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Sample records for airborne betula pollen

  1. Influence of meteorological parameters and air pollution on hourly fluctuation of birch (Betula L.) and ash (Fraxinus L.) airborne pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that originate allergic processes. Knowledge of intradiurnal variation of the atmospheric pollen may be useful for the treatment and prevention of pollen allergies. Intradiurnal fluctuation of hourly pollen counts in 24 h are related to the daily rhythm of anther opening, and modified by various interacting factors. Flowering and pollen production of individual species are influenced by genetic, phenological, ecological, meteorological and climatic factors. Estimation of the intradiurnal variability in the pollen count permits evaluation of the threat posed by allergens over a given area. Measurements performed in Szczecin over a period of 7 years (2006-2012) permitted analysis of hourly variation of the pollen count of birch (Betula) and ash (Fraxinus) in 24 h, and evaluation of the impact of weather conditions and the concentration of gas air pollutants on the intradiurnal patterns of both taxa. Aerobiological monitoring was conducted using a Hirst volumetric trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000). Consecutive phases during the day were defined as 1, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 99% of annual total pollen. The analysis revealed that 50% of total daily pollen was noted at 14:00 for Betula and Fraxinus. The hourly distribution of birch pollen count skewed to the left and the majority of pollen of this taxon appears in the air in the first 12 hours of the day. However, for ash, the hourly distribution of pollen count skewed to the right. Statistically significant correlation was noted between the Betula and Fraxinus pollen concentration and the mean air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, air pressure, total radiation and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). PMID:23311785

  2. Spatiotemporal models for predicting high pollen concentration level of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula

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    Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Corylus, Alnus, and Betula trees are among the most important sources of allergic pollen in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere and have a large impact on the quality of life and productivity of allergy sufferers. Therefore, it is important to predict high pollen concentrations, both in time and space. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate spatiotemporal models for predicting high Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels, based on gridded meteorological data. Aerobiological monitoring was carried out in 11 cities in Poland and gathered, depending on the site, between 2 and 16 years of measurements. According to the first allergy symptoms during exposure, a high pollen count level was established for each taxon. An optimizing probability threshold technique was used for mitigation of the problem of imbalance in the pollen concentration levels. For each taxon, the model was built using a random forest method. The study revealed the possibility of moderately reliable prediction of Corylus and highly reliable prediction of Alnus and Betula high pollen concentration levels, using preprocessed gridded meteorological data. Cumulative growing degree days and potential evaporation proved to be two of the most important predictor variables in the models. The final models predicted not only for single locations but also for continuous areas. Furthermore, the proposed modeling framework could be used to predict high pollen concentrations of Corylus, Alnus, Betula, and other taxa, and in other countries.

  3. Wavelet Based Fractal Analysis of Airborne Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Degaudenzi, M. E.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen tim...

  4. Analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Culig, Josip; Mitić, Bozena; Vukusić, Ivan; Sostar, Zvonimir

    2003-01-01

    Employing the volumetric method by use of a Hirst sampler, a total of 71,286 pollen grains, as many as 94.20% of them allergenic, were recorded in the air samples from the city of Zagreb during the 2002 pollen season. Among identified pollen of 35 plant species/genera/families, 23 were allergenic: Taxus/Juniperus, Alnus sp., Fraxinus sp., Betula sp., Corylus sp., Poaceae, Urticaceae, Artemisia sp., Ambrosia sp., Carpinus sp., Castanea sp., Chenopodiaceae, Salix sp., Populus sp., Ulmus sp., Juglans sp., Quercus sp., Platanus sp., Fagus sp., Plantago sp., Pinus sp., Picea sp. and Abies sp. The pollen of these plants also cause the majority of pollinosis in Europe. Study results and the pollen calendar designed for the 2002 pollen season for the City of Zagreb provide useful data for allergologists to reach an accurate diagnosis. The calendar also provides timely information on airborne pollen types and air concentrations for individuals with pollen hypersensitivity, thus allowing them to adjust their daily activities so as to minimize their contact with allergens and improve their quality of life both at home and at work. PMID:12852741

  5. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

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    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  6. Wavelet Based Fractal Analysis of Airborne Pollen

    CERN Document Server

    Degaudenzi, M E

    1999-01-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen time series indicate that the system can be described by a low dimensional chaotic map. We apply the wavelet transform to study the multifractal characteristics of an a irborne pollen time series. We find the persistence behaviour associated to low pollen concentration values and to the most rare events of highest pollen co ncentration values. The information and the correlation dimensions correspond to a chaotic system showing loss of information with time evolution.

  7. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Denizli

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENSEN, Aykut; ÇELİK, Ali; TOPUZ, Bülent; ÖZTÜRK, Münir

    2013-01-01

    Airborne pollen distribution in Denizli Province was measured volumetrically during 2 consecutive years, 2005 and 2006, on a weekly basis. A total of 11,981 pollen grains/m3 belonging to 42 taxa were determined. In 2005 the total was 5368 pollen grains/m3 and in 2006 it was 6613 pollen grains/m3. Among the taxa recorded, 26 belonged to arboreal and 16 to nonarboreal taxa. At the end of the 2 years total pollen counts comprised 79.68% arboreal, 19.48% nonarboreal, and 0.84% unidentified taxa. ...

  8. Airborne pollen spectrum of Dnіpropetrovsk city as a basis of hay fever control

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    V. V. Rodinkova

    2013-02-01

    other representatives of Asteraceae constituted of 5% each. The most abundant tree pollen rain (4% from total annual count was produced by the Populus species. Betula pollen was the next having up 2% of annual pollen rain in Dnipropetrovsk. As can be seen, the first arboreal spring-summer pollination wave was not massive in Dnipropetrovsk. It was represented by Populus, Betula, Acer, Fraxinus, Quercus, Ulmus, Pinus, Juglans pollen spread in the end of March, whole April and the first weeks of May mostly. However, the second wave was intensively seen from the mid of July till the mid of October. Important airborne pollen producing taxa were Artemisisia, Ambrosia, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Urtica, Plantago, Polygonaceae pollen at that time. Important airborne pollen allergens of Poaceae family (grasses held the 7th position in the total annual pollen rain and were recorded between two pollination waves from the mid of May till the end of June mostly. The worst period for the patients was associated with the Betula, Acer and Quercus pollination from 13th of April  till the mid of May and with Ambrosia and Artemisia pollination from 28th of July, till September, 30. The present airborne pollen calendar should be considered while diagnosing the hay fever symptoms in sensitive patients. It’s important to continue the pollen count and control in Dnіpropetrovsk due to constant changing of climatic and anthropogenic conditions impacting the pollen production and release.

  9. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265

  10. Wavelet-based fractal analysis of airborne pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaudenzi, M. E.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    1999-06-01

    The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self-protection of a pollen allergy is possible through information about future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pollen concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of daily pollen forecasts result in failures. Previous analyses of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen time series indicate that the system can be described by a low dimensional chaotic map. We apply a wavelet transform to study the multifractal characteristics of an airborne pollen time series. The information and the correlation dimensions correspond to a chaotic system showing a loss of information with time evolution.

  11. Effect of air pollutant NO2 on Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus pollen fertility and human allergenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen of Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus was exposed in vitro to two levels of NO2 (about 0.034 and 0.067 ppm) – both below current atmospheric hour-limit value acceptable for human health protection in Europe (0.11 ppm for NO2). Experiments were performed under artificial solar light with temperature and relative humidity continuously monitored. The viability, germination and total soluble proteins of all the pollen samples exposed to NO2 decreased significantly when compared with the non-exposed. The polypeptide profiles of all the pollen samples showed bands between 15 and 70 kDa and the exposure to NO2 did not produce any detectable changes in these profiles. However, the immunodetection assays indicated higher IgE recognition by patient sera sensitized to the pollen extracts from all exposed samples in comparison to the non-exposed samples. The common reactive bands to the three pollen samples correspond to 58 and 17 kDa proteins. -- Highlights: • A synthetic atmosphere containing relatively low levels of the air pollutant NO2 was simulated. • Betulaceae pollen was in vitro exposed to low levels of atmospheric NO2 pollutant. • The fertility of the Betulaceae pollen exposed to NO2 decreased significantly. • The human allergenicity of the Betulaceae pollen exposed to NO2 increased. -- When the pollen of birch trees were exposed to low levels of air pollutant NO2, a decrease in the fertility, and an increase on the allergic reactivity, were observed

  12. Co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores in Rzeszów, Poland (2000-2002

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    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores was estimated in Rzeszów in the years 2000-2002. The volumetric method was used in this aerobiological study. Six taxa of pollen grains and five types of fungal spores characterized by strong allergenicity and/or high concentrations in the air were analyzed. The time series of pollen grains and fungal spores were compared using PCA analysis. The periods of the greatest concentrations of tree pollen did not coincide with similar periods for herbaceous plants and fungal spores. From February to mid-March, Alnus pollen dominated in the air. The second period was characterized by Betula pollen. It occurred in April. Herbaceous pollen and fungal spores occurred in the air simultaneously (from mid May to the end of August, creating a risky situation for sensitized people. The periods of the highest concentrations of Epicoccum and Ganoderma fungal spores did not coincide with the same period for the examined plant taxa. In Rzeszów the probability of becoming exposed to very high concentrations of allergenic pollen and fungal spores at the same time was high, especially in July, when the highest concentrations of Poaceae, Alternaria and Cladosporium were noted. The hypersensitivity to only one plant or fungal allergen is rarely encountered. Under the present scenarios of global warming, pollen seasons of many taxa will be longer and sufferers will have year-long symptoms.

  13. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen

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    van't Westende Wendy PC

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. Results All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01 were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01 was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Conclusion Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.

  14. Palinocam Network: airborne pollen vigilance in Madrid

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    Patricia Cervigón Morales

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma Regional Programme started to give up in 1992 with four big areas. Palinocam network project was first set up in Madrid as a part of Asthma Regional Programme, comprised in a wider Environmental Subprogram: Palynological Network of Madrid Region (PALINOCAM NETWORK.Palynological network is a multidisciplinary organization which has been working since 1993. In that moment an Experts Committee was created with This Experts Committee is coordinated by the Public Health Institute, under the technical Direction of Faculty of Pharmacy and is integrated by all of the involved institutions. This juridical framework is completed with individual agreements signed between the Councils and the Public Health Department, and with a Collaboration Agreement signed with the Madrid ́s Complutense University Faculty of Pharmacy.This network main aim is to watch for aerobiological content in Madrid's air, for a best knowledge of patients expositions in each geographical area in en different moment. This information has a great interest for Public Health.Palinocam Network is a useful tool in Public Health for offering information of aerobiological levels by Internet and Telephonic Service yearly .In this way allergic patients, sanitarians and media can know the most frequent pollen types in each season and its airborne level.

  15. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

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    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  16. Responses in the start of Betula (birch) pollen seasons to recent changes in spring temperatures across Europe

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    Emberlin, J.; Detandt, M.; Gehrig, R.; Jaeger, S.; Nolard, N.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    2002-07-01

    A shift in the timing of birch pollen seasons is important because it is well known to be a significant aeroallergen, especially in NW Europe where it is a notable cause of hay fever and pollen-related asthma. The research reported in this paper aims to investigate temporal patterns in the start dates of Betula (birch) pollen seasons at selected sites across Europe. In particular it investigates relationships between the changes in start dates and changes in spring temperatures over approximately the last 20 years. Daily birch pollen counts were used from Kevo, Turku, London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna, for the core period from 1982 to 1999 and, in some cases, from 1970 to 2000. The sites represent a range of biogeographical situations from just within the Arctic Circle through to North West Maritime and Continental Europe. Pollen samples were taken with Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Weather data were obtained from the sites nearest to the pollen traps. The timing of birch pollen seasons is known to depend mostly on a non-linear balance between the winter chilling required to break dormancy, and spring temperatures. Pollen start dates and monthly mean temperatures for January through to May were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. The start dates for the next 10 years were calculated from regression equations for each site, on the speculative basis that the current trends would continue. The analyses show regional contrasts. Kevo shows a marked trend towards cooler springs and later starts. If this continues the mean start date will become about 6 days later over the next 10 years. Turku exhibits cyclic patterns in start dates. A current trend towards earlier starts is expected to continue until 2007, followed by another fluctuation. London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna show very similar patterns in the trends towards earlier start dates. If the trend continues the mean start dates at these sites will advance by about 6 days over the next 10

  17. A study of airborne Ulmaceae pollen in Modena (northern Italy).

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    Torri, P; Accorsi, C A; Bandini Mazzanti, M; Zagni, A M

    1997-01-01

    We examined Ulmaceae airborne pollen at the Modena-Geophysical Observatory monitoring station in 1993. The pollen trap was placed 15 m above the ground. 365 daily slides were fully analyzed to obtain daily and bi-hourly pollen concentrations. Morphological analysis on native and introduced Ulmaceae pollen was also conducted between February 3rd and May 17th. Five pollen types were identified: Celtis cf. australis, Ulmus glabra, Ulmus cf. laevis, Ulmus cf. minor, and Ulmus minor/laevis. Pollen concentrations and percentages showed that the Elm family contributed little pollen to the air (about 1% of the total pollen recorded), Ulmus and Celtis being 0.9% and 0.04%, respectively. The maximum levels were 30 p/m3/24 hr and 118 p/m3/ 2 hr (Ulmus) and 4 p/m3/24 hr and 13 p/m3/2 hr (Celtis). The highest levels of Ulmus were during the morning and afternoon, while the afternoon was highest for Celtis. In general, Ulmaceae trees appear worth planting in urban areas, but Celtis pollen should also be monitored at human height. PMID:9276007

  18. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

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    Isabell Müller-Germann

    Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  19. Airborne castanea pollen forecasting model for ecological and allergological implementation.

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    Astray, G; Fernández-González, M; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; López, D; Mejuto, J C

    2016-04-01

    Castanea sativa Miller belongs to the natural vegetation of many European deciduous forests prompting impacts in the forestry, ecology, allergological and chestnut food industry fields. The study of the Castanea flowering represents an important tool for evaluating the ecological conservation of North-Western Spain woodland and the possible changes in the chestnut distribution due to recent climatic change. The Castanea pollen production and dispersal capacity may cause hypersensitivity reactions in the sensitive human population due to the relationship between patients with chestnut pollen allergy and a potential cross reactivity risk with other pollens or plant foods. In addition to Castanea pollen's importance as a pollinosis agent, its study is also essential in North-Western Spain due to the economic impact of the industry around the chestnut tree cultivation and its beekeeping interest. The aim of this research is to develop an Artificial Neural Networks for predict the Castanea pollen concentration in the atmosphere of the North-West Spain area by means a 20years data set. It was detected an increasing trend of the total annual Castanea pollen concentrations in the atmosphere during the study period. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) implemented in this study show a great ability to predict Castanea pollen concentration one, two and three days ahead. The model to predict the Castanea pollen concentration one day ahead shows a high linear correlation coefficient of 0.784 (individual ANN) and 0.738 (multiple ANN). The results obtained improved those obtained by the classical methodology used to predict the airborne pollen concentrations such as time series analysis or other models based on the correlation of pollen levels with meteorological variables. PMID:26802339

  20. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Konya, Turkey, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, airborne pollen grains of Konya province were investigated using Durham sampler from January to December 2005. A total of 4420 pollen grains/cm/sup 2/ which belonged to 29 taxa and 9 unidentified pollen grains were recorded. From identified taxa, 19 belong to arboreal and 10 taxa to non-arboreal plants. Total pollen grains consist of 87,49% arboreal, 12,31% non-arboreal plants and 0,20% unidentified pollen grains. In the investigated region, from arboreal plant taxa Pinus spp. (21,63%), Fraxinus spp. (21,13%), Cupressaceae (15,84%), Ailanthus spp. (7,47%), Platanus spp. (3,80%), Acer spp. (3,28%), Populus spp. (1,86%), Sophora spp. (3,85%) and from non-arboreal plant taxa Chenopodiaceae / Amaranthaceae (4,77%), Poaceae (3,67%) were responsible for the greatest amount of pollen. During the study period, the pollen fall reached its highest level in March. (author)

  1. Current glimpse of airborne allergenic pollen in Indian subcontinent

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    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, atopic dermatitis have been steadily increasing all over the world, including India. Owing to its alarming trend, several aerobiological surveys have been undertaken in different parts of India to delineate the variety of pollen and spore load. In this review, we have reported the current state of aerobiological knowladge in India with particular reference to allergenic airborn pollen occurence in 2001–2015. Pollen have been found to contribute a significant proportion in the air and caused allergy symptoms in the local inhabitants. Aerobiological records, a questionnaire survey and hospitalization records have been employed for the analysis. Holoptelea integrifolia, Amaranthus spinosus in northern region, Sorghum vulgare, Pennisetum, Gynandropsis gynandra, Parthenium hysterophorus, Dolichandrone platycalyx in southern regions, and Parthenium hysterophorus from the western region; Cynodon dactylon, Cenchrus ciliaris in the central area; Acacia auriculiformis, Cleome gynandra, Catharanthus roseus, Phoenix sylvestris, Areca catechu, and Lantana camara in the eastern regions as potential aeroallergens in India. The statistical approach confirmed the correlation between hospitalization rate associated with allergy-related health troubles and the prevalent allergenic pollen in the air. The Poaceae group has been found to be dominant throughout India. Immuno-biochemical studies identified various protein with allergenic potential found in the pollen recorded. Epitope identification and homology of the major allergenic protein Cat r1 of Catharanthus sp and Par j 1 of Parietaria judaica have been found. Identification of allergenic pollen grains and the modern approach concerning cross-reactivity and epitope revelation of dominant airborne pollen have important clinical implications for the prevention, diagnosis and treatments of allergic diseases in India.

  2. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

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    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport

  3. Modelling airborne concentration and deposition rate of maize pollen

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    Jarosz, Nathalie; Loubet, Benjamin; Huber, Laurent

    2004-10-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops has reinforced the need to quantify gene flow from crop to crop. This requires predictive tools which take into account meteorological conditions, canopy structure as well as pollen aerodynamic characteristics. A Lagrangian Stochastic (LS) model, called SMOP-2D (Stochastic Mechanistic model for Pollen dispersion and deposition in 2 Dimensions), is presented. It simulates wind dispersion of pollen by calculating individual pollen trajectories from their emission to their deposition. SMOP-2D was validated using two field experiments where airborne concentration and deposition rate of pollen were measured within and downwind from different sized maize (Zea mays) plots together with micrometeorological measurements. SMOP-2D correctly simulated the shapes of the concentration profiles but generally underestimated the deposition rates in the first 10 m downwind from the source. Potential explanations of this discrepancy are discussed. Incorrect parameterisation of turbulence in the transition from the crop to the surroundings is probably the most likely reason. This demonstrates that LS models for particle transfer need to be coupled with air-flow models under complex terrain conditions.

  4. Airborne Pollen Grains of Bozüyük (Bilecik, Turkey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz T(U)RE; Elif SALKURT

    2005-01-01

    Airborne pollen grains in the atmosphere of Bozüyük were investigated over a 2 yr period from 2000 to 2001 using a Durham sampler. A total number of pollen grains of 5 170 pollen grains belonging to 32taxa were identified and recorded along with some unidentified pollen grains. Of all the pollen grains, 78.66%were arboreal, 19.20% were non-arboreal, and 2.12% were unidentified. The majority of pollen grains investigated were Pinus, Platanus, Quercus, Cupressaceae, Poaceae, Fagus, Salix, Rosaceae, Urticaceae,Asteraceae, and Chenopodiaceae. The maximum number of pollen grains was recorded in May.

  5. The occurrence and allergising potential of airborne pollen in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boral, Dola; Chatterjee, Soma; Bhattacharya, Kashinath

    2004-01-01

    A continuous 2-year volumetric aerobiological survey was conducted in Berhampore town, a centrally located and representative part of West Bengal, India. The aim of the study was to assess the allergising potential of airborne pollen grains of West Bengal. A total of 31 pollen types were identified of which Poaceae (grasses) pollen showed maximum frequency, followed by Cyperaceae, Cassia sp., Acacia auriculiformis, etc. The seasonal periodicities of the pollen types and their relationship to meteorological conditions were investigated. It was found that the pollen concentration is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Clinical investigations by skin prick test were carried out to detect allergenicity of pollen types. Eighteen common airborne pollen types induced positive responses of which pollen extracts of Saccharum officinarum (grass), Azadirachta indica, Cocos nucifera, Phoenix sylvestris, Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus citriodora showed strongest sensitising potential. This result is consistent with previous investigations in different parts of West Bengal. PMID:15236497

  6. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits: A case study of the Late-glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Mourik; R.T. Slotboom; J. van der Plicht; H.J. Streurman; W.J. Hoek; W.J. Kuijper; L.W.S. de Graaff

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  7. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits: A case study of the Late-Glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, J.M.; Slotboom, R.T.; van der Plicht, J.; Streurman, H.J.; Kuijper, W.J.; Hoek, W.Z.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  8. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits : A case study of the Late-glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, Jan M.; Slotboom, Ruud T.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Streurman, Harm Jan; Kuijper, Wim J.; Hoek, Wim Z.; de Graaff, Leo W. S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  9. Relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Matsuki, Yuuki; Yokoyama, Hiromichi; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples) were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89) than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71), suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation), in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy. PMID:26110813

  10. Relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomichi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89 than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71, suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation, in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy.

  11. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  12. Relationships among Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Airborne Japanese Cedar Pollen Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Naomichi Yamamoto; Yuuki Matsuki; Hiromichi Yokoyama; Hideaki Matsuki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, ...

  13. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  14. Time series predictions with neural nets: Application to airborne pollen forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, C. M.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ramos, N. E.; Ramos, G. I.

    1993-09-01

    Pollen allergy is a common disease causing rhinoconjunctivitis (hay fever) in 5 10% of the population. Medical studies have indicated that pollen related diseases could be highly reduced if future pollen contents in the air could be predicted. In this work we have developed a new forecasting method that applies the ability of neural nets to predict the future behaviour of chaotic systems in order to make accurate predictions of the airborne pollen concentration. The method requires that the neural net be fed with non-zero values, which restricts the method predictions to the period following the start of pollen flight. The operational method outlined here constitutes a different point of view with respect to the more generally used forecasts of time series analysis, which require input of many meteorological parameters. Excellent forecasts were obtained training a neural net by using only the time series pollen concentration values.

  15. Detection and Quantification of Grass and Olea Airborne Pollen Allergens in Outdoor Air Samples and its Correlation with Pollen Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Raquel; Ribeiro, Rita; Martins, R. M.; Caldeira, A.T.; Caeiro, Elsa; Antunes, Célia M.; Brandao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Detection and Quantification of Grass and Olea Airborne Pollen Allergens in Outdoor Air Samples and its Correlation with Pollen Counts R Ferro1*, R Ribeiro1*, MR Martins1,2, AT Caldeira1,3, E Caeiro6, CM Antunes1,5 & R Brandão2,4 and the HIALINE working group7 1Dep. of Chemistry, University of Evora, Portugal; 2Mediterranean Inst. Crop and Environment Sciences, Univ.Evora, Portugal; 3Centro Química, University of Évora, Portugal; 4Dep. Biology, University of Evora; 5...

  16. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne,Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Goksel OLGUN; Mehmet AYBEKE; Perihan ERKAN; Hulusi MALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp.,Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp.,Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp.,Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of pollen from non-arboreal plants in the last months of the year.

  17. Airborne pollen grains of Lahore, Pakistan-I. Caesalpiniaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palynological study of 07 species belonging to 05 genera of the family Caesalpiniaceae from Lahore was conducted. Caesalpiniaceae is plus minus eurypalynous family. The pollen grains are radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporate and triangular-trilobed. The tectum is commonly reticulate - regulate or fossulate foveolate and often striate. The pollen morphology of the family is significantly useful at the generic and specific levels. (author)

  18. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdemBICAKCI; GokselOLGUN; MehmetAYBEKE; PerihanERKAN; HulusiMALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp., Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of oollen from non-arboreal olants in the last months of the vear.

  19. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  20. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-04-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  1. Influence of airborne pollen counts and length of pollen season of selected allergenic plants on the concentration of sIgE antibodies on the population of Bratislava, Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Ščevková; Jozef Dušička; Martin Hrubiško; Karol Mičieta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective. The association between airborne pollen counts or duration of pollen season and allergy symptoms is not always distinguished. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pollen exposure (annual total pollen quantity and main pollen season length) of selected allergenic plants in the atmosphere of Bratislava, and concentration of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) in serum of patients with seasonal allergy during 2002–2003. Materials ...

  2. Co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores in Rzeszów, Poland (2000-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores was estimated in Rzeszów in the years 2000-2002. The volumetric method was used in this aerobiological study. Six taxa of pollen grains and five types of fungal spores characterized by strong allergenicity and/or high concentrations in the air were analyzed. The time series of pollen grains and fungal spores were compared using PCA analysis. The periods of the greatest concentrations of tree pollen did not coincide with ...

  3. Sensitization rates of airborne pollen and mold in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Aeroallergens are important causative factors of allergic diseases. Previous studies on aeroallergen sensitization rates investigated patients groups that had visited pediatric allergy clinics. In contrast, we investigated sensitization rates in a general population group of elementary school to teenage students in Incheon, Jeju, and Ulsan. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; After obtaining parental consent, skin-prick tests were performed on 5,094 students between March and June 2010. Elementary school students were tested for 18 common aeroallergens, whereas middle and high school students were tested for 25 allergens. The 25 allergens included &lt;I&gt;Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae&lt;/I&gt;, pollen (birch, alder, oak, Japanese cedar, pine, willow, elm, maple, Bermuda grass, timothy grass, rye grass, orchard grass, meadow grass, vernal grass, mugwort, Japanese hop, fat hen, ragweed, and plantain, and mold (&lt;I&gt;Penicillatum, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Alternaria&lt;/I&gt;. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The sensitization rates in descending order were 25.79% (&lt;I&gt;D. pteronyssinus&lt;/I&gt; , 18.66% (&lt;I&gt;D. farinae&lt;/I&gt; , 6.20% (mugwort, and 4.07% (willow in Incheon; 33.35% (&lt;I&gt;D. pteronyssinus&lt;/I&gt; , 24.78% (&lt;I&gt;D. farinae&lt;/I&gt;, 15.36% (Japanese cedar, and 7.33% (Alternaria in Jeju; and 32.79% (D. pteronyssinus, 30.27% (D. farinae, 10.13% (alder, and 8.68% (birch in Ulsan. The dust mite allergen showed the highest sensitization rate among the 3 regions. The sensitization rate of tree pollen was the highest in Ulsan, whereas that of Alternaria was the highest in Jeju. The ragweed sensitization rates were 0.99% in Incheon, 1.07% in Jeju, and 0.81% in Ulsan. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The

  4. Comparative Analysis of some Vernal Pollen Concentrations in Timisoara (Romania, Szeged (Hungary, Novi Sad (Serbia and Ljubljana (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available he aim of the study was to compare the airborne concentrations of pollen produced by vernal flowering trees taxa (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae in the cities of Timisoara (Romania, Szeged (Hungary, Novi Sad (Serbia and Ljubljana (Slovenia during the years 20062008. Annual variations in the concentration of pollen in the atmosphere were analysed by the volumetric method. In these cities, the period with the greatest diversity of pollen types is spring. These trees are found in mixed forests and are used in urban landscaping and home gardens. Inter-annual differences can be seen in the seasonal behaviour of the pollen in Novi Sad, 2008 being the year in which the highest levels of airborne pollen were reached. During the 3-year period, pollen of the representatives of the family Betulaceae accounted for a significant proportion of total pollen, predominated by Betula pollen and a considerably lower proportion of Alnus, Carpinus and Corylus airpollen. Taxaceae/Cupressaceae pollen appears in the atmospheric pollen spectra of all localities in high concentrations. These pollen grains are the main source of allergens in springtime. Results of the study reveal important differences between the cities.

  5. Pollen

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and climate derived from pollen found in lake and ocean sediments. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  6. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  7. Airborne-pollen pool and mating pattern in a hybrid zone between Pinus pumila and P. parviflora var. pentaphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Megumi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A; Watano, Yasuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The reproductive isolation barriers and the mating patterns among Pinus pumila, P. parviflora var. pentaphylla and their hybrids were examined by flowering phenology and genetic assays of three life stages: airborne-pollen grains, adults and seeds, in a hybrid zone on Mount Apoi, Hokkaido, Japan. Chloroplast DNA composition of the airborne-pollen was determined by single-pollen polymerase chain reaction. Mating patterns were analysed by estimating the molecular hybrid index of the seed parent, their seed embryos and pollen parents. The observation of flowering phenology showed that the flowering of P. pumila precedes that of P. parviflora var. pentaphylla by about 6 to 10 days within the same altitudinal ranges. Although this prezygotic isolation barrier is effective, the genetic assay of airborne-pollen showed that the two pine species, particularly P. pumila, still have chances to form F(1) hybrid seeds. Both parental species showed a strong assortative mating pattern; F(1) seeds were found in only 1.4% of seeds from P. pumila mother trees and not at all in P. parviflora var. pentaphylla. The assortative mating was concluded as the combined result of flowering time differentiation and cross-incompatibility. In contrast to the parental species, hybrids were fertilized evenly by the two parental species and themselves. The breakdown of prezygotic barriers (intermediate flowering phenology) and cross-incompatibility may account for the unselective mating. It is suggested that introgression is ongoing on Mount Apoi through backcrossing between hybrids and parental species, despite strong isolation barriers between the parental species. PMID:19120991

  8. FAGALES POLLEN IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF TIMIŞOARA, ROMANIA (2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the first aerobiological monitoring results for Fagales in the city of Timişoara (Romania using a volumetric spore-trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000 which is now the most commonly used aerobiologic measurement instrument in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of Fagales pollen occurrence in outdoor environment of Timişoara by measuring daily pollen concentrations. The concept of the atmospheric pollen season was used. Sampling was carried out during 8 years, starting in 2000 until 2007. Fagales allergenic pollen appear in the area of Timişoara only from the end of January to the end of May. The data showed that during the early spring the atmospheric pollen season for these allergenic species is highly variable. There were considerable variations in start date, atmospheric pollen season, peak concentration, date of peak. The concentration of airborne Fagales pollen in Timişoara and the correlations with some meteorological parameters have been examined. Daily pollen concentrations presented negative correlation with daily average relative humidity, and slightly positive with wind speed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Fagales pollen concentrations represent important values in the atmosphere of Timişoara, which means they may to cause pollinosis in its population. The best-represented pollen type through the entire period was Betula.

  9. Does insect netting affect the containment of airborne pollen from (GM-) plants in greenhouses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Hengstum; D.A.P. Hooftman; H.C.M. den Nijs; P.H. van Tienderen

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouses are a well-accepted containment strategy to grow and study genetically modified plants (GM) before release into the environment. Various containment levels are requested by national regulations to minimize GM pollen escape. We tested the amount of pollen escaping from a standard greenhou

  10. Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de Sarrasin.

  11. Variations in Mugwort (Artemisia Spp.) Airborne Pollen Concentrations at Three Sites in Central Croatia, in Period from 2002 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Čulig, Josip

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of...

  12. Variations in mugwort (Artemisia spp.) airborne pollen concentrations at three sites in central Croatia, in period from 2002 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Culig, Josip

    2006-12-01

    In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of September with the highest concentrations in August. The percentage of the total pollen count ranged from 0.52% to 0.92%. The intradiurnal peak occurred between 10 a.m. and 12 a.m. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlations between higher air temperature and high pollen concentration as well as high precipitation and low pollen concentration. Results of this study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Artemisia pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:17243566

  13. Is the recent decrease in airborne Ambrosia pollen in the Milan area due to the accidental introduction of the ragweed leaf beetle Ophraella communa?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonini, Maira; Šikoparija, B.; Prentović, M.; Cislaghi, G; Colombo, P.; Testoni, C.; Grewling, L.; Lommen, Suzanne T. E.; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; M. Smith

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether a significant decrease in airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen witnessed in the north-west of the Province of Milan in Northern Italy could be explained by environmental factors such as meteorology, or whether there is evidence to support the hypothesis that the decrease was related to the presence of large numbers of the oligophagous Ophraella communa leaf beetles that are used as a biological control agent against Ambrosia in other parts of the wor...

  14. 上海地区气传花粉的监测%Monitoring of the airborne pollen grains in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建花; 王幼芳; 沈春琳; 吕森林

    2013-01-01

    于2009年10月开始,进行为期一年的花粉采样.共设6个采样点,采用Cour风标式花粉收集器,对气传花粉的含量、种类和飘散规律进行了监测.共鉴定气传花粉5 324 164粒,隶属32科27属种.其中普陀区监测点气传花粉总数最高,其次分别是松江区、闸北区、浦东新区、徐汇区和宝山区.松江区花粉种数最多,为48种;徐汇最少,为37种.主要气传花粉为葎草、悬铃木属、松科、杉科、禾本科、榆属、蒿属和柳属等.春季3~4月和秋季9月为气传花粉散布高峰.最后,讨论了植被分布对本次监测的影响,不同域区气传花粉种类及散布规律比较,采样方法的影响,气传花粉与过敏捷性病病的联系等问题.%In order to investigate the quantity, species and distribution pattern of the airborne pollen grains in Shanghai, a one-year monitoring project using Cour samplers from October 2009 was carried out in six sites of Shanghai. A total of 5 324 164 pollen grains were collected, inelud-ing 32 families, 27 genera or species. The largest quantity of the grains was observed in Putuo District and was followed by Songjiang, Zhabei, Pudong, Xuhui and Baoshan District in that order. Songjiang District has the most diverse species of pollen grains (48) and Xuhui has the least (37). The most commonly observed types are Humulus scandens, Platanus, Pinaceae, Taxodi-aceae, Gramineae, Ulmus, Artemisia and Salix. The peak of the grains distribution occurred during two seasons of the year: spring (March and April) and autumn (September).

  15. Threat of allergenic airborne grass pollen in Szczecin, NW Poland: the dynamics of pollen seasons, effect of meteorological variables and air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of Poaceae pollen season, in particularly that of the Secale genus, in Szczecin (western Poland) 2004–2008 was analysed to establish a relationship between the meteorological variables, air pollution and the pollen count of the taxa studied. Consecutive phases during the pollen season were defined for each taxon (1, 2.5, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 97.5, 99% of annual total), and duration of the season was determined using the 98% method. On the basis of this analysis, the temporary diffe...

  16. Plant pollen content in the air of Lublin (central-eastern Poland) and risk of pollen allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-01-01

    Pollen monitoring was carried out in Lublin in 2001–2012 by the volumetric method using a Hirst-type spore trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000). Daily pollen concentrations considerably differed in the particular years. The pollen counts with the biggest variability were observed in the first half of a year when woody plants flowering. The highest annual pollen index were noted for the following taxa: [i]Betula, Urtica,[/i] Pinaceae, Poaceae and [i]Alnus[/i]. [i]Betula[/i] annual total showed the greates...

  17. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen allergen is Bet ν 1, which is the conventional allergen name for the birch pollen proteins of a large group of proteins otherwise known as PR-10 proteins. Individuals that suffer from birch pollen al...

