological data were used the FMS scores were 5–20% higher in five of the six simulations, especially at the higher dose rate contours. The one WRF simulation where the scores declined slightly (10–30%) was also the best scoring simulation when using the NNRP data. When compared with measurements of dose rate and time of arrival from the Town Data Base (Thompson et al., 1994), similar results were found with the WRF simulations providing better results for four of six simulations. The overall result was that the different plume simulations using WRF data had more consistent performance than the plume simulations using NNRP data fields. - Highlights: • Modeled the fallout from six Nevada nuclear tests between 1951 and 1957 using HYSPLIT. • Modeled dose rate patterns compared favorably to measurements. • Plume overlap was best for the smallest dose rate

  17. The influence of the post-Chernobyl fallout on birth defects and abortion rates in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, M C; Berghold, A; Schoell, W; Hofer, P; Schaffer, M

    1992-10-01

    Researchers analyzed data on 66,743 births which occurred between 1985-1989 in the Styria region in southern Austria to determine whether radioactive fallout from the meltdown of the nuclear reaction at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, USSR in may 1986 affected the birth defect and abortion rates in this area of Austria. There were 1695 birth defect cases. Of the birth defects which occurred during embryogenesis, most occurred 14-49 days postconception (group 2; n=630). The researchers did not note a short-term effect of the fallout in group 2 or the other groups (relative risk= 0.75, 0.73 for group 1, and 0.93 for group 2). Baseline birth defect rates (per 1000 births) for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.5, 8.5, and 1,8 respectively. The only sizable increase occurred in group 2 at years 2 and 3 (10.6 and 10.3, respectively). More reported minor congenital defect cases accounted for this increase due to the newly established data base in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the University of Graz. Thus the increase was an artifact and not a true increase. Abortion rates varied from 10% to 14% and did not increase significantly after Chernobyl. Counseling frequency at abortion clinics fluctuated greatly (117-205) both before and after Chernobyl and the changes were not significant. These results indicated that the low dosage of radiation did not have a detectable biologic effect in terms of birth defects and abortions. The researchers addressed the difficulties with measuring teratologic potential of low dose radiation. They also highlighted the need for accurate categorizing of birth defects, adequate baseline data, and very reliable registries. Future research on possible environmental disasters which affect Austria can use these data as baseline data. PMID:1415387

  18. Lichen (sp. Cladonia) as a deposition indicator for transuranium elements investigated with the Chernobyl fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, Jussi; Jaakkola, Timo; Kulmala, Seija [Helsinki Univ., Radiochemistry Lab., Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of employing carpet-forming lichens (sp. Cladonia) as a measure for the deposition of transuranium elements was investigated with the Chernobyl fallout. In Finland, the deposition of these elements after the accident was very uneven. The highest deposition values for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243,244}Cm were 5.7, 3.0, 1.3, 98 and 0.025 Bq m{sup -2}, respectively. The amount of deposited {sup 239,240}Pu was, however, only some percent of the fallout of the nuclear test explosions of the 1950s and the 1960s. Instead, practically no {sup 242}Cm was released into the environment during the weapons` testing. The correlation between the refractory nuclides {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm, {sup 95}Zr and {sup 144}Ce in lichen was high (r = 0.709-0.979), but the correlation between the transuranium elements and volatile {sup 137}Cs was much lower (r = 0.227-0.276). The calculated biological half-lives of Pu and Am in lichen were 730 and 320 days, respectively. The {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239,240}Pu activity ratio in the top parts of lichen samples was 0.54 ``+`` 0.02 corresponding to a burn-up value of 12 MWd kg{sup -1}. The {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239,240}Pu activity ratios of 0.43 and 0.69 measured from two isolated hot particles correspond to burn-up values of 10 and 14 MWd kg{sup -1}, respectively. (author).

  19. The new conversion model MODERN to derive erosion rates from inventories of fallout radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Frenkel, Elena; A'Campo-Neuen, Annette; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) has become one of the most commonly used methods to quantify soil erosion and depositional processes. FRNs include anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs, 239+240Pu) released into the atmosphere during nuclear bomb tests and power plant accidents (e.g Chernobyl, Fukushima-Daiichi), as well as natural radiotracers such as 210Pbex and 7Be. FRNs reach the land surface by dry and wet fallouts from the atmosphere. Once deposited, FRNs are tightly adsorbed by fine soil particles and their subsequent redistribution is mostly associated with soil erosion processes. FRNs methods are based on a qualitative comparison: the inventory (total radionuclide activity per unit area) at a given sampling site is compared to that of a so called reference site. The conversion of FRN inventories into soil erosion and deposition rates is done with a variety of models, which suitability is dependent on the selected FRN, soil cultivation (ploughed or unploughed) and movement (erosion or deposition). The authors propose a new conversion model, which can be easily and comprehensively used for different FRNs, land uses and soil redistribution processes. This new model i.e. MODERN (MOdelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides) considers the precise depth distribution of a given FRN at a reference site, and allows adapting it for any specific site conditions. MODERN adaptability and performance has been tested on two published case studies: (i) a 137Cs study in an alpine and unploughed area in the Aosta valley (Italy) and (ii) a 210Pbex study on a ploughed area located in Romania. The results show a good agreement and a significant correlation (r= 0.91, pcost free accessibility of MODERN will ensure the promotion of a wider application of FRNs for investigating soil erosion and sedimentation processes.

  20. Predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J. H.; Spiegelman, D L; Gold, D R; Burge, H A; Milton, D K

    2001-01-01

    We identified home characteristics associated with the level of airborne endotoxin in 111 Boston-area homes enrolled in a cohort study of home exposures and childhood asthma, and we developed a predictive model to estimate airborne endotoxin. We measured endotoxin in family-room air and in dust from the baby's bed, family room, bedroom, and kitchen floor. Level of airborne endotoxin was weakly correlated (r < 0.3) with level of endotoxin in each of the four types of dust samples and was signi...

  1. Forest Delineation Based on Airborne LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The delineation of forested areas is a critical task, because the resulting maps are a fundamental input for a broad field of applications and users. Different national and international forest definitions are available for manual or automatic delineation, but unfortunately most definitions lack precise geometrical descriptions for the different criteria. A mandatory criterion in forest definitions is the criterion of crown coverage (CC, which defines the proportion of the forest floor covered by the vertical projection of the tree crowns. For loosely stocked areas, this criterion is especially critical, because the size and shape of the reference area for calculating CC is not clearly defined in most definitions. Thus current forest delineations differ and tend to be non-comparable because of different settings for checking the criterion of CC in the delineation process. This paper evaluates a new approach for the automatic delineation of forested areas, based on airborne laser scanning (ALS data with a clearly defined method for calculating CC. The new approach, the ‘tree triples’ method, is based on defining CC as a relation between the sum of the crown areas of three neighboring trees and the area of their convex hull. The approach is applied and analyzed for two study areas in Tyrol, Austria. The selected areas show a loosely stocked forest at the upper timberline and a fragmented forest on the hillside. The fully automatic method presented for delineating forested areas from ALS data shows promising results with an overall accuracy of 96%, and provides a beneficial tool for operational applications.

  2. Subsurface Characterization of Shallow Water Regions using Airborne Bathymetric Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, B.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Magruder, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the complex interactions between air, land, and water in shallow water regions is becoming increasingly critical in the age of climate change. To effectively monitor and manage these zones, scientific data focused on changing water levels, quality, and subsurface topography are needed. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to address this need as it can simultaneously provide detailed three-dimensional spatial data for both topographic and bathymetric applications in an efficient and effective manner. The key to useful data, however, is the correct interpretation of the incoming laser returns to distinguish between land, water, and objects. The full waveform lidar receiver captures the complete returning signal reflected from the Earth, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the characterization of this full waveform with respect to water surface depth penetration and subsurface classification, including sand, rock, and vegetation. Three assessments are performed to help characterize the laser interaction within the shallow water zone: evaluation of water surface backscatter as a function of depth and location, effects from water bottom surface roughness and reflectivity, and detection and classification of subsurface structure. Using the Chiroptera dual-laser lidar mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), both bathymetric and topographic mapping are possible. The Chiroptera system combines a 1064nm near infrared topographic laser with a 515nm green bathymetric laser to seamlessly map the land/water interface in coastal areas. Two survey sites are examined: Lake Travis in Austin, Texas, USA, and Lake Vättern in Jönköping, Sweden. Water quality conditions were found to impact depth penetration of the lidar, as a maximum depth of 5.5m was recorded at Lake Travis and 11m at Lake Vättern.

  3. Airborne Digital Camera. A digital view from above; Airborne Digital Camera. Der digitale Blick von oben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, H.P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumsensorik und Planetenerkundung

    1999-09-01

    The Airborne Digital Camera is based on the WAOSS camera of the MARS-96 mission. The camera will provide a new basis for airborne photogrammetry and remote exploration. The ADC project aims at the development of the first commercial digital airborne camera. [German] Die Wurzeln des Projektes Airborne Digital Camera (ADC) liegen in der Mission MARS-96. Die hierfuer konzipierte Marskamera WAOSS lieferte die Grundlage fuer das innovative Konzept einer digitalen Flugzeugkamera. Diese ist auf dem Weg, die flugzeuggestuetzte Photogrammetrie und Fernerkundung auf eine technologisch voellig neue Basis zu stellen. Ziel des Projektes ADC ist die Entwicklung der ersten kommerziellen digitalen Luftbildkamera. (orig.)

  4. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  5. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  6. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  7. Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes to develop an Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor (AMUGS) based upon two-tone, frequency modulation spectroscopy (TT-FMS). Mesa Photonics has...

  8. Reconfigurable Weather Radar for Airborne Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc (IAI) and its university partner, University of Oklahoma (OU), Norman, propose a forward-looking airborne environment sensor based on...

  9. Software for airborne radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System monitors radioactive contamination in the air or on the ground. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. This system is composed of two major parts: Airborne Unit carried by a helicopter, and Ground Station carried by a truck. The Airborne software is intended to be the core of a computerized airborne station. The software is written in C++ under MS-Windows with object-oriented methodology. It has been designed to be user-friendly: function keys and other accelerators are used for vital operations, a help file and help subjects are available, the Human-Machine-Interface is plain and obvious. (authors)

  10. Airborne Infrared Search and Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared search and track (IRST systems are required for fighter aircraft to enable them to passively search, detect, track, classify, and prioritise multiple airborne targets under all aspects, look-up, look-down, and co-altitude conditions and engage them at as long ranges as possible. While the IRST systems have been proven in performance for ground-based and naval-based platforms, it is still facing some technical problems for airborne applications. These problems arise from uncertainty in target signature, atmospheric effects, background clutter (especially dense and varying clouds, signal and data processing algorithms to detect potential targets at long ranges and some hardware limitations such as large memory requirement to store and process wide field of view data. In this paper, an overview of airborne IRST as a system has been presented with detailed comparative simulation results of different detectionitracking algorithms and the present status of airborne IRSTs

  11. A new method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth removal from high resolution airborne LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Bucksch, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    High density airborne LiDAR, for example FLI-MAP 400 data, has opened an opportunity for individual tree measurement. This paper presents a method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth vegetation removal in forest area. The delineation of individual trees involves two steps namely 1) tree

  12. The JAC airborne EM system : AEM-05

    OpenAIRE

    Levaniemi, H.; Beamish, D; Hautaniemi, H.; Kurimo, M.; Suppala, I.; Vironmaki, J.; Cuss, R.J.; Lahti, M; Tartaras, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system operated by the Joint Airborne geoscience Capability (JAC), a partnership between the Finnish and British Geological Surveys. The system is a component of a 3-in-1, fixed-wing facility acquiring magnetic gradiometer and full spectrum radiometric data alongside the wing-tip, frequency-domain AEM measurements. The AEM system has recently (2005) been upgraded from 2 to 4 frequencies and now provides a bandwidth from 900 Hz to 25 kHz....