  18. Weather elements, chemical air pollutants and airborne pollen influencing asthma emergency room visits in Szeged, Hungary: performance of two objective weather classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makra, László; Puskás, János; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Lelovics, Enikő; Bálint, Beatrix; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    Weather classification approaches may be useful tools in modelling the occurrence of respiratory diseases. The aim of the study is to compare the performance of an objectively defined weather classification and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC) in classifying emergency department (ED) visits for acute asthma depending from weather, air pollutants, and airborne pollen variables for Szeged, Hungary, for the 9-year period 1999-2007. The research is performed for three different pollen-related periods of the year and the annual data set. According to age and gender, nine patient categories, eight meteorological variables, seven chemical air pollutants, and two pollen categories were used. In general, partly dry and cold air and partly warm and humid air aggravate substantially the symptoms of asthmatics. Our major findings are consistent with this establishment. Namely, for the objectively defined weather types favourable conditions for asthma ER visits occur when an anticyclonic ridge weather situation happens with near extreme temperature and humidity parameters. Accordingly, the SSC weather types facilitate aggravating asthmatic conditions if warm or cool weather occur with high humidity in both cases. Favourable conditions for asthma attacks are confirmed in the extreme seasons when atmospheric stability contributes to enrichment of air pollutants. The total efficiency of the two classification approaches is similar in spite of the fact that the methodology for derivation of the individual types within the two classification approaches is completely different.

  19. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, B.; Torres-Jardón, R.; Ramírez-Arriaga, E.; Martínez-Bernal, A.; Rosas, I.

    2016-05-01

    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  20. Pollen spectrum and risk of pollen allergy in central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Badía, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán Soldevilla, Carmen; García Mozo, H.

    2010-01-01

    The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the infl uence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The aver...

  1. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Stach; Magdalena Kluza-Wieloch; Alicja Zientarska

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated,...

  2. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al

  3. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the Łukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Poznań, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

  4. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418

  5. Pollen calendar of Lublin, 1995-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of pollen fall were carried out in Lublin in 1995 - 2000 years by the gravimetric method. The modified Durham sampler was applied, located at 9 m above ground level. On the base of results 6 year observations - the pollen calendar for Lublin was prepared. The following 15 plant taxa were taken under consideration: Alnus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Populus, Fraxinus, Betula, Quercus, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. The anemophilous plants' pollen season in Lublin began in half of February and lasted till half of September. First appeared pollen grains of decidous tress' and shrubs, then the coniferous. High values of pollen fall of these plants were noted till the end of May. Start of grass pollen season was recorded from the half of May, and at the latter part of this month, also other herbaceous plants. The highest concentrations of pollen were found in April and May when trees and shrubs pollinated. The highest annual totals were marked for plants of the following taxa: Betula, Poaceae, Pinaceae, Alnus, Urtica.

  6. Pollen spectrum and risk of pollen allergy in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galan, Carmen; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-01-01

    The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the influence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The average annual Pollen Index is 44,632 grains, where 70-90 percent is recorded during February-May. The pollen calendar includes 29 pollen types, in order of importance; Cupressaceae (23.3 percent of the total amount of pollen grains), Quercus (21.2 percent), and Poaceae and Olea (11.5 and 11.2 percent, respectively), are the main pollen producer taxa. From an allergological viewpoint, Toledo is a high-risk locality for the residents and tourist who visit the area, with a great number of days exceeding the allergy thresholds proposed by the Spanish Aerobiological Network (REA). The types triggering most allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourists are Cupressaceae, Platanus, Olea, Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Allergic risk increases in 3 main periods: winter (January-March), with the main presence of the Cupressaceae type; spring, characterized by Poaceae, Olea, Platanus and Urticaceae pollen types; and, finally, late summer (August-September), characterized by Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthaceae pollen type, which are the main cause of allergies during these months. PMID:20684492

  7. A Six-Year Study on the Changes in Airborne Pollen Counts and Skin Positivity Rates in Korea: 2008–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Kyu Rang; Han, Mae Ja; Choe, Hosoeng; Oh, Jae-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The occurrence of pollen allergy is subject to exposure to pollen, which shows regional and temporal variations. We evaluated the changes in pollen counts and skin positivity rates for 6 years, and explored the correlation between their annual rates of change. Materials and Methods We assessed the number of pollen grains collected in Seoul, and retrospectively reviewed the results of 4442 skin-prick tests conducted at the Severance Hospital Allergy-Asthma Clinic from January 1, 2008 t...

  8. 中国主要城市气传花粉植物种类与分布%Species and Distribution of Airborne Pollen Plants in Major Cities of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晟; 余咏梅#; 阮标

    2015-01-01

    大量致敏花粉飘散于空气中会引发花粉症,如过敏性鼻炎、支气管哮喘等,严重威胁人类健康。不同地区地理环境和气候差异使空气中致敏花粉的种类和分布不同,因此花粉症的发生也具有明显的地域性和季节性。大城市是主要的人口聚居区,不当的城市绿化树种选择和环境污染等多方面因素使得花粉致敏植物和花粉症的患者数量激增。本文综述了上世纪90年代至今我国26个主要城市致敏花粉植物的种类、分布及其影响因素,为控制花粉症及合理绿化城市环境提供科学依据。%Pollinosis can be caused by abundant airborne allergenic pollens,with symptoms such as allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma,which can be posed health risk on people’s health.The species and distribution of airborne pollens differed in different regions, based on the difference of geographical environment and climate conditions.Therefore,the occurrence of pollinosis was of obviously regional and seasonal divergence.There were dense populations in major cities.The amount of airborne pollen plants and the prevalence of pollinosis was dramatically increased due to the choice of inadequate Greening Trees, environment pollution and other co-factors.The distribution,influencing factors and species of airborne pollen plants in 26 major cities of China were summarized in this article since 1990s till now,providing scientific evidence for control of pollinosis as well as adequate afforestation in urban environment.

  9. The comparison of pollen abundance in air and honey samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Šaulienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey as a food has long been used in human nutrition and is still popular. Honey is important because of its therapeutic, prophylactic and strengthening value. Pollen is one of the most decisive components that ensure the quality and type of honey. Modern society becomes more and more sensitive to airborne pollen. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the composition of allergenic plant pollen in natural honey. For this purpose, we studied and compared pollen abundance in honey and air samples collected in Lithuania. Standard methods for pollen investigation in air and honey were used in this study. The botanical diversity of pollen identified in honey and air samples indicates 10 morphotypes: 8 of woody plants and 2 of herbaceous plants, in both the honey and air samples. Salix pollen counts in the honey were found to be highest among airborne pollen from May to September. The anemophilous allergenic pollen constituted 44 % of the total pollen detected in the honey.

  10. Plant pollen content in the air of Lublin (central-eastern Poland and risk of pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollen monitoring was carried out in Lublin in 2001–2012 by the volumetric method using a Hirst-type spore trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000. Daily pollen concentrations considerably differed in the particular years. The pollen counts with the biggest variability were observed in the first half of a year when woody plants flowering. The highest annual pollen index were noted for the following taxa: [i]Betula, Urtica,[/i] Pinaceae, Poaceae and [i]Alnus[/i]. [i]Betula[/i] annual total showed the greatest diversity in the study years. The number of days on which the pollen concentration exceeded the threshold values, thereby inducing allergies, was determined for the taxa producing the most allergenic pollen. The above-mentioned taxa primarily included the following: Poaceae, in the case of which the highest number of days with the risk of occurrence of pollen allergy was found (35, [i]Betula[/i] (18, and [i]Artemisia[/i] (10. The following taxa:[i] Alnus[/i] (14 days, [i]Populus[/i] (11 days, [i]Fraxinus[/i] (10 days, and [i]Quercus[/i] (8 days, were also characterized by a large number of days on which their pollen concentrations exceeded the threshold values. The occurrence of periods of high concentration of particular pollen types were also noted. Risk of pollen allergy appeared the earliest at the beginning of February during [i]Alnus [/i]and [i]Corylus[/i] blooming. High concentrations of other woody plants were recorded from the last ten days of March to about 20 May, and of herbaceous plants from the first/last half of May – beginning of October.

  11. Integration for Airborne Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Nickovic, S.; Huete, A.; Budge, A.; Flowers, L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the program is to assess the feasibility of combining a dust transport model with MODIS derived phenology to study pollen transport for integration with a public health decision support system. The use of pollen information has specifically be identified as a critical need by the New Mexico State Health department for inclusion in the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program. Material and methods: Pollen can be transported great distances. Local observations of plan phenology may be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) is an integrated modeling system designed to accurately describe the dust cycle in the atmosphere. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterization of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particles size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust. Pollen release was estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of key plan species and vegetation communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) provided information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, and pollen release. The resulting deterministic model is useful for predicting and simulating pollen emission and downwind concentration to study details of phenology and meteorology and their dependencies. The proposed linkage in this project provided critical information on the location timing and modeled transport of pollen directly to the EPHT> This information is useful to support the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)'s National EPHT and the state of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  12. 西安市气传花粉变应原20年变化特点研究%Survey on variation characteristics of airborne pollens of Xi'an in 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢家美; 孙秀珍; 李满祥; 刘昀; 李维; 冯向莉; 马玉娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 明确西安市20年来优势气传花粉的变化特点,为当地花粉症的防治及环保治理气传花粉污染提供依据.方法 调查和研究2008-2010年西安市气传花粉种类、数量和随季节消长的规律,并与1990-1992年的研究结果进行比较.在西安市分别设置3处花粉取样点,采用Durham重量玻片法取样,并对所收集花粉的形态进行观察和鉴定;每日进行气象资料的观测和记录;进行野外植被调查,制作植物标本及标准花粉片;对门诊确诊的过敏性哮喘患者进行花粉变应原筛查.结果 3处花粉取样点3年来共收集花粉42 138粒,其中市中心13 309粒、东郊13 914粒、西郊14 915粒,可归为32科、41属、33种,每月都有花粉飘逸,并形成了3~5月和8~9月2个花粉飘逸高峰;植被调查发现西安市绿化植物以杨树、法桐、松树、柳树、柏树等树木为主,杂草以艾蒿、葎草、藜草、禾本科等草本植物为主;3年来共给501例过敏性哮喘患者进行花粉变应原筛查,抗原阳性率依次为艾蒿、法桐、藜草、葎草.结论 20年来,西安市的气传花粉种类及飘散时间无明显变化,而飘逸数量明显减少;城市绿化树木的数量及品种均比过去有所增加,特别是法桐,在近20年中,作为绿化树木被广泛种植,而郊区庄稼作物及杂草明显减少;艾蒿、葎草、藜草等花粉依然是主要变应原,而法桐过敏阳性率明显升高.%Objective To clear advantage of the changes of airborne pollens of Xi'an during 20 years and provide the basis for environmental management of airborne pollen contamination and control of hay fever in local.Methods Airborne pollen types and quantities and the law with the seasonal fluctuation were surveyed and studied during 2008-2010.And the results were compared with the survey carried out in 1990-1992.The survey on airborne pollens was conducted by the aggregation of gravity in 3 spots of Xi'an.At the

  13. The importance of the stationary and individual pollen monitoring for the diagnostic of pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate pollen seasons of selected taxa with particular reference to allergic taxa such as birch (Betula sp., grasses (Poaceae, mugwort (Artemisia sp. in Cracow in 2003 and 2004 (project number 3 PO5D 034 24 funded by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary Burkard trap and personal Partrap FA 52 were compared. The volumetric method was used in the study. Average daily concentrations (pollen grains × m-3 were obtained by counting pollen grains every hour along 4 longitudinal transects and applying an appropriate conversion factor. Duration of the pollen season was determined using the 95% method. Variations in annual totals of pollen grains (birch and mugwort, in start dates (especially for grasses and in the season duration (birch and grasses were found. The comparison of pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary and personal traps at the same place showed non statistically significant correlation for all the studied taxa and statistically significant correlations for birch, mugwort and grasses (Spearman rank correlation. However, the statistically significant differences between the concentrations obtained using Burkard and Partrap carried by patients (Wilcoxon's test were noted. Very low concentrations of pollen grains measured indoor (work, flats and the influence of the local plants growing in separate place (courtyard of the Allergology Department on the pollen concentration were found.

  14. The comparison of pollen abundance in air and honey samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrida Šaulienė; Laura Šukienė; Auste Noreikaite-Merkeliene; Vidmantas Pileckas

    2015-01-01

    Honey as a food has long been used in human nutrition and is still popular. Honey is important because of its therapeutic, prophylactic and strengthening value. Pollen is one of the most decisive components that ensure the quality and type of honey. Modern society becomes more and more sensitive to airborne pollen. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the composition of allergenic plant pollen in natural honey. For this purpose, we studied and compared pollen abundance in honey and air sampl...

  15. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Demirci

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively found were α-copaene (12% and 10%, germacrene D (11% and 18% and δ-cadinene (11% and 15% in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation.

  16. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Betül; Paper, Dietrich H; Demirci, Fatih; Can Başer, K Hüsnü; Franz, Gerhard

    2004-12-01

    The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively) found were alpha-copaene (12% and 10%), germacrene D (11% and 18%) and delta-cadinene (11% and 15%) in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation. PMID:15841263

  17. Individual variability of seeds radiosensitivity in two species of Betula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific variability of the seed radiosensitivity of common birch (Betula verrucosa) and of while birch (Betula pubescens) have been studied experimentally. Seeds from different trees of both birch species differ considerably in sowing properties and in the response to γ radiation. Level of variability of seed germination and of seedlings ability to survive in the variant without radiation effect is lower for the common birch (Betula verrucosa). Presowing irradiation of seeds in dose of 40 krad causes the increase of the level of seed germination of commmon birch (Betula verrucosa) in 6 times and of white birch (Betula pubescens) in 2 times. No differences are found in dose dependence between two series of different-ploid birch according to averaged values of seed germination for each excerpt

  18. Pollen Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help reduce the severity of pollen allergy symptoms. Antihistamines Antihistamines, which are taken by mouth or as a ... to a lesser extent, nasal stuffiness. Some older antihistamines can cause side effects such as drowsiness and ...

  19. Suitability of different pollen as alternative food for the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleva, Irina; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2013-11-01

    , and A. hippocastanum and Betula pendula pollen is recommended to be used as dispersible pollen in greenhouses. PMID:23670826

  20. Hypersensitivity to common tree pollens in New York City patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Robert Y; Clauss, Allison E; Bennett, Edward S

    2002-01-01

    Testing for tree pollen hypersensitivity typically requires the use of several tree pollens. Identifying patterns of cross-sensitivity to tree pollens could reduce the number of trees used for testing. The goal of this study was to relate reported tree pollen levels to hypersensitivity patterns. Three hundred seventy-one allergy patients were tested serologically for hypersensitivity toward prevalent tree pollens in the surrounding New York area over the years 1993-2000. Specific tree pollens that were examined included oak (Quercus alba), birch (Betula verrucosa), beech (Fagus grandifolia), poplar (Populus deltoides), maple (Acer negundo), ash (Fraxinus americana), hickory (Carya pecan), and elm (Ulmus americana). Statistical analysis of the levels of hypersensitivity was performed to identify correlations and grouping factors. Pollen levels, obtained from published annual pollen and spore reports, were characterized and related to the prevalence of hypersensitivity for the various trees. The highest prevalence of hypersensitivity (score > or = class 1) was for oak (34.3%), birch (32.9%), and maple (32.8%) tree pollens. Lower prevalences were observed for beech (29.6%), hickory (27.1%), ash (26%), elm (24.6%), and poplar (20.6%) trees. Significant correlations were observed between oak, birch, and beech radioallergosorbent test scores. Factor analysis identified two independent pollen groups with oak, birch, and beech consisting of one group and the other five tree pollens constituting the other group. Peak pollen counts clearly were highest for oak, birch, and maple trees. The peak pollen counts corresponded roughly to seropositivity prevalences for the tree pollens. When elm, poplar, and beech test scores were not used to identify patients who were allergic to tree pollens, only 1 of 106 patients with any positive tree radioallergosorbent test score was missed. It is concluded that in the New York City area, hypersensitivity to tree pollens most often is

  1. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  2. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  3. Immunological Interactive Effects between Pollen Grains and Their Cytoplasmic Granules on Brown Norway Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Chakra, Oussama; Jean-Pierre, Sutra; Rogerieux, Françoise; Peltre, Gabriel; Sénéchal, Hélène; Lacroix, Ghislaine

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundGrass pollen is one of the most important aeroallergen vectors in Europe. Under some meteorological factors, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs). PCGs induce allergic responses. Several studies have shown that during a period of thunderstorms the number of patients with asthma increases because of higher airborne concentrations of PCGs.ObjectiveThe aims of the study were to assess the allergenicity of interactive effects between pollen and PCGs and to compar...

  4. Antisense-mediated silencing of a gene encoding a major ryegrass pollen allergen

    OpenAIRE

    Prem L Bhalla; Swoboda, Ines; Singh, Mohan B.

    1999-01-01

    Type 1 allergic reactions, such as hay fever and allergic asthma, triggered by grass pollen allergens are a global health problem that affects ≈20% of the population in cool, temperate climates. Ryegrass is the dominant source of allergens because of its prodigious production of airborne pollen. Lol p 5 is the major allergenic protein of ryegrass pollen, judging from the fact that almost all of the individuals allergic to grass pollen show presence of serum IgE antibodies against this protein...

  5. Parasitic fungi of the genera Betula and Salix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Adamska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001-2004, the occurrence of parasitic fungi of plants of the genera Betula and Salix growing in the Słowiński National Park was investigated. The plant species examined included B. pubescens, B. pendula, S. aurita, S. caprea, S. cinerea, S. fragilis, and S. repens. Plants of the genus Betula were affected by 9 species of parasiting fungi. In Poland, three of them (Microsphaera ornata var. europaea, Phyllactinia guttata, Melampsoridium betulinum occur commonly, five (Asteroma leptothyrioides, Discula betulina, Fusicladium betulae, Phyllosticta betulina, Septoria betulina are rare, and Septoria betulae-odoratae has not been recorded to date. Three species, Asteroma leptothyrioides, Fusicladium betulae, Phyllosticta betulina, were found on new plant hosts. Plants of the genus Salix were attacked by 8 species of parasiting fungi. Four of them (Melampsora allii-fragilis, M. caprearum, M. epitea, Uncinula adunca var. adunca are common in Poland, four (Marssonina salicicola, Phyllosticta salicicola, Septoria salicicola, Trimmatostroma betulinum rarely occur here. Uncinula adunca var. adunca, Marssonina salicicola, Phyllosticta salicicola, Septoria salicicola and Trimmatostroma betulinum were associated with the plant species not reported earlier to be their hosts.

  6. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  7. Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3) were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3)) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3)), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3)) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3)). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3) and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city. PMID:25530143

  8. Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Perveen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3 were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3 followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3, Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3 and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3. Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3 and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city.

  9. Pollen analyses for pollination research, unacetolyzed pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen D. Jones

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollinators feed on the pollen, nectar, and other plant exudates that are associated with flowers. As a result of this feeding activity, pollen becomes attached to them. Analysis of this pollen can reveal what they eat, their dispersal patterns in and around cropping systems, and their role in pollination. However, finding pollen on and or in a pollinator depends on the technique used to recover pollen. Two very easy techniques are described in detail that have been used to recover pollen from a variety of pollinators including beneficial and harmful insects, spiders, bats, and other pollinators. These techniques can be used to recover pollen from internal tissues (gut, alimentary canal, crop, etc., external tissues (proboscis, legs, eyes, etc., or both. By using the proper technique, better pollen recovery can be made and thus better data can be obtained about the pollinators, the foods they eat, the plants they pollinate, their migration routes and source zones.

  10. Can we improve pollen season definitions by using the symptom load index in addition to pollen counts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne pollen measurements are the foundation of aerobiological research and provide essential raw data for various disciplines. Pollen itself should be considered a relevant factor in air quality. Symptom data shed light on the relationship of pollen allergy and pollination. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial variation of local, regional and national symptom datasets. Ten pollen season definitions are used to calculate the symptom load index for the birch and grass pollen seasons (2013–2014) in Austria. (1) Local, (2) regional and (3) national symptom datasets are used to examine spatial variations and a consistent pattern was found. In conclusion, national datasets are suitable for first insights where no sufficient local or regional dataset is available and season definitions based on percentages provide a practical solution, as they can be applied in regions with different pollen loads and produce more constant results. - Highlights: • The definition of the pollen season has an impact on the calculated symptom load. • Pollen season definitions based on percentages of total pollen are a practical solution. • The symptom load index is a robust tool to assess the allergy burden in a population. • Local, regional and national burdens of pollen allergy sufferers are comparable. - The symptom load index is a robust tool to assess the allergy burden in a population. Local, regional and national burdens of pollen allergy sufferers are comparable

  11. Can we improve pollen season definitions by using the symptom load index in addition to pollen counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastl, Katharina; Kmenta, Maximilian; Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Berger, Uwe; Jäger, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    Airborne pollen measurements are the foundation of aerobiological research and provide essential raw data for various disciplines. Pollen itself should be considered a relevant factor in air quality. Symptom data shed light on the relationship of pollen allergy and pollination. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial variation of local, regional and national symptom datasets. Ten pollen season definitions are used to calculate the symptom load index for the birch and grass pollen seasons (2013-2014) in Austria. (1) Local, (2) regional and (3) national symptom datasets are used to examine spatial variations and a consistent pattern was found. In conclusion, national datasets are suitable for first insights where no sufficient local or regional dataset is available and season definitions based on percentages provide a practical solution, as they can be applied in regions with different pollen loads and produce more constant results. PMID:25935611

  12. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006

  13. Daily Ambrosia Pollen Concentration in the Air of Ankara,Turkey (1990-1999)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayse KAPLAN; Nazmiye SAKIYAN; N Münevver PINAR

    2003-01-01

    The airborne ragweed pollen spectrum was investigated in the air of Ankara, Turkey for aperiod of ten years (1990-1999) using a Burkard seven-day volumetric recording trap. In our study period,long distance transported Ambrosia pollen has been registered. Daily pollen levels varied from low to highin Burge's system. In last three years, the pollen concentration of Ambrosia showed a clear increasingtendency. Our results prove that ragweed pollen may be an important threat for ragweed sensitive patientsin Ankara city in near future.

  14. Estimates of common ragweed pollen emission and dispersion over Europe using RegCM-pollen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Solmon, F.; Vautard, R.; Hamaoui-Laguel, L.; Torma, Cs. Zs.; Giorgi, F.

    2015-11-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In the online model environment where climate is integrated with dispersion and vegetation production, pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to ragweed density distribution on pollen emission, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger. From these simulations health risks associated common ragweed pollen spread are then evaluated through calculation of exposure time above health

  15. Chemical characteristics of surface colour of birch veneer (Betula pendula)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Julkaistu vain painettuna, saatavuus katso Bibid. Published only in printed form, availability see Bibid This thesis investigates the discoloration of veneer produced from silver birch (Betula pendula) logs by means of biochemical and chemical analyses on the veneer and sap obtained from wood which was soaked at varying temperatures (20-70 ˚C). Drastic colour development was confirmed from the sap squeezed from green birch wood. The results from biochemical tests on the sap by sodium dodec...

  16. Aerobiology, allergenicity and biochemistry of Madhuca indica Gmel. pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boral, D; Roy, I; Bhattacharya, K

    1999-01-01

    An ASTIR volumetric sampler was used for one year (May 1995-April 1996) for aerobiological survey at Beharampore town, a centrally located representative part of West Bengal, to record the occurrence and frequency of airborne Madhuca pollen. The highest frequency of Madhuca pollen was recorded in April when the weather was dry with low relative humidity (RH) and moderately high temperature. Clinical test (skin prick test) showed Madhuca pollen to be one of the major causes of respiratory allergy. 30-60% (NH(4))(2)SO(4) cut fraction showed maximum positivity in skin prick test. Biochemical analysis showed that Madhuca pollen was rich in lipid and protein. SDS-PAGE was performed with the total soluble pollen protein which showed a total of 6 major protein bands, while in isolated fraction (Fr. II) a total of 7 protein bands were obtained. PMID:10607988

  17. Intradiurnal variations of allergenic tree pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Badia, Rosa; Vaquero, Consolación; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán, Carmen; García-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-01-01

    To study the impact of inhaling airborne pollen on health, it is important to know not only their average daily concentrations but also the intradiurnal behaviour of these biological particles. This study reports the bi-hourly distribution of the arboreal airborne pollen types more abundant in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), many of them triggering important allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourist visitors. Knowledge of bi-hourly pattern atmospheric variation pollen may help pollinosis patients to adopt preventive measures and plan their outdoor activities accordingly. Intradiurnal variation has been studied for the arboreal pollen types: Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Olea, Platanus, Populus, Quercus and Ulmus, during the period 2005-2008. The main hourly pollen concentrations were observed during sunlight hours and the maximum pollen values obtained at midday and in the afternoon, except for pollen types Quercus and Platanus, whose maximum pollen concentrations were obtained during the night. The statistical analyses performed to compare pollen concentration and main hourly meteorological variables proved to be significant for most of the taxa. The results show a significant and positive effect of temperature, solar radiation and wind speed on the daily variability undergone by atmospheric pollen. Relative humidity influenced in a negative way on the intradiurnal variation of pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo. PMID:21186770

  18. Modeling pollen time series using seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on LOESS smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Jesús; Rivero, Rosario; Romero-Morte, Jorge; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of airborne pollen concentrations provides valuable information on plant phenology and is thus a useful tool in agriculture—for predicting harvests in crops such as the olive and for deciding when to apply phytosanitary treatments—as well as in medicine and the environmental sciences. Variations in airborne pollen concentrations, moreover, are indicators of changing plant life cycles. By modeling pollen time series, we can not only identify the variables influencing pollen levels but also predict future pollen concentrations. In this study, airborne pollen time series were modeled using a seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on LOcally wEighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOESS) smoothing (STL). The data series—daily Poaceae pollen concentrations over the period 2006-2014—was broken up into seasonal and residual (stochastic) components. The seasonal component was compared with data on Poaceae flowering phenology obtained by field sampling. Residuals were fitted to a model generated from daily temperature and rainfall values, and daily pollen concentrations, using partial least squares regression (PLSR). This method was then applied to predict daily pollen concentrations for 2014 (independent validation data) using results for the seasonal component of the time series and estimates of the residual component for the period 2006-2013. Correlation between predicted and observed values was r = 0.79 (correlation coefficient) for the pre-peak period (i.e., the period prior to the peak pollen concentration) and r = 0.63 for the post-peak period. Separate analysis of each of the components of the pollen data series enables the sources of variability to be identified more accurately than by analysis of the original non-decomposed data series, and for this reason, this procedure has proved to be a suitable technique for analyzing the main environmental factors influencing airborne pollen concentrations.

  19. Phytochemical Investigation, Isolation and Characterization of Betulin from Bark of Betula Utilis

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Joshi; Gyanendra Kumar Saxena; Vikas Singh; Ekta Arya; Rahul Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Betula utilis is a hardy perennial plant of moderate size up to 20 M in height, forming the upper limit of forest vegetation. It inhabitates along the Himalayan range from Bhutan westwards, ascending to an altitude of 4200 M. The bark of Betula utilis contains sitosterol, betulin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid karachic acid. The ethanolic extract of powdered drug of Betula utilis was prepared. Mo...

  20. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-02-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  1. Large Eddy Simulation of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B.

    2007-11-01

    The development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and contamination of natural plant populations enhanced the importance of understanding wind dispersion of airborne pollen. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using large eddy simulation. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of great importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. The velocity field is discretized using a pseudospectral approach. However the application of the same discretization scheme to the pollen equation generates unphysical solutions (i.e. negative concentrations). The finite-volume bounded scheme SMART is used for the pollen equation. A conservative interpolation scheme to determine the velocity field on the finite volume surfaces was developed. The implementation is validated against field experiments of point source and area field releases of pollen.

  2. Searching for a trace of Artemisia campestris pollen in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.

  3. A biology-driven receptor model for daily pollen allergy risk in Korea based on Weibull probability density function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Rang; Kim, Mijin; Choe, Ho-Seong; Han, Mae Ja; Lee, Hye-Rim; Oh, Jae-Won; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2016-07-01

    Pollen is an important cause of respiratory allergic reactions. As individual sanitation has improved, allergy risk has increased, and this trend is expected to continue due to climate change. Atmospheric pollen concentration is highly influenced by weather conditions. Regression analysis and modeling of the relationships between airborne pollen concentrations and weather conditions were performed to analyze and forecast pollen conditions. Traditionally, daily pollen concentration has been estimated using regression models that describe the relationships between observed pollen concentrations and weather conditions. These models were able to forecast daily concentrations at the sites of observation, but lacked broader spatial applicability beyond those sites. To overcome this limitation, an integrated modeling scheme was developed that is designed to represent the underlying processes of pollen production and distribution. A maximum potential for airborne pollen is first determined using the Weibull probability density function. Then, daily pollen concentration is estimated using multiple regression models. Daily risk grade levels are determined based on the risk criteria used in Korea. The mean percentages of agreement between the observed and estimated levels were 81.4-88.2 % and 92.5-98.5 % for oak and Japanese hop pollens, respectively. The new models estimated daily pollen risk more accurately than the original statistical models because of the newly integrated biological response curves. Although they overestimated seasonal mean concentration, they did not simulate all of the peak concentrations. This issue would be resolved by adding more variables that affect the prevalence and internal maturity of pollens.

  4. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  5. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  6. Storage of strawberry pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Rafet Aslantaş; Lütfi Pirlak

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C), +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, a...

  7. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob;

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done......-evening, likely reflecting diurnal variation in the emission of grass pollen. This trend is contrary to what the monitoring station predicts, and this has implications where allergen avoidance is being advocated as a method for controlling symptoms. An exposure model for grass pollen is currently being developed...... for Aarhus. Model performance will be tested against the empirical exposure data described here, the ultimate aim being to build upon this study by using the model to assess the importance of source proximity to exposure....

  8. Surface pollen and its relationship to vegetation in the Zoige Basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Furong LI; Yan ZHAO; Jinghui SUN; Wenwei ZHAO; Xiaoli GUO; Ke ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    We use a data set of 23 surface pollen samples from moss polsters in the Zoige Basin to explore the relationship between modem pollen assemblages and contemporary vegetation patterns.The surface pollen samples spanned four types of plant communities:Carex muliensis marsh,Stipa and Kobresia meadow,Carexdominated forb meadow and Sibiraea angustata scrub.Principal-components analysis(PCA)was used to determine the relationships between modem pollen and vegetation and environmental variables.The results show that the pollen assemblages of surface moss samples generally reflect the features of the modem vegetation,basically similar in the vegetation types and the dominant genera; however,they don't show a very clear distinction between different communities.Our results also demonstrate that pollen representation of different families or genus varied.Some tree taxa,such as Pinus and Betula,and herb types,such as Artemisia are over-represented,while Asteraceae,Ranunculaceae and Cyperaceae are moderately represented,and Poaceae and Rosaceae are usually under-represented in our study region.PCA results indicate that the distribution of vegetation in the Zoige Basin is mainly controlled by precipitation and altitude.

  9. Surface pollen and its relationship to vegetation in the Zoige Basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furong; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Jinghui; Zhao, Wenwei; Guo, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ke

    2011-09-01

    We use a data set of 23 surface pollen samples from moss polsters in the Zoige Basin to explore the relationship between modern pollen assemblages and contemporary vegetation patterns. The surface pollen samples spanned four types of plant communities: Carex muliensis marsh, Stipa and Kobresia meadow, Carex-dominated forb meadow and Sibiraea angustata scrub. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used to determine the relationships between modern pollen and vegetation and environmental variables. The results show that the pollen assemblages of surface moss samples generally reflect the features of the modern vegetation, basically similar in the vegetation types and the dominant genera; however, they don't show a very clear distinction between different communities. Our results also demonstrate that pollen representation of different families or genus varied. Some tree taxa, such as Pinus and Betula, and herb types, such as Artemisia are over-represented, while Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae and Cyperaceae are moderately represented, and Poaceae and Rosaceae are usually under-represented in our study region. PCA results indicate that the distribution of vegetation in the Zoige Basin is mainly controlled by precipitation and altitude.

  10. Transcriptomic Analysis of Phenotypic Changes in Birch (Betula platyphylla Autotetraploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Feng Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees.

  11. Analysis of trees planted in vicinity of hospitals in Ljubljana as a source of pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Kofol Seliger, Andreja; Pirnat, Janez

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses woody plants growing in the vicinity of hospital buildings situated along Zalog Road, Korytko Street, Šlajmar Street, Bohorič Street and Njegoš Street in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Woody plants are an immediate potential source of allergenic pollen, affecting all park users such as patients, visitors and hospital employees. The most allergenic tree species in the park was found to be birch (Betula pendula Roth.), which accounts for 6.8% of all registered trees. The low allergenic...

  12. Large-scale climate variability and its effects on mean temperature and flowering time of Prunus and Betula in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, A. K.; Hense, A.; Toldam-Andersen, T. B.; Braun, P.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale climate variability largely affects average climatic conditions and therefore is likely to influence the phenology of plants. In NW-Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) particularly influences winter climate and, through climate interactions on plants, flowering time of all tree species. In Denmark, like in many other NW-European countries, flowering of most tree species has become earlier since the end of the 1980’s. To quantify a possible relation between NAO and flowering time of tree species, two sources of phenological information from the Copenhagen area (Denmark) were analysed, i.e. pollen counts of the genus Betula and observed first bloom dates of Prunus avium. The Winter NAO explained 29 and 37% of the variation of monthly mean temperature for February and March, respectively. The influence of temperature on flowering time was up to 56% to 60% for the February April mean. A direct correlation of Winter NAO-index and flowering time also revealed a clear relation but the time of influence was earlier (December to February). This was shown to be the likely result of a combination of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO on air and sea surface temperature. The NAO signal is apparently stored in the North Sea and then influences temperature east up to the Baltic States. It is shown that Denmark is right in the centre of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO. This offers the possibility of using the NAO-index for predicting flowering time of Prunus avium. The beginning of pollen flow appears to be influenced too much by short-term perturbations of the climate system decreasing the value of the NAO-index for prediction. However, it indicates a close relationship between natural climate variability, measured by the NAO index, and flowering time of tree species for Denmark.

  13. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  14. A New Monoterpene Glucoside from the Leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new monoterpene glucoside, (2E,6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-8-b-D-glucosyloxy-2,6-octadien- oic acid, was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk. The structure was established by spectroscopic data.

  15. Characteristics of T-cell and B-cell immune respoonses to pollen allergens in Bulgarian patients with pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVKA KOSTOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the pollen allergens and identification of the main T-cell and B-cell epitopes is of crucial importance, since the clarification of the cellular and molecular mechanisms will allow long-term control of this type allergic diseases and development of safe immunotherapeutic medication. The objective of this study was to identify which pollen allergens are responsible for the T-cell activation in atopic patients with pollinosis and to determine whether the same allergens are responsible for the IgE-mediated reactions. Thirty-seven patients with pollinosis and thirteen non-allergic subjects were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected out of the pollen season. T-cell responses (IFN-γ production towards different pollen allergens and levels of pollen specific IgE and IgG in the sera were measured by ELISA. The T-cell reactivity in most patients was directed towards the grass pollen B1, tree pollen I and autumn pollen B5. 70% of the allergic individuals responded to allergens from Lolium perenne, 84% to Dactylis glomerata, 11% to Phleum pratense, 65% to Betula pendula and 70% to Taxus baccata. Elevated serum levels of specific IgE in the allergic patients (p<0.01 were measured against the tree pollen I and autumn pollen, which include widespread deciduous trees (birch, willow, poplar and yew and Artemisia absinthium, respectively. Our results show that the T-cell reactivity and antibody responses may be directed towards different or the same allergens. In addition, we propose that short synthetic peptides, which contain overlapping T- and B-cell epitopes can be used for specific immunotherapy treatment if they lack antibody recognition domains.

  16. All-optical automatic pollen identification: Towards an operational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Stella, Michelle; Konzelmann, Thomas; Calpini, Bertrand; Clot, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    We present results from the development and validation campaign of an optical pollen monitoring method based on time-resolved scattering and fluorescence. Focus is first set on supervised learning algorithms for pollen-taxa identification and on the determination of aerosol properties (particle size and shape). The identification capability provides a basis for a pre-operational automatic pollen season monitoring performed in parallel to manual reference measurements (Hirst-type volumetric samplers). Airborne concentrations obtained from the automatic system are compatible with those from the manual method regarding total pollen and the automatic device provides real-time data reliably (one week interruption over five months). In addition, although the calibration dataset still needs to be completed, we are able to follow the grass pollen season. The high sampling from the automatic device allows to go beyond the commonly-presented daily values and we obtain statistically significant hourly concentrations. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges for obtaining an operational automatic monitoring system and how the generic validation environment developed for the present campaign could be used for further tests of automatic pollen monitoring devices.