  13. Dating of a sediment core from Lake Biel (Switzerland) and source characterization of fallout Pu; {sup 210}Pb- und {sup 137}Cs-Datierung eines Sedimentbohrkerns aus dem Bieler See (CH) und Ursprungsbestimmung von Pu-Fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregler, Anja

    2016-08-01

    A sediment core from Lake Biel was dated by means of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope {sup 210}Pb as well as by the anthropogenic isotope {sup 137}Cs. The latter one can be detected as radioactive fallout of certain events in the sediment layers and accordingly be correlated with a distinct date. A verification of the correlated events is accomplished by particular isotope ratios of the anthropogenic isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu as well as {sup 241}Am as a decay product of the short-lived {sup 241}Pu. Furthermore, the percentage of the total {sup 137}Cs fallout was calculated corresponding to the specific events.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, H.

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 ..mu.. which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  16. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  17. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  18. Improving Species Diversity and Biomass Estimates of Tropical Dry Forests Using Airborne LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Hernández-Stefanoni; Juan Manuel Dupuy; Johnson, Kristofer D; Richard Birdsey; Fernando Tun-Dzul; Alicia Peduzzi; Juan Pablo Caamal-Sosa; Gonzalo Sánchez-Santos; David López-Merlín

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of plant diversity and biomass informs management decisions to maintain biodiversity and carbon stocks in tropical forests. Optical remotely sensed data is often used for supporting such activities; however, it is difficult to estimate these variables in areas of high biomass. New technologies, such as airborne LiDAR, have been used to overcome such limitations. LiDAR has been increasingly used to map carbon stocks in tropical forests, but has rarely been used to esti...

  19. Direct observation of two dimensional trace gas distributions with an airborne Imaging DOAS instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Heue, K.-P.; Wagner, T.; Broccardo, S. P.; D. Walter; S. J. Piketh; K. E. Ross; S. Beirle; U. Platt

    2008-01-01

    In many investigations of tropospheric chemistry information about the two dimensional distribution of trace gases on a small scale (e.g. tens to hundreds of metres) is highly desirable. An airborne instrument based on imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy has been built to map the two dimensional distribution of a series of relevant trace gases including NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2...

  20. Airborne gamma-radiation survey of the Jabel Ishmas Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne gamma-radiation survey system, which includes digital recording and automatic data processing procedures developed by the U. S. Geological Survey Saudi Arabian Project, is used to collect spectral gamma-radiation data as an aid to regional geologic mapping of pediment areas on the Arabian Shield. The areal extent of rock units can generally be distinguished by the intensity of their radiation pattern. Rocks of ultramafic composition have low radiation response, whereas more felsic rocks reflect higher radiation response.

  1. Trial airborne EM surveys to assess minewater pollution in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, David; Kurimo, Miaja

    2000-01-01

    Drainage from mining operations is one of the most significant causes of freshwater pollution in some regions of the UK. Airborne electromagnetic (EM) surveys can map the distribution of subsurface resistivity in a continuous manner and can, under favourable circumstances, track concentrations of anomalous pore fluids. This paper presents trial high resolution EM data collected across the Nottinghamshire coalfield. High conductivities are associated with a sequence of colliery spoil zones and...

  2. Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Data, Styx River Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, A.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.; Burns, L.; Emond, A.

    2014-12-01

    A joint effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) aims to add value to public domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, collected in Alaska, through the application of newly developed advanced inversion methods to produce resistivity depth sections along flight lines. Derivative products are new geophysical data maps, interpretative profiles and displays. An important task of the new processing is to facilitate calibration or leveling between adjacent surveys flown with different systems in different years. The new approach will facilitate integration of the geophysical data in the interpretation and construction of geologic framework, resource evaluations and to geotechnical studies. Four helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been flown in the Styx River area by the DGGS; Styx River, Middle Styx, East Styx, and Farewell. The Styx River flown in 2008 and Middle Styx in flown 2013, cover an area of 2300 square kilometers. These data consist of frequency-domain DIGHEM V surveys which have been numerically processed and interpreted to yield a three-dimensional model of electrical resistivity. We describe the numerical interpretation methodology (inversion) in detail, from quality assessment to interpretation. We show two methods of inversion used in these datasets, deterministic and stochastic, and describe how we use these results to define calibration parameters and assess the quality of the datasets. We also describe the difficulties and procedures for combining datasets acquired at different times.

  3. The new conversion model MODERN to derive erosion rates from inventories of fallout radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Frenkel, Elena; A'Campo-Neuen, Annette; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) has become one of the most commonly used methods to quantify soil erosion and depositional processes. FRNs include anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs, 239+240Pu) released into the atmosphere during nuclear bomb tests and power plant accidents (e.g Chernobyl, Fukushima-Daiichi), as well as natural radiotracers such as 210Pbex and 7Be. FRNs reach the land surface by dry and wet fallouts from the atmosphere. Once deposited, FRNs are tightly adsorbed by fine soil particles and their subsequent redistribution is mostly associated with soil erosion processes. FRNs methods are based on a qualitative comparison: the inventory (total radionuclide activity per unit area) at a given sampling site is compared to that of a so called reference site. The conversion of FRN inventories into soil erosion and deposition rates is done with a variety of models, which suitability is dependent on the selected FRN, soil cultivation (ploughed or unploughed) and movement (erosion or deposition). The authors propose a new conversion model, which can be easily and comprehensively used for different FRNs, land uses and soil redistribution processes. This new model i.e. MODERN (MOdelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides) considers the precise depth distribution of a given FRN at a reference site, and allows adapting it for any specific site conditions. MODERN adaptability and performance has been tested on two published case studies: (i) a 137Cs study in an alpine and unploughed area in the Aosta valley (Italy) and (ii) a 210Pbex study on a ploughed area located in Romania. The results show a good agreement and a significant correlation (r= 0.91, p<0.0001) between the results of MODERN and the published models currently used by the FRN scientific community (i.e. the Profile Distribution Model and the Mass Balance Model). The open access code and the cost free accessibility of MODERN will ensure the promotion of a wider

  4. Measurements of Background and Fall-out T Radioactivity in Samples from the Baltic Bay of Tvaeren, 1957-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedahl, P.O.

    1965-01-15

    To get information on the possible effects of future releases of radioactive effluents into Tvaeren, a bay of the Baltic, the Atomic Energy Company has had to carry out a biological and radiological programme in Tvaeren. The work was scheduled to extend over at least two years but in fact proceeded from 1957 to 1963. Unfortunately, no exact idea of the natural activity could be gained on account of the fallout from the repeated atomic bomb tests. Instead, the work developed into a study of the variations in biological samples caused by these tests. This report studies the correlation between the activity in fallout and that in flora and fauna. The contribution of natural activity from the radionuclide K-40 has been determined and is given for all samples. The following values may be regarded as representative of total {beta}-activity and activity of K-40 in the investigated samples. T 1204 has been used as standard.

  5. Cesium-137 and potassium contents in low-teens in areas of different fall-out levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative measurements were made by a whole body counter equipped in the University of Tokyo with regard to the 137Cs body burden of 88 Japanese male low-teens in Akita and Tokyo. In spite of the heavy fall-out level in Akita, the mean 137Cs body burden was significantly lower than that in Tokyo where the fall-out deposition was about half. The major cause of the difference in the body burden was considered to be the difference in the daily volume of milk consumption in the two groups which was disclosed from the results of an interview with each subject. The 137Cs content showed a very low correlation with the potassium content in each group. The fact raised an important question concerning the effectiveness of the concept of ''cesium unit'' for describing the level of internal contamination in man. (auth.)

  6. Behavior and food consumption pattern of the population exposed in 1949–1962 to fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Land, Charles E.; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Potischman, Nancy; Schwerin, Michael J.; Semenova, Yulia; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Bouville, André; Steven L Simon

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure from nuclear weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a group of 2,994 subjects has been the subject of study by the U.S. National Cancer Institute. In that study, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for residents of villages in Kazakhstan possibly exposed to deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing conducted by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan between 1949 and 1962. The study subjec...

  7. Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth's surface revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, C L; Carter, W E; Shrestha, R L; Dietrich, W E

    2013-08-01

    The past decade has seen an explosive increase in the number of peer reviewed papers reporting new scientific findings in geomorphology (including fans, channels, floodplains and landscape evolution), geologic mapping, tectonics and faulting, coastal processes, lava flows, hydrology (especially snow and runoff routing), glaciers and geo-archaeology. A common genesis of such findings is often newly available decimeter resolution 'bare Earth' geodetic images, derived from airborne laser swath mapping, a.k.a. airborne LiDAR, observations. In this paper we trace nearly a half century of advances in geodetic science made possible by space age technology, such as the invention of short-pulse-length high-pulse-rate lasers, solid state inertial measurement units, chip-based high speed electronics and the GPS satellite navigation system, that today make it possible to map hundreds of square kilometers of terrain in hours, even in areas covered with dense vegetation or shallow water. To illustrate the impact of the LiDAR observations we present examples of geodetic images that are not only stunning to the eye, but help researchers to develop quantitative models explaining how terrain evolved to its present form, and how it will likely change with time. Airborne LiDAR technology continues to develop quickly, promising ever more scientific discoveries in the years ahead. PMID:23828665

  8. MERGING AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA AND SATELLITE SAR DATA FOR BUILDING CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yamamoto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A frequent map revision is required in GIS applications, such as disaster prevention and urban planning. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LIDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, attribute data acquisition and classification depend on manual editing works including ground surveys. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LiDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, these approaches classify geometrical attributes. Moreover, ground survey and manual editing works are finally required in attribute data classification. On the other hand, although geometrical data extraction is difficult, SAR data have a possibility to automate the attribute data acquisition and classification. The SAR data represent microwave reflections on various surfaces of ground and buildings. There are many researches related to monitoring activities of disaster, vegetation, and urban. Moreover, we have an opportunity to acquire higher resolution data in urban areas with new sensors, such as ALOS2 PALSAR2. Therefore, in this study, we focus on an integration of airborne LIDAR data and satellite SAR data for building extraction and classification.

  9. Merging Airborne LIDAR Data and Satellite SAR Data for Building Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Nakagawa, M.

    2015-05-01

    A frequent map revision is required in GIS applications, such as disaster prevention and urban planning. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LIDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, attribute data acquisition and classification depend on manual editing works including ground surveys. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LiDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, these approaches classify geometrical attributes. Moreover, ground survey and manual editing works are finally required in attribute data classification. On the other hand, although geometrical data extraction is difficult, SAR data have a possibility to automate the attribute data acquisition and classification. The SAR data represent microwave reflections on various surfaces of ground and buildings. There are many researches related to monitoring activities of disaster, vegetation, and urban. Moreover, we have an opportunity to acquire higher resolution data in urban areas with new sensors, such as ALOS2 PALSAR2. Therefore, in this study, we focus on an integration of airborne LIDAR data and satellite SAR data for building extraction and classification.

  10. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  11. A ‘Helen Archer’ moment? the abused, the perpetrator and the fall-out from domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The huge interest generated by The Archers domestic abuse story line has raised awareness that behind the closed doors of supposedly nice, middle class families, sexual violence may lurk, and it is not only a phenomenon of the disadvantaged and dispossessed. After putting the storyline into context, Professor Jennifer Brown takes a further look at the profiles of those who abuse and policy implications of dealing with the fall-out for health and criminal justice interventions.

  12. Trends in childhood leukaemia in the Nordic countries in relation to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Darby, S. C.; Olsen, J. H.; Doll, R.; Thakrar, B.; Brown, P. D.; Storm, H H; Barlow, L.; Langmark, F.; Teppo, L; H. Tulinius

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To obtain further information about the risks of childhood leukaemia after exposure to ionising radiation at low doses and low dose rates before or after birth or to the father's testes shortly before conception. DESIGN--Observational study of trends in incidence of childhood leukaemia in relation to estimated radiation exposures due to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing during the 1950s and 1960s. SETTING--Nordic countries. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 15 years. MAI...

  13. Operational remote sensing mapping of estuarine suspended sediment concentrations (ORMES)

    OpenAIRE

    Sterckx, S; Knaeps, E; Bollen, M.; Trouw, K.; Houthuys, R.

    2006-01-01

    Within the ORMES project a service is developed which provides suspended sediment maps from remote sensing images in an efficient way. Our main test site is a part of the Belgian Scheldt Estuary near Antwerp. A reliable semi-empirical algorithm has been developed to derive near-surface suspended matter maps in an operational way. This algorithm is applied to a series of hyperspectral airborne data obtained at different stages of the tidal cycle. The produced TSM maps showed good agreement wit...

  14. Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The conference provided four days of displays and scientific presentations on applications, technology, a science of sub-orbital data gathering and analysis. The twelve displayed aircraft equipped with sophisticated instrumentation represented a wide range of environmental and reconnaissance missions,including marine pollution control, fire detection, Open Skies Treaty verification, thermal mapping, hydrographical measurements, military research, ecological and agricultural observations, geophysical research, atmospheric and meterological observations, and aerial photography. The U.S. Air Force and the On-Site Inspection Agency displayed the new Open Skies Treaty verification Boeing OC 135B that promotes international monitoring of military forces and activities. SRl's Jetstream uses foliage and ground penetrating SAR for forest inventories, toxic waste delineation, and concealed target and buried unexploded ordnance detection. Earth Search Sciences's Gulfstream 1 with prototype miniaturized airborne hyperspectral imaging equipment specializes in accurate mineral differentiation, low-cost hydrocarbon exploration, and nonproliferation applications. John E. Chance and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers displayed the Bell 2 helicopter with SHOALS that performs hydrographic surveying of navigation projects, coastal environment assessment, and nautical charting surveys. Bechtel Nevada and U.S. DOE displayed both the Beech King AIR B-200 platform equipped to provide first response to nuclear accidents and routine environmental surveillance, and the MBB BO-105 helicopter used in spectral analysis for environmental assessment and military appraisal. NASA Ames Research Center's high-altitude Lockheed ER-2 assists in earth resources monitoring research in atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, and electronic sensors; ozone and greenhouse studies and satellite calibration and data validation. Ames also showcased the Learjet 24 Airborne Observatory that completed missions in Venus

  15. Estimation of beta-ray skin dose from exposure to fission fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2012-03-01

    Beta-ray skin dose due to the fission fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb is potentially related to the epilation in the black rain area. The absorbed dose to the skin from beta-rays emitted by fission fallout has been estimated for an initial ¹³⁷Cs deposition of 1 kBq m⁻² on the ground at 0.5 h after the explosion. The estimated skin dose takes into account both external exposure from fission fallout radionuclides uniformly distributed in 1 mm of soil on the surface of the ground and from a 26 μm thickness of contaminated soil on the skin, using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. The cumulative skin dose for 1 month after the explosion is taken as the representative value. The estimated skin dose for an initial ¹³⁷Cs deposition of 1 kBq m⁻² was determined to be about 500 mSv. PMID:22042969

  16. Evaluation of 239+240Pu, 137Cs and natural 210Pb fallout in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs fallout in agricultural soil were investigated in Rokkasho where Japan's first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is now being constructed. The mean inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in three fields with non-yam-cultivation history were 116 Bq x m-2 and 3.4 kBq x m-2, respectively. The mean atomic ratio of 240Pu/239Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and was similar to that of global fallout. The 239+240Pu concentrations correlated very well with 137Cs (r = 0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of the soil, and the activity ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was 0.037 ± 0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. These results showed that the nuclides had similar behavior in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho. Since 210Pb is steadily deposited from the atmosphere to the land, this nuclide could be an index for the degree of disturbance of a field and of soil lost from the field. The ratio of excess 210Pb inventory in the soil to the equivalent inventory of atmospheric 210Pb deposition was 96%, and indicated that soil was not lost from the cultivated fields. (author)

  17. Extracting dynamic spatial data from airborne imaging sensors to support traffic flow estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, C. K.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    The recent transition from analog to totally digital data acquisition and processing techniques in airborne surveying represents a major milestone in the evolution of spatial information science and practice. On one hand, the improved quality of the primary sensor data can provide the foundation for better automation of the information extraction processes. This phenomenon is also strongly supported by continuously expanding computer technology, which offers almost unlimited processing power. On the other hand, the variety of the data, including rich information content and better temporal characteristics, acquired by the new digital sensors and coupled with rapidly advancing processing techniques, is broadening the applications of airborne surveying. One of these new application areas is traffic flow extraction aimed at supporting better traffic monitoring and management. Transportation mapping has always represented a significant segment of civilian mapping and is mainly concerned with road corridor mapping for design and engineering purposes, infrastructure mapping and facility management, and more recently, environmental mapping. In all these cases, the objective of the mapping is to extract the static features of the object space, such as man-made and natural objects, typically along the road network. In contrast, the traffic moving in the transportation network represents a very dynamic environment, which complicates the spatial data extraction processes as the signals of moving vehicles should be identified and removed. Rather than removing and discarding the signals, however, they can be turned into traffic flow information. This paper reviews initial research efforts to extract traffic flow information from laserscanner and digital camera sensors installed in airborne platforms.

  18. SGA-WZ: A New Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yangming; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Wu, Meiping;

    2012-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems and gravimeters are now routinely used to map the regional gravitational quantities from an aircraft with mGal accuracy and a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. However, airborne gravimeter of this kind is limited by the inaccuracy of the inertial sensor performance...... taking full advantage of the inertial navigation system is described with improved mechanical design, high precision time synchronization, better thermal control and optimized sensor modeling. Apart from the general usage, the Global Positioning System (GPS) after differentiation is integrated...... to the inertial navigation system which provides not only more precise altitude information along with the navigation aiding, but also an effective way to calculate the vehicle acceleration. Design description and test results on the performance of the gyroscopes and accelerations will be emphasized. Analysis...

  19. Planetary maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  20. GLODEP2: a computer model for estimating gamma dose due to worldwide fallout of radioactive debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Peterson, K.R.

    1984-03-01

    The GLODEP2 computer code provides estimates of the surface deposition of worldwide radioactivity and the gamma-ray dose to man from intermediate and long-term fallout. The code is based on empirical models derived primarily from injection-deposition experience gained from the US and USSR nuclear tests in 1958. Under the assumption that a nuclear power facility is destroyed and that its debris behaves in the same manner as the radioactive cloud produced by the nuclear weapon that attached the facility, predictions are made for the gamma does from this source of radioactivity. As a comparison study the gamma dose due to the atmospheric nuclear tests from the period of 1951 to 1962 has been computed. The computed and measured values from Grove, UK and Chiba, Japan agree to within a few percent. The global deposition of radioactivity and resultant gamma dose from a hypothetical strategic nuclear exchange between the US and the USSR is reported. Of the assumed 5300 Mton in the exchange, 2031 Mton of radioactive debris is injected in the atmosphere. The highest estimated average whole body total integrated dose over 50 years (assuming no reduction by sheltering or weathering) is 23 rem in the 30 to 50 degree latitude band. If the attack included a 100 GW(e) nuclear power industry as targets in the US, this dose is increased to 84.6 rem. Hotspots due to rainfall could increase these values by factors of 10 to 50.

  1. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in coastal marine water of Tamil Nadu coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very little information on the fallout 137Cs activity exists for the Bay of Bengal. Normally the volume of sea water required for detecting fall out level of 137Cs in coastal marine environment ranges from 100 litres to 1000 litres. The studies on distribution of 137Cs in surface seawater of Tamil Nadu in Bay of Bengal were carried out in April 2009. On the eastern coastal lines of Bay of Bengal in Tamil Nadu, seven offshore locations were selected namely Chennai, Pondicherry, Karaikal, Rameshwaram, Tuticorin, Nagercoil and Kanyakumari. In situ preconcentration method was adopted and the experiments were carried out using motor boats well equipped to carry the instruments and provide power supply to operate the pump. 1000 litres of seawater was passed each time through CFCN filters at all the locations at a flow rate of 8 litres per minute. The activity concentrations of 137Cs was in the range of 0.90 to 2.2 Bq/m3. These data represents reference values for coastal environment of Tamil Nadu and will be used to estimate radionuclide inventory in Indian marine environment, particularly of East Coast. The 137Cs activity indicates that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area. (author)

  2. Dynamic performances of the fallout radionuclides in the environment and related health risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework was developed for evaluating the cancer induction mortality risk due to the prolonged exposure to the fallout Sr-90 in the environment, which was released by the atmospheric nuclear detonation tests, through dietary intake by considering the effect of foods and feeds import to Japan. The risk evaluation framework presented was composed of three sub-models: the model foe evaluation of the global circulation of Sr-90, the model for evaluation of Sr-90 concentration in foods and dietary intake, and the model for the cancer induction mortality risk. The mortality risk by the radiation-induced leukemia was evaluated based on the NUREG/CR-4214 model. The model was applied on the reference Japanese for past half century to evaluate the historical variation of the health risks. The new framework is presented and discussed on their feasibility to apply on the health risk evaluation due to the low-level and prolonged exposure to radionuclides in the environment. The possibility to use some kind of bio-markers are discussed to evaluate the potential health risk in advance before the risk will be actually detected. (author)

  3. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate fallout of Alexandria, Egypt: Sources and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Kassim, T.A.T.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Particulate fallout samples (PFS) were collected in Alexandria, and their aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compositions were determined both quantitatively and qualitatively to characterize the homologous and biomarker compounds in terms of their original sources. The results show that all samples contain aliphatic hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, UCM, isoprenoids, tri- and tetracyclic terpanes, hopanes, and steranes/diasteranes. The main source of these compounds is from petrochemical contamination with trace input of terrestrial higher plant wax. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are considered to be combustion products from fossil fuels such as petroleum, are also widely distributed in all samples. Multivariate statistical analysis, including extended Q-mode factor analysis and linear programming technique, was performed in order to reduce the hydrocarbon data set into a meaningful number of end members (sources). This analysis indicates that there are two significant end members explaining 90% of the total variation among the samples and confirming petrochemical (79.6%), and thermogenic/pyrolytic (10.4%) sources in the PFS model. 65 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Transfer of some Chernobyl fallout nuclides in the animal-product food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important tasks after the Chernobyl accident was the tracing of radionuclides into the food chain because of the acute interest in view of radiation protection considerations and of the fundamental significance to extend the knowledge on consequences of an accidental release. In this context five experiments have been performed during the last two years to investigate the transfer of radiocesium from grass into milk and meat of dairy cows. The first experiment, which was started immediately after the accident, involved 10 stable-kept cows fed with the freshly contaminated grass. Cs-transfer from grass into milk was found to be considerably lower than expected. After the starting phase of one week the mean transfer factor milk/grass for Cs-134 and Cs-137 leveled at 3.2.10-3 d/kg during the second week. This interesting result gave rise to four additional experiments, to study the Cs-transfer during the following feeding periods applying grass of fallout and root-uptake contamination

  5. Chernobyl fallout in three areas of upland pasture in West Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horrill, A.D.; Howard, D.M. (Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-on-Sands (United Kingdom). Merlewood Research Station)

    1991-12-01

    Concentrations of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs originating from Chernobyl fallout have been measured in standing vegetation of three upland pastures over a 3-year period. An exponential decay curve has been used in the past to describe concentrations on agricultural crops over a short time span (about 200 days). A better fit to the later stages of the present 3-year span can be obtained by a power curve or a double exponential. Examples of curves fitted by different methods are given and a range of predicted values calculated for the time to return to pre-Chernobyl levels. Total inventories for the three pastures were established with sites at Corney Fell, Ennerdale and Wastwater containing 16 000, 12 200 and 14 100 Bq m{sup -2} {sup 137}Cs, respectively. On these sites the pre-Chernobyl contribution of {sup 137}Cs is calculated as 17%, 38% and 34%. In all three soils which are a peat, brown podzolic soil and a brown earth the main deposition of the Chernobyl material is held in the top layers which are highly organic. (author).