  17. Cytoskeleton in Pollen and Pollen Tubes of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Mei LIU; Hong ZHANG; Yan LI

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of F-actin and microtubules was investigated in pollen and pollen tubes of Ginkgo biloba L. using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence and immunofluorescence labeling. A dense F-actin network was found in hydrated Ginkgo pollen. When Ginkgo pollen was germinating,F-actin mesh was found under the plasma membrane from which the pollen tube would emerge. After pollen germination, F-actin bundles were distributed axially in long pollen tubes of G. biloba. Thick F-actin bundles and network were found in the tip of the Ginkgo pollen tube, which is opposite to the results reported for the pollen tubes of some angiosperms and conifers. In addition, a few circular F-actin bundles were found in Ginkgo pollen tubes. Using immunofluorescence labeling, a dense microtubule network was found in hydrated Ginkgo pollen under confocal microscope. In the Ginkgo pollen tube, the microtubules were distributed along the longitudinal axis and extended to the tip. These results suggest that the cytoskeleton may have an essential role in the germination of Ginkgo pollen and tube growth.

  18. Pollen indication to source plants in the eastern desert of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuecong; XU Qinghai; ZHAO Yingkui; YANG Xiaolan; XIAO Jule; CHEN Hui; L(U) Xinmiao

    2005-01-01

    , but the higher Xp and the lower Xa values make that these pollen types can also indicate source plants moderately. Allium, Leguminosae, Roseceae, Pedicularis and Compositae have low A scores (less than 0.5), high O and/or U scores, so they cannot indicate source plants clearly. Some other pollen types, such as Pinus, Picea, Betula, Quercus, Ulmus, Ephedra, Elaegnaceae, Ranunculaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae, Saxifragaceae, only appear in pollen assemblages, so their indication cannot be decided. Just like the pollen percentage ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C), the ratios of Ephedra and Artemisia (E/A), Nitraria and Ephedra (N/E) can also indicate the aridity of environment. In typical desert communities, A/C ratios are less than 0.5, E/A ratios are more than 0.1, and N/E ratios are less than 1. In steppe desert, A/C ratios are 0.5―2, E/A ratios are less than 0.1, and N/E ratios are more than 1.

  19. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuanxiu; Chen, Muhong; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lanlan; Lu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a palynological analysis based on different number of air pollen samples for the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, respectively, in order to give a reference to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. (1) Fifteen air pollen samples were collected from the northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011, and 13 air pollen samples were collected from the southern part of the South China Sea in December 2011. The pollen types were more abundant in the north than in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north was 10 times more than that in the south, which may be because of the sampling season. Airborne pollen types and concentrations have a close relationship with wind direction and distance from the sampling point to the continent. (2) Seventy-four samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea in the autumn. Thirty-three samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea in the winter. Pollen concentrations in the north were nearly 10 times higher than that in the south. This is because trilete spores are transported by rivers from Hainan Island to the sea and also by the summer monsoon-forced marine current. (3) Ten air pollen samples and 10 surface sediments samples were selected for comparison. The pollen and spores in the air were mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores, having seasonal pollen characteristics. Pollen in the surface sediments were mainly trilete, Pinus, and herbaceous, and may also show a combination of annual pollen characteristics.

  20. Pollen record and environmental evolution of Caotanhu wetland in Xinjiang since 4550 cal. a BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; KONG ZhaoChen; NI Jian; YAN Shun; YANG ZhenJing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-proxy reconstruction of the climate change in Caotanhu wetland using pollen, phytolith and charcoal records, and the data of loss of ignition (LOI), grain size analysis, and susceptibility. Results reveal that between 4550 and 2500 cal. a BP, a dry climatic condition was not favorable for the accumulation of peat. Since 2500 cal. a BP, the climate became humid and the wetland developed with abundant freshwater aquatic plants, which contributed to peat accumulation. Never-theless, alternate periods of rain and dry climate occurred during that period. Between 2500 and 1810 cal. a BP (550 BC-140 AD), the climate was more humid than at present. A lot of emerged plants, such as Phragmites, Typha and Sparganium, and freshwater green algae grew in the wetland which was sur-rounded by desert-steppe vegetation composed mainly of Chenopodiaceae, Arternisia, Compositae and Thalictrum. However, from 1810 to 1160 cal. a BP (140-790 AD), the water level started to decrease and hydrophyte species reduced greatly, but some Phragmites still grew in the wetland and around it was desert vegetation with high proportion of Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia. Then from 1160 to 650 a BP (790-1300 AD), it entered a period of desert-steppe with abundant mesic and xerophytic plants. And a lot of aquatic plants prevailed in the wetland. Here, what is noticeable is that percentages of arboreal pollen, consisting mainly of Betula and Picea, increased greatly and reached a maximal value of 27.2%, in which, Betula percentages rose to 23.2%. Hence, it is reasonable to conclude that Betula grew in the highland of the wetland, or Picea timberline shifted downward resulting in the increase of percentages of Betula and Picea pollen, which were transported into the wetland by flood or wind. But since 650 cal. a BP, desert vegetation prevailed around the wetland again with dominant Chenopodiaceae and Ar-temisia, and the climate was similar to modern one. Despite some aquatic

  1. Ecological variation of radiosensitivity in the seeds of Betula verrucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on variation of radiosensitivity in the seeds of common birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh). Investigations were carried on in three types of forest-whortleberry birch grove (the top of the hill), mountain cranberry (the middle part of the hill), mixed grass (the bottom of the hill). The seeds in each area were picked from 10 well fruit bearing trees (from the middle part of top). Air-dry seeds were irradiated by 137Cs gamma-rays with 10, 20, 4 krad doses at 138 r/min dose rate. The seeds were let germinate under conditions of natural lighting and room temperatures. Radiosensitivity was evaluated from seed germination and seeding survival, and radiosensitivity variability level - with the help of variation ratio. It was established that differences in radiosensitivity among trees of different types of forest for seed germination and seeding survival of common birch, were not revealed. Radiosensitivity variation, resulted from heterogeneity of ecological conditions in different areas, is lower, than the level of individual variability of this property inside each planting

  2. Pollen Viability and Pollen Tube Attrition in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of mature seed in a cranberry fruit increases with stigmatic pollen load. On average, however, only two seeds result for every tetrad of pollen deposited. What then is the fate of the two remaining pollen grains fused in each tetrad? Germination in vitro revealed that most of the grains ...

  3. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Indoor Pollen in a Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fernández-Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The airborne indoor pollen in a hospital of Badajoz (Spain was monitored over two years using a personal Burkard sampler. The air was sampled in four places indoors—one closed room and one open ward on each of the ground and the third floors—and one place outdoors at the entrance to the hospital. The results were compared with data from a continuous volumetric sampler. While 32 pollen types were identified, nearly 75% of the total counts were represented by just five of them. These were: Quercus, Cupressaceae, Poaceae, Olea, and Plantago. The average indoor concentration was 25.2 grains/m3, and the average indoor/outdoor ratio was 0.27. A strong seasonal pattern was found, with the highest levels in spring and winter, and the indoor concentrations were correlated with the outdoor one. Indoor air movement led to great homogeneity in the airborne pollen presence: the indoor results were not influenced by whether or not the room was isolated, the floor level, or the number of people in or transiting the site during sampling. The presence of ornamental vegetation in the area surrounding the building affected the indoor counts directly as sources of the pollen.

  4. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  5. Large Eddy Simulation and Field Experiments of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C.; Parlange, M. B.; van Hout, R.

    2006-12-01

    Dispersion of airborne pollen by the wind has been a subject of interest for botanists and allergists for a long time. More recently, the development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and subsequent contamination of natural plant populations has brought even more interest to this field. A critical question is how far from the source field pollen grains will be advected. Clearly the answer depends on the aerodynamic properties of the pollen, geometrical properties of the field, topography, local vegetation, wind conditions, atmospheric stability, etc. As a consequence, field experiments are well suited to provide some information on pollen transport mechanisms but are limited to specific field and weather conditions. Numerical simulations do not have this drawback and can be a useful tool to study pollen dispersal in a variety of configurations. It is well known that the dispersion of particles in turbulent fields is strongly affected by the large scale coherent structures. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a technique that allows us to study the typical distances reached by pollen grains and, at the same time, resolve the larger coherent structures present in the atmospheric boundary layer. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using LES. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of extreme importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. In both cases we make use of the theoretical profile for suspended particles derived by Kind (1992). Field experiments were performed to study the applicability of the theoretical profile to pollen grains and the results are encouraging. Airborne concentrations as well as ground deposition from the simulations are compared to experimental data to validate the

  6. Climate change and its impact on birch pollen quantities and the start of the pollen season an example from Switzerland for the period 1969-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-09-01

    As published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global warming is a reality and its impact is huge like the increase of extreme weather events, glacier recession, sea level rise and also effects on human health. Among them allergies to airborne pollen might increase or change in pattern due to the invasion of new allergic plants or due to different behavior of plants like earlier flowering. In this study we used the longest Swiss airborne pollen data set to examine the influence of the temperature increase on the time of flowering. In the case of Basel, where pollen data for 38 years are available, it was shown that due to a temperature increase the start of flowering in the case of birch occurred about 15 days earlier. Apart from a shift of the start of the flowering there is also a trend towards higher annual birch pollen quantities and an increase of the highest daily mean pollen concentrations. Due to global warming and because symptoms may appear earlier in the year people suffering from a pollen allergy might face a new unaccustomed situation.

  7. Impact of meteorological variation on hospital visits of patients with tree pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Si-Heon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change could affect allergic diseases, especially due to pollen. However, there has been no epidemiologic study to demonstrate the relationship between meteorological factors, pollen, and allergic patients. We aimed to investigate the association between meteorological variations and hospital visits of patients with tree pollen allergy. Methods The study subjects were adult patients who received skin prick tests between April and July from 1999 to 2008. We reviewed the medical records for the test results of 4,715 patients. Patients with tree pollen allergy were defined as those sensitized to more than 1 of 12 tree pollen allergens. We used monthly means of airborne tree pollen counts and meteorological factors: maximum/average/minimum temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation. We analyzed the correlations between meteorological variations, tree pollen counts, and the patient numbers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between meteorological factors and hospital visits of patients. Results The minimum temperature in March was significantly and positively correlated with tree pollen counts in March/April and patient numbers from April through July. Pollen counts in March/April were also correlated with patient numbers from April through July. After adjusting for confounders, including air pollutants, there was a positive association between the minimum temperature in March and hospital visits of patients with tree pollen allergy from April to July(odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.25. Conclusions Higher temperatures could increase tree pollen counts, affecting the symptoms of patients with tree pollen allergy, thereby increasing the number of patients visiting hospitals.

  8. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mature Pollen and Germinated Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Zou; Lianfen Song; Wenzheng Zhang; Yi Wang; Songlin Ruan; Wei-Hua Wu

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to generating the map of Arabidopsis mature pollen proteins and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins that are potentially involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination. By applying 2-D electrophoresis and silver staining, we resolved 499 and 494 protein spots from protein samples extracted from pollen grains and pollen tubes, respectively. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, we identified 189 distinct proteins from 213 protein spots expressed in mature pollen or pollen tubes, and 75 new identified proteins that had not been reported before in research into the Arabidopsis pollen proteome. Comparative analysis revealed that 40 protein spots exhibit reproducible significant changes between mature pollen and pollen tubes. And 21 proteins from 17 downregulated and six upregulated protein spots were identified. Functional category analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in signaling, cellular structure, transport, defense/stress responses, transcription, metabolism, and energy production. The patterns of changes at protein level suggested the important roles for energy metabolism-related proteins in pollen tube growth, accompanied by the activation of the stress response pathway and modifications to the cell wall.

  9. FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY OF BETULA PENDULA LEAVES AS A BIOINDICATOR OF AEROTECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF AGROLANDSCAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Lobkov, V.; Vetrova, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of our research was to determine the variability model and fluctuating asymmetry indices of the metric signs of Betula pendula as a typical species which grow uniformly in the Orel region and Orel.The following problems were solved:to collect material in the planting of silver birch in two areas;to determine the parameters of Betula pendula leaf blade and the level of its asymmetry; to explore the basic statistical properties of the asymmetry parameters of the individual feature...

  10. Dynamics of Betula ermanni population in subalpine vegetation in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chunjing; Han Shijie; Wang Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    Betula ermanni population was divided into three groups: the upper population (2 000~2 200 m), the middle population (1 700~2000 m), and the down population (1 400~1 700 m) in Changbai Mountain. The dynamics of Betula ermanni populations in subalpine vegetation are studied and the population life table,fecundity schedule, survival curves, age structure, and fecundity curves were established. The results showed that the middle population is obviously the transition from the upper population to the down population.

  11. Trans-disciplinary research in synthesis of grass pollen aerobiology and its importance for respiratory health in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Beggs, Paul J; Medek, Danielle E; Newnham, Rewi M; Erbas, Bircan; Thibaudon, Michel; Katelaris, Connstance H; Haberle, Simon G; Newbigin, Edward J; Huete, Alfredo R

    2015-11-15

    Grass pollen is a major trigger for allergic rhinitis and asthma, yet little is known about the timing and levels of human exposure to airborne grass pollen across Australasian urban environments. The relationships between environmental aeroallergen exposure and allergic respiratory disease bridge the fields of ecology, aerobiology, geospatial science and public health. The Australian Aerobiology Working Group comprised of experts in botany, palynology, biogeography, climate change science, plant genetics, biostatistics, ecology, pollen allergy, public and environmental health, and medicine, was established to systematically source, collate and analyse atmospheric pollen concentration data from 11 Australian and six New Zealand sites. Following two week-long workshops, post-workshop evaluations were conducted to reflect upon the utility of this analysis and synthesis approach to address complex multidisciplinary questions. This Working Group described i) a biogeographically dependent variation in airborne pollen diversity, ii) a latitudinal gradient in the timing, duration and number of peaks of the grass pollen season, and iii) the emergence of new methodologies based on trans-disciplinary synthesis of aerobiology and remote sensing data. Challenges included resolving methodological variations between pollen monitoring sites and temporal variations in pollen datasets. Other challenges included "marrying" ecosystem and health sciences and reconciling divergent expert opinion. The Australian Aerobiology Working Group facilitated knowledge transfer between diverse scientific disciplines, mentored students and early career scientists, and provided an uninterrupted collaborative opportunity to focus on a unifying problem globally. The Working Group provided a platform to optimise the value of large existing ecological datasets that have importance for human respiratory health and ecosystems research. Compilation of current knowledge of Australasian pollen aerobiology

  12. Phytochemical Investigation, Isolation and Characterization of Betulin from Bark of Betula Utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Joshi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Betula utilis is a hardy perennial plant of moderate size up to 20 M in height, forming the upper limit of forest vegetation. It inhabitates along the Himalayan range from Bhutan westwards, ascending to an altitude of 4200 M. The bark of Betula utilis contains sitosterol, betulin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid karachic acid. The ethanolic extract of powdered drug of Betula utilis was prepared. Most of the constituents were found to be present in the ethanolic extract. Thus it was concluded that constituents of Betula utilis bark are more soluble in polar solvents. The ethanolic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and triterpenes. After identification of crude extract, the main work was to isolate the desired compound (betulin. So, fractionation of ethanolic extract was done by suspending it in water and then extracted it with n-hexane and dichloromethane. Betulin was isolated from dichloromethane fraction using column chromatography. Ethyl acetate and n-hexane in various ratios (1:10; 1:5; 1:3; 1:2 was used as eluent for separation of desired compound from the dichloromethane fraction. After isolation of desired compound, it was subjected to characterization. For characterization studies; melting range, TLC and spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, Mass and NMR were utilized.

  13. The correlation of the maximum intensity of fluorescence with pigment characteristics of leaves of Betula pendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoruev, V. V.; Zavorueva, E. N.

    2015-11-01

    Using fluorimeter Junior PAM (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany) the fluorescence parameters of leaves of Betula pendula are investigated. A linear dependence of the maximum fluorescence (Fm) of leaves from the ratio of total chlorophylls concentration to concentration of carotenoids is obtained. Such dependence is found for samples collected during the period of vegetation and for simultaneous selection of colored leaves.

  14. PLATYPHYLLIN A, A NOVEL COUMARONE FROM THE LEAVES OF BETULA PLATYPHYLLA SUK.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU-JUAN WANG; YUE-HU PEI; HUI-MING HUA

    2001-01-01

    A novel coumarone, platyphyllin A (1), was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk..The structure elucidation was accomplished by the analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was identified as a new coumarone skeleton, which was first isolated from plants.

  15. Comparative Carbon and Water Relations of Betula nana and Poa pratensis in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S. M. P.; Sullivan, P. F.; Welker, J. M.; Post, E.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of woody shrubs throughout much of the Arctic in recent decades is a common observation in response to climate change. However, we lack a complete understanding of how woody shrubs differ physiologically from neighboring species and how these differences may confer competitive advantages to woody shrubs as the climate continues to change. At a site in West Greenland, we combined detailed leaf physiological measurements with stable isotope analysis of plant leaf material, xylem water and soil water to elucidate the processes governing seasonal carbon (C) gain in the two dominant plant species at our study site: Betula nana and Poa pratensis. We hypothesized that cooler, drier soils beneath the Betula canopy would result in greater drought sensitivity during times of high atmospheric demand (i.e. greater water vapor pressure deficit; VPD), which would manifest in reduced leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and a negative relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in accordance with the dual-isotope conceptual model. Data collected over two consecutive growing seasons, however, revealed greater drought sensitivity in Poa, which displayed a dramatic reduction in Amax and gs during periods of high VPD, along with reduced leaf Δ13C. Additionally, leaf Δ13C and Δ18O were negatively correlated in Poa, suggesting strong stomatal influence on Δ13C. Conversely, we found no relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in Betula, indicating that seasonal variation in Δ13C may have been driven primarily by changes in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that, although Poa maintains greater average leaf-level photosynthesis, this species is more susceptible to drought than Betula. Meanwhile, it may be that Betula employs a strategy to avoid drought stress and maintain steady, yet conservative, C gain. This strategy may enable growth to continue during warm and dry conditions, conferring a competitive advantage for Betula in

  16. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009–2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of...

  17. [Allergy, pollen and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán, Luis Manuel; Haselbarth-López, Michelle Marie Margarete; Quiroz-García, David Leonor

    2009-01-01

    Allergic respiratory diseases such asthma and allergic rhinitis are a health problem throughout the world. In Mexico City, pollens are an important cause of allergic respiratory disease. Both, the geographic location- and the vegetation surrounding this City favor the distribution of pollens leading to respiratory disease in susceptible patients. Aerobiological studies have shown that during the mild dry winter there is a large amount of pollens in the environment with tree pollens being the most abundant of all. The most frequent tree pollens found in Mexico City include Fraxinus, Cupressaseae, Alnus, Liquidambar, Callistemon, Pinus, and Casuarina. In contrast, grass- and weed pollens predominate during the summer (rainy season) including Compositae, Cheno-Am, Ambrosia and Gramineae. An additional health problem in Mexico City is the air pollution that exerts a direct effect on individuals. This in turn increases pollen allergenicity by disrupting them leading to the release of their particles which then penetrate the human airways causing disease. Thus, the polluted environment along with global warming which is also known to increase pollen quantities by inducing longer pollen seasons may represent a health risk to Mexico City inhabitants. PMID:19685827

  18. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  19. Annual pollen sums of alnus in Lublin and Roztocze in the years 2001-2007 against selected meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław M. Kaszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alder (Alnus Mill., as an anemophilous species, produces large quantities of easily dispersed pollen. Annual pollen sums recorded in south-eastern Poland (by the volumetric method - Lanzoni trap and in the area of the village of Guciów in the Central Roztocze region (pollen deposition in Tauber traps were compared. The height at which the respective trap sites were located as well as local and regional vegetation and the distance from the nearest alder communities differ in both cases, likewise, the climate of these two regions differ. The analysed pollen data series cover the years 1998-2007 in Roztocze and 2001-2007 in Lublin. Large differences have been noted in Alnus pollen deposition values between particular years. Among them, there were observed years of very high annual sums (2001, 2003, 2006, as well as years of very low pollen deposition values in both regions (2002, 2005, 2007. In the period in question, the mean value of annual Alnus pollen count for Lublin was 5372 alder pollen grains in m3 of air, and in Roztocze 1647 grains per cm2 of area. During the seven-year period of monitoring (2001-2007, very similar trends were noted with respect to airborne alder pollen concentrations at both trap sites. Pollen data have been analysed against meteorological factors affecting alder pollen production and deposition. These are total precipitation and mean monthly air temperature in June, July and August in the year preceding pollen emission and the same weather elements in January and February in the year of pollen emission. In Roztocze a statistically significant negative correlation has been found between Alnus pollen annual sums and total precipitation in August in the year preceding alder pollen emission and in February in the year of pollen emission. In both regions, the Spearman's correlation coefficient does not show any statistically significant values when comparing annual Alnus pollen sums with mean monthly temperatures of both

  20. Protein estimation and palynlogical studies of cannabis sativa l. pollen in relation to respiratory allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne pollen allergies and asthma are on a rise in the metropolitan city of Islamabad. Knowledge of allergenic pollen is limited in the area. Cannabis sativa L. or commonly known as Hemp is widely spread weed in the city. Morphological studies performed via light microscopy and SEM have shown that the pollen of Cannabis sativa are 21 micro m long having triporate aperture, spheroidal in shape and scaberate exine. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of pollen proteins has also be done in to recognize allergenic protein bands. Bradford's analysis for proteins quantification has shown that the hemp pollen has 30.69 mg/g protein in fresh weight of pollen. While SDS-PAGE analysis showed 11 bands of various protein size ranging from 17kDa to 150kDa. The research findings indicate that Cannabis sativa, could be a potent allergenic pollen-producing weed that might cause serious health problems in the population of Islamabad. (author)

  1. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in ZP maize lines

    OpenAIRE

    Cerović Radosav; Pajić Zorica; Filipović Milomir; Fotirić-Akšić Milica; Radičević Sanja; Nikolić Dragan; Đorđević Milena

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted on the in vitro pollen germination at 26°, 28°, 32° and 35°C for 24h of male parental lines, pollen tube growth in vivo in cross pollination of female and male parental lines that make couples in four hybrids: ZP 504 su (♀ ZPPL 51 × ♂ ZPPL 67); ZP 677 (♀ ZPPL 17 × ♂ ZPPL 201); ZP 704 (♀ ZPPL 109 × ♂ ZPPL 79), ZP 611 k (♀ ZPPL 126 × ♂ ZPPL 105), and the open pollination of female parental lines of the above mentioned hybrids. Pollen g...

  2. Cluster analysis of intradiurnal holm oak pollen cycles at peri-urban and rural sampling sites in southwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; García-Mozo, H; Galán, C

    2015-08-01

    The impact of regional and local weather and of local topography on intradiurnal variations in airborne pollen levels was assessed by analysing bi-hourly holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) pollen counts at two sampling stations located 40 km apart, in southwestern Spain (Cordoba city and El Cabril nature reserve) over the period 2010-2011. Pollen grains were captured using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Analysis of regional weather conditions was based on the computation of backward trajectories using the HYSPLIT model. Sampling days were selected on the basis of phenological data; rainy days were eliminated, as were days lying outside a given range of percentiles (P95-P5). Analysis of cycles for the study period, as a whole, revealed differences between sampling sites, with peak bi-hourly pollen counts at night in Cordoba and at midday in El Cabril. Differences were also noted in the influence of surface weather conditions (temperature, relative humidity and wind). Cluster analysis of diurnal holm oak pollen cycles revealed the existence of five clusters at each sampling site. Analysis of backward trajectories highlighted specific regional air-flow patterns associated with each site. Findings indicated the contribution of both nearby and distant pollen sources to diurnal cycles. The combined use of cluster analysis and meteorological analysis proved highly suitable for charting the impact of local weather conditions on airborne pollen-count patterns. This method, and the specific tools used here, could be used not only to study diurnal variations in counts for other pollen types and in other biogeographical settings, but also in a number of other research fields involving airborne particle transport modelling, e.g. radionuclide transport in emergency preparedness exercises. PMID:25315264

  3. Cluster analysis of intradiurnal holm oak pollen cycles at peri-urban and rural sampling sites in southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; García-Mozo, H.; Galán, C.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of regional and local weather and of local topography on intradiurnal variations in airborne pollen levels was assessed by analysing bi-hourly holm oak ( Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) pollen counts at two sampling stations located 40 km apart, in southwestern Spain (Cordoba city and El Cabril nature reserve) over the period 2010-2011. Pollen grains were captured using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Analysis of regional weather conditions was based on the computation of backward trajectories using the HYSPLIT model. Sampling days were selected on the basis of phenological data; rainy days were eliminated, as were days lying outside a given range of percentiles (P95-P5). Analysis of cycles for the study period, as a whole, revealed differences between sampling sites, with peak bi-hourly pollen counts at night in Cordoba and at midday in El Cabril. Differences were also noted in the influence of surface weather conditions (temperature, relative humidity and wind). Cluster analysis of diurnal holm oak pollen cycles revealed the existence of five clusters at each sampling site. Analysis of backward trajectories highlighted specific regional air-flow patterns associated with each site. Findings indicated the contribution of both nearby and distant pollen sources to diurnal cycles. The combined use of cluster analysis and meteorological analysis proved highly suitable for charting the impact of local weather conditions on airborne pollen-count patterns. This method, and the specific tools used here, could be used not only to study diurnal variations in counts for other pollen types and in other biogeographical settings, but also in a number of other research fields involving airborne particle transport modelling, e.g. radionuclide transport in emergency preparedness exercises.

  4. City scale pollen concentration variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  5. CORRELATION OF CONTENT ASCORBIC ACID IN THE ASSIMILATION APPARATUS BETULA PENDULA ROTH. WITH AGENT BY PATHOLOGICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-01-01

    Features of influence of set of anthropogenic factors and phytopathologic state of tree Betula pendula on concentration of ascorbic acid in it assimilation apparatus are considered. By criterion of influence Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pilat and to presence pollution adaptable ability of a plant to action stressful factors, and also possibility of development of the mechanisms which are responsible for inhibition of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid estimated. It is shown that from all analyse...

  6. Effects of artificial defoliation and simulated insect damage on the growth of Betula pendula saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I; Araminiene V; Stakenas V

    2016-01-01

    One-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings were subjected to artificial insect damage and defoliations of varying intensities, and subsequent growth indexes, biomass allocation patterns and photosynthesis were monitored during a 60-day period. Seven treatments were conducted in which the leaves of saplings were perforated with three or six holes per each leaf, and damaged by clipping one-third of each leaf, or they received 25, 50 and 75% defoliations during a single growing sea...

  7. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Albertine

    Full Text Available One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2, a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3, a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.. We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  8. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in ZP maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Radosav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the in vitro pollen germination at 26°, 28°, 32° and 35°C for 24h of male parental lines, pollen tube growth in vivo in cross pollination of female and male parental lines that make couples in four hybrids: ZP 504 su (♀ ZPPL 51 × ♂ ZPPL 67; ZP 677 (♀ ZPPL 17 × ♂ ZPPL 201; ZP 704 (♀ ZPPL 109 × ♂ ZPPL 79, ZP 611 k (♀ ZPPL 126 × ♂ ZPPL 105, and the open pollination of female parental lines of the above mentioned hybrids. Pollen germination in vitro and pollen tube growth dynamics in vivo showed different genotypic specificities with the tests applied. The obtained results were discussed in the context of reproductive biology of ZP maize lines and aimed to create the preconditions for successful management and direction of the process in practice - seed production in certain environmental conditions.

  9. Ragweed pollen production and dispersion modelling within a regional climate system, calibration and application over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Solmon, Fabien; Vautard, Robert; Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Zsolt Torma, Csaba; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hay fever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In this online approach pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to the lack of information on ragweed density distribution, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Accordingly a cross validation is conducted and shows reasonable error and sensitivity of the calibration. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger and the model is better constrained. From these simulations health risks associated to common ragweed pollen

  10. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California (USA) for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to

  11. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Duhl, Tiffany; Salam, Muhammad T; House, James M; Flagan, Richard C; Avol, Edward L; Gilliland, Frank D; Guenther, Alex; Chung, Serena H; Lamb, Brian K; VanReken, Timothy M

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen concentrations, and tends

  12. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs. The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS, which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen

  13. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009-2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of airborne pollen varied greatly and were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions (p pollination in Szczecin and Rzeszów varied over the study period. Hazel and alder trees flowered notably earlier in stands located in places that were exposed to sunlight (insolated) and sheltered from the wind. On the other hand, a delay in the timing of pollination was observed in quite sunny but very windy sites. In Rzeszów, maximum hazel pollen concentrations did not coincide with the period of full pollination (defined as between 25 % hazel and alder and 75 % of flowers open). Conversely, in Szczecin, the highest hazel pollen concentrations were recorded during phenophases of the full pollination period. The period when the highest alder pollen concentrations were recorded varied between sites, with Rzeszów recording the highest concentrations at the beginning of pollination and Szczecin recording alder pollen throughout the full pollination period. Substantial amounts of hazel and alder pollen grains were recorded in the air of Rzeszów (but not Szczecin) before the onset of the respective pollen seasons. PMID:24098067

  14. Vegetation and climate history in the Laptev Sea region (Arctic Siberia) during Late Quaternary inferred from pollen records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Andrei A.; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Ganopolski, Andrey; Brovkin, Viktor; Siegert, Christine; Wetterich, Sebastian; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    Paleoenvironmental records from a number of permafrost sections and lacustrine cores from the Laptev Sea region dated by several methods ( 14C-AMS, TL, IRSL, OSL and 230Th/U) were analyzed for pollen and palynomorphs. The records reveal the environmental history for the last ca 200 kyr. For interglacial pollen spectra, quantitative temperature values were estimated using the best modern analogue method. Sparse grass-sedge vegetation indicating arctic desert environmental conditions existed prior to 200 kyr ago. Dense, wet grass-sedge tundra habitats dominated during an interstadial ca 200-190 kyr ago, reflecting warmer and wetter summers than before. Sparser vegetation communities point to much more severe stadial conditions ca 190-130 kyr ago. Open grass and Artemisia communities with shrub stands ( Alnus fruticosa, Salix, Betula nana) in more protected and moister places characterized the beginning of the Last Interglacial indicate climate conditions similar to present. Shrub tundra ( Alnus fruticosa and Betula nana) dominated during the middle Eemian climatic optimum, when summer temperatures were 4-5 °C higher than today. Early-Weichselian sparse grass-sedge dominated vegetation indicates climate conditions colder and dryer than in the previous interval. Middle Weichselian Interstadial records indicate moister and warmer climate conditions, for example, in the interval 40-32 kyr BP Salix was present within dense, grass-sedge dominated vegetation. Sedge-grass- Artemisia-communities indicate that climate became cooler and drier after 30 kyr BP, and cold, dry conditions characterized the Late Weichselian, ca 26-16 kyr BP, when grass-dominated communities with Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, Cichoriaceae, Selaginella rupestris were present. From 16 to 12 kyr BP, grass-sedge communities with Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, and Cichoriaceae indicate climate was significantly warmer and moister than during the previous interval. The presence of Salix and Betula reflect

  15. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae). Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Hormaza Jose I; Risueño Maria C; Testillano Pilar S; Lora Jorge; Herrero Maria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this char...

  16. Effect of gamma rays doses on pollen germination, polysiphony and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula Schiede et Deppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation (60Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables

  17. Pollen analyses for pollination research, acetolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen D. Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the pollen associated with pollinators can reveal their role in pollination, the habitats and plants they visit, from where they migrated, what they eat, and dispersal patterns in and around cropping systems. However, finding pollen on and or in a pollinator depends on the technique used to recover the pollen. Acetolysis can be used to recover pollen from internal insect tissues (gut, alimentary canal, crop, etc., external tissues (proboscis, legs, eyes, etc. or both. Acetolysis is the best technique for recovering pollen because any tissue is dissolved and lipids and debris are removed from the sample and the pollen grains. This makes the diagnostic characteristics of the pollen grains more visible so that accurate pollen identification can be made. By using the proper technique, better pollen recovery can be made and thus better data can be obtained.

  18. Pollen taphonomy in a canyon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    1987-11-01

    Surface soil samples from the forested Chuska Mountains to the arid steppe of the Chinle Valley, Northeastern Arizona, show close correlation between modern pollen rain and vegetation. In contrast, modern alluvium is dominated by Pinus pollen throughout the canyon; it reflects neither the surrounding floodplain nor plateau vegetation. Pollen in surface soils is deposited by wind; pollen grains in alluvium are deposited by a stream as sedimentary particles. Clay-size particles correlate significantly with Pinus, Quercus, and Populus pollen. These pollen types settle, as clay does, in slack water. Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthus, Artemisia, other Tubuliflorae, and indeterminate pollen types correlate with sand-size particles, and are deposited by more turbulent water. Fluctuating pollen frequencies in alluvial deposits are related to sedimentology and do not reflect the local or regional vegetation where the sediments were deposited. Alluvial pollen is unreliable for reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

  19. The blocking activity of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 is not qualitatively superior to that of other IgG subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N; Svenson, Morten

    2004-01-01

    for the clinical efficacy of SIT. In this study, fractionated serum samples from 14 SIT-treated birch pollen allergic individuals enabled determination of the inhibitory capacity of IgG4 alone versus non-IgG4 IgG. Allergen-binding activities of IgG and the IgG-mediated inhibition of allergen binding...... to autologous IgE were detected using 125I-labelled rBet v 1.2801, a recombinant variant of the major allergen of Betula verrucosa pollen. Results show that IgG4-depletion resulted in equivalent reductions in binding and blocking activities. In contrast, a significant but less than two-fold higher...