  6. SIMS Analyses of Aerodynamic Fallout from a Uranium-Fueled Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matzel, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prussin, S. G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kinman, W. S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zimmer, M. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Five silicate fallout glass spherules produced in a uranium-fueled, near-surface nuclear test were characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis, autoradiography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x ray spectroscopy. Several samples display distinctive compositional heterogeneity suggestive of incomplete mixing, and exhibit heterogeneity in U isotopes with 0.02 < 235U/ 238U < 11.8 among all five samples and 0.02 < 235U/ 238U < 7.81 within a single sample. In two samples, the 235U/ 238U ratio is correlated with major element composition, consistent with the agglomeration of chemically and isotopically distinct molten precursors. Two samples are quasi-homogeneous with respect to composition and uranium isotopic composition, suggesting extensive mixing possibly due longer residence time in the fireball. Correlated variations between 234U, 235U, 236U and 238U abundances point to mixing of end-members corresponding to uranium derived from the device and natural U ( 238U/ 235U = 0.00725) found in soil.

  7. Summary of thyroid findings in Marshallese 22 years after exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhabitants of several atolls in the Marshall Islands were accidently exposed to fallout radiation following a detonation of a high yield thermonuclear device during experiments at Bikini in the Pacific Proving Grounds in March 1954. The most serious acute effects of the exposure were due to penetrating gamma radiation. Contamination of the skin in the Rongelap group resulted in widespread beta burns and epilation. These lesions healed and hair regrew normally within several months. Radiochemical urine analyses revealed that measurable amounts of radionuclides, including 131I, were absorbed internally from ingestion of contaminated food and water and from inhalation. No acute effects due to this internal exposure were seen. Late thyroid effects from radioiodine absorption are described. Follow-up examinations have revealed, except for one fatal case of leukemia and extensive thyroid lesions, only a few findings that might be related to radiation exposure. A group of more than 200 Rongelap people who were relatives of exposed people, but had been away from the island at the time of the accident, moved back with the exposed people to their home island in 1957 and have served as an ideal comparison population for the studies. Results of medical examinations carried out on these populations for the past 22 years are reviewed

  8. Processing of analogues of plume fallout in cold regions of Enceladus by energetic electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bergantini, A; Nair, B G; Mason, N J; Fraser, H J

    2014-01-01

    Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn, is one of the most remarkable bodies in the solar system. This moon is a geologically active object, and despite the lower temperatures on most of its surface, the geothermally heated south polar region presents geysers that spouts a plume made of water (approximately ninety percent), carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and methanol, among other molecules. Most of the upward-moving particles do not have the velocity to escape from the gravitational influence of the moon and fall back to the surface. The molecules in the ice are continuously exposed to ionizing radiation, such as UV and X-rays photons, cosmic rays, and electrons. Over time, the ionizing radiation promotes molecular bond rupture, destroying and also forming molecules, radicals, and fragments. We analyse the processing of an ice mixture analogue to the Enceladus fallout ice in cold resurfaced areas (north pole) by 1 keV electrons. The main goal is to search for complex species that have not yet been detected ...

  9. Radioactive fallout in the South Pacific: a history Part 2: radioactivity measurements in the Pacific islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme maintained in the Pacific islands by the National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) since 1961. Monitoring was commenced during the nuclear weapons tests at Christmas Island, then extended to a greater number of sites during the French atmospheric tests at Mururoa during 1966-1974 and maintained at that level until 1985 when the network was scaled down to its pres the monitoring of the French tests as the largest local source of short-lived fallout. These pacific monitoring operations during the period of 1960 to 1990 are reviewed which brings together and summarises the extensive compilation of data comprising 70 NRL report published during the period. An attempt is also made to correct the original data for decay between sampling and analysis. The average effective dose commitment for the South Pacific island population due to the entire history of atmospheric weapons tests is estimated to be 1.1 milli sievert.(author). 17 refs., 23 figs., tabs., ills

  10. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    comprised three airborne campaigns in Greenland from April to June 2012 separated by roughly one month and preliminary results showed the instrument capability to detect ice motion. CryoVEx 2012 was a large collaborative effort to help ensure the accuracy of ESA's ice mission CryoSat. The aim of this large-scale Arctic campaign was to record sea-ice thickness and conditions of the ice exactly below the CryoSat-2 path. A range of sensors installed on different aircraft included simple cameras to get a visual record of the sea ice, laser scanners to clearly map the height of the ice, an ice-thickness sensor (EM-Bird), ESA's radar altimeter (ASIRAS) and NASA's snow and Ku-band radars, which mimic CryoSat's measurements but at a higher resolution. Preliminary results reveal the ability to detect centimetre differences between sea-ice and thin ice/water which in turn allow for the estimation of actual sea ice thickness. In support of two currently operating EE Missions: SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer), DOMECair airborne campaign will take place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region during the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives are to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area, important to establish long-term cross-calibrated multi-mission L-band measurement time-series (SMOS) and fill in the gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica since airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Key airborne instruments in the campaign are EMIRAD-2 L-band radiometer, designed and operated by DTU and a gravimeter from AWI. ESA campaigns have been fundamental and an essential part in the preparation of new Earth Observation missions, as well as in the independent validation of their measurements and quantification of error sources. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the

  11. Tree species identification in an African Savanna with airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) using stacked support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeck, C. A.; Colgan, M.; Féret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing data provide promising opportunities for species identification of individual tree and shrub crowns across large areas which cannot be mapped from the ground. Previous investigations of the potential for species identification of crowns from airborne data have focused on pixel-level information (0.5-1m2), and thus have been unable to take advantage of the structural information that exist at the crown level. Hyperspectral data consisting of 58 bands from 517 to 1054nm and LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data providing vegetation height information were acquired over several landscapes within Kruger National Park, South Africa, by the CAO in 2008 at 1.1m spatial resolution. Over 1,000 individual trees and shrubs were mapped and identified in the field to construct species spectral and structural libraries. We used stacked support vector machines (SVM) that incorporate pixel-level spectral information and crown-level structural information to predict species identity for individual tree crowns. The addition of a crown-level classification step that incorporates crown structural information significantly improved model accuracy by ~6% and our prediction accuracy of the final model was ~75% for 16 species classes. This model was then used to predict the species identity of individual crowns across multiple airborne-mapped landscapes, made possible by an automated crown segmentation algorithm. The resultant species maps will make it possible to examine the environmental controls over individual species distributions and tree community composition, and provide important landscape-scale species distribution information relevant to park management and conservation.

  12. Airborne Laser Scanning and Image Processing Techniques for Archaeological Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltýnová, M.; Nový, P.

    2014-06-01

    Aerial photography was, for decades, an invaluable tool for archaeological prospection, in spite of the limitation of this method to deforested areas. The airborne laser scanning (ALS) method can be nowadays used to map complex areas and suitable complement earlier findings. This article describes visualization and image processing methods that can be applied on digital terrain models (DTMs) to highlight objects hidden in the landscape. Thanks to the analysis of visualized DTM it is possible to understand the landscape evolution including the differentiation between natural processes and human interventions. Different visualization methods were applied on a case study area. A system of parallel tracks hidden in a forest and its surroundings - part of old route called "Devil's Furrow" near the town of Sázava was chosen. The whole area around well known part of Devil's Furrow has not been prospected systematically yet. The data from the airborne laser scanning acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre was used. The average density of the point cloud was approximately 1 point/m2 The goal of the project was to visualize the utmost smallest terrain discontinuities, e.g. tracks and erosion furrows, which some were not wholly preserved. Generally we were interested in objects that are clearly not visible in DTMs displayed in the form of shaded relief. Some of the typical visualization methods were tested (shaded relief, aspect and slope image). To get better results we applied image-processing methods that were successfully used on aerial photographs or hyperspectral images in the past. The usage of different visualization techniques on one site allowed us to verify the natural character of the southern part of Devil's Furrow and find formations up to now hidden in the forests.

  13. Estimation of forest parameters using airborne laser scanning data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cohen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the estimation of forest characteristics by airborne laser scanning (ALS data have been introduced by several authors. Tree height (TH and canopy closure (CC describing the forest properties can be used in forest, construction and industry applications, as well as research and decision making. The National Land Survey has been collecting ALS data from Finland since 2008 to generate a nationwide high resolution digital elevation model. Although this data has been collected in leaf-off conditions, it still has the potential to be utilized in forest mapping. A method where this data is used for the estimation of CC and TH in the boreal forest region is presented in this paper. Evaluation was conducted in eight test areas across Finland by comparing the results with corresponding Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI datasets. The ALS based CC and TH maps were generally in a good agreement with the MS-NFI data. As expected, deciduous forests caused some underestimation in CC and TH, but the effect was not major in any of the test areas. The processing chain has been fully automated enabling fast generation of forest maps for different areas.

  14. Estimation of forest parameters using airborne laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methods for the estimation of forest characteristics by airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have been introduced by several authors. Tree height (TH) and canopy closure (CC) describing the forest properties can be used in forest, construction and industry applications, as well as research and decision making. The National Land Survey has been collecting ALS data from Finland since 2008 to generate a nationwide high resolution digital elevation model. Although this data has been collected in leaf-off conditions, it still has the potential to be utilized in forest mapping. A method where this data is used for the estimation of CC and TH in the boreal forest region is presented in this paper. Evaluation was conducted in eight test areas across Finland by comparing the results with corresponding Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI) datasets. The ALS based CC and TH maps were generally in a good agreement with the MS-NFI data. As expected, deciduous forests caused some underestimation in CC and TH, but the effect was not major in any of the test areas. The processing chain has been fully automated enabling fast generation of forest maps for different areas.

  15. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Meade River Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained from an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over the Meade River map area of Alaska are presented. Based on the criteria outlined in the general section on interpretation, a total of eight uranium anomalies have been outlined on the interpretation map. Most of these are only weakly to moderately anomalous. Zones 3 and 7 are relatively better than the others though none of the anomalies are thought to be of any economic significance. No follow-up work is recommended

  16. Marine Geoid Undulation Assessment Over South China Sea Using Global Geopotential Models and Airborne Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, N. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, K. M.; Som, Z. A. M.; Omar, A. H.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Tugi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Global geopotential models (GGMs) are vital in computing global geoid undulations heights. Based on the ellipsoidal height by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations, the accurate orthometric height can be calculated by adding precise and accurate geoid undulations model information. However, GGMs also provide data from the satellite gravity missions such as GRACE, GOCE and CHAMP. Thus, this will assist to enhance the global geoid undulations data. A statistical assessment has been made between geoid undulations derived from 4 GGMs and the airborne gravity data provided by Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM). The goal of this study is the selection of the best possible GGM that best matches statistically with the geoid undulations of airborne gravity data under the Marine Geodetic Infrastructures in Malaysian Waters (MAGIC) Project over marine areas in Sabah. The correlation coefficients and the RMS value for the geoid undulations of GGM and airborne gravity data were computed. The correlation coefficients between EGM 2008 and airborne gravity data is 1 while RMS value is 0.1499.In this study, the RMS value of EGM 2008 is the lowest among the others. Regarding to the statistical analysis, it clearly represents that EGM 2008 is the best fit for marine geoid undulations throughout South China Sea.

  17. Airborne exposure and estimated bioavailability of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Madison, WI (United States); Clewell, H.J. III [ICF Consulting, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hicks, J. [Geomatrix, (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A pilot group of workers were used in a study to determine the relationship between exposure to arsenic present in fly ash particles and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during full shift work schedules and daily urine samples were collected to determine the concentration of arsenic and its metabolites. Airborne particle size distribution samples were collected on six-stage personal cascade impactors. Previous studies of airborne exposure to arsenic in copper smelters predict urinary values nearly three times higher than those seen in exposure to arsenic in fly ash. The results suggest that differences in biological uptake of airborne arsenic probably depend on characteristics such as solubility, particle size and distribution and matrix composition of the arsenic compounds.

  18. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Sylvie V M; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  19. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  20. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  1. Towards prediction of redistribution of fallout radiocesium on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoru; Aoyama, Michio; Ito, Eriko; Shichi, Koji; Takata, Daisuke; Masaya, Masumori; Sekiya, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Natsuko; Takano, Naoto; Kaneko, Shinji; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko

    2015-04-01

    Redistribution of fallout 137Cs on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) is an issue of major concern for the people in Fukushima and its surrounding areas. To approach this question we investigated global fallout 137Cs (137Cs-GFO) from nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere in the 1950s and 60s, and 137Cs distribution derived from FNPP (137Cs-FK) within the whole trees contaminated directly. We examined concentrations and amounts of 137Cs-GFO in surface soils (0-5, 5-15 and 15-30 cm in depth) of 3470 samples at 316 sites all over Japan, which were collected just before the accident of FNPP. We determined 137Cs-GFO activities by NaI well-type scintillation counter with its accuracy verified using measurements by a germanium detector. We divided 316 sampling sites into 10 groups separated by one longitudinal line and four transversal lines on the terrain of Japan islands, then analyzed rainfall and geomorphological effects on 137Cs-GFO inventories. In addition to this dataset, we collected three whole tree samples of 26 year-old Quercus serrata at a contaminated area by FNPP accident in April, 2014 and examined concentrations of 137Cs-FK of above- and belowground tree parts by a germanium detector. We estimated an average of 137Cs-GFO inventories of forest soils in Japan to be 1.7 ± 1.4 kBq m-2 as of 2008. 137Cs-GFO inventories varied largely from 0-7.9 kBq m-2 among the country and accumulated greater in the north-western part along the Sea of Japan side. We detected rainfall effect on 137Cs-GFO inventories, which were greater where winter rainfall was large. As for vertical distribution of 137Cs-GFO, 44% of 137Cs-GFO remained within the uppermost 5 cm of soil profiles whereas the rest of 56% existed in 5-30 cm in depth. This indicated that considerable downward migration of 137Cs-GFO has happened during these fifty years in forest soils in Japan. However, multiple linear regression analysis by geomorphological factors related to soil

  2. Sandia Multispectral Airborne Lidar for UAV Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.W.; Hargis,Jr. P.J.; Henson, T.D.; Jordan, J.D.; Lang, A.R.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1998-10-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated the development of an airborne system for W laser remote sensing measurements. System applications include the detection of effluents associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the detection of biological weapon aerosols. This paper discusses the status of the conceptual design development and plans for both the airborne payload (pointing and tracking, laser transmitter, and telescope receiver) and the Altus unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. Hardware design constraints necessary to maintain system weight, power, and volume limitations of the flight platform are identified.

  3. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approximately 1,000 g/m3), high turbulence, and high temperature (approximately 20000C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that tittle, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building. (author)

  4. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  5. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  6. Airborne radioactivity surveys in geologic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, R.M.

    1958-01-01

    The value of airborne radioactivity surveys in guiding uranium exploration has been well established. Recent improvements in circuitry and development of semiquantitative analytical techniques permit a more comprehensive evaluation of the geologic distribution of radioactive materials that may prove useful in exploration for other minerals and in regional geologic studies. It is shown that placer deposits of heavy minerals can be detected from the air, and that the geometric configuration and average grade of the surficial part of the deposit can be approximated. Uranium-bearing phosphorite deposits may be similarly evaluated. Airborne surveys over the Coastal Plain area, Texas, show that

  7. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approx. 1000 g/m3), high turbulence, and high temperature (approx. 20000C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that little, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building

  8. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma

  9. Using total beta-activity measurements in milk to derive thyroid doses from Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident, more than 200 childhood thyroid cancer cases have been observed in Brest Oblast of Belarus in territories slightly contaminated with 137Cs, but with suspected relatively high 131I fallout. The most helpful measurements available that can be used to estimate thyroid doses for the population of Brest Oblast are the total beta-activity measurements in cow's milk performed using DP-100 device within a few weeks after the accident. The 131I concentrations in milk were derived from the total beta-activity measurements on the basis of (1) a radioecological model used to estimate the variation with time of the radionuclide composition in milk and (2) the determination of the calibration factors of the DP-100 device for the most important radionuclides present in milk. As a result, 131I concentrations in milk were reconstructed for territories with different levels of 137Cs deposition. A non-linear dependence of the 131I concentration in milk on the 137Cs deposition density was obtained; it was used to estimate the thyroid doses from the consumption of 131I-contaminated cow's milk by the population of Brest Oblast. The average individual thyroid doses have been estimated to be 0.15, 0.18, 0.12, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.03 Gy for newborn, children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 y and adults, respectively. The collective thyroid dose for the entire population of Brest Oblast is estimated to be 64,500 man Gy, the contribution from the adult population being about one half of the total. The methodology that is described could be applied in the framework of epidemiological studies of the relationship between radiation exposure to the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer in areas where numerous total beta-activity measurements in cow's milk were performed within a few weeks after the accident. (authors)

  10. Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation: The Role of Fallout Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide soil degradation is affecting 1.9 billion hectares and is increasing at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year. About 80% of the world’s agricultural land suffers moderate to severe erosion, and 10% suffers slight to moderate erosion. As a result of climate change and global warming, water erosion risk is even expected to increase. Land degradation by soil erosion has also wider negative ecological and socio-economic impacts and the economic costs of both on-site and offsite impacts of soil erosion in agricultural land have been estimated at $400 billion per year. The current concerns about declining soil productivity, increasing downstream sedimentation, and its related environmental pollution problems in agro-ecosystems, generate an urgent need for obtaining reliable quantitative data on the extent and rates of soil erosion. To efficiently control and mitigate soil losses by erosion and reduce their environmental impacts, soil conservation measures need to be targeted to areas with high erosion and sediment transfer. For this purpose, reliable and comprehensive data on the magnitude and spatial extent of soil redistribution are needed. Traditional monitoring and modelling techniques to quantify soil erosion and sedimentation are capable of meeting some of the information requirements, but they have a number of important limitations. The quest for alternative techniques of soil erosion assessment to complement existing methods and to meet new requirements has directed attention to a particular group of environmental radionuclides, namely fallout radionuclides (FRNs). These natural and anthropogenic radioisotopic tracers represent effective and valuable tools for the assessment of erosion and deposition within the landscape at several temporal and spatial scales. The use of FRNs can complement and in some cases even substitute conventional measurements to evaluate erosion and sedimentation processes for developing and improving land management and

  11. Guidelines for Using Fallout Radionuclides to Assess Erosion and Effectiveness of Soil Conservation Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil degradation currently affects 1.9 billion hectares of agricultural land worldwide, and the area of degraded land is increasing rapidly at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year. Most of this degradation is caused by inappropriate and poor land management practices in agriculture and livestock production. Among all degradation processes, including soil acidification, salinization and nutrient mining, soil erosion is by far the most common type of land degradation, accounting for 84% of affected areas, with more than three quarters of the affected surface land area located in developing countries. Current concerns about the impacts of soil erosion on crop productivity and the environment, as well as the deployment of effective soil conservation measures, have generated an urgent need to obtain reliable quantitative data on the extent and actual rates of soil erosion to underpin sustainable soil conservation strategies. The quest for new approaches for assessing soil erosion to complement conventional methods has led to the development of methodologies based on the use of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil erosion tracers. With increasing attention being paid to land degradation worldwide, this publication explains and demonstrates FRN based methods to trace soil movement and to assess soil erosion at different spatial and temporal scales, and to evaluate the effectiveness of soil conservation strategies to ensure sustainable land management in agricultural systems. This publication summarizes the experiences and knowledge gained since the end of the 1990s in the use of FRNs by the IAEA and by scientists from both developed and developing countries involved in IAEA research networks. This publication provides guidance in the application of FRNs to stakeholders involved in sustainable agricultural development

  12. Monitoring of Chernobyl fallout 137Cs in semi-natural coniferous forest of central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring the behaviour of 137Cs in semi-natural coniferous forest ecosystem of central Sweden was investigated between 1990 and 1994. Results demonstrated that soil in the area of study is thin layer characterised with high organic matter fraction and acidic pH. Most of Chernobyl fallout deposited 137Cs retained in the upper 5 cm with venial migration into deeper layers of soil profile The activity concentration of 137Cs in the dominant plants showed some variation, which presumed to be due to high variations in the different soil parameters and species-specificity of plants in 137Cs uptake. Fractionation of soil bound 137Cs using sequential extracted procedure predicted that easily extractable 137Cs fraction that includes water soluble and NH4OAc exchangeable comprises ∼25% of total soil radiocaesium inventory in the upper 5 cm layer of forest soil. These fractions, represent the soil mobile 137Cs in the forest ecosystem. About 37% of total forest soil 137Cs inventory could be accounted for soil organically bound 137Cs that include oxidizable and acid digestible organic matter. These fractions require a long term big-degradation process by soil micro-organisms, before becoming available for plant uptake. More over a substantial fraction Of 137Cs was firmly bound onto soil compartments of organic and/or mineral nature as a residual (36%). This means that binding processes of 137Cs onto humic forest soil with high fraction of organic matter and acidic reaction is time dependent. The most distinguished soil parameters that might influenced 137Cs transfer to and/or uptake by natural plants in the area of study were soil OM%, and soil pH. Soil biological activity might also be considered, (although it was not determined in this study). The long term 137Cs availability in this type of forest soil must be related to the organically bound 137Cs fractions. (author)

  13. Distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 in taiga and tundra catenae at the Ob River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    The classification of soil catenae at the Ob River basin is developed and applied. This classification reflects the diverse geochemical conditions that led to the formation of certain soil bodies, their combinations and the migration fields of chemical elements. The soil and geochemical diversity of the Ob River basin catenae was analyzed. The vertical and lateral distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 was studied using the example of the four most common catenae types in Western Siberia tundra and taiga. In landscapes of dwarf birches and dark coniferous forests on gleysols, cryosols, podzols, and cryic-stagnosols, the highest 137Cs activity density and specific activity are characteristic of the upper soil layer of over 30% ash, while the moss-grass-shrub cover is characterized by low 137Cs activity density and specific activity. In landscapes of dwarf birches and pine woods on podzols, the maximum specific activity of cesium-137 is typical for moss-grass-shrub cover, while the maximum reserves are concentrated in the upper soil layer of over 30% ash. Bog landscapes and moss-grass-shrub cover are characterized by a minimum activity of 137Cs, and its reserves in soil generally decrease exponentially with depth. The cesium-137 penetration depth increases in oligotrophic histosols from northern to middle taiga landscapes from 10-15 to 40 cm. 137Cs is accumulated in oligotrophic histosols for increases in pH from 3.3 to 4.0 and in concretionary interlayers of pisoplinthic-cryic-histic-stagnosols. Cryogenic movement, on the one hand, leads to burying organic layers enriched in 137Cs and, on the other hand, to deducing specific activity when mixed with low-active material from lower soil layers.