  20. Late Quaternary vegetation and environments in the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (NE Asia) reconstructed from a 50-kyr fossil pollen record from Lake Billyakh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stefanie; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Andreev, Andrei A.; Tütken, Thomas; Gartz, Steffi; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2010-08-01

    Here we present a detailed radiocarbon-dated 936 cm long pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) situated in the western part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains, about 140 km south of the Arctic Circle. A set of 53 surface pollen samples representing tundra, cold deciduous forest and taiga was collected in northern and central Yakutia communities to verify the accuracy of the quantitative biome reconstruction method and to obtain a more precise attribution of the identified pollen taxa to the main regional biomes. The adjusted method is then applied to the pollen record from Lake Billyakh to gain a reconstruction of vegetation and environments since about 50.7 kyr BP. The results of the pollen analysis and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that herbaceous tundra and steppe communities dominated the area from 50.7 to 13.5 kyr BP. Relatively low pollen concentrations and high percentages of herbaceous pollen taxa (mainly Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Artemisia) likely indicate a reduced vegetation cover and/or lower pollen production. On the other hand, extremely low percentages of drought-tolerant taxa, such as Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra, and the constant presence of various mesophyllous herbaceous ( Thalictrum, Rosaceae, Asteraceae) and shrubby taxa ( Betula sect. Nanae/Fruticosae, Duschekia fruticosa, Salix) in the pollen assemblages prevent an interpretation of the last glacial environments around Lake Billyakh as extremely arid. The lowest pollen percentages of woody taxa and the highest values of Artemisia pollen attest that the 31-15 kyr BP period as the driest and coldest interval of the entire record. A relative high content of taxa representing shrub tundra communities and the presence of larch pollen recorded prior to 31 kyr and after 13.5 kyr BP likely indicate interstadial climate amelioration associated with the middle and latest parts of the last glacial. An increase in pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa around 12 kyr BP

  1. A statistical study of Weinmannia pollen trajectories across the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Pérez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent airborne pollen records data from Northern Patagonia (San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, Lat. 41.1435° S, Long. 71.375° W, 800 m elevation suggest that pollen transport takes place from the west to the east slope of the Andes. However, the atmospheric characteristics responsible of this transport have not yet been studied. The aim of this paper is to assess potential source areas and to describe the involved atmospheric mechanisms of the trans-Andean pollen transport. Methodology relies on the analysis of backward trajectories of air masses calculated with the HYSPLIT 4.9 regional model for particular days where airborne pollen of Weinmannia trichosperma Cav. was detected east of the Andes. This pollen type was selected because it is found regularly at localities in eastern Patagonia beyond its present-day distribution. Weinmannia's substantial presence during early Holocene times would also benefit from better knowledge of its transport mechanisms. Correspondence between atmospheric trajectories and the position of sources was checked using GIS maps. Mode T, Principal Component Analysis (PCA with Varimax rotation was used to identify the main spatial structure of geopotential height anomalies producing the calculated trajectories. Eighty-eight cases showed that the calculated directions of trajectories trended from the Northwest to Southwest passing over the Chilean region of W. trichosperma distribution. PCs results showed two patterns of negative anomalies over southern Patagonia. The prevailing circulation pattern which drives airborne transport is the presence of a trough located south of 37 to 40° S with its axis over western Patagonia. The synoptic situations for two cases highly correlated with principal component scores were described.

  2. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D. K.; Rana, T. S.; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. PMID:27453990

  3. Trehalase: a new pollen enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussin, A E; McCormack, J H; Waung, L Y; Gluckin, D S

    1969-08-01

    Pollen from 5 plant species (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill., Hermerocallis minor Mill., Galtonia condicans Decne., Camellia japonica L., and Lathyrus odoratus L.) representing 4 families germinated well in media containing trehalose as the sole carbon source. Data are presented indicating that pollen metabolized this disaccharide for germination and subsequent pollen-tube growth; the sugar was not merely an osmoregulator. An inhibitor of trehalase activity depressed germination in trehalose but not in sucrose. Phloridzin dihydrate, an inhibitor of glucose transport, depressed germination in both disaccharides. Biochemical tests demonstrated that a pollen extract was capable of hydrolyzing trehalose to its constituent glucose monomers. Heat inactivation experiments confirmed the presence of a distinct trehalase having a rigid specificity for its substrate. By this method, trehalase activity was completely distinguishable from the activities of other alpha- and beta-glucosidases and beta-galactosidases. Localization data indicated that the enzyme diffused from intact grains and was probably soluble. The presence of its substrate could not be demonstrated in pollen or in stigmatic or stylar tissues. PMID:5379538

  4. Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London 1987-92

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, H.; de Leon, A P; Bland, J; Bower, J.; Emberlin, J.; Strachan, D

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between daily hospital admissions for asthma and air pollution in London in 1987-92 and the possible confounding and modifying effects of airborne pollen.
METHODS—For all ages together and the age groups 0-14, 15-64 and 65+ years, Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of daily asthma admissions associated with changes in ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles (black smoke), ...

  5. Trends in atmospheric concentrations of weed pollen in the context of recent climate warming in Poznań (Western Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogawski, Paweł; Grewling, Łukasz; Nowak, Małgorzata; Smith, Matt; Jackowiak, Bogdan

    2014-10-01

    A significant increase in summer temperatures has been observed for the period 1996-2011 in Poznań, Poland. The phenological response of four weed taxa, widely represented by anemophilous species ( Artemisia spp., Rumex spp. and Poaceae and Urticaceae species) to this recent climate warming has been analysed in Poznań by examining the variations in the course of airborne pollen seasons. Pollen data were collected by 7-day Hirst-type volumetric trap. Trends in pollen seasons were determined using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, whereas the relationships between meteorological and aerobiological data were established by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Significant trends in pollen data were detected. The duration of pollen seasons of all analysed taxa increased (from +2.0 days/year for Urticaceae to +3.8 days/year for Rumex), which can be attributed to a delay in pollen season end dates rather than earlier start dates. In addition, the intensity of Artemisia pollen seasons significantly decreased and correlates with mean July-September daily minimum temperatures ( r = -0.644, p weed pollen seasons in Poznań, i.e. longer duration and later end dates, might be caused by the recorded increase in summer temperature. This influence was the strongest in relation to Artemisia, which is the taxon that flowers latest in the year. The general lack of significant correlations between Rumex and Urticaceae pollen seasons and spring and/or summer temperature suggests that other factors, e.g. land use practices, could also be partially responsible for the observed shifts in pollen seasons.

  6. CORRELATION OF CONTENT ASCORBIC ACID IN THE ASSIMILATION APPARATUS BETULA PENDULA ROTH. WITH AGENT BY PATHOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Features of influence of set of anthropogenic factors and phytopathologic state of tree Betula pendula on concentration of ascorbic acid in it assimilation apparatus are considered. By criterion of influence Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr. Pilat and to presence pollution adaptable ability of a plant to action stressful factors, and also possibility of development of the mechanisms which are responsible for inhibition of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid estimated. It is shown that from all analysed in the yielded work abiotic and biotic factors most essentially the pathogenic factor affects change of concentration of ascorbic acid in sheet plates of trees concerning norm.

  7. Investigation of the involvement of Echium plantagineum (Paterson's curse) in seasonal allergy. IgE antibodies to Echium and other weed pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katelaris, C; Baldo, B A; Howden, M E; Matthews, P A; Walls, R S

    1982-01-01

    The possible allergenicity of an insect pollinated weed, Echium plantagineum, was investigated in a rural area of Australia. Sixty-one subjects with respiratory allergy were studies. Positive skin test reactions to defatted ammonium bicarbonate extract of pollen were found in over 60% of subjects, and positive RAST tests in a similar number. The question of crossreactivity between weed pollens is discussed. The pollen of E. plantagineum was shown to reach the atmosphere in significant amounts about 1 month before the peak grass pollinating period. Evidence that the pollen of E. plantagineum becomes airborne and elicits an IgE response suggests that further attention should be directed to weed pollens as potential allergens. PMID:7137518

  8. Pollen morphology of the genus Malus Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dyakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollen morphology of some species of the genus Malus (Rosaceae was carried out. All investigated species are characterized by tricolpate pollen grains, but differ by their size and coloration.

  9. Holocene rapid climatic changes in the Okhotsk Sea and Amur watershed based on pollen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokfelt, U.; Tiedemann, R.; Nuernberg, D.; Biebow, N.; Kozdon, R.; Lembke, L.; Kaiser, A.

    2003-04-01

    Recent investigations in the Sea of Okhotsk reveal high resolution records of rapid past climatic and vegetation pattern changes within this marginal sea and the adjacent Amur river drainage basin. The watershed of the Amur undergoes exteme seasonal as well as longer term climatic changes. A humid SE-Asia monsoon regime in summer is contrasted by cold, dry continental climate of Siberia in wintertime. Thus this region is crucial for our understanding of complex changes and shifts of athmospheric systems in the subarctic Far East and western North Pacific region. Gravity core LV28-4-4 was recovered from the continental margin off NE Sakhalin. Our age model consists of 16 AMS radiocarbon control points from planktic foraminifera and benthic shell fragments fit together by ninth order polynomial regressions. According to this, sedimentation rates exceed 100cm/kyr. Thus to date our investigations gain a temporal resolution of 200-600 years between discrete samples. We use analysis of terrestrial pollen and freshwater algae as proxies for vegetation changes in the Amur catchment area and the adjacent Siberian hinterland. Within this 930 cm long sequence, four pollen zones were distinguished: Pollen zone I (12,600-11,800 years BP), which comprises the Younger Dryas event, was dominated by non-arboreale taxa such as grasses (gramineae) and sedges (cyperaceae). The following pollen zone II (11,800-8,500 years BP) was in general dominated by birch (Betula) and elder (Alnus). The rise of spruce-dominated taiga (Picea jezoensis and P. glehnii) is clearly seen to the end of this zone and shows the preboreal warming. The oldest part of the pollen zone II has distinctly high values of birch and spruce and very low values of gramineae and cyperaceae suggesting a period of intense warming. Pollenzone III (8,500-3,600 years BP) is dominated by darkneedled taiga components and increased oak (Quercus) values and reflects the Holocene climatic optimum. The latest pollen zone IV

  10. [The epidemiology of pollen allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Caillaud, D

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be established through surveys performed in a sample of the general population. These surveys are based on a questionnaire, which could lead to an overestimate of prevalence rates, and on measurements of specific IgE, which need to be interpreted in the light of the responses to the questionnaire. Such surveys are few in France and need to be updated. Risk factors for seasonal allergic rhinitis are genetic, epigenetic and environmental. Relationships between exposure to pollen and health can be documented through ecological and panel surveys. Panel surveys may give information on threshold levels and dose-response relationships. In addition to pollen exposure, global warming and air pollutants act as cofactors. Monitoring of both pollen exposure and its health effects should be encouraged and strengthened. PMID:24750956

  11. Pollen flora of Pakistan--LXVII: acanthaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen morphology of 30 species of the family Acanthaceae belonging to 11 genera has been investigated using light and scanning electron microscope. Acanthaceae is a eurypalynous family. Pollen are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-prolate to prolate rarely prolate-spheroidal or sub-oblate to oblate-spheroidal, generally tricolporate or heterocolporate rarely colpate or porate. Exine ornamentation varies from medium to coarse reticulate, or often lopho-reticulate with luminae perforated to baculate or scabrate. On the basis of apertural type, exine ornamentation and colpal membrane eight distinct pollen types have been recognized viz., Pollen type-I: Barleria cristata-type, Pollen type-II: Blepharis ciliaris-type, Pollen type-III: Hygrophila polysperma - type, Pollen type-IV: Justicia adhatoda-type, Pollen type-V:Lepidagathis incurva-type, Pollen type- VI: Peristrophe paniculata-type, Pollen type-VII: Ruellia patula-type and Pollen type-VIII: Strobilanthes atropurpureus - type. Within the family pollen diversity is significant enough for delimiting the tribes, subtribes and genera. (author)

  12. Effects of fluorides and sulphur dioxide on pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The action of fluorides and sulphur dioxides from emissions from a phosphate fertilizer factory significantly reduced the germination of Scots pine pollen grains. The pollen tube length indicated that its growth is uninhibited even though the pollen was collected under conditions of air-pollution. There are statistically significant differences showing longer tubes in the sensitive trees pollen grains. l he ageing of pollen from the sensitive trees occurs probably more rapidly than in the tolerant trees.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  14. BURSTING POLLEN is required to organize the pollen germination plaque and pollen tube tip in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedemaekers, Karin; Derksen, Jan; Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Oh, Sung-Aeong; Twell, David; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Pollen germination may occur via the so-called germination pores or directly through the pollen wall at the site of contact with the stigma. In this study, we addressed what processes take place during pollen hydration (i.e. before tube emergence), in a species with extra-poral pollen germination, Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA mutant population was screened by segregation distortion analysis. Histological and electron microscopy techniques were applied to examine the wild-type and mutant phenotypes. Within 1 h of the start of pollen hydration, an intine-like structure consisting of cellulose, callose and at least partly de-esterified pectin was formed at the pollen wall. Subsequently, this 'germination plaque' gradually extended and opened up to provide passage for the cytoplasm into the emerging pollen tube. BURSTING POLLEN (BUP) was identified as a gene essential for the correct organization of this plaque and the tip of the pollen tube. BUP encodes a novel Golgi-located glycosyltransferase related to the glycosyltransferase 4 (GT4) subfamily which is conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Extra-poral pollen germination involves the development of a germination plaque and BUP defines the correct plastic-elastic properties of this plaque and the pollen tube tip by affecting pectin synthesis or delivery. PMID:25442716

  15. Taraxacum officinale pollen depresses seed set of montane wildflowers through pollen allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Loughnan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant species that share pollinators can suffer from interspecific pollen deposition. Male reproductive success is inevitably reduced by the loss of pollen to flowers of another species. Female reproductive success can be affected by reduced stigmatic area or, more strongly, through allelopathic effects by which the admixture of some foreign pollen reduces seed or fruit set. We tested for allelopathic effects of Taraxacum officinale (Asteracaeae pollen on the seed set of montane wildflowers Erythronium grandiflorum (Liliaceae and Erysimum capitatum (Brassicaceae, by hand-pollinating plants with pollen mixtures. Taraxacum is a common invasive species, which produces allelopathic chemicals in its root and vegetative tissue, making it a likely candidate for pollen allelopathy. Flowers of both species produced fewer well-developed seeds when pollinated with pollen mixtures containing Taraxacum pollen. The pollen-allelopathic potential of weedy dandelion may add to its ability to disrupt communities that it invades.

  16. [Development of allergic reactivity to Artemesia pollen during combined sensitization to pollen and microbes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermekova, R K

    1978-08-01

    Some regularities of formation of hypersensitivity of the immediate type to the pollen of Artemisia absinthium were studied under conditions of combined hypersensitivity to pollen and Brucella abortus 19-BA vaccine strain; the latter was administered 3, 12, and 28 days after the pollen. The degree of specific allergic reconstruction to the pollen was studied by passive skin anaphylaxis after Ovary, indirect degranulation of mast cells of healthy rats, and by general anaphylaxis in response to intravenous injection of the Artemisia absinthium pollen water-salt extract. Early formation of allergy to the pollen was observed in the groups of animals with combined hypersensitivity to the pollen and brucellae. The degree of allergic reactivity to the pollen allergen was more expressed in the groups with combined allergy than in those with pure pollen hypersensitivity at all the stages of this experiment. PMID:99195

  17. A new approach used to explore associations of current Ambrosia pollen levels with current and past meteorological elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season. PMID:25376632

  18. A new approach used to explore associations of current Ambrosia pollen levels with current and past meteorological elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season.

  19. Pollen Lipidomics: Lipid Profiling Exposes a Notable Diversity in 22 Allergenic Pollen and Potential Biomarkers of the Allergic Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Lui, Jan Hsi; Palnivelu, Ravishankar; Naclerio, Robert M; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen ...

  20. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.; Gidskehaug, A.; Meyer, U.; Timmen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...... relies on the development of airborne gravimetry, which in turn is dependent on developments in kinematic GPS. Routine accuracy of airborne gravimetry are now at the 2 mGal level, which may translate into 5-10 cm geoid accuracy on regional scales. The error behaviour of airborne gravimetry is well...

  1. Fungi and bacteria associated with the wet and brown wood in trunk of Betula pendula trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and fungi were isolated from external and internal zone of brown and water saturated wood of trunk of Betula pendula trees aged 44-46. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the bacterial and fungal populations were found between both the zones. Populations of bacteria increased towards the internal sapwood, contrary to the fungi which more frequently colonised the external zone. The most common bacteria were Pseudomonas spp. (mainly P.fluorescens biovar I whereas Bacillus macerans, B. alvei and Erwinia heibicola were able to degrade the polygalacturonic acid and pectin gels. In case of the fungi population, the most common (more than 3% colonising the external zone were successively: Phialophora fastigiata, Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria alternata, Mortierella isabellina, Cladosporium herbarum, T. viride, C. cladosporioides and Melanconium betulinum. In the community of fungi occurring in the internal zone, the most common (more than 6.5% were:Cladosporium herbarum, Phialophora lagerbergii and Ph.fastigiata.

  2. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  3. Slow pyrolysis of birch (Betula) studied with GC/MS and GC/FTIR/FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, M.; Ingemarsson, A.; Pedersen, J.R.; Olsson, J.O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1999-03-01

    Small samples of wood (15 - 150 mg) from 8 different species of birch (Betula) were pyrolysed at 550{sup o}C. The compounds produced from the pyrolysis were analysed using gas chromatographic (GC) methods: direct injection with GC/FTIR/FID and pre-concentration with GC/MS. A broad distribution of oxygenated organic compounds was formed: aldehydes, acids, ketones, substituted furans and methoxylated phenols. The chromatograms were very similar for all eight species, both with direct injection and pre-concentration. Compared to similar studies for pine and spruces significantly higher amounts were formed in the molecular range 60 - 130 amu. The conifers showed more peaks with a molecular weight above 200 amu. (author)

  4. Estudo químico de extratos de folhas de Betula celtiberica Rothm. & Vasc.

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Ana Patrícia Abrantes

    2013-01-01

    O período de estágio final, inserido no Plano de Estudos do Mestrado em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade da Beira Interior, permitiu desenvolver competências técnicas, clínicas e deontológicas necessárias ao exercício da profissão farmacêutica. O presente trabalho encontra-se dividido em duas componentes, sendo a primeira o projeto de investigação de mestrado intitulado “Estudo Químico de Extratos de folhas de Betula celtiberica Rothm. & Vasc.” e a segunda o Relatório de Estágio em F...

  5. Mineral content of commercial pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzáez Villanueva, M T; Díaz Marquina, A; Bravo Serrano, R; Blaźquez Abellán, G

    2001-05-01

    Pollen is a natural product which is extending its marketing day by day, given that it is considered to be a dietetic product and it is consumed everyday by a broad sector of the Spanish population. In its composition it presents valuable nutrients, among which we can find minerals, which is the main object of this study. We have analysed sodium, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in 15 pollen samples which correspond to different brands. The technique we have used is atomic absortion spectroscopy. The results show us the great potassium contribution of this natural product, with values over 400 mg/100 g, and about microelements, mainly iron and zinc, although with different results, depending on the brand which markets it, with average values of 4.01 +/- 1.00 and 3.66 +/- 1.02, respectively. PMID:11400473

  6. Taraxacum officinale pollen depresses seed set of montane wildflowers through pollen allelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Deirdre Loughnan; James D Thomson; Ogilvie, Jane E.; Benjamin Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Plant species that share pollinators can suffer from interspecific pollen deposition. Male reproductive success is inevitably reduced by the loss of pollen to flowers of another species. Female reproductive success can be affected by reduced stigmatic area or, more strongly, through allelopathic effects by which the admixture of some foreign pollen reduces seed or fruit set. We tested for allelopathic effects of Taraxacum officinale (Asteracaeae) pollen on the seed set of montane wildflowers ...

  7. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  8. Modern Pollen Study in Lake Qinghai Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, X.; Li, X.; An, Z.; Ji, M.; Zhang, H.

    2008-12-01

    This study shows results of modern pollen in Lake Qinghai valley in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The records suggest that most pollen assemblages are dominated by shrub and herb pollen (mostly>84%). Seventeen taxa of indicator pollen are significantly correlated with the vegetation types of this area. In the pollen spectra, Artemisia is over-represented, while Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Polygonaceae are low- represented. Artermisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) radios with the regional vegetation characteristic can be used as a proper index to reconstruct the history of vegetation and climate in Lake Qinghai valley. Modern pollen in the lake mainly comes from the nearby vegetation. The pollen spectra is controlled by the directions and velocity of the wind and influenced by rivers. The distribution of modern pollen in Lake Qinghai tends to be similar in most part of the lake. The difference of pollen sedimentation process in the lake can be potentially influenced by the focusing function of the lake, river streams, and lake current.

  9. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  10. Dynamic early Holocene vegetation development on the Faroe Islands inferred from high-resolution plant macrofossil and pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Gina E.; Rundgren, Mats; Jessen, Catherine A.

    2010-03-01

    Vegetation dynamics during the earliest part of the Holocene (11,250-10,250 cal yr BP) have been reconstructed from a lacustrine sequence on Sandoy, the Faroe Islands, using detailed plant macrofossil and pollen evidence. The plant macrofossils suggest the initial vegetation was sparse herb and shrub tundra, with Salix herbacea and open-ground species, followed by the development of a denser and more species-rich arctic heathland after 11,150 cal yr BP. Despite high pollen values for Betula nana, macrofossils are rare. The bulk of the macrofossils recorded are S. herbacea and Empetrum leaves with numerous herb taxa and an abundance of Racomitrium moss. Conditions start to change around 10,800 cal yr BP, with increased catchment erosion and sediment delivery to the lake from ca. 10,600 cal yr BP, and a transition to alternating Cyperaceae and Poaceae communities between ca. 10,450 and 10,250 cal yr BP. This vegetation change, which has been recorded throughout the Faroes, has previously been interpreted as a retrogressive shift from woody shrubs to a herbaceous community. The detailed plant macrofossil data show the shift is the replacement of an Empetrum arctic heathland by grassland and moist sedge communities. These taxa dominate the modern landscape.

  11. Holocene Asian monsoon evolution revealed by a pollen record from an alpine lake on the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlou; Wang, Yongbo; Sun, Weiwei; Shen, Ji

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of pollen analyses from a 1105 cm long sediment core from Wuxu Lake in southwestern China, which depict the variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during the last 12.3 ka. During the period of 12.3 to 11.3 cal ka BP, the dominance of Betula forest and open alpine shrub and meadow around Wuxu Lake indicates a climate with relatively cold winters and dry summers, corresponding to the Younger Dryas event. Between 11.3 and 10.4 cal ka BP, further expansion of Betula forest and the retreat of alpine shrubs and meadows reflect a greater seasonality with cold winters and gradually increasing summer precipitation. From 10.4 to 4.9 cal ka BP, the dense forest understory, together with the gradual decrease in Betula forest and increase in Tsuga forest, suggest that the winters became warmer and summer precipitation was at a maximum, corresponding to the Holocene climatic optimum. Between 4.9 and 2.6 cal ka BP, Tsuga forest and alpine shrubs and meadows expanded significantly, reflecting relatively warm winters and decreased summer precipitation. Since 2.6 cal ka BP, reforestation around Wuxu Lake indicates a renewed humid period in the late Holocene; however, the vegetation in the catchment may also have been affected by grazing activity during this period. The results of our study are generally consistent with previous findings; however, the timing and duration of the Holocene climatic optimum from different records are inconsistent, reflecting real contrast in local rainfall response to the ISM. Overall, the EAWM is broadly in-phase with the ISM on the orbital timescale, and both monsoons exhibit a trend of decreasing strength from the early to late Holocene, reflecting the interplay of solar insolation receipt between the winter and summer seasons and El Niño-Southern Oscillation strength in the tropical Pacific.

  12. Identification of genes differentially expressed in extraradical mycelium and ectomycorrhizal roots during Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    MOREL,M; Jacob, C; Kohler, A.; Johansson, Tomas; Martin, Francis; Chalot, Michel; Brun, Annick

    2005-01-01

    The development of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis leads to drastic changes in gene expression in both partners. However, little is known about the spatial regulation of symbiosis-regulated genes. Using cDNA array profiling, we compared the levels of expression of fungal genes corresponding to approximately 1,200 expressed sequenced tags in the ectomycorrhizal root tips (ECM) and the connected extraradical mycelium (EM) for the Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal association grown on ...

  13. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    OpenAIRE

    Michael den Herder; Pekka Niemelä

    2003-01-01

    The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the...

  14. Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia Ten Years prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Lundquist, Anders; Nordin, Annelie; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Adolfsson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years ...

  15. Main: POLLEN1LELAT52 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onsible for pollen specific activation of tomato (L.e.) lat52 gene; Found at -72 to...POLLEN1LELAT52 S000245 26-October-2005 (last modified) kehi One of two co-dependent regulatory elements resp

  16. Main: POLLEN2LELAT52 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available POLLEN2LELAT52 S000246 11-Oct-1999 (last modified) kehi One of two co-dependent regulatory elements responsi...ble for pollen specific activation of tomato (L.e.) lat52 gene; Found at -60 to -52

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Sonoran Desert Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee products have been consumed by mankind since antiquity and their health benefits are becoming more apparent. Bee pollen (pollen collected by honey bees) was collected in the high intensity ultraviolet (UV) Sonoran desert and was analyzed by the anti-2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and...

  18. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  19. MICROBIAL QUALITY OF HONEY MIXTURE WITH POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was evaluation of microbial quality in raw materials (honey, pollen and evaluation of microbial quality in honey mixture with pollen (2.91 % and 3.85 % and also dynamics of microbial groups in honey mixtures with pollen after 14 days storage at the room temperature (approximately 25 °C and in cold store (8 °C. We used dilution plating method for testing of samples. Detections of total plate microbial count (aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, sporulating bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp. and microscopic fungi were performed. In general, counts of microorganisms decreased in honey mixture with pollen compared to raw pollen and these counts increased compared to natural honey. Total plate count was 5.37 log KTJ.g-1 in pollen; 1.36 log KTJ.g-1 in honey; 2.97 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen and 2.04 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen. Coliform bacteria were detected in pollen (1.77 log KTJ.g-1. Then, we found coliform bacteria in one sample of honey mixtures with pollen (2.91 % - 1.00 log KTJ.g-1.Bifidobacterium species were detected only in raw pollen. We did not findLactobacillus sp. in any of the samples. Microscopic fungi were detected on two cultivating media. Yeasts were present in pollen sample (average 5.39 log KTJ.g-1, honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 2.51 log KTJ.g-1 and honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (average 1.58 log KTJ.g-1. Filamentous microscopic fungi were detectable in pollen (average 3.38 log KTJ.g-1, in honey (only on one medium: 1.00 log KTJ.g-1, in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 1.15 log KTJ.g-1 and in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (1.71 %. Raw pollen contained microscopic fungi as Absidiasp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp. andEmericella nidulans. Honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen after storage (14 days contained lower microbial counts when compared with the sample

  20. Late Glacial to Holocene environments in the present-day coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere inferred from a pollen record of Lake Billyakh, Verkhoyansk Mts, NE Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

    2009-03-01

    In this study, a radiocarbon-dated pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17' N, 126°47' E; 340 m a.s.l.) in the Verkhoyansk Mountains was used to reconstruct vegetation and climate change since about 15 kyr BP. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that open cool steppe (STEP) and grass and sedge tundra (TUND) communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer (CLDE) trees in the regional vegetation during the Late Glacial. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the Last Glaciation, particularly during the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the relatively cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon), spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies) pollen, indicating mid-Holocene spread of boreal forest

  1. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  2. Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzanowska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland. The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

  3. Identification of SSR loci in Betula luminifera using birch EST data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-quan; LI Hai-ying; JIA Qing; HUANG Hua-hong; TONG Zai-kang

    2011-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated from single-pass sequencing of randomly picked cDNA clones and can be used for development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites.However,EST databases have been developed for only a small number of species.This paper provides a case study of the utility of freely available birch EST reources for the development of markers necessary for the genetic analysis of Betula luminifera.Based on birch EST data,primers for 80 EST-SSR candidate loci were developed and tested in birch.Of these,59 EST-SSR loci yielded single,stable and clear PCR products.We then tested the utility of those 59 markers in B.luminifera.The results showed 28 (47.6%) yielded stable and clear PCR products for at least one B.luminifera genotype.In addition,this study describes a rapid and inexpensive alternative for the development of SSRs in species with scarce available sequence data.

  4. Effects of artificial defoliation and simulated insect damage on the growth of Betula pendula saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth saplings were subjected to artificial insect damage and defoliations of varying intensities, and subsequent growth indexes, biomass allocation patterns and photosynthesis were monitored during a 60-day period. Seven treatments were conducted in which the leaves of saplings were perforated with three or six holes per each leaf, and damaged by clipping one-third of each leaf, or they received 25, 50 and 75% defoliations during a single growing season (from April to August of 2014. Simulated insect damage and artificial defoliation decreased growth. The 75% defoliation significantly reduced the total dry mass of birch saplings at harvest by 30%, while such reduction did not influence the total productivity. The dry mass of leaves was reduced by 45% when saplings were defoliated by 75% compared to not defoliated saplings. Moreover, the total production of leaves significantly increased in the 75% defoliated saplings compared with control saplings. Artificial defoliation increased the relative biomass allocation to foliage, and this was more evident in defoliated than in mechanically insect-damaged saplings. Despite losing 25, 50 or 75% of leaf mass due to clipping, defoliated birch saplings recovered similar dry masses and root/shoot ratios by harvest as the non-defoliated saplings. Perforation and clipping parts of the leaves, as well as the artificial defoliations, caused the regrowth of biomass that did not significantly change compared to healthy silver birch saplings, and this phenomenon could be assessed as equal-compensatory growth.

  5. Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiainen, Katri; Saranpää, Pekka; Lundqvist, Sven-Olof; Kubiske, Mark E; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2014-06-01

    We studied the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3 on radial growth and wood properties of four trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) saplings. The material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander (WI, USA). Trees had been exposed to four treatments [control, elevated CO2 (560 ppm), elevated O3 (1.5 times ambient) and combined CO2 + O3 ] during growing seasons 1998-2008. Most treatment responses were observed in the early phase of experiment. Our results show that the CO2- and O3-exposed aspen trees displayed a differential balance between efficiency and safety of water transport. Under elevated CO2, radial growth was enhanced and the trees had fewer but hydraulically more efficient larger diameter vessels. In contrast, elevated O3 decreased radial growth and the diameters of vessels and fibres. Clone-specific decrease in wood density and cell wall thickness was observed under elevated CO2 . In birch, the treatments had no major impacts on wood anatomy or wood density. Our study indicates that short-term impact studies conducted with young seedlings may not give a realistic view of long-term ecosystem responses. PMID:24372544

  6. Responses of selected birch (Betula pendula Roth) clones to ozone change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, E.

    2003-06-01

    A long-term free air ozone fumigation experiment was conducted to study changes in physiological ozone responses during tree ontogeny and exposure time in ozone sensitive and tolerant clones of European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), originated from south and central Finland. The trees were grown in soil in natural microclimatic conditions under ambient ozone (control) and 1.4-1.7 x ambient (elevated) ozone from May 1996 to October 2001, and were measured for stem and foliage growth, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, visible injuries, foliar starch content and bud formation. After 6 years of exposure, the magnitude of ozone-induced growth reductions in the sensitive clone was 12-48% (significant difference), levels similar or greater than those reported earlier for 2- and 3-year-old saplings undergoing shorter exposures. In the tolerant clone, growth of these larger trees was reduced by 1-38% (significant difference in stem volume), although the saplings had previously been unaffected. In both clones, ozone stress led to significantly reduced leaf-level net photosynthesis but significantly increased stomatal conductance rates during the late summer, resulting in a lower carbon gain for bud formation and the onset of visible foliar injuries. Increasing ozone sensitivity with duration of exposure was explained by a change in growth form (relatively reduced foliage mass), a lower photosynthesis to stomatal conductance ratio during the late summer, and deleterious carry-over effects arising from the reduced number of over-wintering buds. PMID:12803615

  7. Genetic and environmental determinants of insect herbivore community structure in a Betula pendula population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Tarja; Rousi, Matti; Oksanen, Elina; Roininen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that intraspecific genetic variation of plants may have a profound effect on the herbivorous communities which depend on them. However less is known about the relative importance of intraspecific variation compared to other ecological factors, for example environmental variation or the effects of herbivore damage. We randomly selected 22 Betula pendula genotypes from a local population (block) variation on a local scale, while on a regional scale, genotypic and environmental (site) variation accounted for 4-14% of the arthropod community structure. The genetic effects were modified by environmental variation on both a local and regional scale over one study year, and locally, the largest part of the variation (38%) could be explained by the genotype × environment (block) interactions. Suppression of insect herbivores during one growing season led to changed arthropod community structure in the following growing season, but this effect was minimal and could explain only 4% of the total variation in insect community structure. Our results suggest that both genetic and environmental factors are important determinants of the community structure of herbivorous insects. Together these mechanisms appear to maintain the high diversity of insects in B. pendula forest ecosystems. PMID:24715977

  8. Late glacial vegetation development in Denmark – new evidence based on macrofossil and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Birks, Hilary H.; Christensen, Charlie;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first unambiguous terrestrial palaeoecological record for the late glacial “Bølling warming” in Denmark. Pollen and macrofossil stratigraphies from pre-Bølling to 10,800 cal yr BP are presented from a small kettle hole in Southwest Denmark, during which the lake basin...... developed from an immature stage after the deglaciation to complete infilling in the early Holocene. Results show that the recently deglaciated landscape bore a discontinuous vegetation of pioneer plants. After the Bølling warming, an open Dryas octopetala-Betula nana community developed with Helianthemum...... the Younger Dryas period trees disappeared and the vegetation became open again and dominated by subarctic species. Following climate warming at the Younger Dryas–Holocene transition a shrub community of Empetrum and Juniperus developed. After approximately 200 years it was replaced by birch forest...

  9. Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... olive pecan sycamore walnut or to the male cultivar of certain trees. The female of these species ... plum, redbud and redwood trees or the female cultivars of ash, box elder, cottonwood, maple, palm, poplar ...

  10. Quantifying Aerial Concentrations of Maize Pollen in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Using Remote-Piloted Airplanes and Lagrangian Stochastic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylor, Donald E.; Boehm, Matthew T.; Shields, Elson J.

    2006-07-01

    The extensive adoption of genetically modified crops has led to a need to understand better the dispersal of pollen in the atmosphere because of the potential for unwanted movement of genetic traits via pollen flow in the environment. The aerial dispersal of maize pollen was studied by comparing the results of a Lagrangian stochastic (LS) model with pollen concentration measurements made over cornfields using a combination of tower-based rotorod samplers and airborne radio-controlled remote-piloted vehicles (RPVs) outfitted with remotely operated pollen samplers. The comparison between model and measurements was conducted in two steps. In the first step, the LS model was used in combination with the rotorod samplers to estimate the pollen release rate Q for each sampling period. In the second step, a modeled value for the concentration Cmodel, corresponding to each RPV measured value Cmeasure, was calculated by simulating the RPV flight path through the LS model pollen plume corresponding to the atmospheric conditions, field geometry, wind direction, and source strength. The geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of the ratio Cmodel/Cmeasure over all of the sampling periods, except those determined to be upwind of the field, were 1.42 and 4.53, respectively, and the lognormal distribution corresponding to these values was found to fit closely the PDF of Cmodel/Cmeasure. Model output was sensitive to the turbulence parameters, with a factor-of-100 difference in the average value of Cmodel over the range of values encountered during the experiment. In comparison with this large potential variability, it is concluded that the average factor of 1.4 between Cmodel and Cmeasure found here indicates that the LS model is capable of accurately predicting, on average, concentrations over a range of atmospheric conditions.

  11. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G

    2007-01-01

    Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season. PMID:17156336

  12. A combinatorial morphospace for angiosperm pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of angiosperm (flowering plant) pollen is extraordinarily diverse. This diversity results from variations in the morphology of discrete anatomical components. These components include the overall shape of a pollen grain, the stratification of the exine, the number and form of any apertures, the type of dispersal unit, and the nature of any surface ornamentation. Different angiosperm pollen morphotypes reflect different combinations of these discrete components. In this talk, I ask the following question: given the anatomical components of angiosperm pollen that are known to exist in the plant kingdom, how many unique biologically plausible combinations of these components are there? I explore this question from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics using an algorithm I have written in the Python programming language. This algorithm (1) calculates the number of combinations of these components; (2) enumerates those combinations; and (3) graphically displays those combinations. The result is a combinatorial morphospace that reflects an underlying notion that the process of morphogenesis in angiosperm pollen can be thought of as an n choose k counting problem. I compare the morphology of extant and fossil angiosperm pollen grains to this morphospace, and suggest that from a combinatorial point of view angiosperm pollen is not as diverse as it could be, which may be a result of developmental constraints.

  13. Isolation of total RNA from pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijli, K M; Singh, B P; Sridhara, S; Arora, N

    2001-05-01

    Isolation of total RNA from plant materials has been difficult, due to the presence of complex organic substances and the associated pigmentation. In fact, there is a dearth of standardized protocols for isolating total RNA from pollens. To find a simple and reliable method for isolating total RNA from pollen, four methods, viz. phenol/SDS (PS), guanidine HCl (GH), tri-reagent (TR), and modified SDS-betaME (SB) were tested with fresh pollen of Ricinus communis (procured at -70 degrees C) and pollen dried at 30-37 degrees C. The quality and quantity of RNA was superior for the material processed at -70 degrees C. SB gave the highest RNA yield (2.35 mg/g, OD260/280 >2.0), compared to other methods. The results obtained by the SB method were found to be comparable with the widely used tri-reagent method. This was validated with other pollens of Imperata cylindrica and Xanthium strumarium. The yield obtained from graded amounts of pollen was consistent with SB, compared to the TR method. The RNA isolated by SB gave good quality mRNA for synthesizing cDNA. The SDS-betaME method is simple, efficient, and uses less expensive reagents. Hence, we recommend the modified SDS-betaME method for isolating total RNA from pollens. PMID:11426703

  14. Deep-sea pollen research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiangjun; LUO Yunli; CHEN Huaicheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the progress of deep-sea pollen research in China since the beginning ofninetieths of the last Century. All the deep-sea pollen contri-butions mainly come from the South China Sea (SCS) andthe East China Sea (ECS). The German-Chinese joint cruise(Sonne 95) and ODP 184 cruise initiated by Chinese scientistsin the SCS provided excellent material for the deep-sea pol-len research. So far a number of pollen results of 20-30 kaand million years from the SCS have been published. A couple of deep-sea pollen records from Okinawa Through of the ECS also came out. The high resolution pollen records obtained from the continuous deposits with high sedimentation rates and reliable age control of the deep-sea sediments provided a high time resolution history (hundred to millennial scales) of vegetation, environment and monsoon evolution of the pollen source areas (southern China and Japan). Spectral analysis of deep-sea pollen records from the SCS discovered orbital (100, 41, 23, 10 ka) and suborbital cyclicities (Heinrich and Dansgaard/Oscheger-O/D events) in the vege-tation changes. Moreover, cross spectral analysis showed that the trend of vegetation changes in northern SCS was regulated mainly by changes of the ice volume in the Northern Hemisphere. The pollen record of the last 20 ka from the Okinawa Through of the ECS indicates that the marine environmental change lagged that on the terrestrail by about 1000 year. The asynchronous environmental changes between land and sea were probably caused by the time difference in thermohaline circulation. This study underscored the role of the deep-sea plant fossils as a bridge across the land and sea.

  15. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  16. Effects of ion beam implantation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of cedrus deodara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ion beam implantation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Cedrus deodara were investigated by the laser confocal microscopy technique (LSCM). The results showed that the low dose ion implantation (1x1015 ions/cm2) did not affect the germination of the pollen. The doses of 3x1015 ions/cm2 and 5x1015 ions/cm2 implantation could significantly promote the germination. But the high dose ion implantation (equal to or over 7x1015 ions/cm2) obviously suppressed the pollen to germinate. The effects on elongation and morphological characters of the pollen tube caused by the ion beam implantation were observed. The damage degree of the pollen tube increased with the increase of ion implantation dose. (authors)

  17. Platanus pollen season in Andalusia (southern Spain): trends and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Alcázar, Purificación; García Mozo, Herminia; Trigo, María del Mar; Ruiz, Luis; González Minero, Francisco José; Hidalgo Fernández, Pablo José; Díaz de la Guardia, Consuelo; Galán, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Platanus is a major cause of pollen allergy in many Spanish cities. The present paper reports an analysis of Platanus pollen season throughout the Andalusia region (southern Spain), which has among the highest pollen counts and the highest incidence of Platanus-related allergies in Europe. The main aim was to analyze pollen season trends from 1992 to 2010 in Andalusia; models were also constructed to forecast the start of the season. Daily pollen counts were recorded using Hirst-t...

  18. Platanus pollen season in Andalusia (southern Spain): Trends and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    González Minero, Francisco José; Alcázar, Purificación; Grada Pozo, Herminia; Trigo, María del Mar; Ruiz, Luis; Hidalgo, Pablo; Díaz de la Guardia, Consuelo; Galán, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Platanus is a major cause of pollen allergy in many Spanish cities. The present paper reports an analysis of Platanus pollen season throughout the Andalusia region (southern Spain), which has among the highest pollen counts and the highest incidence of Platanus-related allergies in Europe. The main aim was to analyze pollen season trends from 1992 to 2010 in Andalusia; models were also constructed to forecast the start of the season. Daily pollen counts were recorded using Hirst-type volumetr...

  19. Phosphoproteomics Profiling of Tobacco Mature Pollen and Pollen Activated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fíla, Jan; Radau, Sonja; Matros, Andrea; Hartmann, Anja; Scholz, Uwe; Feciková, Jana; Mock, Hans-Peter; Čapková, Věra; Zahedi, René Peiman; Honys, David

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco mature pollen has extremely desiccated cytoplasm, and is metabolically quiescent. Upon re-hydration it becomes metabolically active and that results in later emergence of rapidly growing pollen tube. These changes in cytoplasm hydration and metabolic activity are accompanied by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we subjected mature pollen, 5-min-activated pollen, and 30-min-activated pollen to TCA/acetone protein extraction, trypsin digestion and phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide. The enriched fraction was subjected to nLC-MS/MS. We identified 471 phosphopeptides that carried 432 phosphorylation sites, position of which was exactly matched by mass spectrometry. These 471 phosphopeptides were assigned to 301 phosphoproteins, because some proteins carried more phosphorylation sites. Of the 13 functional groups, the majority of proteins were put into these categories: transcription, protein synthesis, protein destination and storage, and signal transduction. Many proteins were of unknown function, reflecting the fact that male gametophyte contains many specific proteins that have not been fully functionally annotated. The quantitative data highlighted the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during pollen activation; the identified phosphopeptides were divided into seven groups based on the regulatory trends. The major group comprised mature pollen-specific phosphopeptides that were dephosphorylated during pollen activation. Several phosphopeptides representing the same phosphoprotein had different regulation, which pinpointed the complexity of protein phosphorylation and its clear functional context. Collectively, we showed the first phosphoproteomics data on activated pollen where the position of phosphorylation sites was clearly demonstrated and regulatory kinetics was resolved. PMID:26792808

  20. The effect of temperature on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of sour cherry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the effect of three different temperatures (5, 15 and 25°C on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth of five sour cherry cultivars: ‘Heimanns Konservenweichsel’, ‘Kelleriis 14’, ‘Oblačinska’, ‘Rexelle’ and ‘Šumadinka’. Pollen germination a % agar % Temperature significantly affected pollen germination. High germination rates (50-70% were obtained at both 15°C and 25°C. Satisfactory germination rates (42-51% were also obtained at 5°C in some cultivars (‘Rexelle’, ‘Šumadinka’ and ‘Heimanns Konservenweichsel’. The influence of temperature on the pollen tube growth was more prominent. The length of pollen tubes was three to six times higher at 15°C and 25°C in comparison with 5°C. This has led to the conclusion that the temperature of 5°C, although it could be adequate for pollen germination, is not high enough for optimal pollen tube growth. was determined by germinating pollen grains in culture medium containing 0.7agar-and 15sucrose. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31063

  1. Pollen Grain Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Pistil of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The germination of pollen grain in vitro and the growth of pollen tube in the pistil of rice were observed with a microscope.The stigma was removed at different time points after pollination to study its effect on seed setting rate.The rice pollen grain started to germinate at 2 min after pollination and the pollen tube penetrated stigma into style in 5-10 min,30 min later the end of pollen tube reached the bottom of ovary,and only some pollen tubes arrived at embryo sac at 40 min after pollination.Meanwhile,a small amount of catlose began to deposit in the pollen tubes,a great deal of callose was observed at 50 min after pollination,whereas the pollen grain began to shrink.The growing rates of pollen tube in the rice stigma,style and ovary were 1500,5000,and 5400 pm/h,respectively.The seed setting rate was quite low when the stigma was removed at about 10-15 min after pollination,gradually increased when it removed at 20 min to 50 min after pollination,and over 60%when it removed at 50 min after pollination and finally tended to be stable.

  2. The airborne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  3. Pollen-projektiga Rootsis / Lembit Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Lembit

    2009-01-01

    Avastusõppe projektist "Pollen" Eesti (2006-2009) mille eesmärk on kõiki lapsi kaasav uurimisõpe. Kevadisel koolivaheajal tutvus kümmekond Eesti õpetajat uurimisõppega Stockholmi kahes algkoolis

  4. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  5. Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling forest center of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Zheng Zhi-hua; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Using plant community analysis methods, we analyzed the floristic characteristics, species composition, community structure, population structure, and spatial distribution patterns of a Betula dahurica forest on the "1238" mountain of Badaling in Beijing, China. The results show that: 1) There are 33 plant species in the B. dahurica community, including 18 woody plant species. The B. dahurica forest is a monodominant community with 75.9% dominance. 2) Based on diameter at breast height (DBH)size class distribution, the population structure of B. dahurica and Acer mono-two heliophyllous and pioneer tree species is cascade-type, with both in an increasing stage. The population structure of Tilia mandshurica and T. mongolica, two shade-tolerant tree species, is inverse-J type, and they have more young seedling individuals and regenerate more stably. They are associated species of the pioneer tree species. The population structure of Quercus mongolica, as the associated species of climax species in the community, is sporadic, and its regeneration is fluctuating and random. Fraxinus rhynchophylla is a shade-tolerant tree species which has a unibar population structure and climax characteristics of pioneer tree species. The relative frequency of young seedlings reached 0.4.3) The dominant species B. dahurica is still in an increasing stage, and the regeneration of other species is steady or partly influences the community, putting the community in the pioneer species stage. From the population structure and distribution frequency ofF. rhynchophylla, the B. dahurica forest will approach to a climax state in the future.

  6. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Vessel chronologies in ring-porous species have been successfully employed in the past to extract the climate signal from tree rings. Environmental signals recorded in vessels of ring-porous species have also been used in previous studies to reconstruct discrete events of drought, flooding and insect defoliation. However, very little is known about the ability of diffuse-porous species to record environmental signals in their xylem cells. Moreover, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response of diffuse-porous Alnus incana (L.) Moench and Betula pendula Roth to debris-flow-induced wounding. Tree microscopic response to wounding was assessed through the analysis of wood anatomical differences between injured rings formed in the debris-flow event year and uninjured rings formed in the previous year. The two ring types were examined close and opposite to the injury in order to determine whether wound effects on xylem cells decrease with increasing tangential distance from the injury. Image analysis was used to measure vessel parameters as well as fiber and parenchyma cell (FPC) parameters. The results of this study indicate that injured rings are characterized by smaller vessels as compared with uninjured rings. By contrast, FPC parameters were not found to significantly differ between injured and uninjured rings. Vessel and FPC parameters mainly remained constant with increasing tangential distance from the injury, except for a higher proportion of vessel lumen area opposite to the injury within A. incana. This study highlights the existence of anatomical tree-ring signatures-in the form of smaller vessels-related to past debris-flow activity and addresses a new methodological approach to date injuries inflicted on trees by geomorphic processes. PMID:20639516

  7. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2016-08-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  8. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2015-12-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  9. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees. PMID:18251933

  10. Progeny test of tetraploid Betula platyphylla and preliminary selection of hybrid parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanwen Xu; Yu Liu; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Xiyang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Estimating genetic parameters of parental lines through progeny testing and choosing good hybrid parents are important for genetically improving seed orchard trees. In this study, 24 tetraploid progeny seedlings were used as experimental materials, which came from test cross design:six tetraploid Betula platyphylla lines (Q33, Q13, Q103, Q19, Q83 and Q14) as female parents and four individual B. platyphylla diploid lines (F3, F4, F9 and F11) as male parents were crossed. Variance analysis of height, diame-ter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance showed that the differences between hybrid combinations reached highly significant levels. Using multi-objective decisionmaking, we performed a comprehensive assess-ment of the various hybrid combinations. Using a selection rate of 20% of the standard, five hybrids were selected;their genetic gains in average height, diameter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance were 20.95, 6.07, 13.07 and 8.96%, respectively. We also analyzed the combining ability and genetic parameter effect values of parents and hybrid combinations. The combined analysis revealed that Q13, Q103, Q33 and Q83 were superior females; F3, F4, and F9 were superior males; and F3 9 Q13, F4 9 Q83 and F9 9 Q33 were superior hybrid combinations. The heights and diameters of these proge-nies were 22.49 and 11.48% greater than average, respectively.

  11. Pollen Evolution in Yams (Dioscorea: Dioscoreaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schols, P.; Wilkin, P.; Furness, C; Huysmans, S.; Smets, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pollen character evolution in yams (Dioscorea: Dioscoreaceae) was investigated in relation to the phylogeny obtained from a recent combined analysis of rbcL and matK gene sequences. The following characters were evaluated: pollen size, aperture number, sexine ornamentation, perforation density, and orbicule presence or absence. Continuous characters were coded using the gap weighting method. Each character was optimized using MacClade onto a tree selected at random from analyses based on mole...

  12. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or wher...

  13. Morphological Research on Indigenous Sambucus Species Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea TAMAS

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen grains have a definite shape, size, colour, structure for each species, genus and family and these characters are useful for systematical botany. The pollen has nutritive properties due to its content: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones and minerals. In the Romanian flora vegetate three species of Sambucus, but only S. nigra L. (elder or black elder supplies a vegetal medical product, Sambuci flos or elder flowers, whereas the others species S. ebulus L. (dwarf elder and S. racemosa L. (mountain elder or red elder are considered adulterations. The pollen of Sambucus species were already studied using optical microscopy (Tarnavschi et al., but the images are in one single layout, therefore the structure details cannot be easily notice. In this context the pollen grains of the three species already mentioned above were studied by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results demonstrated that this pollen have a small-middle size, oblat-sphaeroidal-prolat shape, threecolpat and the exine adornments are of reticulate type, haemitectate with sticks in the meshs of polygonale net. The flavonoids content is lower than in others species (0.146-0.564 %. The SEM analyse of Sambucus pollen allow a reliable identification of the genus but less for the species.

  14. Pollen dispersal analysis using DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modes of pollen dispersal are important for plant ecology, conservation, and evolutionary biology as pollen-mediated gene flow connects one generation of sexually-reproducing plants to the next. With the development of DNA molecular techniques, molecular markers (especially microsatellite markers have replaced traditional physical markers for pollen flow analysis. Methods of paternity assignment with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference have greatly improved the estimation of pollen flow characteristics with regard to direction, distance, and strength. Pollen dispersal curves have been characterized by single parameter, two-parameter, multi-parameter, and two-component composite models to better evaluate the shape of dispersal distributions. These innovative techniques and methods have been successfully applied to assess pollination patterns in studies of plant sexual polymorphism, population connectivity, and natural hybridization, which, in turn, have provided important insights into basic theories of evolution, ecology, and conservation. In the coming years, high-throughput sequencing technologies are expected to accelerate the application of molecular marker-based pollen flow analysis across a wide range of plant taxa.

  15. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garance Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level, and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification, phenoloxidase (immunity and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism. We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  16. De novo post-pollen mitosis II tobacco pollen tube transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Breznenová, Katarína; Honys, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2012), s. 918-921. ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P321; GA ČR GA522/09/0858 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : de novo pollen tube transcriptome * male gametophyte development * pollen tube growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  17. Morphology and structure of the pollen cone and pollen grain of the Araucaria species from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fueyo, Georgina M; Caccavari, Marta A; Dome, Elizabeth A

    2008-04-01

    The pollen cone and the pollen grain of the two Argentinean species of Araucaria are described with LM, SEM and TEM. Primordia of pollen cones are formed in April and May and reach maturity by mid-October in A. angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze and by mid-November in A. araucana. (Mol.) K. Koch. Characters of the mature pollen cones and microsporophylls between both taxa are clearly differentiated. Pollen grains are spheroidal-subspheroidal, inaperturate, and asaccate with granulate exine and a subequatorial annular area that corresponds to the sexine thickness. Sculpturing consists of irregularly dispersed granules that are sometimes fused to each other (A. angustifolia) or forming microrugulae (A. araucana). Microgranules and microspinules are also present. The pollen wall ultrastructure is formed by a granular ectexine and lamellated endexine. Granular elements in A. angustifolia are more loosely disposed, form more interstices, and are gradually smaller towards the endexine than in A. araucana. To asses the probable relationships within the family, we compared the pollen grains of the two Araucaria species with those of other extant genera (Agathis, Wollemia) and also with fossil pollen (Araucariacites, Balmeiopsis, Cyclusphaera, Dilwynites) attributed to Araucariaceae. PMID:18669323

  18. Analysis of Allergenic Pollen by FTIR Microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, B; Tafintseva, V; Bağcıoğlu, M; Høegh Berdahl, M; Kohler, A

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification and characterization of pollen and spores. However, interpretation and multivariate analysis of infrared microscopy spectra of single pollen grains are hampered by Mie-type scattering. In this paper, we introduce a novel sampling setup for infrared microspectroscopy of pollens preventing strong Mie-type scattering. Pollen samples were embedded in a soft paraffin layer between two sheets of polyethylene foils without any further sample pretreatment. Single-grain infrared spectra of 13 different pollen samples, belonging to 11 species, were obtained and analyzed by the new approach and classified by sparse partial least-squares regression (PLSR). For the classification, chemical and physical information were separated by extended multiplicative signal correction and used together to build a classification model. A training set of 260 spectra and an independent test set of 130 spectra were used. Robust sparse classification models allowing the biochemical interpretation of the classification were obtained by the sparse PLSR, because only a subset of variables was retained for the analysis. With accuracy values of 95% and 98%, for the independent test set and full cross-validation respectively, the method is outperforming the previously published studies on development of an automated pollen analysis. Since the method is compatible with standard air-samplers, it can be employed with minimal modification in regular aerobiology studies. When compared with optical microscopy, which is the benchmark method in pollen analysis, the infrared microspectroscopy method offers better taxonomic resolution, as well as faster, more economical, and bias-free measurement. PMID:26599685

  19. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Stefania, E-mail: spas@unipg.it [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima [Department of Molecular Biology, CD Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); D' Amato, Gennaro [Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, ' A. Cardarelli' High Speciality Hospital, Naples (Italy); Ederli, Luisa [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O{sub 3} fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O{sub 3} fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O{sub 3}, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O{sub 3} can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: > O{sub 3} reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. > ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. > O{sub 3} enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. > O{sub 3} increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  20. The Holocene environmental history of the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (northeastern Siberia, Russia) reconstructed from high-resolution pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study presented here is part of the IPY project 106 "Lake Records of late Quaternary Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia" and the German Research Foundation project RI 809/17-1,2 "Late Quaternary environmental history of interstadial and interglacial periods in the Arctic reconstructed from bioindicators in permafrost sequences in NE Siberia". Both projects focus on generating high-resolution vegetation and climate proxy records mainly from lacustrine sediments along a north-south transect from Yakutia, Republic of Russia. This region is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere - "Pole of Cold". Radiocarbon-dated pollen records from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) located in the central part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains were used to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes. The longest and oldest sediment core from the lake reaches back to >30 kyr BP, thus covering the last two Late Pleistocene Interstadials in Siberia. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction of the core PG 1756, which covers the last 15 kyr BP, suggest that open cool steppe and grass and sedge tundra communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer trees in the regional vegetation during the last glaciation. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the last glaciation, particularly during the Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa

  1. CHANGES OF CUTICLE SURFACE LIPIDS OF POPULUS ITALICA AND BETULA PENDULA CAUSED BY POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrovskaya O. M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arboreal plants intensively accumulate heavy metals, resulting in a corresponding revocation level of physiological processes. The lipid components operate an important role in the formation of plant resistance. Therefore, it was very important to determine the characteristics of lipid peroxidation flow in leaves of arboreal plants, and changes in the composition of cuticle surface lipids at different levels of heavy metal accumulation. Research objects were Populus italica (Du Roi Moench and Betula pendula Roth. of second age group, growing on the industrial site РJSC ‘Kryvyi Rig Factory of minium’ (with strong contamination and in the arboretum of Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden, National Academy of Science of Ukraine (conventional control. Leaves were taken from the middle of the crown southwest exposure in phase of leaf full separation and 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth. It was shown that P. italica maximally accumulated zinc, content of which was increased in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase of leaf growth finishing point relative to the control to 12,6 and 23 times respectively. The accumulation level of heavy metals was typically less significant for assimilation organs of B. pendula compared to P. italica. Thus, the content of zinc and lead in the leaves during the study increased only in 2 times towards control. The leaves of B. pendula, unlike P. italica, more intensively accumulated cadmium in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth (it was 6 and 15 times higher relative to control respectively. It was obviously connected to the fact that the surface texture of poplar leaves may cause intense sticking of dust particles containing heavy metals and penetration into the leaves. The effect of heavy metals in both phases of leaf morphogenesis caused an increase in lipid peroxidation by 40-52% for P. italica and almost by 3 times for B. pendula

  2. Effects of intensive harvesting on forest floor properties in Betula papyrifera stands in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates litter and organic matter production and related site ecology in nine medium to high quality Betula papyrifera stands in three locations in central Newfoundland on a variety of land form and drainage conditions. Three sites, Badger West (BW), Moose Pond (MP) and Middleton Lake (ML) were selected. The ML site has the highest quality (with the best height/age ratio, 18 m/60 yr, and height/DBH ratio, 18 m/30 cm), followed by MP and BW. Litter depth on well developed moders or mulls was usually 2 - 3 cm and varied from 1 - 15 cm. Forest floor depths (measured in 324 profiles) rarely reached 20 cm and was commonly 5 - 10 cm; it varied with position and site. Total and available nutrients indicate that B. papyrifera produces one of the highest-quality organic matter types of the local forest types and is important in improving site quality. The mean N-concentration in green foliage (2.21 %) and trapped litter (1.03 %) was highest at the best quality site ML, followed by MP and BW. The concentration of calcium, 0.85 %, was highest at the poorest quality site. Four years after harvesting, litter depth significantly decreased in all sites and treatments with the exception of the BW whole-tree harvest treatment. Total forest floor depth significantly decreased at all sites in the stem-only harvest treatment as well as the MP whole-tree harvest treatment. There was a significant decrease in available nitrogen following harvesting in both treatments at both the MP and BW sites. Change in available phosphorus was insignificant, with the exception of an increase in the MP stem-only harvest treatment. There was a significant decrease in available potassium at both the ML and BW whole-tree harvest treatments, but a significant increase in the stem-only harvest treatments at ML and MP. There was a significant decrease in available calcium in both treatments at both the MP and BW sites 34 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Tree competition and species coexistence in a Quercus--Betula forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ji-hua; Mi, Xiang-cheng; Liu, Can-ran; Ma, Ke-ping

    2006-09-01

    The population size structure, growth dynamics and mode of competition among adult trees (≥ 4 cm DBH) of six abundant tree species in a 5 ha study plot of a temperate deciduous forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China were investigated using diffusion and growth dynamics models. In the year of 2000, two dominant species, Quercus liaotungensis and Betula dahurica accounted for ca. 68.69% of the total basal area and 52.71% of the total density of adult plants. Q. liaotungensis, Populus davidiana and Acer mono exhibited inverse J-shaped DBH distributions whereas Betula dahurica, B. platyphylla and Salix caprea had unimodal DBH distributions. One-sided interspecific competition was detected between some species combinations at the scale of the 5 ha study plot, and the competitive effect was mainly size-dependent rather than from species-specific interactions with large individuals in the canopy layer out competing smaller individuals in the understory. Symmetric competition was found between Q. liaotungensis and A. mono only. However, considering the straight line relationship of G ( t, x) - √{D(t, x)}, which suggests that competitive asymmetry is very low or absent, combined with the relatively low mortality of trees with a DBH larger than 4 cm, we speculate that asymmetric interspecific competition was not important in structuring this tree community. Regeneration characteristics of each species are most likely important in regulating species coexistence and stand dynamics in this forest.

  4. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association. PMID:19795631

  5. Bees associate colour cues with differences in pollen rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Elizabeth; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to the wealth of knowledge concerning sucrose-rewarded learning, the question of whether bees learn when they collect pollen from flowers has been little addressed. The nutritional value of pollen varies considerably between species, and it may be that bees learn the features of flowers that produce pollen best suited to the dietary requirements of their larvae. It is still unknown, however, whether a non-ingestive reward pathway for pollen learning exists, and how foraging bees sense differences between pollen types. Here we adopt a novel experimental approach testing the learning ability of bees with pollen rewards. Bumblebees were reared under controlled laboratory conditions. To establish which pollen rewards are distinguishable, individual bees were given the choice of collecting two types of pollen, diluted to varying degrees with indigestible α-cellulose. Bees preferentially collected a particular pollen type, but this was not always the most concentrated sample. Preferences were influenced by the degree of similarity between samples and also by the period of exposure, with bees more readily collecting samples of lower pollen concentration after five trials. When trained differentially, bees were able to associate an initially less-preferred contextual colour with the more concentrated sample, whilst their pollen preferences did not change. Successful learning of contextual cues seems to maintain pollen foraging preferences over repeated exposures, suggesting that fast learning of floral cues may preclude continuous sampling and evaluation of alternative reward sources, leading to constancy in pollen foraging. PMID:24855678

  6. Allergenicity of the pollen of Pistacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynan, N; Tamir, R; Waisel, Y; Reshef, A; Spitz, E; Shomer-Ilan, A; Geller-Bernstein, C

    1997-03-01

    Differences in IgE binding and skin responses to pollen extracts of four species of Pistacia, and some immunochemical characteristics of this pollen were investigated. The incidence of positive SPT among atopic patients varied between 31.5% to the pollen extracts of P. vera and 24.6% to P. palaestina. The antigens are located on the exine of the grains as well as in their cytoplasm. Some of the antigens are common to all four species, whereas others seem to be specific. Cross-reactivity was found among the four species of Pistacia and between them and Schinus terebintifolious. Five conspicuous IgE-binding bands were observed in the immunoblots of the four examined species, the bands of 49, 57, 64, 68, and 79 kDa. The 36-37-kDa band of P. lentiscus and the 60- and 84-kDa bands of P. atlantica and P. vera were also noticeable. As the flowering seasons of Pistacia and Schinus do not overlap, the patients are exposed to such pollen for more than 4 months a year. Apparently, Pistacia pollen is a major source of allergy. PMID:9140524

  7. From pollen actin to crop male sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Actin plays an important role in the life activity of animal and plant cells. Pollen cells have plenty of actin whose structure and characteristics are very similar to the animal actin. The nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of plant actin gene are very similar to those of the animal gene. The content of pollen actin from male sterile plants is much more lower than that from its maintainer plants. The expression of actin gene is organ-specific during the plant development. The expression quantity of actin gene in pollen is much more higher than those from root, stem and leaf. The expression plasmid of the anti-sense actin gene was constructed, transferred to the protoplasts of wheat and tomato to inhibit the expression of actin gene in pollen and thus the male sterile plants of wheat and tomato were obtained. The actin in pollens from the transgenic plants was reduced significantly, whereas the pistil was not affected. This study might pave a new way to breeding male sterile lines for the application of hybrid vigor of wheat and tomato.

  8. The Effects of Low-Energy Nitrogen Ion Implantation on Pollen Exine Substructure and Pollen Germination of Cedrus deodara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the biological effects of ion beams on pollen. Pollen grains of Cedrus deodara were implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ion beams at doses ranging from 1 x 1015 ions/cm2 to 15 x 1015 ions/cm2. The effects of N+ implantation on the pollen exine substructure were examined using an atomic force microscope (AFM), and the structure and morphology of pollen and pollen tubes were observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). AFM observations distinctly revealed the erosion of the pollen exine caused by N+ implantation in the micrometer to nanometer range. Typical results showed that the erosion degree was linearly proportional to the ion dose. Pollen germination experiments in vitro indicated that N+ implantation within a certain dose range increased the rate of pollen germination. The main abnormal phenomena in pollen tubes were also analyzed. Our results suggest that low energy ion implantation with suitable energy and dosage can be used to break the pollen wall to induce a transfer of exogenous DNA into the pollen without any damage to the cytoplasm and nuclei of the pollen. The present study suggests that a combination of the method of ion-beam-induced gene transfer and the pollen-tube pathway method (PTPW) would be a new plant transformation method

  9. Pollen tubes and the physical world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Lawrence J; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Geitmann, Anja; Hepler, Peter K

    2011-07-01

    The primary goal of our previous opinion paper (Winship, L.J. et al. (2010) Trends Plant Sci. 15, 363-369) [1] was to put two models for the control of pollen tube growth on the same theoretical and biophysical footing, and to then test both for consistency with basic principles and with experimental data. Our central thesis, then and now, is that the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms that enable pollen tubes to grow and to respond to their environment evolved in a physical context constrained by known, inescapable principles. First, pressure is a scalar, not a vector quantity. Second, the water movement in and out of plant cells that generates pressure is passive, not active, and is controlled by differences in water potential. Here we respond to the issues raised by Zonia and Munnik (Trends Plant Sci. 2011; this issue) [2] in the light of new evidence concerning turgor pressure and pollen tube growth rates. PMID:21536475

  10. Exposure to grass pollen – but not birch pollen – affects lung function in Swedish children

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzieva, O.; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Melén, E; Hallberg, J.; Bellander, T; Lõhmus, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allergic response to pollen is increasing worldwide, leading to high medical and social costs. However, the effect of pollen exposure on lung function has rarely been investigated. Over 1800 children in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were lung‐function‐ and IgE‐tested at the age of 8 and 16 years old. Daily concentrations for 9 pollen types together with measurements for ozone, NO 2, PM 10, PM 2.5 were estimated for the index day as well as up to 6 days before the testing. Exposure t...

  11. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  12. The clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Host, A.; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described cross-reactivity between fresh fruits, vegetables and pollen. However, no data demonstrates the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults with and without symptoms in the pollen...... season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults and to examine the diagnostic value of skin-prick test (SPT), histamine release and specific IgE compared with the outcome of...... oral challenge. METHODS: In total, 936 unselected adults (female : male 479 : 457, median age 33.7 years) were examined for pollen sensitization and clinical cross-reactivity with pollen-related fruits and vegetables by questionnaire, SPT, histamine release, specific IgE and oral challenge. RESULTS...

  13. Growth response of downy birch (Betula pubescens) to moisture treatment at an cut-over peat bog in the Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Hazuková, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2005), s. 247-256. ISSN 0003-3847 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Betula pubescens * cut-over peatland * increment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2005

  14. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN POLLEN: PHENOLOGY AND MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bt corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the potential risk to monarc...

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  16. Variation patterns of pollen production in palm flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Elodie; Barfod, Anders; Albert, Beatrice;

    2016-01-01

    polyandrous species ranges from 8-9 to several hundreds. It is often heard that the more stamens are produced, the more pollen is produced, particularly in the case of the so-called “pollen flowers”, i.e. flowers in which pollen is the main food resource for floral visitors. However, the correlation between...

  17. Pollen Germination--A Challenging and Educational Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, H. L. H.; Chan, G. Y. S.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the recent research on pollen germination and introduces some basic studies on pollen tube growth that can be conducted in a secondary school laboratory. Discusses the use of a light microscope and refrigerator to study pollen. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  18. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, Landon D.; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  19. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  20. Pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectra of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Eastern Altai)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single

  1. Pollen lipidomics: lipid profiling exposes a notable diversity in 22 allergenic pollen and potential biomarkers of the allergic immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the

  2. Grass pollen allergy in children and adolescents-symptoms, health related quality of life and the value of pollen prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiotseridis, Hampus; Cilio, Corrado M.; Bjermer, Leif; Tunsäter, Alf; Jacobsson, Helene; Dahl, Åslög

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An association between pollen count (Poaceae) and symptoms is well known, but to a lesser degree the importance of priming and lag effects. Also, threshold levels for changes in symptom severity need to be validated. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between pollen counts, symptoms and health related quality of life (HRQL), and to validate thresholds levels, useful in public pollen warnings. Material and methods Children aged 7–18 with grass pollen allergy fi...

  3. Effect of hydrogen fluoride on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Prunus avium L. cv. Royal Ann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facteau, T.J.; Wang, S.Y.; Rowe, K.E.

    1973-05-01

    Increased fluoride (F) fumigation levels resulted in decrease in percent Royal Ann pollen germination and pollen tube growth. As dose (hour x concentration in ..mu.. gF/m/sup 3/) increased, Van pollen tube growth in vivo decreased. A linear relationship between increased dose and fluoride residue in the flowers was shown. 14 references, 5 figures.

  4. Golgi 58K-like protein in pollens and pollen tubes of Lilium davidii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 阎隆飞

    2000-01-01

    In animal cells, Golgi apparatus is located near the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and its position is determined partly by 58K protein. By sodium dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immuno-blotting methods, a 58K-like protein has been found in pollen grains and pollen tubes of Lilium davidii. Its molecular weight is very similar to that of the 58K protein of animal cells. By immunofluorescence labeling, under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), the animal 58K antibody revealed a punctate staining in pollen grains and pollen tubes, which is consistent with the distribution of Golgi apparatus in plant cells. In addition, immuno-gold labeling and transmission electron microscopy showed that the 58K-like protein bound mainly to the membrane of vesicles-like structure near Golgi apparatus. This is the first demonstration of the 58K-like protein in plant cells.

  5. Effects of three irradiation methods on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Pinus thunbegii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 30 keV nitrogen ion beams, UV and γ-rays irradiation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Pinus thunbergii were investigated. Results showed that the biological effects induced by ion beam implantation were different from those induced by UV and γ-rays irradiation. The dose response curve of ion implantation treatment presented a particular 'saddle-likepattern, and ion implantation also significantly induced pollen tube tip swelling. These results indicated that low energy ion implantation might work in different way compared to UV and γ-rays irradiation. It was suggested that pollen could be served as an excellent model system to study the underlying mechanisms responsible for biological effects of ion beam irradiation at cellular level. (authors)

  6. Comparison of Pollen Transfer Dynamics by Multiple Floral Visitors: Experiments with Pollen and Fluorescent Dye

    OpenAIRE

    ADLER, LYNN S.; Irwin, Rebecca E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Most plant species are visited by a diversity of floral visitors. Pollen transfer of the four most common pollinating bee species and one nectar-robbing bee of the distylous plant Gelsemium sempervirens were compared.

  7. Lipids in pollen - They are different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischebeck, Till

    2016-09-01

    During evolution, the male gametophyte of Angiosperms has been severely reduced to the pollen grain, consisting of a vegetative cell containing two sperm cells. This vegetative cell has to deliver the sperm cells from the stigma through the style to the ovule. It does so by producing a pollen tube and elongating it to many centimeters in length in some species, requiring vast amounts of fatty acid and membrane lipid synthesis. In order to optimize this polar tip growth, a unique lipid composition in the pollen has evolved. Pollen tubes produce extraplastidial galactolipids and store triacylglycerols in lipid droplets, probably needed as precursors of glycerolipids or for acyl editing. They also possess special sterol and sphingolipid moieties that might together form microdomains in the membranes. The individual lipid classes, the proteins involved in their synthesis as well as the corresponding Arabidopsis knockout mutant phenotypes are discussed in this review. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27033152

  8. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203. ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  9. Phenolic compounds of the inner bark of Betula pendula: seasonal and genetic variation and induction by wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Helander, Marjo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2012-11-01

    The contents of individual phenolic compounds in the inner bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Samples from 21 mature trees originating from three micropropagated parent trees were collected six times over a 1-year period. Significant seasonal variation in the quantities of ten compounds and four chromatographically unresolved compound pairs was found. A majority of the compounds also exhibited significant quantitative variation among birch clones. There were no qualitative differences associated with the season or among the clones. However, wounding of the bark induced the production of new types of bark phenolics: several ellagitannins were detected in the callus tissues of birch for the first time. PMID:23065107

  10. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Zheng Qu

    Full Text Available In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS, which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS. In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  11. Effects of ozone impact on the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of juvenile birch stems (Betula pendula Roth.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ozone impact on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of juvenile birch (Betula pendula) stems and leaves were investigated. Significant differences in the response of leaves and stems to ozone were found. In leaves, O3 exposure led to a significant decline in photosynthetic rates, whereas stems revealed an increased dark respiration and a concomitant increase in corticular photosynthesis. In contrast to birch leaves, corticular photosynthesis appeared to support the carbon balance of stems or even of the whole-tree under O3 stress. The differences in the ozone-response between leaves and stems were found to be related to ozone uptake rates, and thus to inherent differences in leaf and stem O3 conductance. - Leaves of birch were more affected by ozone fumigation than corresponding stems, due to a higher ozone uptake rate

  12. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV...... effects of UV-B. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction curves were used for analysis of OJIP test parameters. Near-ambient UV-B radiation reduced across season maximum quantum yield (TRo /ABS = Fv /Fm ), approximated number of active PSII reaction center (RC/ABS) and the performance index (PIABS ), despite...... in reduced UV-B compared to near-ambient UV-B. This demonstrates current solar UV-B to reduce the PSII performance both on a daily as well as a seasonal basis in this High Arctic species....