  14. Fire as an agent in redistributing fallout 137Cs in the Canadian boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of fallout 137Cs in the boreal forest and the effect of fire in redistributing 137Cs were studied in the remote region of Wood Buffalo National Park, N.W.T., Canada. Results of a preliminary study of five burned (the fire occurred in 1981) and five unburned stands conducted in 1986 revealed that 137Cs concentrations were higher in the surface soil of the burned stands than in the unburned ones. In 1989, a comprehensive study was conducted, in which one burned and one unburned white spruce stand were sampled in greater detail. The latter investigation also revealed a difference in the distribution of 137Cs within the burned stand compared to the unburned one. Specifically, in the unburned stand, the highest 137Cs concentration was identified in the epiphytic lichens and in the mosses, whereas in the burned stand, the highest concentration was measured in the surface organic soil. These results indicate that fire caused the mobilization of part of the 137Cs bound to the above-ground matter and concentrated it in the ash layer of the burned surface soil. An additional ecologically important finding in our study was that significantly lower total 137Cs load was observed in the burned stand compared to the unburned one. Hence, our data not only provide evidence that 137Cs is being redistributed within the burned stand to the surface soil, but also that part of the 137Cs is lost due to fire, presumably contaminating other ecosystems. Volatilization and fly-ash during the fire, and runoff (e.g. from snow melt) after the fire are the most likely mechanisms for the 137Cs removal. These findings point to fire as an agent of 137Cs secondary contamination for initially unaffected systems, as well as for those previously contaminated

  15. Estimation of radionuclide ingestion: Lessons from dose reconstruction for fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States conducted atmospheric testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1963. In 1979 the U.S. Department of Energy established the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project to compile a data base related to health effects from nuclear testing and to reconstruct doses to public residing off of the Nevada Test Site. This project is the most comprehensive dose reconstruction project to date, and, since similar assessments are currently underway at several other locations within and outside the U.S., lessons from ORERP can be valuable. A major component of dose reconstruction is estimation of dose from radionuclide ingestion. The PATHWAY food-chain model was developed to estimate the amount of radionuclides ingested. For agricultural components of the human diet, PATHWAY predicts radionuclide concentrations and quantities ingested. To improve accuracy and model credibility, four components of model analysis were conducted: estimation of uncertainty in model predictions, estimation of sensitivity of model predictions to input parameters, and testing of model predictions against independent data (validation), and comparing predictions from PATHWAY with those from other models. These results identified strengths and weaknesses in the model and aided in establishing the confidence associated with model prediction, which is a critical component risk assessment and dose reconstruction. For fallout from the Nevada Test Site, by far, the largest internal doses were received by the thyroid. However, the predicted number of fatal cancers from ingestion dose was generally much smaller than the number predicted from external dose. The number of fatal cancers predicted from ingestion dose was also orders of magnitude below the normal projected cancer rate. Several lessons were learned during the study that are relevant to other dose reconstruction efforts

  16. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  17. Study on radioactive fallout from Fukushima nuclear accident by plant samples using an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima nuclear accident was investigated by the radiation images of plant samples using an Imaging Plate System. Plant samples exposed by an imaging plate BASIII 2040 (Fujifilm, Japan) in overnight to one week, and radiation images were read by Typhoon FLA7000 (GE Healthcare Japan Corp.). Identifying and quantitative analysis of radionuclides were measured by Auto Well Gamma System ARC-380CL (Aloha Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). In the cross-sectional images of the bamboo shoot, the radioactive material is shown in heterogeneous distribution, it was found that it concentrated on the tip of the edible portion, and thin skin. These radionuclides were identified as 137Cs, 134Cs, and 40K. 40K is a natural radionuclide, on the other hand 137Cs and 134Cs would be derived from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A high concentration of 134Cs was shown at the distance of 150 mm from the base of the bamboo shoot by cross-sectional cutting into the width of about 1 mm. It was estimated about 1 kBq of 134Cs would be included in about 400 g (wet weight) of this one bamboo shoot in an edible part. Imaging data suggests that the contamination of radioactive cesium in this bamboo shoot was caused not by the extraneous attachment but by the absorption from roots. Because bamboo is gather water from extensive area, bamboo shoot concentrates the radioactive material contained in the rain even at low concentrations of radioactive materials in soil. (author)

  18. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a... conditions that can be detected with airborne weather radar equipment, may reasonably be expected along...

  19. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  20. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  1. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Airborne Gravity Data for AN01 (2009-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2009-2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  2. High-resolution geophysics in modern geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modern geoscientific knowledge base developed through systematic mapping is a major component of sustainable development strategies, underpinning mineral resource assessment and exploration. High-resolution airborne magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometric surveys are fundamental to modern geoscientific mapping, providing cost-effective definition of structure and lithology in a diverse range of geological provinces and terrains. Magnetic (and gravity) data are particularly valuable in determining basement structure and continuity under cover. Gamma-ray spectrometric data provide geochemical (K, Th, U) maps that have proved valuable in mapping bedrock lithology and alteration, and for mapping regolith materials and activity, particularly in highly weathered (regolith-dominated) terrains. More than 3 million line kilometres of new high-resolution airborne geophysics have been acquired by the Australian Commonwealth, State and Northern Territory geological surveys, since the commencement of the National Geoscience Mapping Accord, in support of geological mapping in a wide range of provinces. These new data, coupled with other modern mapping technologies, notably geographic information systems, provide a means of rapid, cost-effective geoscientific mapping and analysis in a wide diversity of geological environments and terrains. New geological maps and other thematic maps based on these geophysical data enable better definition of mineral potential and contribute directly to more effective and efficient exploration. In all provinces, new high-resolution airborne magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometric data have resulted in better definition of both geological structure and lithological boundaries than indicated on previous maps. This paper shows, by examples, the usefulness of geophysical data over a wide range of mapping in support of the mineral industry. 47 refs., 12 figs

  3. Field mapping for heat capacity mapping determinations: Ground support for airborne thermal surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R. J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal models independently derived by Watson, Outcalt, and Rosema were compared using similar input data and found to yield very different results. Each model has a varying degree of sensitivity to any specified parameter. Data collected at Pisgah Crater-Lavic Lake was re-examined to indicate serious discrepancy in results for thermal inertia from Jet Lab Propulsion Laboratory calculations, when made using the same orginal data sets.

  4. Reconciling In Situ Foliar Nitrogen and Vegetation Structure Measurements with Airborne Imagery Across Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg, C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the next 30 years the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will monitor environmental and ecological change throughout North America. NEON will provide a suite of standardized data from several ecological topics of interest, including net primary productivity and nutrient cycling, from 60+ sites across 20 eco-climatic domains when fully operational in 2017. The breadth of sampling includes ground-based measurements of foliar nitrogen and vegetation structure, ground-based spectroscopy, airborne LIDAR, and airborne hyperspectral surveys occurring within narrow overlapping time intervals once every five years. While many advancements have been made in linking and scaling in situ data with airborne imagery, establishing these relationships across dozens of highly variable sites poses significant challenges to understanding continental-wide processes. Here we study the relationship between foliar nitrogen content and airborne hyperspectral imagery at different study sites. NEON collected foliar samples from three sites in 2014 as part of a prototype study: Ordway Swisher Biological Station (pine-oak savannah, with active fire management), Jones Ecological Research Center (pine-oak savannah), and San Joaquin Experimental Range (grass-pine oak woodland). Leaf samples and canopy heights of dominant and co-dominant species were collected from trees located within 40 x 40 meter sampling plots within two weeks of aerial LIDAR and hyperspectral surveys. Foliar canopy samples were analyzed for leaf mass per area (LMA), stable isotopes of C and N, C/N content. We also examine agreement and uncertainty between ground based canopy height and airborne LIDAR derived digital surface models (DSM) for each site. Site-scale maps of canopy nitrogen and canopy height will also be presented.

  5. Precision Rectification of Airborne SAR Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Liao, M.; Zhang, Zhe;

    1997-01-01

    A simple and direct procedure for the rectification of a certain class of airborne SAR data is presented. The relief displacements of SAR data are effectively removed by means of a digital elevation model and the image is transformed to the ground coordinate system. SAR data from the Danish EMISAR...

  6. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.;

    2004-01-01

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  7. Topology optimized cloak for airborne sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Directional acoustic cloaks that conceal an aluminum cylinder for airborne sound waves are presented in this paper. Subwavelength cylindrical aluminum inclusions in air constitute the cloak design to aid practical realizations. The positions and radii of the subwavelength cylinders are determined...

  8. Airborne Soil Organic Particles Generated by Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Henning T.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique` Y.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in the Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. These particles exist in liquid, amorphous semi-solid, or solid (glassy) phase states depending on their composition and ambient conditions5. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi- solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Here we report field evidence for airborne solid organic particles generated by a “raindrop” mechanism7 pertinent to atmosphere – land surface interactions (Fig. 1). We find that after rain events at Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA, submicron solid particles, with a composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles in number. Subsequent experiments indicate that airborne soil organic particles are ejected from the surface of soils caused by intensive rains or irrigation. Our observations suggest that formation of these particles may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events such as agricultural systems and grasslands8. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of their physico-chemical properties suggests that airborne soil organic particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation and hence, are an important type of particles.

  9. Use of airborne vehicles as research platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Gratton, GB

    2012-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following chapter: Gratton, G. 2012. Use of Airborne Vehicles as Research Platforms. Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470686652.eae604/full. Copyright @ John Wiley & Sons 2012.

  10. The role of the Veterinary services in efforts to introduce measures to reduce harmful effects of the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the former Sovjet Union, Norway was the country most widely and severely affected by the impact of radioactive fallout (137Cs+134Cs) from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in April 1986. The fallout created considerable problems for sheep, goats and cattle grazing mountain pastures, and also for reindeer farming. Effective countermeasures, inter alia pre-slaughter feeding of livestock on uncountaminated fodder, and the use of caesium binders, had to be introduced. Further new methods to measure levels of radioactive caesium in live animals had to be developed, in order to alleviate the adverse effects on livestock and the human population. The veterinary services were, like other authorities involved, poorly prepared for this type of emergency. The Official Meat Inspection Acts and regulations and instructions issued in its pursuance, places the responsibility for protecting the public from hazards posed by contaminants in meat on the veterinary services. The veterinary authorities were therefore deeply involved in the development, management and implemention of measures to ensure that radioactivity levels in meat did not exceed official intervention levels. In this work, the veterinary services and individual veterinarians, benefitted from previous experience and training in contingency planning and tackling emergencies and were able to apply similar principles as these used to deal with emergency situations in the veterinary field, for example, outbreaks of serious infectious animal diseases. Efforts to reduce the detrimental impact of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout on agriculture and reindeer farming have been prolonged and comprehensive. So far, it seems fair to say that the veterinary services have born their share of responsibility and tackled the task to salvage as much meat as possible, in a reliable and economically justifiable manner

  11. The use of airborne laser data to calibrate satellite radar altimetry data over ice sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Simon; Bamber, J.L.; Krabill, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry is the most important data source for ice sheet elevation modeling but it is well established that the accuracy of such data from satellite borne radar altimeters degrade seriously with increasing surface slope and level of roughness. A significant fraction of the slope......-precision airborne laser profiling data from the so-called Arctic Ice Mapping project as a tool to determine that bias and to calibrate the satellite altimetry. This is achieved by a simple statistical analysis of the airborne laser profiles, which defines the mean amplitude of the local surface undulations as a......-correlated noise can be effectively removed by the so-called relocation error correction method. The adjustment, however, produces a different spatial sampling of the data, which introduces a non-negligible slope related bias to the computation of digital elevation models. In this paper we incorporate high...

  12. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  13. Determination of pasture quality using airborne hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, Ian J.; Irwin, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Pasture quality is a critical determinant which influences animal performance (live weight gain, milk and meat production) and animal health. Assessment of pasture quality is therefore required to assist farmers with grazing planning and management, benchmarking between seasons and years. Traditionally, pasture quality is determined by field sampling which is laborious, expensive and time consuming, and the information is not available in real-time. Hyperspectral remote sensing has potential to accurately quantify biochemical composition of pasture over wide areas in great spatial detail. In this study an airborne imaging spectrometer (AisaFENIX, Specim) was used with a spectral range of 380-2500 nm with 448 spectral bands. A case study of a 600 ha hill country farm in New Zealand is used to illustrate the use of the system. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, along with automatized georectification of the imagery using Digital Elevation Model (DEM), were applied to the raw images to convert into geocoded reflectance images. Then a multivariate statistical method, partial least squares (PLS), was applied to estimate pasture quality such as crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) from canopy reflectance. The results from this study revealed that estimates of CP and ME had a R2 of 0.77 and 0.79, and RMSECV of 2.97 and 0.81 respectively. By utilizing these regression models, spatial maps were created over the imaged area. These pasture quality maps can be used for adopting precision agriculture practices which improves farm profitability and environmental sustainability.