  13. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO2 and/or O3 on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO2 increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O3 also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO2 + O3) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO2 may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O3 will likely have a negative impact. - In this study, we found that elevated CO2 enhances and elevated O3 decreases birch reproduction and early seedling growth

  14. Sezonske varijacije koncentracije specifi čnog IgE-a prema alergenu Betula verrucosa, Bet v

    OpenAIRE

    Dodig, Slavica; Petković, Giorgie; Kristić Kirin, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Cilj je ispitati sezonske razlike u koncentraciji ukupnog IgE-a (uIgE-a), specifi čnog IgE-a (sIgE) prema alergenu breze, Betula verrucosa - Bet v, te indeks sIgE-a (I-sIgE) u djece preosjetljive na alergen breze, Bet v. Ispitana su djeca s astmom i/ili rinitisom (N=19), preosjetljiva na alergen Bet v. Standardiziranom fl uoroimunikemijskom metodom UniCAP određena je koncentracija uIgE-a, sIgE-a prema Bet v, te izračunat I-sIgE. Odabrani biomarkeri određivani su u sezoni peludacije b...

  15. Ultrastructure of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and ultrastructure of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunall pollen grains. Light microscopic examination revealed that the pollen grains are tri- or tetrazonocoplate grains, approximately as long as broad, measuring 29-um. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that surface sculpturing of the pollen is scarbate-granulate. Ultrathin sections as examined by transmission electron microscope showed that the pollen contained numerous starch grains, lipid droplets, endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles of dictyosomes. Two layers of the pollen wall were also distinguished, the outer wall (exine) divided into ektexine and endexine as well as the inner layer (intine). The nutritive values of Withania pollen are discussed. The importance of studying the ultrastructure of pollen grains as a new tool in palynology is also discussed. (author)

  16. Monitoring, modelling and forecasting of the pollen season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Belmonte, Jordina; Buters, Jeroen; Celenk, Sevcan; Damialis, Athanasios; Dechamp, Chantal; García-Mozo, Herminia; Gehrig, Regula; Grewling, Lukasz; Halley, John; Hogda, Kjell-Arild; Jäger, Siegfried; Karatzas, Kostas; Karlsen, Stein-Rune; Koch, Elisabeth; Pauling, Andreas; Peel, Robert George; Sikoparija, Branko; Smith, Matt; Galán-Soldevilla, Carmen; Thibaudon, Michel; Vokou, Despina; de Weger, Letty

    forecast systems. Over the last decades consistent monitoring efforts of various national networks have created a wealth of pollen concentration time series. These constitute a nearly untouched treasure, which is still to be exploited to investigate questions concerning pollen emission, transport and......The section about monitoring covers the development of phenological networks, remote sensing of the season cycle of the vegetation, the emergence of the science of aerobiology and, more specifically, aeropalynology, pollen sampling instruments, pollen counting techniques, applications of...... aeropalynology in agriculture and the European Pollen Information System. Three data sources are directly related with aeropalynology: phenological observations, pollen counts and remote sensing of the vegetation activity. The main future challenge is the assimilation of these data streams into numerical pollen...

  17. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  18. Germination of stress-tolerant Eucalyptus pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop-Harrison, J; Heslop-Harrison, Y

    1985-02-01

    Earlier reports have indicated that the pollen of Eucalyptus is mechanically robust and unusually resistant to the osmotic stress imposed by immersion in water. We have investigated some of the features of the germination mechanism in the pollen of E. rhodantha with a view to clarifying the role of pollen-wall specializations in determining this resistance. Cultured in vitro, the pollen showed erratic germination, with a scatter of germination times up to 24 h. This was associated with variation between individual grains in the rate of hydration and dispersal of the pectins of the oncus, the thickened outer component of the intine present at each aperture. The oncus is itself differentiated, with a refractive outer layer lying within a sporopollenin operculum and itself overlying the protein-bearing layer of the intine. The outer layer, interpreted as a compacted pectin, undergoes only slow dissolution in aqueous media after the lifting of the operculum, and it is this that apparently protects the grain from the effects of short-term osmotic stress. The rate of dissolution varies between grains, possibly as a consequence of minor differences in developmental rate in the final stages of differentiation in the anther, and this contributes to the wider scatter of germination times. The dehydrated pollen gave one-third of the potential germination after 24 h exposure to 60 degrees C, and a small proportion survived 24 h at 70 degrees C. This degree of heat tolerance must primarily reflect properties of the protoplast of the vegetative cell, not examined in the present study; but the wall specializations may well provide a guard against extreme desiccation, and it is noteworthy that the function of the germination mechanism is not prejudiced by exposure to high temperatures. PMID:4019590

  19. Airborne forest fire research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  20. Particulate airborne impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative effects of air pollutants are of principal concern in research on environmental protection in Sweden. Post-industrial society has imposed many limits on emitted air pollutants, yet the number of reports on the negative effects from them is increasing, largely due to human activity in the form of industrial emissions and increased traffic flows. Rising concerns over the health effects from airborne particulate matter (PM) stem from in vitro, in vivo, and cohort studies revealing...

  1. GRYPHON : Airborne lifestyle concept

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The result of the project, the Gryphon, is a helicopter concept designed for private use. The intention of the project has been to investigate how safe, personal airborne mobility could be an attractive transportation alternative in the future. As an aspirational concept the goal has been to inspire and show an exciting way to enjoy a modern, sustainable lifestyle close to nature without the need for conventional infrastructure.

  2. Drought, pollen and nectar availability, and pollination success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waser, Nickolas M; Price, Mary V

    2016-06-01

    Pollination success of animal-pollinated flowers depends on rate of pollinator visits and on pollen deposition per visit, both of which should vary with the pollen and nectar "neighborhoods" of a plant, i.e., with pollen and nectar availability in nearby plants. One determinant of these neighborhoods is per-flower production of pollen and nectar, which is likely to respond to environmental influences. In this study, we explored environmental effects on pollen and nectar production and on pollination success in order to follow up a surprising result from a previous study: flowers of Ipomopsis aggregata received less pollen in years of high visitation by their hummingbird pollinators. A new analysis of the earlier data indicated that high bird visitation corresponded to drought years. We hypothesized that drought might contribute to the enigmatic prior result if it decreases both nectar and pollen production: in dry years, low nectar availability could cause hummingbirds to visit flowers at a higher rate, and low pollen availability could cause them to deposit less pollen per visit. A greenhouse experiment demonstrated that drought does reduce both pollen and nectar production by I. aggregata flowers. This result was corroborated across 6 yr of variable precipitation and soil moisture in four unmanipulated field populations. In addition, experimental removal of pollen from flowers reduced the pollen received by nearby flowers. We conclude that there is much to learn about how abiotic and biotic environmental drivers jointly affect pollen and nectar production and availability, and how this contributes to pollen and nectar neighborhoods and thus influences pollination success. PMID:27459771

  3. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  4. Development of personal pollen information—the next generation of pollen information and a step forward for hay fever sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmenta, Maximilian; Bastl, Katharina; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Pollen allergies affect a large part of the European population and are considered likely to increase. User feedback indicates that there are difficulties in providing proper information and valid forecasts using traditional methods of aerobiology due to a variety of factors. Allergen content, pollen loads, and pollen allergy symptoms vary per region and year. The first steps in challenging such issues have already been undertaken. A personalized pollen-related symptom forecast is thought to be a possible answer. However, attempts made thus far have not led to an improvement in daily forecasting procedures. This study describes a model that was launched in 2013 in Austria to provide the first available personal pollen information. This system includes innovative forecast models using bi-hourly pollen data, traditional pollen forecasts based on historical data, meteorological data, and recent symptom data from the patient's hayfever diary. Furthermore, it calculates the personal symptom load in real time, in particular, the entries of the previous 5 days, to classify users. The personal pollen information was made available in Austria on the Austrian pollen information website and via a mobile pollen application, described herein for the first time. It is supposed that the inclusion of personal symptoms will lead to major improvements in pollen information concerning hay fever sufferers.

  5. Considerations for the preparation of peat samples for palynology, and for the counting of pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Chambers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peat deposits are valuable archives for studying palaeoclimate, the history of local and regional vegetation, and human impact. The most widely applied laboratory analytical technique has been palynology (pollen analysis, which is often limited to the study of pollen and a few easily recognisable spores; however, a variety of other microfossils can be studied in peat deposits and can provide information on past environmental conditions. Among the so-called non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs are fungal and algal spores that can be used as indicators for local hydrological changes and trophic conditions. This article provides an overview of aspects to consider and sample preparation methods for pollen, spores and other non-pollen palynomorph microfossils in peat deposits; advice on aids to pollen identification and counting; and a brief guide to the range of NPPs that can be counted from prepared subfossil-pollen microslides.

  6. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  7. Hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in pollen and drying-related implications for commercial processing of bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppré, Michael; Colegate, Steven M; Edgar, John A; Fischer, Ottmar W

    2008-07-23

    Using HPLC-ESI-MS, several saturated and 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected, mainly as their N-oxides, in fresh pollen collected from flowers of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants Echium vulgare, E. plantagineum, Senecio jacobaea, S. ovatus, and Eupatorium cannabinum, and/or pollen loads from bees (bee pollen) that foraged on those plants. A major alkaloidal metabolite in S. ovatus was tentatively identified, using its mass spectrometric data and biogenic considerations, as the previously unreported, saturated alkaloid, 2-hydroxysarracine. Heating had very little effect on the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides from a variety of sources. Considered in conjunction with international concerns about the adverse effects of these alkaloids, the results strongly indicate a need for monitoring pollen supplies intended for human consumption, at least until conditions for processing and/or selection are clearly defined such as to significantly reduce the hepatotoxic (and potentially carcinogenic and genotoxic) pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of bee pollen. PMID:18553916

  8. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination

  9. Airborne field strength monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bredemeyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  10. Quality of durable cookies enriched with rape bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to enrich durable cookies with different additions of rape (Brassica napus var. napus bee pollen to increase nutritional properties of cookie samples and to improve technological and sensorial properties as well. Bee pollen is an important raw material due to its nutritional and functional properties. Cookie samples were prepared by substituting wheat flour with rape bee pollen in the amount of 16 % (1 g of bee pollen per cookie and 32 % (2 g of bee pollen per cookie using bee pollen from two localities Lenártovce and Nové Zámky. In baked samples beside sensory properties also chemical parameters and technological parameters of cookies were evaluated. It was found out that with the gradual addition of rape bee pollen the amount of ash content increased and the highest ash content was analysed in variants II and IV (0.71 and 0.77 % using 32 % addition of rape bee pollen. In terms of reducing sugars, addition of bee pollen caused that the content of reducing sugars in the products increased slightly. The highest reducing sugar content was determined in variant II. (24.59 %. On the other hand amount of crude protein the most considerably raised by addition of 2 g of pollen per cookie. The highest content of crude protein was analysed in variants II and IV (8.72 and 9.00 %. From the results of a linear models in which the dependent variables were the ash, crude protein and moisture it was determined the significant effect (p <0.05 only of the pollen addition. In the case of the model with the dependent variable reducing sugars it was found out significant effect (p<0.0001 of pollen addition and locality and their interactions. With the gradual addition of bee pollen values of technological parameters such as diameter and weight of cookies increased and thickness of products decreased. Based on sensory scores using a 9-point Hedonic scale the best sensorial acceptability (7.4 was found in variant I (1 g of bee

  11. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA, inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%, with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%. Western   blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China. 

  12. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China. PMID:26742437

  13. Pollen morphological variation in Vanguerieae (Ixoroideae - Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lens, F; Jansen, S.; Huysmans, S.; Robbrecht, E; Smets, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Vanguerieae is a large tribe of the subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae) and consists of about 500 species in 27 genera. This study gives a detailed pollen morphological description of 30 species from 16 genera, based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Vanguerieae are considered to be stenopalynous, although there is some evidence to question this. First, there is a difference in sexine types that clearly de® nes Keetia and Psydrax ( both reticulate) , and Canthium and ...

  14. In vitro pollen germination capacity of citrullus lanatus L., (cucurbitaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen germination capacity of Citrullus lanatus L., (Cucurbitaceae) in 'hanging drop' technique was evaluated up to 48 weeks. The collected pollen were stored at different temperatures (4 deg. C, -20 deg. C, -30 deg. C and -60 deg. C). The pollen were also treated in organic solvents (acetone, benzene and chloroform), in vacuum over silica gel and in freeze dryer (-60 deg. C) for 30 minutes. The study indicates that low temperature is far better than high temperature with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. In organic solvents benzene showed better results as compared to vacuum dried pollen. Freeze dryer (-60 deg. C) seems to be the best method to store pollen grains for a long period of time. (author)

  15. Compositae dermatitis from airborne parthenolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compositae dermatitis confined to exposed skin has often been considered on clinical grounds to be airborne. Although anecdotal clinical and plant chemical reports suggest true airborne allergy, no proof has been procured. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a European Compositae plant...

  16. Influence of different particle sizes in the bark chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Betula pendula Roth, Picea abies (L.) Karst, Pinus sylvestris L. e Pinus pinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirra, Inês Martins Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal e dos Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The goal of this report is to characterize the bark of five industrially important forest species in Europe - Eucalyptus globulus, Betula pendula, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris e Pinus pinea and to define their potential use as a source of value added chemical products. It was performed the anatomical characterization of bark tissues (dissociated elements), the selective fractionation (si...

  17. What was behind the bark? : An assessment of decay among urban Tilia, Betula and Acer trees felled as hazardous in the Helsinki City area

    OpenAIRE

    Terho, Minna

    2009-01-01

    Old trees growing in urban environments are often felled due to symptoms of mechanical defects that could be hazardous to people and property. The decisions concerning these removals are justified by risk assessments carried out by tree care professionals. The major motivation for this study was to determine the most common profiles of potential hazard characteristics for the three most common urban tree genera in Helsinki City: Tilia, Betula and Acer, and in this way improve management pract...

  18. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure of Salix and Betula spp. at a Saline Site in Central Poland in Relation to the Seasons and Soil Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Sonia; Piernik, Agnieszka; Thiem, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Saline stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting the growth and development of plants and associated microorganisms. While the impact of salinity on associations of arbuscular fungi is relatively well understood, knowledge of the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of trees growing on saline land is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the density and diversity of EM fungi associated with three tree species, Salix alba, Salix caprea and Betula pendula, growing ...

  19. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A.J.;

    2014-01-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure-function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered...... pectin composition was analysed. The expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in pectin acetylation, degradation of the rhamnogalacturonan backbone and type and length of neutral side chains, arabinan and galactan in particular, has been altered. Upon crossing of different transgenic lines, some...... transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different...

  20. Image analysis in automatic system of pollen recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Rapiejko; Zbigniew M. Wawrzyniak; Ryszard S. Jachowicz; Dariusz Jurkiewicz

    2012-01-01

    In allergology practice and research, it would be convenient to receive pollen identification and monitoring results in much shorter time than it comes from human identification. Image based analysis is one of the approaches to an automated identification scheme for pollen grain and pattern recognition on such images is widely used as a powerful tool. The goal of such attempt is to provide accurate, fast recognition and classification and counting of pollen grains by computer system for monit...

  1. METEOROLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE VARIABILITY OF THE AIR BORN POLLEN

    OpenAIRE

    Derradji L.*, Abed L.

    2016-01-01

    In the City of Annaba, respiratory diseases are important causes of consultation and hospitalization. To contribute to the development of the research as for the biological and environmental pollution, it seemed to us essential to establish a pollen calendar of the city of Annaba. The objective of this study is to know the variability of its allergenic pollen component. The pollen calendar offers a preventive therapeutic utility because it supplies the critical dates of the pollination so all...

  2. Pollen Morphology of some Carnivorous plants from Tripura, India

    OpenAIRE

    Somnath Bhowmik; B. K. Datta

    2013-01-01

    Pollen morphological structure of two carnivorous plant family covering four species of Tripura, India namely Drosera burmannii Vahl (Droseraceae) Utricularia bifida Linnaeus, Utricularia ceruleaea Linnaeus and Utricularia gibba Linnaeus (Lentibulariaceae) have been studied under Scanning Electron Microscope for the first time. Pollen grains of the studied four taxa varied widely among them and could be used for segregating both at generic as well as species level. Pollens of Droseraceae shed...

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-01-01

    Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists...

  4. Maize pollen is an important allergen in occupationally exposed workers

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenburg Marcus; Petersen Arnd; Baur Xaver

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The work- or environmental-related type I sensitization to maize pollen is hardly investigated. We sought to determine the prevalence of sensitization to maize pollen among exposed workers and to identify the eliciting allergens. Methods In July 2010, 8 out of 11 subjects were examined who were repeatedly exposed to maize pollen by pollinating maize during their work in a biological research department. All 8 filled in a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing (SPT)...

  5. A laboratory assessment of the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) using individual samples of pollen and fungal spore material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, David A.; O'Connor, David J.; Burke, Aoife M.; Sodeau, John R.

    2012-12-01

    A Bioaerosol sensing instrument referred to as WIBS-4, designed to continuously monitor ambient bioaerosols on-line, has been used to record a multiparameter “signature” from each of a number of Primary Biological Aerosol Particulate (PBAP) samples found in air. These signatures were obtained in a controlled laboratory environment and are based on the size, asymmetry (“shape”) and auto-fluorescence of the particles. Fifteen samples from two separate taxonomic ranks (kingdoms), Plantae (×8) and Fungi (×7) were individually introduced to the WIBS-4 for measurement along with two non-fluorescing chemical solids, common salt and chalk. Over 2000 individual-particle measurements were recorded for each sample type and the ability of the WIBS spectroscopic technique to distinguish between chemicals, pollen and fungal spore material was examined by identifying individual PBAP signatures. The results obtained show that WIBS-4 could potentially be a very useful analytical tool for distinguishing between natural airborne PBAP samples, such as the fungal spores and may potentially play an important role in detecting and discriminating the toxic fungal spore, Aspergillus fumigatus, from others in real-time. If the sizing range of the commercial instrument was customarily increased and permitted to operate simultaneously in its two sizing ranges, pollen and spores could potentially be discriminated between. The data also suggest that the gain setting sensitivity on the detector would also have to be reduced by a factor >5, to routinely detect, in-range fluorescence measurements for pollen samples.

  6. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  7. Airborne monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete system for tracking, mapping, and performing a composition analysis of a radioactive plume and contaminated area was developed at the NRCN. The system includes two major units : An airborne unit for monitoring and a ground station for analyzing. The airborne unit is mounted on a helicopter and includes file following. Four radiation sensor, two 2'' x 2'' Nal (Tl) sensors horizontally separated by lead shield for mapping and spectroscopy, and two Geiger Mueller (GM) tubes as part of the safety system. A multichannel analyzer card is used for spectroscopy. A navigation system, based on GPS and a barometric altitude meter, is used to locate the plume or ground data. The telemetry system, consisting of a transceiver and a modem, transfers all the data in real time to the ground station. An industrial PC (Field Works) runs a dedicated C++ Windows application to manage the acquired data. An independent microprocessor based backup system includes a recorder, display, and key pad. The ground station is based on an industrial PC, a telemetry system, a color printer and a modem to communicate with automatic meteorology stations in the relevant area. A special software controls the ground station. Measurement results are analyzed in the ground station to estimate plume parameters including motion, location, size, velocity, and perform risk assessment. (authors)

  8. A DNA barcoding approach to characterize pollen collected by honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galimberti

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy. A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno, characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands.

  9. A DNA barcoding approach to characterize pollen collected by honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Andrea; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

  10. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  11. Fraxinus pollen as a source of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández-González

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Southern Europe there are but a few studies focused on the allergenic impact of ash (Fraxinus pollen as a result of its scarce distribution. In the city of Ourense this type of pollen represents 2% of the total atmospheric pollen recorded. The goal of this study is to determine the atmospheric concentrations of Fraxinus pollen and its allergen in Ourense’s atmosphere in 2015, and to assess their relationship with the main meteorological variables. The aim is to assess whether the pollen counts match the actual exposure conditions for allergen-sensitive patients. A Lanzoni VPPS-2000 volumetric sampler was used for pollen sampling, whereas a Burkard Cyclone sampler was used for allergen detection.The flowering period of Fraxinus was long, having a duration of 76 days between the third week of January and the rst week of April as consequence of the asynchronous flowering of the different species growing in the study area. The presence of the ash allergen in the atmosphere can be detected using the main olive tree allergen, Ole e 1. Our study indicates that the combination of pollen counts and allergen quanti cation should be contemplated to estimate the real exposure of sensitive people. In the case of Fraxinus pollen, there may be allergy risk periods before and after the occurrence of the highest pollen concentrations in the atmosphere as a result of special rain and humidity conditions during its flowering period.

  12. Microsporogenesis variation in Codiaeum producing inaperturate pollen grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Béatrice; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Ressayre, Adrienne

    2009-06-01

    A study of microsporogenesis (the earliest stage of pollen ontogeny) was undertaken in seven cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum var. pictum, a eudicot species that produces inaperturate pollen grains. Microsporogenesis appears highly variable for the developmental events suspected to be implicated in the determination of aperture pattern. Most eudicots have tri-aperturate pollen grains and microsporogenesis is described as highly conserved in this clade. The observed burst of variation in C. variegatum therefore appears especially remarkable. A plausible hypothesis to explain the variation is that the pollen being inaperturate, the selective forces applying on the ontogeny of the aperture pattern are relaxed. PMID:19520313

  13. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, R.; Schlünssen, Vivi; Smith, M.; Sommer, J.; Hertel, Ole

    2014-01-01

    pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in...... Aarhus - a twin peak profile during the early season, a single evening profile during the middle of the season, and a single midday peak during the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that it was driven by a...

  14. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation on lily pollen germination and the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on lily (Lilium davidii Duch.) pollen germination and the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination have been studied. Preliminary results showed that the ratio of pollen germination increased from (16.0±1.6)% to (27.0±2.1)% when implanted with nitrogen ions by 100 keV and a dose of 1013 ions/cm2. Further experiments were performed by staining the actin filaments in pollen with rhodamine-phalloidin and detected by using laser confocol microscopy. After hydration for 10 h, the actin filaments in ion implanted pollen grains tended to form thick bundles oriented in parallel or ring shape at the germinal furrow, indicating that the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the germination of pollen might be mediated by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  15. The effect of pollen origin and pollen load on the stigmas in the female reproductive success of Dalechampia species

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Andrew MR

    2014-01-01

    In Dalechampia blossoms, anther-stigma distance (ASD) can influence self-pollination rates; blossoms with small anther-stigma distance values will experience more self-pollination. Self-pollination will cause the exposure of deleterious alleles then natural selection will purge from the popualtion. Additionally, when the small ASD can result in more pollen on the stigmas, it may increase pollen competition and thereby reduce inbreeding depression in offspring as more superior pollen will achi...

  16. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  17. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea A; Wollenweber, Bernd; Frei, Ursula K;

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-incompatibility (SI) is a biological mechanism to avoid inbreeding in allogamous plants. In grasses, this mechanism is controlled by a two-locus system (S-Z). Calculation of male and female gamete frequencies is complex for tetraploid species. We are not aware of any software...... available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z) self-incompatibility system. The...

  18. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Hosein Shamsbiranvand; Ali Khodadadi; Mohammad-Ali Assarehzadegan; Seyed Hamid Borsi; Akram Amini

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-rea...

  19. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  20. Exogenous GA₃ Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Huizi; Hu, Ping; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunrui; Wang, Yanmin; Gu, Shan; Yang, Chuanping; Wang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch) seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA₃ and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC), seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA₃ and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol-HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA₃, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA₃-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA₃ treatment, suggesting their role in GA₃-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA₃ induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants. PMID:26404260

  1. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC, seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  2. Genetic diversity of Betula luminifera populations at different elevations in Wuyi Mountain and its association with ecological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing XIE; Zhizhen LI; Ruzhu HUANG; Xiangxi XIAO; Yong HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of 91 genets from four wild populations of Betula luminifera at different eleva-tions in the National Nature Reserve of the Wuyi Mountain,Fujian Province, China. Eighteen random primers (from 139 primers) produced a total of 199 scorable amplified fragments, of which 174 (87.44%) were polymorphic across all individuals. The genetic diversities of B.luminifera at the population level and species level were PPL = 60.05%, h = 0.2242, I= 0.3181 and PPL = 87.44%,h = 0.3442, I= 0.4899, respectively. The value of differ-entiation (Gst= 0.3486) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that there was a relatively high genetic differentiation among populations, and about one-third of the genetic variation occurred among populations. Pearson correlation analysis further revealed that the genetic diversity within populations had significant or very significant correlation with the elevation, climatic factors (annual average temperature and annual precipitation) and soil nutrient factors (total nitrogen, C/N ratio and organic matter). Mantel tests show that there was a significant correlation between the genetic distances among popula-tions and the distance of elevation, and the divergence of soil nutrient factors. The results of the present study suggested that the relatively high genetic differentiation among populations ofB. luminifera at different elevations might be caused by ecological factors and gene flow.

  3. The Effects of Surface Roughness on Adhesion Strength of Coated Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Birch (Betula L. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina VITOSYTĖ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of surface roughness impact on adhesion properties, the samples of dried ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and birch (Betula L. wood were used. Before wood finishing, the surfaces of the samples were sanded. In order to get different surface roughness the abrasive material of P80, P120, P150, P180, P220 and P240 grit was used. The parameters of surface roughness Ra, Rz and Rmax were measured in three directions: along the wood grain, across the grain and in the angle of 45º. Comparison of the results showed the non-linear dependency of roughness parameters. Afterwards the wood surface was coated with three different acrylic-polyurethane coating systems (1 layer of varnish without primer, 1 layer of primer and 1 layer of varnish, and 1 layer of primer and 2 layers of varnish. The adhesion strength was assessed using the pull-off method. Also the nature of the fracture was evaluated. It was determined that the peculiarities of surface roughness, coating system type and wood species signally results the values of the adhesion strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3094

  4. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael den Herder

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the number of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia were recorded in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1999. Reindeer significantly reduced the height and the number of saplings (plants > 10 cm high of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia but the number of seedlings (plants < 10 cm high did not differ between browsed and unbrowsed plots. Furthermore the heightclass distribution of saplings was different inside the exlosures compared to control areas. Over time browsed plots continued to have high densities of small saplings while in protected plots an increasing number of larger saplings appeared. In our study site, regeneration from seeds seemed possible although the height of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia was limited by reindeer. 

  5. Effects of long-term open-field ozone exposure on leaf phenolics of European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; Loponen, J; Pihlaja, K; Oksanen, E

    2001-05-01

    The response of phenolic compounds as a result of long-term low open-field ozone exposure was studied in ozone-sensitive and ozone-tolerant clones of European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). The saplings were exposed to 1.5-1.6 times the ambient (elevated) ozone and ambient air (as control) over three growing seasons from May 1996 until August 1998. Quantification by modified Folin-Ciocalteau assay showed a 16.2% increase in total phenolics in elevated ozone plants as compared to that in controls and a corresponding 9.9% increase of 10 phenolic compounds quantified by HPLC. Five nonflavonoids and five flavonoids showed 8.4% and 11.4% increases, respectively. The phenolic results indicated slightly higher ozone sensitivity of clone 5 as compared to clone 2. The most ozone-responsive phenolic compounds in clone 2 and clone 5 were (+)-catechin (CT), chlorogenic acid (CGA), 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (5CQA), 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3CQA), myricetin galactopyranoside (MG), quercetin-3-O-glucuronopyranoside (QGR), and quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside (QA). Increased phenolic content in ozone-exposed plants was related to impaired growth and accelerated leaf senescence, indicated by enhanced autumn leaf yellowing and lower chlorophyll and Mg content. The change in carbon allocation towards defensive phenolics at the expense of growth was greater in the ozone-sensitive clone as compared to tolerant clone. PMID:11471939

  6. Effects of long-term, elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Long-term outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on secondary metabolites (phenolics and terpenoids) and the main soluble sugars (sucrose, raffinose and glucose) in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings. Saplings were exposed to a constant 50% increase in erythemal UV irradiance (UV-B(CIE); based on the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) erythemal action spectrum) and a small increase in UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) for three growing seasons in an irradiation field in central Finland. Two control groups were used: saplings exposed to ambient radiation and saplings exposed to slightly increased UV-A radiation. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term elevated UV radiation. Saplings in the elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and the UV-A radiation control treatment had significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics, such as salidroside, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone-3-glucoside, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared with saplings in ambient radiation. In contrast, the radiation treatments had no effect on the non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids, papyriferic acid and deacetylpapyriferic acid. We conclude that plant parts, in addition to leaves, accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure. PMID:12464579

  7. Aeropalynologic analysis of Timisoara (Romania during 2006 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a one year qualitative-quantitative study of airborne pollen. The objective of the investigation was to analyse the daily presence and distribution of pollen and to identify the pollen types that are abundantly represented in the atmosphere of the city of Timisoara. A continuous aeropalynologic survey was accomplished between 1 mai 2006 and 8 octombrie 2006. Plants with anemophilous pollination were the best represented: Pinaceae, Poaceae, Plantago, Rumex, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Artemisia, Ambrosia, Fraxinus, Salix, Betula, Carpinus, Quercus, Juglans, Platanus, Morus, Tilia. The total pollen spectrum was represented by 17 pollen types. Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen types was dominant. The highest level of pollen emission was recorded during August-September.

  8. Inbreeding and oubreeding effects on pollen fitness and zygote survival in Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Siegismund, H.R.

    inbreeding depression, oubreeding effects, outcrossing, pollen fitness, selfing, Silene nutans, zygote survival......inbreeding depression, oubreeding effects, outcrossing, pollen fitness, selfing, Silene nutans, zygote survival...

  9. Pollen allergens do not come alone: pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMS) shift the human immue systems towards a TH2-dominated response

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Stefanie; Mariani Valentina; Bryce Martina; Mueller Martin J; Ring Johannes; Behrendt Heidrun; Jakob Thilo; Traidl-Hoffmann Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pollen allergy is characterized by a TH2-biased immune response to pollen-derived allergens. However, pollen-exposed epithelia do not encounter pure allergen but rather a plethora of protein and non-protein substances. We demonstrated that pollen liberate lipids with chemical and functional similarities to leukotriens and prostaglandins - the pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMs). To date, two main groups of PALMs have been characterized: The immunostimulatory PALMs activating in...

  10. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yaning; Ling, Yu; Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  11. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Cui

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA and sodium butyrate (NaB to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components.

  12. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  13. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Rieneck, Klaus; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    (Betula verrucosa) (Bet v 1), the major allergen in birch pollen, to serum IgG and IgE, separately and in competition. Sera from six birch pollen-allergic patients were obtained before and after 5 years of SAV, and binding was assessed with 125I-Bet v 1. Before SAV, IgG bound more than eight times the...... amount of Bet v 1 compared with IgE, and together they accounted for more than 85% of the serum binding capacity. While SAV induced minimal changes in IgE binding, the IgG binding capacities increased 6-32 times. In contrast, the binding avidities (K(d) 28-40pM) changed less than 20%, pre- and post......-SAV IgG provided similar inhibition of Bet v 1 binding to IgE at equimolar levels, and cross inhibition studies between IgG and IgE showed low inter-individual differences. Following SAV, all sera reduced Bet v 1 binding to CD23(+) cells, correlating with reduced binding of Bet v 1 to IgE (P...

  14. Securing maximum diversity of Non Pollen Palynomorphs in palynological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Palynology is no longer synonymous with analysis of pollen with the addition of a few fern spores. A wide range of Non Pollen Palynomorphs are now described and are potential palaeoenvironmental proxies in the palynological surveys. The contribution of NPP’s has proven important to the...

  15. Reconstructing Earth's Past Climates: The Hidden Secrets of Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Adrienne; Warny, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    "Palynology" is the study of fossil pollen and spores, and these tiny grains can provide fundamental information about past climates on Earth. Among their many unique and useful properties, pollen and spores are composed of some of the most chemically resistant organic compounds found in nature. They are also produced in vast quantities and are…

  16. A POLLEN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SOME HONEYS FROM KARWAR, KARNATAKA

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, D. M.; Parikh, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    Pollen analysis of some medicinaly used honey sample from Karwar has been done. Sapindus, Mangifera and Syzygium have been noted as the principal honey yielding plants in the region. It has also been observed that the names given to various honeys after those of respective plants do not corroborate with their pollen composition.

  17. Allergénicité des Granules Cytoplasmiques de Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Chakra, Oussama

    2009-01-01

    Le pollen des Graminées est l'un des principaux vecteurs d'allergènes. Il contribue à l'apparition des allergies respiratoires comme l'asthme et la rhinite allergique. En contact avec l'eau de pluie ou des polluants atmosphériques, le pollen peut libérer des microparticules (

  18. Pollen tube germination in maize does not require transcriptomic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    One objective for our group is to better understand the molecular and genetic basis of pollen and pollen tube function, given its critical role in seed production and its importance as a means of gene flow between plant populations. We compared gene expression levels in seedlings...

  19. The importance of pollen counts in the air: an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José González Minero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bay of Cádiz in general and Sanlúcar de Barrameda in particular were pioneering places for aerobiological analysis in Spain. This study presents unpublished pollen data collected with a Hirst spore trap during a year. Results are structured in pollen calendar form which is easy to interpret by health professionals. This article also intends to pay tribute to those medical pioneers who began their studies in Sanlúcar de Barrameda. On this subject, we discuss the data obtained in 1941 and we relate them with data collected in 2009. The Mediterranean climate and the geographical location of Sanlúcar de Barrameda bring about an archetypical pollen calendar of the towns of the Iberian Peninsula’s southern coast. A total of 21 pollen types are quanti ed, Olea europaea L. (25.1%, Quercus (17.5%, Pinaceae (12.3%, Poaceae (10.2% and Cupressaceae (8.1% being the more abundant types . The months of highest pollen concentration are April and May. The maximum daily concentration was reached on May 13 with 825 grains/m3 of Olea europaea L. pollen. Daily concentrations of grass pollen and other herbaceous plants are not exceptionally high, but they do have a continued presence throughout the year, so the risk of pollen allergies cannot be con ned to spring.

  20. Pollen morphology of the Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Karamian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology of 20 species belonging to Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis was studied in Iran. The pollen grains from the herbarium specimens were prepared by acetolysis method and then 8 quantitative characters were studied by light microscopy. Data analysis was carried out by cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. Pollen grains of the sections were 3-colpate with reticulate ornamentation. Results of the study showed that although the pollen grains in the section were comparatively homogenous, but had a considerable variation in the studied quantitative characters. However among the studied characters, equatorial and polar diameters of pollen grains were the most significant characters. The members of the section can be divided into 3 groups based on these characters.

  1. Irradiation and heat affect peach pollen germination and fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen from the doubled haploid peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] ''Hall-D'' was irradiated with 0, 290, 530, 820, 1000, 5000, or 9000 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation, 113 μW·cm-2 of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, or exposed to 100 °C for 2 h. In vitro pollen germination percentages were recorded and pollen was used to pollinate more than 10,000 emasculated or male-sterile peach flowers. Although pollen germination in vitro was stimulated by <1000 Gy of gamma irradiation, seed set following pollination was greatly reduced in all treatments. These results suggest that low levels of irradiation are sufficient to render pollen infertile while still maintaining germination capacity. Such results may be useful for pollination-induced parthenogenetic egg division for the production of maternally derived haploids and for the production of interspecific hybrids. (author)

  2. Pollinators, geitonogamy and a model of pollen transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of pollination that considers the amount of geitonogamous pollen transfer in different flowers and plants is presented. We assumed in this work self-incompatible plant species and we studied how pollination is affected by different round trips described by pollinator from its nest, taking into account the fraction geitonogamy and the fraction pollen export. A deterministic model and a stochastic model of pollen transfer were developed from which we found that when pollinators describe a uniform sequence (visit the same number of flowers in each plant), individuals receive the maximum outcross pollen or minimum self pollen. That is, from the point of view of fertilization, the optimal number of flowers visited in each plant depends on the number of flowers of the plant, the length of the visit and the number of individuals. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig

  3. Application of pollen treated with ionizing radiation in grapes breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problem concerning the priority of investigations into transformation inducing using plant pollen irradiation method is raised. Data on investigations into grape predominant type pollen irradiation with rigid 1-100 Gy dose gamma rays are considered. Using grape seedling morphological index analysis it is shown that gene transformation inducing is possible using high dose pollen irradiation for cross pollination process. Advantages of the given method are indicated: application of irradiated pollen for pollination allows one to transmit certain characters to progeny at some stages - without impregnation (1); with pollen irradiation dose increase the number of male plant characters transmitted to progeny is reduced (2); deep recessive characters of one of the parent plants can be manifested in progeny or valuable neoplasms can even occur

  4. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  5. Antiradioactive effect of bee pollens on irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiradioactive effect of bee pollens on irradiated rats were studied. The results showed that bee pollens have better effects of antiradioactive damage, i.e. the counts of peripheral white blood cells (PWBC) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the irradiation group treated with bee pollens increased significantly comparing with the control groups (normal and single irradiation), the levels of lipid peroxide (MDA Content and POV) of irradiation group treated with bee pollens decreased obviously comparing with the control groups. It is suggested that possible mechanism of antiradioactive capacity, namely, the activating for SOD to eradicate free radicals and decline LPO levels. The experimental result has provided a scientific basis for clinical therapy of acute radiation sickness with bee pollens

  6. Cytology of 2n Pollen Formation in Nonastringent Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xian-ying; LUO Zheng-rong

    2002-01-01

    Cytological mechanisms of 2n pollen formation in ‘Zenjimaru' nonastringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. ) were studied. The following abnormalities in meiosis were found to be responsible for the production of 2n pollens: (1) disoriented spindles, including parallel, fused and tripolar spindles, were formed at metaphase Ⅱ and anaphase Ⅱ; (2) the nuclei at telophase Ⅱ were arranged to two poles, each of which contained two nuclei, or to three poles, one of which contained two nuclei, the other two contained one nucleus respectively; (3) dyads and triads were produced at the tetrad stage. The dyad would develop into two 2n pollens, and the triad would develop into one 2n and two n pollens. The 2n pollens produced by this mechanism were genetically equivalent to FDR (first division restitution) gametes, thus providing a potential value for sexual polyploidization.

  7. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  8. The effects of gamma irradiation on Gossypium Hirsutum L. Pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossypium Hirsutum L. (cotton) is cultivated widely in Turkey. In this study the seeds of cotton, variety Cukurova 1518 were irradiated at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 krad doses with 60Co and cytological studies were done in M1 and M2 generations. In M2 generation, the total of the undyed pollen and heteromorph pollen was 0.61% for 5 krad treatment while this value was 1.36 percent in M1 generation. The maximum increase in undyed and heteromorphic (sterile) pollen were observed for 40 krad treatment both for M1 and M2. The percent increases for M1 and M2 were found 10.39% and 7.10% respectively. On the other hand, morphological normal pollens were measured in M1 and pollen largeness was found to be 120.35 μm in control but this value was changed for the irradiated groups

  9. Modern pollen rain in the Lake Qinghai basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Lake Qinghai is the largest inland brackish lake in China and lies within the NE Tibetan Plateau. Our study shows that pollen assemblages in each vegetation belt are significantly correlated with the vegetation types of this area. Among the herbaceous and shrubby pollen assemblages, Artemisia is over-represented, while Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Polygonaceae are under-represented. Artemisia/ Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratios with the regional vegetation characteristic can be used as a proper index to reconstruct the history of vegetation and climate in Lake Qinghai basin. Modern pollen in the lake mainly comes from the nearby vegetation, controlled by the directions and velocity of the wind. The distribution of modern pollen in Lake Qinghai tends to be similar in most part of the lake. The difference of pollen sedimentation process in the lake can be potentially influenced by the focusing function of the lake, river streams, and lake current.

  10. Pollen morphology of Curroria, Mondia, Socotranthus and Stomatostemma (Periplocaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollen morphology of I Planch., O Skeels, Socotranthus Kuntze and Stomatostemma N.E. Br. was studied.All the genera are characterized by pollen grains arranged in tetrads. The arrangement of the grains may be rhomboidal, tetrahedral or decussate. The 4 - 6 pores present are restricted to the junction area of adjacent grains. The exine is smooth.Exine structure consists of an outer, homogeneous stratum (tectum subtended by a granular stratum. The intine is well developed. The pollen grains of tetrads are connected by wall bridges (cross-wall cohesion. Except for small differences which may occur between species and genera in pollen size and arrangement of tetrads, the pollen is uniform in morphology.

  11. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  12. Pollen morphology of some onosma species (boraginaceae) from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollen morphology of nine taxa three of which are endemics belonging to Onosma L. (Boraginaceae); O. orientale, O. halophilum, O. bourgaei, O. chlorotrichum, O. heterophyllum, O. ambigens, O. oreodoxum, O. sintenisii and O. bulbotrichum from Turkey has been investigated by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The shape of pollen grains of Onosma is frequently prolate, subprolate and sphaeroidea. The outline in polar view is subrounded and subtriangular. The dimension for the polar length ranges between 13.01-21.57 mu m, equatorial width 10.56-20.30 mu m, colpi length 8.19-16.58 mu m, colpi width 1.69-4.36 mu m, pori length 1.05-4.28 mu m and pori width 2.52-10.71 mu m. The pollen morphology of studied taxa are taxonomically of significant characters. The main pollen morphology differences have been found at the section level, especially in pollen type. (author)

  13. Pollen Morphology of Acinos Miller Species Growing in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayla Kaya; Hatice Kutluk

    2007-01-01

    The pollen morphology of six taxa of the genus Acinos Miller has been examined under scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and a description of each taxon has been given. Acinos pollen is stephanocolpate (hexacolpate). Two main exine sculpturing types, foveolate-reticulate (only in subspecies of A. troodi) and reticulate have been defined. The dimension for the polar length ranges between 25.8-47.4 μm, equatorial width 24.5-34.4 μm, colpus length 20.0-40.5 μm and colpus width 1.2-2.5 μm. The shape is mostly subprolate to prolate, seldomly prolate-spheroidal. The results reveal rather uniform morphological features, however fine details are characteristic to differentiate the pollen taxa. Acinos pollen also share some common morphological features with the other Lamiaceae pollen.

  14. Pollen flow of wheat under natural conditions in the Huanghuai River Wheat Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ai-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Wu, Cheng-Lai; Gao, Qing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic pollen spread is the main pathway of transgenic plant gene flow. The maximum distance of pollen dispersal (horizontal), the spatial dynamics of pollen movement (vertical), and the patterns of pollen dispersal are important considerations in biosafety assessments of genetically modified crops. To evaluate wheat (Triticum aestivum) pollen dispersal, we measured the pollen suspension velocity and analyzed pollen dispersal patterns under natural conditions in the Huanghuai River wheat-growing region in 2009. The pollen suspension velocity was 0.3-0.4 m/s. The highest pollen densities were detected in the north, northwest, and south of the pollen source. Pollen was dispersed over distances greater than 245 m in the northwest and northeast directions. At the pollen source center, pollen density decreased with increasing vertical height. In the north of the pollen source, the pollen density from 65 m to 225 m showed a wave-mode decrease with increasing height. The horizontal transport of pollen over longer distances fitted polynomial equations. In the north, the pollen density was highest at 45 m from the pollen source, and decreased with increasing distance. In the northwest, the pollen density showed a double-peak trend. In the northeast, pollen density was highest from 45 m to 125 m from the source. Wind speeds greater than the pollen suspension velocity and the duration of continuous gusts were the main factors affecting pollen dispersal. This information will be useful for determining the spatial isolation distances for hybrid seed production and for the commercial production of transgenic wheat. PMID:25658025

  15. Image analysis in automatic system of pollen recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rapiejko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In allergology practice and research, it would be convenient to receive pollen identification and monitoring results in much shorter time than it comes from human identification. Image based analysis is one of the approaches to an automated identification scheme for pollen grain and pattern recognition on such images is widely used as a powerful tool. The goal of such attempt is to provide accurate, fast recognition and classification and counting of pollen grains by computer system for monitoring. The isolated pollen grain are objects extracted from microscopic image by CCD camera and PC computer under proper conditions for further analysis. The algorithms are based on the knowledge from feature vector analysis of estimated parameters calculated from grain characteristics, including morphological features, surface features and other applicable estimated characteristics. Segmentation algorithms specially tailored to pollen object characteristics provide exact descriptions of pollen characteristics (border and internal features already used by human expert. The specific characteristics and its measures are statistically estimated for each object. Some low level statistics for estimated local and global measures of the features establish the feature space. Some special care should be paid on choosing these feature and on constructing the feature space to optimize the number of subspaces for higher recognition rates in low-level classification for type differentiation of pollen grains.The results of estimated parameters of feature vector in low dimension space for some typical pollen types are presented, as well as some effective and fast recognition results of performed experiments for different pollens. The findings show the ewidence of using proper chosen estimators of central and invariant moments (M21, NM2, NM3, NM8 NM9, of tailored characteristics for good enough classification measures (efficiency > 95%, even for low dimensional classifiers

  16. Ion Implantation Hampers Pollen Tube Growth and Disrupts Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Pollen Tubes of Pinus thunbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guoping; HUANG Qunce; YANG Lusheng; QIN Guangyong

    2008-01-01

    Pollen grains of Pinus thunbergii Parl. (Japanese black pine) were implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ion beams and the effects of nitrogen ion implantation on pollen tube growth in vitro and the organization of actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube cell were investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence labeling. Treatment with ion implanta-tion significantly blocked pollen tube growth. Confocal microscopy showed that ion implantation disrupted actin filament cytoskeleton organization in the pollen tube. It was found that there was a distinct correlation between the inhibition of pollen tube growth and the disruption of actin cytoskeleton organization, indicating that an intact actin cytoskeleton is essential for con-tinuous pollen tube elongation in Pinus thunbergii. Although the detailed mechanism for the ion-implantation-induced bioeffect still remains to be elucidated, the present study assumes that the cytoskeleton system in pollen grains may provide a key target in response to ion beam im-plantation and is involved in mediating certain subsequent cytological changes.

  17. Effect of smoke derivatives on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube elongation of species from different plant families

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumari, A.; Papenfus, H. B.; Kulkarni, M. G.; Pošta, Martin; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2015), s. 825-830. ISSN 1435-8603 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : karrikinolide * pollen germination * pollen tube growth * smoke -water * trimethylbutenolide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.633, year: 2014

  18. Antimicrobial effect of bee collected pollen extract to Enterobacteriaceae genera after application of bee collected pollen in their feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we researched antimicrobial activity of bee pollen extracts to Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from chicken intestinal tract after application of bee collected pollen in their feeding. We used well plate agar diffusion method for antimicrobial testing of bee pollen extract and disc diffusion method for antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria by EUCAST. Identification of bacteria was done by test kit Enterotest 24. We identified tree bacterial strains: E. coli, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca. We determined that K. oxytoca was resistant to ampicillin only and others identified strain were sensitive to used antibiotics. Also we determined antimicrobial effect of bee pollen extract to all tested strains of Enterobacteriaceae genera which were isolated from intestinal tract of chicken after application of bee collected pollen extract in their feeding. From obtained results we could be conclude that bacteria isolated from chicken after application of bee pollen extract had more resistance to bee collected pollen extract in in vitro experiment as E. coli CCM 3988, which did not be in contact with bee pollen extract.

  19. Immunochemical characterization of acacia pollen allergens and evaluation of cross-reactivity pattern with the common allergenic pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  20. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hosein Shamsbiranvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora.

  1. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  2. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  3. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen. PMID:26476556

  4. Mise en suspension du pollen par les abeilles et incidence de ce pollen sur la fécondation

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre, Justine; Vaissière, Bernard; Vallée, Patrick; RENARD, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Le transfert indirect du pollen par les abeilles, qui résulterait de la mise en suspension du pollen dans l'air sans contact avec les surfaces stigmatiques, a été suggéré plusieurs fois dans la littérature, mais jamais démontré. On sait que le pollen de colza n'est pas pulvérulent et est a priori peu adapté au transport aérien. Notre objectif était donc de savoir si les abeilles participent à la mise en suspension de ce pollen et si le pollen ainsi libéré contribue à la pollinisation. L'expér...

  5. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  6. Modest Pollen Limitation of Lifetime Seed Production Is in Good Agreement with Modest Uncertainty in Whole-Plant Pollen Receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Williams, Neal M; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Rapp, Joshua M

    2016-03-01

    We recently introduced a model that predicts the degree to which a plant's lifetime seed production may be constrained by unpredictable shortfalls of pollen receipt ("pollen limitation"). Burd's comment in this issue criticized our analysis, first by arguing that the empirical literature documents much higher levels of pollen limitation than our model predicts and then suggesting that the apparent discrepancy stemmed from our (1) underestimating the costs of securing a fertilized ovule and (2) assuming too little unpredictability in whole-plant pollen receipt. We reply as follows. First, the empirical literature must be consulted carefully. Burd relies on pollen supplementation experiments performed on parts of plants or on whole plants but during only one reproductive season for polycarpic perennials; in both cases, resource reallocation often leads to gross overestimates of pollen limitation. We comprehensively review pollen limitation estimates that are free of these estimation problems and find strong agreement with our model predictions. Second, although cost estimates for different components of seed production are imprecise, errors are likely to be small relative to the >1,000-fold differences observed across plant species, the primary focus of our article. Finally, contrary to Burd's argument, pollen receipt by entire plants is much more predictable than that by individual flowers because the flower-to-flower variation "averages out" when summed across many flowers. Our model uses parameter values that are in broad agreement with the empirical record of modest plant-to-plant variation in pollen receipt and thus predicts the generally modest pollen limitation that is observed in nature. PMID:26913951

  7. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed. PMID:26342266

  8. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  9. Responses of two birch ( Betula pendula Roth) clones to different ozone profiles with similar AOT40 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Toini

    Saplings of two clones of European white birch ( Betula pendula Roth) were exposed to three different ozone profiles resulting in same AOT40 value of 13-14 ppm h in a chamber experiment. The sensitive clone 5 and the more tolerant clone 2 were growing (1) under filtered air (=control), or (2) were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 24 h d -1 (=profile 1), (3) to 100 ppb ozone for 12 h d -1 at 8:00-20:00 (=profile 2), or (4) to 200 ppb ozone for 4.5 h d -1 at 9:30-14:00 (=profile 3) for 20 d. The saplings were determined for growth, visible leaf injuries, stomatal conductance, and concentrations of Rubisco, chlorophyll and carotenoids. Growth responses and induction of visible foliar injuries under different ozone profiles were variable, resulting in 4-17% lower dry mass of shoot, 16-46% reduction in stem height increment and 11-43% increase in visible injuries in clone 5, which was accompanied by higher leaf turnover rate under profile 3 indicating compensation growth. In clone 2, ozone-induced responses ranged from slight stimulation in stem height growth to 13% decrease in dry mass of shoot and 2-16% increase in visible injuries. Daytime stomatal conductance rates were lowered by 14-54% in clone 5 and 9-74% in clone 2, depending on profile. The additional power-weighted analyses revealed that high peak concentrations and exposure shape were important for induction of visible injuries in both clones and reduction in stomatal conductance in clone 5, whereas growth reductions were rather related to total cumulative exposure. The results indicate that profile of ozone exposure, night-time stomatal conductance (24 h flux), and recovery time for defence and compensations reactions should not be ignored in plant response and ozone flux modelling.

  10. South African Airborne Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne operations entail the delivery of ground troops and their equipment by air to their area of operations. They can also include the subsequent support of these troops and their equipment by air. Historically, and by definition, this would encompass delivery by fixed-wing powered aircraft, by glider, by parachute or by helicopter. Almost any troops can be delivered by most of these means. However, the technical expertise and physical as well as psychological demands required by parachuting have resulted in specialist troops being selected and trained for this role. Some of the material advantages of using parachute troops, or paratroops, are: the enormous strategic reach provided by the long-distance transport aircraft used to convey them; the considerable payload which these aircraft are capable of carrying; the speed with which the parachute force can deploy; and the fact that no infrastructure such as airfields are required for their arrival. Perhaps most attractively to cash-strapped governments, the light equipment scales of parachute units’ makes them economical to establish and maintain. There are also less tangible advantages: the soldiers selected are invariably volunteers with a willingness or even desire to tackle challenges; their selection and training produces tough, confident and aggressive troops, psychologically geared to face superior odds and to function independently from other units; and their initiative and self-reliance combined with a high level of physical fitness makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles.

  11. In vitro Manipulation of Impatiens glandulifera Pollen for Transporting Extracellular Substances to the Embryo Sac

    OpenAIRE

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from Impatiens glandulifera were manipulated in vitro to investigate the possibility of using them as a vector for transporting extracellular substances to the site of gamete fusion in the embryo sac. Manipulation of plant male and female gametophytes included studies on pollen culture in vitro, pollen viability and developmental state and loading of fluorescent probes by plasmolysis/endocytosis via germinating pollen.

  12. Cytological effect of γ-radiation on vicia faba pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the radiation cytological effect on pollen grain function, fresh pollen samples shed from Vicia faba were exposed to 60Co γ-ray in doses ranging from 0 to 837 Gy, and immediately permitted to germinate in vitro. It was shown that with increasing dose of γ-irradiation, both the rate of pollen germination and the rate of sperm nucleus that migrating into pollen tube were reduced, concurrently, the rate of aberrant nuclei was elevated. Cytological examination showed that formation of the nuclei and organella in the pollen tube appeared to be normal by irradiation of 93 Gy, while with γ-radiation of 279 Gy and up subcellular structure of the germinating pollen cells exhibited various degrees of distortion: mitochondria and immature plastids vacuolated, nuclear membrane disrupted, sperm nucleus fractured, occasionally, and photo-chemo-ferritin accumulated in the immature plastids. With the doses of above 465 Gy, multi-vesicular bodies presented in the pollen tube, suggesting that 465 Gy could be marked as the semi-lethal dose

  13. Microwave-Assisted Drying for the Conservation of Honeybee Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Canale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is becoming an important product thanks to its nutritional properties, including a high content of bioactive compounds such as essential amino acids, antioxidants, and vitamins. Fresh bee pollen has a high water content (15%–30% wt %, thus it is a good substrate for microorganisms. Traditional conservation methods include drying in a hot air chamber and/or freezing. These techniques may significantly affect the pollen organoleptic properties and its content of bioactive compounds. Here, a new conservation method, microwave drying, is introduced and investigated. The method implies irradiating the fresh pollen with microwaves under vacuum, in order to reduce the water content without reaching temperatures capable of thermally deteriorating important bioactive compounds. The method was evaluated by taking into account the nutritional properties after the treatment. The analyzed parameters were phenols, flavonoids, with special reference to rutin content, and amino acids. Results showed that microwave drying offers important advantages for the conservation of bee pollen. Irrespective of microwave power and treatment time, phenol and flavonoid content did not vary over untreated fresh pollen. Similarly, rutin content was unaffected by the microwave drying, suggesting that the microwave-assisted drying could be a powerful technology to preserve bioprotective compounds in fresh pollen.

  14. On the Relationship between Pollen Size and Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Knight

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we test whether genome size is a predictor of pollen size. If it were, inferences of ancient genome size would be possible using the abundant paleo-palynolgical record. We performed regression analyses across 464 species of pollen width and genome size. We found a significant positive trend. However, regression analysis using phylogentically independent contrasts did not support the correlated evolution of these traits. Instead, a large split between angiosperms and gymnosperms for both pollen width and genome size was revealed. Sister taxa were not more likely to show a positive contrast when compared to deeper nodes. However, significantly more congeneric species had a positive trend than expected by chance. These results may reflect the strong selection pressure for pollen to be small. Also, because pollen grains are not metabolically active when measured, their biology is different than other cells which have been shown to be strongly related to genome size, such as guard cells. Our findings contrast with previously published research. It was our hope that pollen size could be used as a proxy for inferring the genome size of ancient species. However, our results suggest pollen is not a good candidate for such endeavors.

  15. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The highest pollen viability was obtained in C. annuum var. abbreviatum (96.3%, followed by C. annuum var. grossum (95%, and C. annuum var. acuminatum (91.1%. The lowest pollen viability was recorded in C. frutescens var. baccatum (86.2%. The pollen viability was high in most varieties indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. Several intraspecific and interspecific crosses were performed among the Capsicum genotypes and three putative hybrid fruits were produced. Percentage successes obtained in the crosses were low and comparable in both intra and inter-specific crosses. In the entire crosses pattern, pollination success of 10% was recorded for C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum. Knowing the nature and viability of pollen grains may help in predicting the success rate of hybridization and the successful crosses between C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum suggest that these two varieties are the closest genetically.

  16. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  17. Aerobyologic monitoring in urban and extra urban areas : analysis of airborne fungal particle concentration; Indagini aerobiologiche in ambiente urbano ed extraurbano componente fungina aerodiffusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, A. [ENEA, Saluggia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia; Caramiello, R.; Fossa, V.; Potenza, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy), Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

    1995-12-01

    In the environmental monitoring studies carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) a research about air quality of Turin and Saluggia (VC) has started in collaboration with the University of Turin. This research concerns the study of pollen and airborne fungal particle concentrations in the atmosphere. In the last few years the interest in airborne spores and hyphal fragments has increased. Indeed these particles play a very important role in allergic reactions, in several other human diseases, and in plant pathology. The incidence and the risk of infections by airborne fungal spores are correlated to the general climate and to the local micro climatic conditions; a complete aerosporological knowledge can be in many cases a useful indicator for infection risks. In this study the concentrations of airborne fungal spores in two different stations (urban station, Turin; and rural station, Saluggia (VC)) has been evaluated and compared, only for the year 1992, in order to verify the influence of climatic conditions and of floristic and vegetational aspects. In order to establish the correlations between the climate and the airborne fungal data, the results of aerosporogical analysis, relative to the Turin station, are reported. This investigation cover a six year period, three of which under standard climatic conditions and three with considerable peculiarities. A comparative evaluation of the efficiency in the collection of aerobiological particles (pollen and spores) by natural traps (mosses) has been attempted in Saluggia. The results obtained by this palinological analysis have been compared with the composition of the local flora and the data monitored by a spore-trap (volumetric pollen trap) positioned on the roof of a building in the ENEA Research Center of Saluggia.

  18. Pollen deposition in tauber traps and surface soil samples in the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon area, pampa grasslands (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Latorre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of airborne pollen loadings deposited in Tauber traps were studied in a coastal lagoon from south-eastern Pampa grasslands, Argentina, in order to assess their relationship with surface samples and to interpret the representativeness of local, regional and extraregional vegetation. Three different environments were considered: a coastal dune barrier with a psammophytic community, a salt marsh with a halophytic community in Mar Chiquita lagoon, and a freshwater community at Hinojales freshwater lake. Based on a record of surface samples taken from a previous paper, a parametric model was built to classify Tauber samples gathered from the natural vegetation communities of the study area. Results revealed that just like their surface counterparts, Tauber trap records qualitatively reflect the predominant vegetation types, although ecological groups feature different quantitative representations depending on the record type. Pollen loadings showed that airborne pollen transport was predominantly of local range, in accordance with previous results from the same study area. Airborne - surface samples relationships enrich our knowledge of the present environment that could be useful to improve paleoecological interpretations of the area.Se estimó el depósito polínico atmosférico de trampas Tauber en una laguna costera del sudeste de la estepa pampeana argentina, con el objetivo de analizar su relación con muestras de polen superficial e interpretar la representatividad de la vegetación local, regional y extraregional. Se consideraron tres ambientes diferentes: una barrera costera de dunas con vegetación psamofítica, la marisma de la laguna costera Mar Chiquita, con vegetación halofítica, y la laguna continental Hinojales, con vegetación hidrofítica. En base a las muestras de superficie y análisis de un trabajo previo, se construyó un modelo paramétrico para clasificar las muestras Tauber tomadas en la vegetación natural del

  19. Influence of Pollen Nutrition on Honey Bee Health: Do Pollen Quality and Diversity Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Di pasquale, Garance; Salignon, Marion; Le Conte, Yves; Belzunces, Luc; Decourtye, Axel; Kretzschmar, Andre; Suchail, Séverine; Brunet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen) necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pol...

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of plywood produced with 1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU)-modified veneers of Betula sp. and Fagus sylvatica

    OpenAIRE

    Dieste, Andrés; Krause, Andreas; Bollmus, Susanne; Militz, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The dimensional stability and some mechanical properties were tested in plywood produced with veneers modified with 1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU). The experimental design included Betula sp. and Fagus sylvatica impregnated with 0.8 M, 1.3 M, and 2.3 M DMDHEU. The plywood consisted of five veneers glued with a phenolic resin. Dimensional stability tests were conducted after 10 cycles of soaking/oven-drying to determine volume changes and anti swelling efficiency (ASE). The ...

  1. Aluminum uptake and migration from the soil compartment into Betula pendula for two different environments: a polluted and environmentally protected area of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of soil contamination on aluminum (Al) concentrations in plant parts of Betula pendula and a possible way of migration and transformation of Al in the soil-root-stem-twig-leaf system. A new procedure of Al fractionation based on extraction in water phase was applied to obtain and measure the most available forms of Al in soils and B. pendula samples. In addition, total Al content was determined in biological samples and pseudo total Al content in soil samples co...

  2. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-ai; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specif...

  3. Pollen Morphology of some Carnivorous plants from Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Bhowmik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphological structure of two carnivorous plant family covering four species of Tripura, India namely Drosera burmannii Vahl (Droseraceae Utricularia bifida Linnaeus, Utricularia ceruleaea Linnaeus and Utricularia gibba Linnaeus (Lentibulariaceae have been studied under Scanning Electron Microscope for the first time. Pollen grains of the studied four taxa varied widely among them and could be used for segregating both at generic as well as species level. Pollens of Droseraceae shed in tetrahedral tetrad condition while those of Lentibulariaceae are in monad. The exine sculpture in Droseraceae is spinulose while in Lentibulariaceae it is psilate to faintly gemmate

  4. Patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation in flowers of the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceo-Gómez, G; Alonso, C; Abdala-Roberts, L; Parra-Tabla, V

    2016-07-01

    Pollen deposition and pollen tube formation are key components of angiosperm reproduction but intraspecific variation in these has rarely been quantified. Documenting and partitioning (populations, plants and flowers) natural variation in these two aspects of plant reproduction can help uncover spatial mosaics of reproductive success and underlying causes. In this study, we assess variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation for the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae throughout its distribution range in Mexico, and determine how this variation is structured among populations, plants and flowers. We also infer the relative importance of pollen quantity and quality in determining pollination success in this species. While we found no evidence suggesting that pollen receipt limits C. souzae reproduction across 19 populations, we did find extensive variation in pollen load size and pollen tube number per flower. Total variation in pollen receipt and pollen tube number was mostly explained by intra-individual and among-population variance. Furthermore, pollen load size had a stronger effect on the number of pollen tubes at the base of the style than pollen germination rate, suggesting that pollen quantity may be more important than quality for pollen tube success in C. souzae. Our results suggest that both small within-plant flower differences and broad-scale differences in community attributes can play an important role in determining pollination success. We emphasise the need to evaluate patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation as a first step in understanding the causes of variation in pollination success over broad spatial scales. PMID:26916543

  5. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT. PMID:26973122

  6. Floral syndrome and secondary pollen presentation in Codonopsis clem-atidea (Campanulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Li Wang; Dunyan Tan

    2011-01-01

    Secondary pollen presentation has been described as a reproductive strategy that enhances the ef-ficiency and accuracy of pollen exportation and pollen reception, thereby promoting outcrossing. Codonopsis clematidea is characterized by secondary pollen presentation. The objective of this research is to study the floral syndrome and the procedure of secondary pollen presentation of this species, with special reference to the adaptive significance of these features based on the field observatio...

  7. Fullerene fine particles adhere to pollen grains and affect their autofluorescence and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Hideki; Ugwu, Charles U

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion of commercially produced fullerene fine particles to Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Camellia japonica pollen grains was investigated. The autofluorescence of pollen grains was affected by the adhesion of fullerene fine particles to the pollen grains. The degree of adhesion of fullerene fine particles to the pollen grains varied depending on the type of fullerene. Furthermore, germination of Camellia japonica pollen grains was inhibited by the adhesion of fullerene fine particles. PMID:24198486

  8. Quality of honeybee drones reared in colonies with limited and unlimited access to pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Czekońska, Krystyna; Chuda-Mickiewicz, Bożena; Samborski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    International audience Older larvae of honeybee drones are fed with a diet containing pollen. It is not known how pollen deprivation during the larval development of drones might affect their reproductive quality. This study investigated ejaculation ability and semen quality in drones reared in colonies with limited (LP) and unlimited (ULP) access to pollen. Access to pollen was limited by pollen traps. Drone brood rearing was not instantly abandoned in colonies with limited access to poll...

  9. Poaceae Pollen Concentrations in the Atmosphere of Three Inland Croatian Sites (2003–2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Hercog, Predrag; Čulig, Josip

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the length of Poaceae pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentration, at three monitoring sites in inland Croatia during the 2003–2004 period. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. At all three monitoring sites considerably higher precipitation and lower average temperature in 2004 led to a marked decrease in...

  10. An analysis of grass (Poaceae) pollen seasons in Lublin in 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2012-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are a frequent cause of pollen allergy in Poland and other European countries. The research on aeroplankton conducted in Lublin since 2001 allows characterization of the course of grass pollen seasons and estimation of the effect of maximum and minimum temperatures, relative air humidity, precipitation and maximum wind velocity on the taxon's pollen concentration. The gravimetric method was used in the study. During the eight-year research period, the pollen season usua...

  11. Pollen morphology of European bladderworts (Utricularia L., Lentibulariaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beretta, M.; Rodondi, G.; Adamec, Lubomír; Andreis, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 1 (2014), s. 22-30. ISSN 0034-6667 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Utricularia * pollen morphology * determination key Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2014

  12. A reference map of the Arabidopsis thaliana mature pollen proteome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The male gametophyte (or pollen) plays an obligatory role during sexual reproduction of higher plants. The extremely reduced complexity of this organ renders pollen a valuable experimental system for studying fundamental aspects of plant biology such as cell fate determination, cell-cell interactions, cell polarity, and tip-growth. Here, we present the first reference map of the mature pollen proteome of the dicotyledonous model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight, and electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we reproducibly identified 121 different proteins in 145 individual spots. The presence, subcellular localization, and functional classification of the identified proteins are discussed in relation to the pollen transcriptome and the full protein complement encoded by the nuclear Arabidopsis genome

  13. Pollen analyses of Pleistocene hyaena coprolites from Montenegro and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argant Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pollen analyses of hyaena coprolites from the Early Pleistocene cave of Trlica in northern Montenegro and the Late Pleistocene cave of Baranica in southeast Serbia are described. The Early Pleistocene Pachycrocuta brevirostris, and the Late Pleistocene Crocuta spelaea are coprolite-producing species. Although the pollen concentration was rather low, the presented analyses add considerably to the much-needed knowledge of the vegetation of the central Balkans during the Pleistocene. Pollen extracted from a coprolite from the Baranica cave indicates an open landscape with the presence of steppe taxa, which is in accordance with the recorded conditions and faunal remains. Pollen analysis of the Early Pleistocene samples from Trlica indicate fresh and temperate humid climatic conditions, as well as the co-existence of several biotopes which formed a mosaic landscape in the vicinity of the cave.

  14. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen...... (SLIT), and 8 (placebo) patients after treatment compared to 10, 4, and 10 patients, respectively, before SIT. The symptom scores to apple during challenges decreased in all groups, but only significantly in the placebo group (p = 0.03). As evaluated by the questionnaire, the severity of food allergy in......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...

  15. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To utilize and exploit pollen for in situ mutagen monitoring, screening and toxicology, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. To be useful for the development of mutagen detection systems proteins should be: (1) activity stainable or immunologically identifiable in the pollen, (2) the products of one to three loci; and (3) gametophytic and nuclear in origin. Several proteins, including alcohol dehydrogenase in maize, which meet these criteria are discussed. The waxy locus in barley and maize which controls starch deposition for pollen screening and mutant detection. Thirty waxy mutant lines, induced by sodium azide and gamma-rays are characterized for spontaneous and induced reversion frequencies, allelism, karyotype, amylose content, and UDPglucose glucosyltransferase (waxy gene product) activity. Twelve mutant alleles are being mapped by recombinant frequencies

  16. Lab-on-a-chip for studying growing pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Carlos G; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A major limitation in the study of pollen tube growth has been the difficulty in providing an in vitro testing microenvironment that physically resembles the in vivo conditions. Here we describe the development of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) for the manipulation and experimental testing of individual pollen tubes. The design was specifically tailored to pollen tubes from Camellia japonica, but it can be easily adapted for any other species. The platform is fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a silicon/SU-8 mold and makes use of microfluidics to distribute pollen grains to serially arranged microchannels. The tubes are guided into these channels where they can be tested individually. The microfluidic platform allows for specific testing of a variety of growth behavioral features as demonstrated with a simple mechanical obstacle test, and it permits the straightforward integration of further single-cell test assays. PMID:24132434

  17. Specialist pollinators deplete pollen in the spring ephemeral wildflower Claytonia virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison J; Williams, Neal M; Thomson, James D

    2016-08-01

    Pollinators that collect pollen - and specifically, pollen-specialist bees - are often considered to be the best pollinators of a (host) plant. Although pollen collectors and pollen specialists often benefit host plants, especially in the pollen that they deliver (their pollination "effectiveness"), they can also exact substantial costs because they are motivated to collect as much pollen as possible, reducing the proportion of pollen removed that is subsequently delivered to stigmas (their pollination "efficiency"). From the plant perspective, pollen grains that do not pollinate conspecific stigmas are "wasted", and potentially costly. We measured costs and benefits of nectar-collecting, pollen-collecting, and pollen-specialist pollinator visitation to the spring ephemeral Claytonia virginica. Visits by the pollen-specialist bee Andrena erigeniae depleted pollen quickly and thoroughly. Although all pollinators delivered roughly the same number of grains, the pollen specialist contributed most to C. virginica pollen delivery because of high visitation rates. However, the pollen specialist also removed a large number of grains; this removal may be especially costly because it resulted in the depletion of pollen grains in C. virginica populations. While C. virginica appears to rely on pollen transfer by the pollen specialist in these populations, nectar-collecting visitors could provide the same benefit at a lower cost if their visitation rates increased. Pollen depletion affects a pollinator's value to plants, but is frequently overlooked. If they lower the effectiveness of future floral visitors, visits by A. erigeniae females to C. virginica may be more detrimental than beneficial compared to other pollinators and may, in some circumstances, reduce plant fitness rather than increase it. Therefore, A. erigeniae and C. virginica may vary in their degree of mutualism depending on the ecological context. PMID:27551374

  18. Individual lifetime pollen and nectar foraging preferences in bumble bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbery, Jessica; Nieh, James C.