  14. Australian developments in airborne electromagnetics - from minerals to dryland salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic (EM) methods are based on the principle of inducing eddy currents in conductive material by varying the magnetic field in a transmitter wire loop. The eddy currents are detected by measuring their associated secondary magnetic fields in an ultra-sensitive induction coil. The author outlines the the early development of electromagnetic prospecting methods, particularly in Australia. In the late 1980s, World Geoscience Corporation, a subsidiary of Aerodata Holdings, tapped into the GIRD grant scheme with collaboration from CSIRO to develop the SALTMAP system, the world's first fully digital broadband airborne EM system. Unfortunately, the promises and expectations exceeded what technology could realistically deliver. Early SALTMAP surveys produced inconclusive, poor quality conductivity maps that sometimes appeared to correlate with known salt stores and sometimes not. Later on, the success story was the TEMPEST system, much better suited to mineral exploration in Australia than previous technologies. The TEMPEST system featured broadband (25 Hz to 37 kHz) multi-component acquisition, and streaming data recording suitable for post-survey digital processing. Using powerful interpretation and imaging software, users were able to quickly and reliably visualise conductivity variations in the subsurface in three dimensions. An interdisciplinary regional survey in the Temora/Gilmore area of western NSW in 1998, which later became known as Project Gilmore, clearly demonstrated the potential of the TEMPEST system for mineral exploration using a 'geological systems' approach for highlighting prospective areas, as well for regolith-based salinity mapping

  15. [Investigation of Carbonaceous Airborne Particles by Scanning Proton Microprobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Liang-man; Liu, Jiang-feng; Lei, Qian-tao; Li, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Gui-lin; Li, Yan

    2016-01-15

    Carbonaceous particles are an important component of the atmospheric aerosol particles and important for global climate change, air quality and human health. The PM₁₀ single particles from two environmental monitor locations and seven pollution emission sources were analyzed using scanning proton microprobe (SPM) techniques. The concentration of carbon in individual particles was quantitatively determined by proton non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS). The results of this investigation showed that carbonaceous particles were dominant in the pollution sources of coal and oil combustions, diesel busexhaust and automobile exhaust, while inorganic particles were dominant in the sources of steel industry, cement dust and soil dust. Carbonaceous matter was enriched in particles from the city center, while mineral matter was the main component of airborne particles in the industrial area. Elemental mapping of single aerosol particles yielded important information on the chemical reactions of aerosol particles. The micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) maps of S, Ca and Fe of individual carbonaceous particles showed that sulfuration reaction occurred between SO₂and mineral particles, which increased the sulfur content of particles. PMID:27078933

  16. External Radiation in Dolon Village Due to Local Fallout from the First USSR Atomic Bomb Test in 1949

    OpenAIRE

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; FUKUTANI, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Dolon village, located about 60 km from the border of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, is known to be heavily contaminated by local fallout from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949. External radiation in Dolon was evaluated based on recent 137Cs data in soil and calculation of temporal change in the fission product composition. After fitting a log-normal distribution to the soil data, a 137Cs deposition of 32 kBq m-2, which corresponds to the 90th-percentile of the distribution, was t...

  17. Dose conversion factors of radiation doses at normal operation discharges. A. Dispersion in air and fallout on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed in order to develop and supplement existing models for calculating radiation doses from discharges of radionuclides under normal operating conditions at the Swedish NPPs at Barsebaeck, Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals, and at the nuclear plants at Studsvik and the Westinghouse Atom fuel plant. Methods for modeling the dispersion i the atmosphere and the fallout on the ground are described in this report. A gaussian plume-model is used, and the effects of different parameters on the results are illustrated. Long term mean values for environmental contamination are calculated for an average year by using 5-year statistics for each location

  18. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  19. Regional airborne flux measurements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Vaccari, F. P.; Zaldei, A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the subject of considerable scientific and political debate. Even if it is now possible to estimate within reasonable accuracy the sink strength of European forests at the local scale, difficulties still exist in determining the partitioning of the sinks at the global and regional scales. The aim of the EU-project RECAB (Regional Assessment of the Carbon Balance in Europe) that is coordinated by Alterra, Wageningen (NL), is to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements and continental scale inversion models by a generic modelling effort and measurement program, focussing on a limited number of selected regions in Europe for which previous measurements exists. This required the establishment of a European facility for airborne measurement of surface fluxes of CO2 at very low altitude, and a research aircraft capable of performing airborne eddy covariance measurements has been acquired by this project and used on several occasions at the different RECAB sites. The aircraft is the italian Sky Arrows ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with the NOAA/ARA Mobile Flux Platform (MFP), and a commercial open-path infrared gas analyser. Airborne eddy covariance measurements were made from June 2001 onwards in Southern Spain near Valencia (June and December 2001), in Central Germany near Jena (July 2001), in Sweden near Uppsala (August 2001), in The Netherlands near Wageningen (January and July 2002) and in Italy near Rome (June 2002). Flux towers were present at each site to provide a validation of airborne eddy covariance measurements. This contribution reports some validation results based on the comparison between airborne and ground based flux measurements and some regional scale results for different locations and different seasons, in a wide range of meteorological and ecological settings.

  20. Comparison of airborne and spaceborne TIR data for studying volcanic geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying the surface expression of geothermal heat flux in volcanic geothermal areas is important for establishing baseline thermal activity to better detect and understand any future changes that may be related to hydrothermal or volcanic processes, or human activities. Volcanic geothermal areas are often too large and inaccessible for only field-based thermal monitoring, so thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing tools are also used. High resolution (sub-meter) airborne TIR imagery can be used for detailed, quantitative analyses of small, subtle geothermal features. Airborne data acquisitions have the advantage of being able to be acquired under ideal conditions (e.g., predawn, cloud-free), but the disadvantage of high costs - thus precluding high-frequency monitoring. Satellite-based TIR data from the Landsat 8 platform are freely available and can be acquired regularly for change detection, but are acquired with coarser spatial resolution (e.g., 100-m pixels), and thus are not as sensitive to subtle thermal characteristics. Two geothermal areas with clear, nighttime TIR data from nearly concurrent (within days) airborne and spaceborne instruments were investigated: Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, WY; and the Casa Diablo geothermal field, near Mammoth Lakes, CA. At Norris Geyser Basin, the area covered by high-resolution airborne TIR imagery is almost entirely geothermally heated ground, with hundreds of fumaroles, hot springs, and thermal drainages - although some non-geothermal background is exposed. With the coarser resolution Landsat 8 data, there are thermal variations within the smaller area covered by the airborne data, but the entire area appears to be thermally anomalous with respect to the non-geothermal background outside the basin. In the geothermal field around the Casa Diablo geothermal site, there are numerous, small areas of geothermal heating that are clearly distinguishable above the background by the high

  1. URBAN TREE CLASSIFICATION USING FULL-WAVEFORM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zs. Koma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation mapping in urban environments plays an important role in biological research and urban management. Airborne laser scanning provides detailed 3D geodata, which allows to classify single trees into different taxa. Until now, research dealing with tree classification focused on forest environments. This study investigates the object-based classification of urban trees at taxonomic family level, using full-waveform airborne laser scanning data captured in the city centre of Vienna (Austria. The data set is characterised by a variety of taxa, including deciduous trees (beeches, mallows, plane trees and soapberries and the coniferous pine species. A workflow for tree object classification is presented using geometric and radiometric features. The derived features are related to point density, crown shape and radiometric characteristics. For the derivation of crown features, a prior detection of the crown base is performed. The effects of interfering objects (e.g. fences and cars which are typical in urban areas on the feature characteristics and the subsequent classification accuracy are investigated. The applicability of the features is evaluated by Random Forest classification and exploratory analysis. The most reliable classification is achieved by using the combination of geometric and radiometric features, resulting in 87.5% overall accuracy. By using radiometric features only, a reliable classification with accuracy of 86.3% can be achieved. The influence of interfering objects on feature characteristics is identified, in particular for the radiometric features. The results indicate the potential of using radiometric features in urban tree classification and show its limitations due to anthropogenic influences at the same time.

  2. Urban Tree Classification Using Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Zs.; Koenig, K.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    Vegetation mapping in urban environments plays an important role in biological research and urban management. Airborne laser scanning provides detailed 3D geodata, which allows to classify single trees into different taxa. Until now, research dealing with tree classification focused on forest environments. This study investigates the object-based classification of urban trees at taxonomic family level, using full-waveform airborne laser scanning data captured in the city centre of Vienna (Austria). The data set is characterised by a variety of taxa, including deciduous trees (beeches, mallows, plane trees and soapberries) and the coniferous pine species. A workflow for tree object classification is presented using geometric and radiometric features. The derived features are related to point density, crown shape and radiometric characteristics. For the derivation of crown features, a prior detection of the crown base is performed. The effects of interfering objects (e.g. fences and cars which are typical in urban areas) on the feature characteristics and the subsequent classification accuracy are investigated. The applicability of the features is evaluated by Random Forest classification and exploratory analysis. The most reliable classification is achieved by using the combination of geometric and radiometric features, resulting in 87.5% overall accuracy. By using radiometric features only, a reliable classification with accuracy of 86.3% can be achieved. The influence of interfering objects on feature characteristics is identified, in particular for the radiometric features. The results indicate the potential of using radiometric features in urban tree classification and show its limitations due to anthropogenic influences at the same time.

  3. A MATLAB GEODETIC SOFTWARE FOR PROCESSING AIRBORNE LIDAR BATHYMETRY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pepe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to build three-dimensional models through technologies based on satellite navigation systems GNSS and the continuous development of new sensors, as Airborne Laser Scanning Hydrography (ALH, data acquisition methods and 3D multi-resolution representations, have contributed significantly to the digital 3D documentation, mapping, preservation and representation of landscapes and heritage as well as to the growth of research in this fields. However, GNSS systems led to the use of the ellipsoidal height; to transform this height in orthometric is necessary to know a geoid undulation model. The latest and most accurate global geoid undulation model, available worldwide, is EGM2008 which has been publicly released by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA EGM Development Team. Therefore, given the availability and accuracy of this geoid model, we can use it in geomatics applications that require the conversion of heights. Using this model, to correct the elevation of a point does not coincide with any node must interpolate elevation information of adjacent nodes. The purpose of this paper is produce a Matlab® geodetic software for processing airborne LIDAR bathymetry data. In particular we want to focus on the point clouds in ASPRS LAS format and convert the ellipsoidal height in orthometric. The algorithm, valid on the whole globe and operative for all UTM zones, allows the conversion of ellipsoidal heights using the EGM2008 model. Of this model we analyse the slopes which occur, in some critical areas, between the nodes of the undulations grid; we will focus our attention on the marine areas verifying the impact that the slopes have in the calculation of the orthometric height and, consequently, in the accuracy of the in the 3-D point clouds. This experiment will be carried out by analysing a LAS APRS file containing topographic and bathymetric data collected with LIDAR systems along the coasts of Oregon and Washington

  4. a Matlab Geodetic Software for Processing Airborne LIDAR Bathymetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, M.; Prezioso, G.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to build three-dimensional models through technologies based on satellite navigation systems GNSS and the continuous development of new sensors, as Airborne Laser Scanning Hydrography (ALH), data acquisition methods and 3D multi-resolution representations, have contributed significantly to the digital 3D documentation, mapping, preservation and representation of landscapes and heritage as well as to the growth of research in this fields. However, GNSS systems led to the use of the ellipsoidal height; to transform this height in orthometric is necessary to know a geoid undulation model. The latest and most accurate global geoid undulation model, available worldwide, is EGM2008 which has been publicly released by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) EGM Development Team. Therefore, given the availability and accuracy of this geoid model, we can use it in geomatics applications that require the conversion of heights. Using this model, to correct the elevation of a point does not coincide with any node must interpolate elevation information of adjacent nodes. The purpose of this paper is produce a Matlab® geodetic software for processing airborne LIDAR bathymetry data. In particular we want to focus on the point clouds in ASPRS LAS format and convert the ellipsoidal height in orthometric. The algorithm, valid on the whole globe and operative for all UTM zones, allows the conversion of ellipsoidal heights using the EGM2008 model. Of this model we analyse the slopes which occur, in some critical areas, between the nodes of the undulations grid; we will focus our attention on the marine areas verifying the impact that the slopes have in the calculation of the orthometric height and, consequently, in the accuracy of the in the 3-D point clouds. This experiment will be carried out by analysing a LAS APRS file containing topographic and bathymetric data collected with LIDAR systems along the coasts of Oregon and Washington (USA).

  5. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  6. Derivation of Strike and Dip in Sedimentary Terrain Using 3D Image Interpretation Based on Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional geological mapping may be hindered by rough terrain and dense vegetation resulting in obscured geological details. The advent of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provides a very precise three-dimensional (3D digital terrain model (DTM. However, its full potential in complementing traditional geological mapping remains to be explored using 3D rendering techniques. This study uses two types of 3D images which differ in imaging principles to further explore the finer details of sedimentary terrain. Our purposes are to demonstrate detailed geological mapping with 3D rendering techniques, to generate LiDAR-derived 3D strata boundaries that are advantageous in generating 2D geological maps and cross sections, and to develop a new practice in deriving the strike and dip of bedding with LiDAR data using an example from the north bank of the Keelung River in northern Taiwan. We propose a geological mapping practice that improves efficiency and meets a high-precision mapping standard with up to 2 m resolution using airborne LiDAR data. Through field verification and assessment, LiDAR data manipulation with relevant 3D visualization is shown to be an effective approach in improving the details of existing geological maps, specifically in sedimentary terrain.

  7. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil; Atividade de {sup 14} C do 'fallout' em aneis anuais de crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia, de Arapoti - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de 14 C; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais. Lab. de Dendrocronologia

    2000-07-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial {sup 14} C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. {sup 14} C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of {delta}{sup 14} C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout {sup 14} C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11{sup S}, 49 deg 58{sup O}). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its {sup 14} C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the {delta} {sup 14} C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO{sub 2} mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  8. Update of Previous Investigations on the Use of Fallout Radionuclides in Mistelbach-Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this study performed in 2006-2008 by the Soil Science Unit in collaboration with Boku University in Mistelbach watershed (Austria) was to evaluate the magnitude of deposition rates using 137Cs and 210Pbex and the erosion rates using runoff plot measurements. The final results published recently in the peer-reviewed journal Geoderma can be summarised as following: (i) Erosion measurements (1994-2006) from runoff plots located in the upper part of an agricultural field just up-slope from a deposition area reached 29.4 t ha-1 · a-1 from the conventional tilled plot, 4.2 t ha-1 · a-1 from the conservation tillage plot and 2.7 t ha-1 · a-1 from the direct seeding treatment. Soil losses were reduced significantly by a factor of 10 using no tillage, direct seeding treatment. (ii) Using the 137Cs data that integrate the 1954-2007 period, the sedimentation rates down slope of the field containing the runoff plots were estimated at: - 26.1 t-1 · ha-1 · ha-1 using the 137Cs depth distribution profile - 20.3 t-1 · ha-1 · a-1 using the Mass Balance Model 2 (MBM2). (iii) The erosion rates under conventional tillage are in agreement with the sedimentation rates estimated down slope of the field by the 137Cs depth distribution profile and MBM2. (iv) In the lowest part of the watershed a sedimentation rate of 50.5 t-1 · ha-1 · a-1 was highlighted by the 137Cs depth distribution profile. This value was greater than the average erosion rate measured by the erosion plots because this area is more representative of sedimentation processes occurring in the study area due to its topographical position and the basin geomorphology. While 137Cs produced exploitable results, the 210Pb method was not applicable due to very low concentrations of 210Pbex associated to a high uncertainty in the measurements and a high fallout variability

  9. New simple deposition model based on reassessment of global fallout data 1954 - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. This testing is the major cause of distribution of man-made radionuclides over the globe and constitutes a background that needs to be considered when effects of other sources are estimated. The main radionuclides of long term (after the first months) concern are generally assumed to be 137Cs and 90Sr. It has been known for a long time that the deposition density of 137Cs and 90Sr is approximately proportional to the amount of precipitation. But the use of this proportional relationship raised some questions such as (a) over how large area can it be assumed that the concentration in precipitation is the same at any given time; (b) how does this agree with the observed latitude dependency of deposition density and (c) are the any other parameters that could be of use in a simple model describing global fallout? These issues were amongst those taken up in the NKS-B EcoDoses activity. The preliminary results for 137Cs and 90Sr showed for each that the measured concentration had been similar at many European and N-American sites at any given time and that the change with time had been similar. These finding were followed up in a more thorough study in this (DepEstimates) activity. Global data (including the US EML and UK AERE data sets) from 1954 - 1976 for 90Sr and 137Cs were analysed testing how well different potential explanatory variables could describe the deposition density. The best fit was obtained by not assuming the traditional proportional relationship, but instead a non-linear power function. The predictions obtained using this new model may not be significantly different from those obtained using the traditional model, when using a limited data set such as from one country as a test in this report showed. But for larger data sets and understanding of underlying processes the new model should be an improvement. (Author)

  10. New simple deposition model based on reassessment of global fallout data 1954 - 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Bergan, T.D. [Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning, Toensberg (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Isaksson, M. [Univ. of Gothenburg. Dept. of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgren Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nielsen, Sven P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute. Observation Services, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. This testing is the major cause of distribution of man-made radionuclides over the globe and constitutes a background that needs to be considered when effects of other sources are estimated. The main radionuclides of long term (after the first months) concern are generally assumed to be {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. It has been known for a long time that the deposition density of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr is approximately proportional to the amount of precipitation. But the use of this proportional relationship raised some questions such as (a) over how large area can it be assumed that the concentration in precipitation is the same at any given time; (b) how does this agree with the observed latitude dependency of deposition density and (c) are the any other parameters that could be of use in a simple model describing global fallout? These issues were amongst those taken up in the NKS-B EcoDoses activity. The preliminary results for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr showed for each that the measured concentration had been similar at many European and N-American sites at any given time and that the change with time had been similar. These finding were followed up in a more thorough study in this (DepEstimates) activity. Global data (including the US EML and UK AERE data sets) from 1954 - 1976 for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were analysed testing how well different potential explanatory variables could describe the deposition density. The best fit was obtained by not assuming the traditional proportional relationship, but instead a non-linear power function. The predictions obtained using this new model may not be significantly different from those obtained using the traditional model, when using a limited data set such as from one country as a test in this report showed. But for larger data sets and understanding of underlying processes the new model should be an improvement. (Author)

  11. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 ?? 105, 5.4 ?? 105 and 0.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclides analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Contamination of river water and sediment constitutes a major environmental issue for industrialized countries. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants characterized by two or more fused rings. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number. Some PAHs present indeed a high risk for environment and human health because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. However, most of these studies focused on measuring PAH concentration in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.) In this context, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the various processes responsible for PAH transfers from one environmental compartment to another. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Air, soil, river water and sediment samples (n=820) were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin (France) during one year. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Furthermore, measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. resuspension of older material that previously deposited on the riverbed. This information is crucial to estimate PAH residence time and transfer velocities in the Seine River basin. The results show that the PAH behaviour varies from one subcatchment to the next. PAH transfers depend indeed on both the characteristics of the catchment (e.g. topography, presence of drained cropland in catchments) and the local anthropogenic pressures. A significant increase in atmospheric deposition of PAHs is observed during winter due to a larger number of sources (household heating). The 14-month study has also highlighted the seasonal variations of PAH fluxes, which are mainly related to the hydrological

  13. Pertubation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediments following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, P.I.; León Vintró, L.; Dahlgaard, H.;

    1997-01-01

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marinesediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratio of similar to 0.18. Measurement of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had...... been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing (e.g. Bikini Atoll, Nevada test site, Mururoa Atoll), has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the Pu-240/Pu-239 ratio has been examined...... in samples of sediment (and soil) collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The Pu-240/Pu-239 ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry...

  14. Fusion of Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Data for 3D modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hani Mahmoud

    This thesis deals with the 3D modeling phase of the as-built large BIM projects. Among several means of BIM data capturing, such as photogrammetric or range tools, laser scanners have been one of the most efficient and practical tool for a long time. They can generate point clouds with high resolution for 3D models that meet nowadays' market demands. The current 3D modeling projects of as-built BIMs are mainly focused on using one type of laser scanner data, such as Airborne or Terrestrial. According to the literatures, no significant (few) efforts were made towards the fusion of heterogeneous laser scanner data despite its importance. The importance of the fusion of heterogeneous data arises from the fact that no single type of laser data can provide all the information about BIM, especially for large BIM projects that are existing on a large area, such as university buildings, or Heritage places. Terrestrial laser scanners are able to map facades of buildings and other terrestrial objects. However, they lack the ability to map roofs or higher parts in the BIM project. Airborne laser scanner on the other hand, can map roofs of the buildings efficiently and can map only small part of the facades. Short range laser scanners can map the interiors of the BIM projects, while long range scanners are used for mapping wide exterior areas in BIM projects. In this thesis the long range laser scanner data obtained in the Stop-and-Go mapping mode, the short range laser scanner data, obtained in a fully static mapping mode, and the airborne laser data are all fused together to bring a complete effective solution for a large BIM project. Working towards the 3D modeling of BIM projects, the thesis framework starts with the registration of the data, where a new fast automatic registration algorithm were developed. The next step is to recognize the different objects in the BIM project (classification), and obtain 3D models for the buildings. The last step is the development of an

  15. A carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for natural radioactivity mapping and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R.L.; Cox, J.R. [Exploranium Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the use of a carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for mapping both natural and man-made radiation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calibration of the system for converting the gamma-ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and the activity of {sup 137}Cs. During the Finnish Emergency Response Exercise (Resume95), the carborne system was shown to be effective in mapping both natural and man-made radiation from {sup 137}Cs fallout and in locating radioactive sources. The application of the carborne system for mineral exploration is also demonstrated. (au). 10 refs.

  16. Basic material for working out recommendations to farmers in case of a nuclear energy accident. After an alert, but before the deposition of radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the vulnerability and the consequences of a nuclear accident in agriculture, certain measures can be taken already before a fallout has occurred. The risk scenario is that a radioactive release has taken place and that radioactive clouds can be expected to reach agricultural areas in Sweden, but as yet there has been no fallout. Countermeasures can be taken before fallout. The meteorological conditions are of vital importance for the development. The objective of this report is to suggest proper measures which can be taken before a fallout has occurred in order to reduce the radiation dose to people and animals. If this succeeds it could mean considerable savings for both society and the individual farmers. The threat is of different importance depending on the season of expected fallout. The measures and the recommendations are divided into general and specific. The specific measures deals with six occasions of crop development. In an acute threat situation the best recommendation would be to prepare a quick harvest of fodder for the animals or a quick crop harvest. The aim for grass crops is to avoid contamination of the first grass cut and to decrease the contamination level in the next. For cereal and oil crops the aim is to harvest as large an area as possible before fallout. Lack of time, personnel and local machine capacity are constraints to a general achievement of the goals, but the countermeasures, if employed in as large a scale as possible, can nevertheless be of large importance. Care must be taken by advisors in order to motivate the farmers to follow the recommendations

  17. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  18. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  19. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Hrnecek, Erich; Krachler, Michael [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Shotyk, William [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 839 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  20. Estimating and mapping grass phosphorus concentration in an African savanna using hyperspectral image data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.; Kumar, L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the utility of imaging spectroscopy and neural networks to map phosphorus concentration in savanna grass using airborne HyMAP image data. We also sought to ascertain the key wavelengths for phosphorus prediction using hyperspectral remote sensing. The remote sensing of foliar phosphorus ha