    2012-10-01

    Foraging specialization plays an important role in the ability of social insects to efficiently allocate labor. However, relatively little is known about the degree to which individual bumble bees specialize on collecting nectar or pollen, when such preferences manifest, and if individuals can alter their foraging preferences in response to changes in the colony workforce. Using Bombus impatiens, we monitored all foraging visits made by every bee in multiple colonies and showed that individual foragers exhibit consistent lifetime foraging preferences. Based upon the distribution of foraging preferences, we defined three forager types (pollen specialists, nectar specialists, and generalists). In unmanipulated colonies, 16-36 % of individuals specialized (≥90 % of visits) on nectar or pollen only. On its first day of foraging, an individual's foraging choices (nectar only, pollen only, or nectar and pollen) significantly predicted its lifetime foraging preferences. Foragers that only collected pollen on their first day of foraging made 1.61- to 1.67-fold more lifetime pollen foraging visits (as a proportion of total trips) than foragers that only collected nectar on their first foraging day. Foragers were significantly larger than bees that stayed only in the nest. We also determined the effect of removing pollen specialists at early (brood present) or later (brood absent) stages in colony life. These results suggest that generalists can alter their foraging preferences in response to the loss of a small subset of foragers. Thus, bumble bees exhibit individual lifetime foraging preferences that are established early in life, but generalists may be able to adapt to colony needs.

  19. Pollen morphology and infrageneric classification of Alstroemeria L. (Alstroemeriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, Abul Khayer Mohammad Golam; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Araki, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 53 taxa of the South American genus Alstroemeria was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM, respectively), or SEM alone, in search of new characters that might contribute to infrageneric classification of the genus. The Alstroemeria species are stenopalynous and characterised by monosulcate and large monads with striate-reticulate exine sculpture. Pollen with auriculae-like structures at each end of the sulcus is reported for the first time in ...

  20. A DNA Barcoding Approach to Characterize Pollen Collected by Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Galimberti; Fabrizio De Mattia; Ilaria Bruni; Daniela Scaccabarozzi; Anna Sandionigi; Michela Barbuto; Maurizio Casiraghi; Massimo Labra

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The datab...

  1. Pollen Morphology of some Cultivated Varieties of Strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, M. I. A. [محمد اسماعيل ابراهيم; Ibrahim, Atef; El-Naggar, Assem

    1999-01-01

    Pollen grains of twelve cultivated varieties of strawberries grown in Egypt were morphologically studied using both light microscopy and SEM observations. These varieties include eleven cultivars of Fragaria x ananassa (c.v: Capitola, Douglas, Chandler, Selva, Fern, Seascape, Dorite, Pajaro, Parker, Sequioa, Oso Grande) and one cultivar of Fragaria vesca. Pollen grains of Fragaria are spheroidal, subprolate ellipsoidal to triangular in outline. Tricolporate with long colpae tapering to pointe...

  2. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Walnut Pollen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina COSMULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of pollen is highly varied depending on the plant species from which it comes and has been the subject of numerous comparative studies. The aim of this study was to determine chemical composition and antioxidant activity of walnut pollen samples and compare them with those of bee pollen. Total phenols content, total flavonoids content, antioxidant activity and mineral composition were studied using walnut pollen samples from three walnut genotypes cultivated in Romania. Total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount varied between 10.8 and 17.64 mgGAE/g per genotype. Determination of flavonoids was done by aluminium nitrate colorimetric method and total flavonoid contents in walnut pollen ranged from 7.32 to 7.95 mgQE/g. The antioxidant capacity of pollen extracts was assessed through the scavenging effects on DPPH and a concentration-dependent genotype, and it varied between 13.78 and 15.04 mg Trolox/g. In terms of mineral composition, walnut pollen appears to be a good source of potassium (859.14 mg/100 g, magnesium (263.77 mg/100 g, calcium (71.72 mg/100 g, iron (27.19 mg/100 g, sodium (10.52 mg/100 g, zinc (5.69 mg/100 g, manganese (3.98 mg/100 g, copper (1.28 mg/100 g, chromium (0.39 mg/100 g and selenium (0.036 mg/100 g. The results obtained indicate that walnut pollen is an important source of total phenols showing antioxidant properties and mineral composition that could be beneficial to human health.

  3. Ultrastructural features of Mimulus aurantiacus (Scrophulariaceae) pollen tubes in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Nuran Ekici; Feruzan Dane; Göksel Olgun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give information on ultrastructure of in vivo pollen tubes of Mimulus aurantiacus which were collected from the Botanical Garden of the University of California at Berkeley. Materials were prepared according to electron microscopy methods and examined under Zeiss electron microscope. Four zones were examined in the pollen tubes of Mimulus aurantiacus. APICAL ZONE: Mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes and secretory ves...

  4. Glutathione synthesis is essential for pollen germination in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Koffler Barbara E; Zechmann Bernd; Russell Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The antioxidant glutathione fulfills many important roles during plant development, growth and defense in the sporophyte, however the role of this important molecule in the gametophyte generation is largely unclear. Bioinformatic data indicate that critical control enzymes are negligibly transcribed in pollen and sperm cells. Therefore, we decided to investigate the role of glutathione synthesis for pollen germination in vitro in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 and in...

  5. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI; Joseph Akintade MORAKINYO

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The hi...

  6. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation

    OpenAIRE

    WesleyTobyFraser; BarryHarveyLomax; PhillipEJardine; MarkASephton

    2014-01-01

    Sporopollenin is the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is responsive to levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of using fossil pollen and spore chemistry as a novel proxy for past UV flux. Phenolic compounds in sporopollenin can be quantified using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The high potential for...

  7. Characterizing aeroallergens by infrared spectroscopy of fungal spores and pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Boris; Tkalčec, Zdenko; Mešić, Armin; Kohler, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal spores and plant pollen cause respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aeroallergen monitoring networks are an important part of treatment strategies, but unfortunately traditional analysis is time consuming and expensive. We have explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen and spores for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of aeroallergens. Methodology The study is based on measurement...

  8. Pollen-Ovule Ratio and Gamete Investment in Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Feng Yang; You-Hao Guo

    2007-01-01

    The Pedicularis species provides ideal materials to study floral evolution because of their substantial flower variation based on a narrow genetic basis, even though they are almost exclusively pollinated by bumblebee.These traits allow us to detect the evolutionary trends of floral parameters without considering genetic background and the difference of pollination vectors. The pollen-ovule ratio is widely used to estimate the pattern of resource investment in two sexual functions in flowering plants. Forty species representing all of the corolla types in Pedicularis were used to study pollen-ovule ratio, gamete investment, and their correlations. Results show that pollen-ovule ratio does not differ among both different corolla types and taxonomic groups. It is therefore suggested that pollen-ovule ratio should be a parallel evolution. The correlations between pollen-ovule ratio and pollen size (-), and ovule size (+) can be successfully explained in terms of sex allocation theory. The biological significance of such relationships was also discussed. Additionally, we analyzed the pattern of resource investment into female gamete, which has been somewhat neglected, and found that plants have different patterns of gamete investment between the two sexual functions.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by Amazonian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemilla Sarmento Rebelo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by the Amazonian stingless bees Melipona seminigra and Melipona interrupta , in order to verify whether their characteristics meet the physicochemical requirements established by the Brazilian Technical Regulation for Identity and Quality of Bee Pollen. Physicochemical analyses were performed through official analytical methods. Results of pollen analyses collected by M. seminigra and M. interrupta were respectively as follows: moisture: 53.39 and 37.12%; protein: 37.63 and 24.00%; lipids: 10.81 and 6.47%; ash: 4.03 and 2.74%; crude fiber: 9.30 and 13.65%; carbohydrates: 25.66 and 44.27%; energy: 350.47 and 331.33kcal%; pH: 3.70 and 3.34; total solids: 46.60 and 62.87%, and water activity: 0.91 and 0.85. The percentages of moisture and pH in pollen collected by both studied bees are not in agreement with the Technical Regulation for bee pollen. Since some characteristics, which are inherent to the Melipona pollen, were not in conform to the current Regulation, we recommend that further studies should be conducted to better characterize it, and correct the Regulation, if necessary.

  10. Temperature sensitivity of a numerical pollen forecast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Meran, Ingrid; Szabo, Barbara; Gallaun, Heinz; Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis has become a global health problem especially affecting children and adolescence. Timely and reliable warning before an increase of the atmospheric pollen concentration means a substantial support for physicians and allergy suffers. Recently developed numerical pollen forecast models have become means to support the pollen forecast service, which however still require refinement. One of the problem areas concerns the correct timing of the beginning and end of the flowering period of the species under consideration, which is identical with the period of possible pollen emission. Both are governed essentially by the temperature accumulated before the entry of flowering and during flowering. Phenological models are sensitive to a bias of the temperature. A mean bias of -1°C of the input temperature can shift the entry date of a phenological phase for about a week into the future. A bias of such an order of magnitude is still possible in case of numerical weather forecast models. If the assimilation of additional temperature information (e.g. ground measurements as well as satellite-retrieved air / surface temperature fields) is able to reduce such systematic temperature deviations, the precision of the timing of phenological entry dates might be enhanced. With a number of sensitivity experiments the effect of a possible temperature bias on the modelled phenology and the pollen concentration in the atmosphere is determined. The actual bias of the ECMWF IFS 2 m temperature will also be calculated and its effect on the numerical pollen forecast procedure presented.

  11. Comparative pollen morphology of Glechoma and Marmoritis(Nepetinae,Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Soo JANG; Suk-Pyo HONG

    2010-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 13 taxa(34 specimens)of the genera Glechoma L.,and Marmoritis Benth.was investigated in detail using light,scanning electron,and transmission electron microscopy.Pollen grains of all studied taxa are small to large in size(P = 32.5-60.4μm,E = 20.2-50.5μm),prolate-spheroidal to prolate in shape and mostly hexacolpate(the amb more or less circular or rarely ellipsoid)with granular membranes.The sexine ornamentation of Glechoma is bireticulate; the muri of the primary reticulum are irregularly circled,and lumen size is short.In contrast,the sexine surfaces of the Marmoritis pollen tend to more elongate or wider at the muri of the primary reticulum than those of the Glechoma.The pollen wall stratification of selected taxa(three from Glechoma and one from Marmoritis)is characterized by unbranched columellae,and continuous or distinctly discontinuous endexine based on transmission electron microscopy observation.The results of Glechoma and Marmoritis reveal rather similar pollen morphological features,however,fine details of sexine ornamentation are characteristic to differentiate the pollen taxa.Although these differences may be useful in establishing the taxonomic boundary between two genera,they are too weak to segregate diagnostic characters.

  12. Impact of cytomixis on meiosis, pollen viability and pollen size in wild populations of Himalayan poppy (Meconopsis aculeata Royle)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Singhal; Puneet Kumar

    2008-09-01

    We report the occurrence of cytomixis in wild populations of Himalayan poppy (Meconopsis aculeata Royle), which is considered to be an important and threatened medicinal plant growing in the high hills of the Himalayas. The impact of cytomixis on meiotic behaviour, reduced pollen viability and heterogeneous-sized pollen grains was also studied. Cytological studies in the seven wild populations from the high hills of Himachal Pradesh revealed that all the Himalayan populations exist uniformly at the tetraploid level (2n=56) on x=14. The phenomenon of chromatin transfer among the proximate pollen mother cells (PMCs) in six populations caused various meiotic abnormalities. Chromatin transfer also resulted in the formation of coenocytes, aneuploid, polyploid and anucleated PMCs. Among individuals that showed chromatin transfer, chromosome stickiness and interbivalent connections were frequently observed in some PMCs. The phenomenon of cytomixis in the species seems to be directly under genetic control; it affects the meiotic course considerably and results in reduced pollen viability.

  13. A Taxonomic Reduced-Space Pollen Model for Paleoclimate Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, E. R.; Schoelzel, C.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoenvironmental reconstruction from fossil pollen often attempts to take advantage of the rich taxonomic diversity in such data. Here, a taxonomically "reduced-space" reconstruction model is explored that would be parsimonious in introducing parameters needing to be estimated within a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling context. This work involves a refinement of the traditional pollen ratio method. This method is useful when one (or a few) dominant pollen type(s) in a region have a strong positive correlation with a climate variable of interest and another (or a few) dominant pollen type(s) have a strong negative correlation. When, e.g., counts of pollen taxa a and b (r >0) are combined with pollen types c and d (r binomial logistic generalized linear model (GLM). The GLM can readily model this relationship in the forward form, pollen = g(climate), which is more physically realistic than inverse models often used in paleoclimate reconstruction [climate = f(pollen)]. The specification of the model is: rnum Bin(n,p), where E(r|T) = p = exp(η)/[1+exp(η)], and η = α + β(T); r is the pollen ratio formed as above, rnum is the ratio numerator, n is the ratio denominator (i.e., the sum of pollen counts), the denominator-specific count is (n - rnum), and T is the temperature at each site corresponding to a specific value of r. Ecological and empirical screening identified the model (Spruce+Birch) / (Spruce+Birch+Oak+Hickory) for use in temperate eastern N. America. α and β were estimated using both "traditional" and Bayesian GLM algorithms (in R). Although it includes only four pollen types, the ratio model yields more explained variation ( 80%) in the pollen-temperature relationship of the study region than a 64-taxon modern analog technique (MAT). Thus, the new pollen ratio method represents an information-rich, reduced space data model that can be efficiently employed in a BHM framework. The ratio model can directly reconstruct past temperature by solving the GLM

  14. Screening for High-Temperature Tolerant Cotton Cultivars by Testing In Vitro Pollen Germination, Pollen Tube Growth and Boll Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Liu; You-Lu Yuan; Shao-Qing Liu; Xiao-Nan Yu; Li-Qun Rao

    2006-01-01

    With radical global climate change and global warming, high temperature stress has become one of major factors exerting a major influence on crop production. In the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-growing areas of China, especially in the Yangtze River valley, unexpected periodic episodes of extreme heat stress usually occur in July and August, the peak time of cotton flowering and boll loading, resulting in lower boll set and lint yield. Breeding programs for screening high temperature-tolerant cotton germplasm and cultivars are urgent in order to stabilize yield in the current and future warmer weather conditions. In the present study, 14 cotton cultivars were quantified for in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth in response to temperatures ranging from 10 to 50 ℃ at 5 ℃ intervals. Different cotton genotypes varied in their in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube length responses to the different temperatures. Maximum pollen germination and pollen tube length ranged from 25.2% to 56.2% and from 414 to 682 μm, respectively.The average cardinal temperatures (Tmin, Topt, and Tmax) also varied among the 14 cultivars and were 11.8,27.3, and 42.7 ℃ for pollen germination and 11.8, 27.8, and 44.1 ℃ for maximum pollen tube length. Variations in boll retention and boll numbers per plant in field experiments were found for the 14 cotton cultivars and the boll retention and boll retained per plant on 20 August varied considerably in different years according to weather conditions. Boll retention on 20 August was highly correlated with maximum pollen germination (R2=0.84) and pollen tube length (R2=0.64). A screening method based on principle component analysis of the combination of pollen characteristics in an in vitro experiment and boll retention testing in the field environment was used in the present study and, as a result, the 14 cotton cultivars could be classified as tolerant, moderately tolerant, moderately susceptible and susceptible to high

  15. Viable suspensions of maize (Zea mays L.) pollen with exogenous DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broglia, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-12-01

    A viable suspension of maize pollen in aqueous medium containing exogenous DNA would be a suitable tool in attempting maize genetic transformation via pollen grains by different techniques. In this work the effects of addition of DNA to hypertonic aqueous media able to preserve maize pollen viability were investigated. An almost total loss of viability was found when pollen was incubated with native DNA in water or sucrose medium due to the immediate sticking of DNA on the pollen wall. Calcium in the incubation medium avoided DNA sticking preserving pollen fertilization ability. Pre-washing of pollen in hypertonic sucrose solution was proved to remove DNA binding components from the pollen wall. PEG 20%, that is known to inhibit pollen, and silk nucleases, was also used instead of sucrose, without any reduction in the seed-set yields.

  16. Quantitative proteomics of the tobacco pollen tube secretome identifies novel pollen tube guidance proteins important for fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Hafidh, Said; Potěšil, David; Fíla, Jan; Čapková, Věra; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Honys, David

    2016-01-01

    Background As in animals, cell–cell communication plays a pivotal role in male–female recognition during plant sexual reproduction. Prelaid peptides secreted from the female reproductive tissues guide pollen tubes towards ovules for fertilization. However, the elaborate mechanisms for this dialogue have remained elusive, particularly from the male perspective. Results We performed genome-wide quantitative liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis of a pistil-stimulated pollen tu...

  17. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  18. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...

  19. Effect of radiation on fruit pollen germination and distant hybridization compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens of Zhouxingshantao peach trees, apricot cultivar Katy and plum cultivar Friar were irradiated by different doses of 60Co γ-rays and ultraviolet to study the radiation effect on the pollen germination and distant hybridization settings. The germination percentages of the pollen irradiated by 60Co γ-rays and ultraviolet were lower than those of the controls. The pollens of the tested fruits have different sensitivities of 60Co γ-rays and ultraviolet: the Friar pollen was the most sensitive to the radiation, and the Katy was the least. With the germinate percentages of the irradiated pollen dropping, the distant hybridization fruit setting percentage also lowered. (authors)

  20. Fullerene fine particles adhere to pollen grains and affect their autofluorescence and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyagi H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Aoyagi, Charles U UgwuLife Science and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, JapanAbstract: Adhesion of commercially produced fullerene fine particles to Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Camellia japonica pollen grains was investigated. The autofluorescence of pollen grains was affected by the adhesion of fullerene fine particles to the pollen grains. The degree of adhesion of fullerene fine particles to the pollen grains varied depending on the type of fullerene. Furthermore, germination of Camellia japonica pollen grains was inhibited by the adhesion of fullerene fine particles.Keywords: Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Camellia japonica, autofluorescence, pollen grains, fullerene fine particle

  1. Transference of genetic information through irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blossoms are used as mothers of two longistylous with male sterility varieties of Deva and Hera without anthocyan on the stem from L. esculentum (Mill.) (L.), which were pollinated with irradiated dallenform L. peruvianum (L.) with anthocyan on the stem, with 10 AND 200 Kr of gamma-rays, 5 and 10 min from a source of mixed (long and short) UV-rays, at a distance of 20 cm, while the control blossoms were pollinated with a mixture of other cultivated plants. Irradiation with gamma rays was carried out on a gamma device with a dose power of up to 1,500 R/m. The results show that irradiated pollen tube with the male chromatin induces gynogenesis and seconadary diploidization. It is assumed that some of the microfragments irradiated with high doses of radiation contain a functionally active gene or the genes responsible for anthocyan synthesis. These microfragments are capable of combining with the nonirradiated mother chromatin and they become involved and operate in the process of development of the mother sex cells and at the early embryogenesis, as a result of which anthocyan appears in the developing plants

  2. Transference of genetic information through irradiated pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryanovska, O.A. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Genetika)

    1983-01-01

    Blossoms are used as mothers of two longistylous with male sterility varieties of Deva and Hera without anthocyan on the stem from L. esculentum (Mill.) (L.), which were pollinated with irradiated dallenform L. peruvianum (L.) with anthocyan on the stem, with 10 AND 200 Kr of gamma-rays, 5 and 10 min from a source of mixed (long and short) UV-rays, at a distance of 20 cm, while the control blossoms were pollinated with a mixture of other cultivated plants. Irradiation with gamma rays was carried out on a gamma device with a dose power of up to 1,500 R/m. The results show that irradiated pollen tube with the male chromatin induces gynogenesis and seconadary diploidization. It is assumed that some of the microfragments irradiated with high doses of radiation contain a functionally active gene or the genes responsible for anthocyan synthesis. These microfragments are capable of combining with the nonirradiated mother chromatin and they become involved and operate in the process of development of the mother sex cells and at the early embryogenesis, as a result of which anthocyan appears in the developing plants.

  3. Characterizing aeroallergens by infrared spectroscopy of fungal spores and pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Fungal spores and plant pollen cause respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aeroallergen monitoring networks are an important part of treatment strategies, but unfortunately traditional analysis is time consuming and expensive. We have explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen and spores for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of aeroallergens.The study is based on measurement of spore and pollen samples by single reflectance attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-ATR FTIR. The experimental set includes 71 spore (Basidiomycota and 121 pollen (Pinales, Fagales and Poales samples. Along with fresh basidiospores, the study has been conducted on the archived samples collected within the last 50 years.The spectroscopic-based methodology enables clear spectral differentiation between pollen and spores, as well as the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. In addition, the analysis of the scattering signals inherent in the infrared spectra indicates that the FTIR methodology offers indirect estimation of morphology of pollen and spores. The analysis of fresh and archived spores shows that chemical composition of spores is well preserved even after decades of storage, including the characteristic taxonomy-related signals. Therefore, biochemical analysis of fungal spores by FTIR could provide economical, reliable and timely methodologies for improving fungal taxonomy, as well as for fungal identification and monitoring. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using FTIR as a rapid tool in aeroallergen studies. In addition, the presented method is ready to be immediately implemented in biological and ecological studies for direct measurement of pollen and spores from flowers and sporocarps.

  4. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A. R.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A.; Van De Water, P. K.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A.; Myers, O.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Menache, M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  5. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Janet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  6. Divergent rules for pollen and nectar foraging bumblebees--a laboratory study with artificial flowers offering diluted nectar substitute and pollen surrogate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Konzmann

    Full Text Available Almost all bees collect nectar and pollen from flowers. Female bees collect pollen to provision their nest cells, whereas they use nectar for individual energy supply and nest cell provisioning. Bees fine-tune nectar foraging to the amount and to the concentration of nectar, but the individual bees' response to variability of amount and concentration of pollen reward has not yet been studied thoroughly in laboratory settings. We developed an experimental set-up in which bumblebees simultaneously collected sugar solution and pollen from artificial flowers; natural pollen was mixed with cellulose powder or glass powder as a pollen surrogate. Here we show that bumblebee (Bombus terrestris workers do not specialise in nectar or pollen collection, but regularly collect both rewards on the same day. When offered a fixed pollen reward and varied amounts and concentrations of sugar solution, the bumblebees fine-tuned sugar solution foraging dependent on both the volume and concentration, with strong preferences for the highest concentration and the greatest volume. In the reciprocal tests, when offered a fixed sugar reward and varied amounts and concentrations of pollen mixed with a nutrient-free pollen surrogate, the bumblebees follow more an all-or-none rule for pollen, accepting all amounts and concentrations except pure surrogate. It is discussed how the bumblebees' ability to sense sugar, and their apparent inability to sense the pollen protein content, shaped their foraging behaviour. It is argued that the rarity of nectar mimicry and the frequency of pollen mimicry in natural flowers might be interpreted in the context of divergent abilities of nectar and pollen recognition in bees.

  7. Pollen transfer in fragmented plant populations: insight from the pollen loads of pollinators and stigmas in a mass-flowering species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Chloé E L; Fort, Thomas L C; Escaravage, Nathalie; Pornon, André

    2016-08-01

    Pollinator and/or mate scarcity affects pollen transfer, with important ecological and evolutionary consequences for plant reproduction. However, the way in which the pollen loads transported by pollinators and deposited on stigmas are affected by pollination context has been little studied. We investigated the impacts of plant mate and visiting insect availabilities on pollen transport and receipt in a mass-flowering and facultative autogamous shrub (Rhododendron ferrugineum). First, we recorded insect visits to R. ferrugineum in plant patches of diverse densities and sizes. Second, we analyzed the pollen loads transported by R. ferrugineum pollinators and deposited on stigmas of emasculated and intact flowers, in the same patches. Overall, pollinators (bumblebees) transported much larger pollen loads than the ones found on stigmas, and the pollen deposited on stigmas included a high proportion of conspecific pollen. However, comparing pollen loads of emasculated and intact flowers indicated that pollinators contributed only half the conspecific pollen present on the stigma. At low plant density, we found the highest visitation rate and the lowest proportion of conspecific pollen transported and deposited by pollinators. By contrast, at higher plant density and lower visitation rate, pollinators deposited larger proportion of conspecific pollen, although still far from sufficient to ensure that all the ovules were fertilized. Finally, self-pollen completely buffered the detrimental effects on pollination of patch fragmentation and pollinator failure. Our results indicate that pollen loads from pollinators and emasculated flowers should be quantified for an accurate understanding of the relative impacts of pollinator and mate limitation on pollen transfer in facultative autogamous species. PMID:27547345

  8. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  9. Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Weimer, L.M.; Riegel, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 170 pollen assemblages from surface samples in eight vegetation types in the Florida Everglades indicates that these wetland sub-environments are distinguishable from the pollen record and that they are useful proxies for hydrologic and edaphic parameters. Vegetation types sampled include sawgrass marshes, cattail marshes, sloughs with floating aquatics, wet prairies, brackish marshes, tree islands, cypress swamps, and mangrove forests. The distribution of these vegetation types is controlled by specific environmental parameters, such as hydrologic regime, nutrient availability, disturbance level, substrate type, and salinity; ecotones between vegetation types may be sharp. Using R-mode cluster analysis of pollen data, we identified diagnostic species groupings; Q-mode cluster analysis was used to differentiate pollen signatures of each vegetation type. Cluster analysis and the modern analog technique were applied to interpret vegetational and environmental trends over the last two millennia at a site in Water Conservation Area 3A. The results show that close modern analogs exist for assemblages in the core and indicate past hydrologic changes at the site, correlated with both climatic and land-use changes. The ability to differentiate marshes with different hydrologic and edaphic requirements using the pollen record facilitates assessment of relative impacts of climatic and anthropogenic changes on this wetland ecosystem on smaller spatial and temporal scales than previously were possible. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M. Estevinho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the primordial of humanity, pollen has been considered a good source of nutrients and energy. Its promising healing properties have also been referred to. The present study aimed to characterize, for the first time, eight commercial pollens from Portugal and Spain available on the market studying the legislation on labeling, pollinic origin, physicochemical and microbiological analyses and identification of yeasts. Eleven botanical families were found amongst the samples. The most abundant family and the most dominant pollen was Cistaceae. The moisture content, ash, aw, pH, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and energy were analyzed and the specific parameters were within the specifications required by some countries with legislation regarding these parameters. Microbiologically commercial pollen showed acceptable safety for the commercial quality and hygiene. All samples showed negative results for toxigenic species. The microorganisms studied were aerobic mesophiles, yeasts and moulds, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridium. During the work, six yeasts species were isolated from pollen, with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa being the most abundant, as it was present in four samples.

  11. Pollen germination in vitro of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Borys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K. Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season. The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selection; both groups of selections gave similar values of germination. The 45.83% of selections of the wild group gave from 88 to 90% of germinated pollen. The selections of cultivated group have been characterized by a wide range of pollen germination. The anther size - length and width - depended upon the selection. The plants of the cultivated group showed a larger size more frequently than those of the wild group. No correlation was found between pollen germination and anthers dimensions. The results were discussed in relation to productivity of fruits trees of the Mexican representatives included in the germplasm collection.

  12. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd-Arrabe' , A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide affects ion channels in lily pollen grain protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breygina, M A; Abramochkin, D V; Maksimov, N M; Yermakov, I P

    2016-09-01

    Ion homeostasis plays a central role in polarisation and polar growth. In several cell types ion channels are controlled by reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the most important cells in the plant life cycle is the male gametophyte, which grows under the tight control of both ion fluxes and ROS balance. The precise relationship between these two factors in pollen tubes has not been completely elucidated, and in pollen grains it has never been studied to date. In the present study we used a simple model - protoplasts obtained from lily pollen grains at the early germination stage - to reveal the effect of H2 O2 on cation fluxes crucial for pollen germination. Here we present direct evidence for two ROS-sensitive currents on the pollen grain plasma membrane: the hyperpolarisation-activated calcium current, which is strongly enhanced by H2 O2 , and the outward potassium current, which is modestly enhanced by H2 O2 . We used low concentrations of H2 O2 that do not cause an intracellular oxidative burst and do not damage cells, as demonstrated with fluorescent staining. PMID:27115728

  14. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.

    2015-07-01

    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  15. Airborne Ultrasonic Tactile Display BCI

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Katsuhiko; Mori, Hiromu; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Rutkowski, Tomasz M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents results of our project, which studied whether contactless and airborne ultrasonic tactile display (AUTD) stimuli delivered to a user's palms could serve as a platform for a brain computer interface (BCI) paradigm. We used six palm positions to evoke combined somatosensory brain responses to implement a novel contactless tactile BCI. This achievement was awarded the top prize in the Annual BCI Research Award 2014 competition. This chapter also presents a comparison with a...

  16. Ectomycorrhizas in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica, an early-successional birch species, in cool-temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Neda, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae in the Northern Hemisphere and produces prized "matsutake" mushrooms. We questioned whether the symbiont could associate with a birch that is an early-successional species in boreal, cool-temperate, or subalpine forests. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. matsutake can form typical ectomycorrhizas with Betula platyphylla var. japonica; the associations included a Hartig net and a thin but distinct fungal sheath, as well as the rhizospheric mycelial aggregate "shiro" that is required for fruiting in nature. The in vitro shiro also emitted a characteristic aroma. This is the first report of an ectomycorrhizal formation between T. matsutake and a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the boreal or cool-temperate zones that T. matsutake naturally inhabits. PMID:25236465

  17. Comparison of {sup 226}Ra nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR and Crop Research Institute, Rozvojova 263, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Tykva, Richard [Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, Flemingovo nam. 2, 166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vankova, Radomira [Laboratory of Hormonal Regulations in Plants, Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Rozvojova 263, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR and Crop Research Institute, Rozvojova 263, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz

    2007-09-15

    The uptake of {sup 226}Ra from the contaminated soil was compared in three woody species: alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula pendula) and elder (Sambucus nigra). The {sup 226}Ra activities increased during the vegetation periods (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) both in the leaves and flowers + seeds. The highest accumulation was found in birch, reaching 0.41 Bq/g DW in the leaves (at the end of the vegetation period in 2003). The lowest {sup 226}Ra accumulation was determined in alder. The extent of {sup 226}Ra accumulation in the leaves of woody species demonstrates that these pioneer woody species can be used as remediation alternative to the use of herbs, provided that the removal of fallen leaves could be achieved in the end of vegetation period.

  18. Expression and localization of calreticulin in tobacco anthers and pollen tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardi, M.C.; Feron, R.; Navazio, L.; Mariani, P.; Pierson, E.S.; Wolters-Arts, A.M.C.; Knuiman, B.; Mariani, C.; Derksen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The developmental expression pattern and localization of calreticulin were studied in Nicotiana tabacum L. anthers, pollen and pollen tubes. High transcript and protein levels were detected throughout anther development. Immunolocalization of calreticulin in the anthers showed particular dense label

  19. Impact of Sucrose Concentrations on in vitro Pollen Germination of Okra, Hibiscus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jurial Baloch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous sugars, especially sucrose is very essential for providing osmotic environment and nutrition to in vitro pollen grain germination. Pollen bursting is frequently observed in artificial medium lacking suitable sucrose concentration. Four sucrose concentrations 10, 20, 30 and 40% were tried for okra pollen germination. At 10% sucrose,majority of pollens brusted; however, at 20% sucrose, 80% ofpollen grains germinated by producing tube lengths in the range of 3000 to 4000 μm. At 30%, the pollen germination% and tube length declined by about more thantwice against 20% sucrose level. At 40% concentrations, pollen grains` germination and tube length reduced remarkably by giving only500 to 700 μm pollen tubes. Not only tube length retarded at these high concentrations but pollentubes also changed to more thickened and shortened structures.It was therefore observed that 20% sucrose is an appropriate concentration for in vitro okra pollen germination.

  20. Xanthium strumarium L. pollen concentration in aeroplankton of Lublin in the years 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur pollen grains are included in allergenic types. During a three-year study (2003-2005 conducted by using the gravimetric method at two trap sites in Lublin, daily concentrations, maximum concentrations and annual sums of pollen grains, as well as the length of pollen seasons of this species were compared. The pollen season of common cocklebur starts in the first or second decade of July and lasts until the third decade of September. The length of the pollen season is 70-80 days. The highest cocklebur pollen concentrations, amounting to 40-59 z·cm-2, occurred between 8 and 18 August. The maximum cocklebur pollen concentrations differed slightly in particular trap sites over the period of three years of study. A statistically significant correlation between the Xanthium strumarium pollen concentration and average temperature was demonstrated only in one year of study (2004.

  1. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  2. Evaluation of the botanical origin of commercial dry bee pollen load batches using pollen analysis: a proposal for technical standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud M. Barth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High quality of bee pollen for commercial purpose is required. In order to attend the consumer with the best identification of the botanical and floral origin of the product, 25 bee pollen batches were investigated using two techniques of pollen grain preparation. The first started to identify pollen loads of different colors in two grams of each well mixed batch, and the second to identify pollen grains in a pool made of all the pollen loads comprised in two grams. The best result was obtained by this last technique, when a pollen grain suspension was dropped on a microscope slide and circa 500 pollen grains were counted per sample. This analysis resulted in the recognition of monofloral and bifloral pollen batches, while the use of the first technique resulted in all samples receiving a heterofloral diagnosis.É exigida alta qualidade para a comercialização de pólen apícola. A fim de atender o consumidor com a melhor identificação da origem botânica e floral do produto, 25 partidas de pólen apícola feram investigadas usande duas diferentes técnicas na preparação dos grãos de pólen. A primeira partiu da identificação das cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada partida bem misturada segundo suas cores. A segunda visava identificar os grãos de pólen de um agrupamento ("pool" de todas as cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada amostra. O melhor resultado foi obtido pela última técnica, quando uma suspensão de grãos de pólen era gotejada sobre uma lâmina de microscopia e cerca de 500 grãos de pólen eram centades por amostra. Esta análise resultou no reconhecimento de partidas monoflorais e biflorais de pólen apícola, enquanto que usando a primeira técnica, todas as amostras receberam a diagnose heterefloral.

  3. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-incompatibility (SI is a biological mechanism to avoid inbreeding in allogamous plants. In grasses, this mechanism is controlled by a two-locus system (S-Z. Calculation of male and female gamete frequencies is complex for tetraploid species. We are not aware of any software available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z self-incompatibility system. The program predicts pollen genotypes and frequencies based on defined meiotic parameters for allo- or autotetraploid species with a gametophytic S-Z SI system. These predictions can be used to obtain expected values for for diploid and for (allo- or autotetraploidy SI grasses. Conclusion The information provided by this calculator can be used to predict compatibility of pair-crosses in plant breeding applications, to analyze segregation distortion for S and Z genes, as well as linked markers in mapping populations, hypothesis testing of the number of S and Z alleles in a pair cross, and the underlying genetic model.

  4. Effect of Palm Pollen on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Athar; Jashni, Hojjatollah Karimi; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-04-01

    There is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. Forty infertile men participated in our study. They were treated by Pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. Before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers, motility and morphology were determined. Our findings revealed that consumption of DPP improved the sperm count. The treatment was significantly increased sperm motility, morphology and forward progressive motility. Date palm pollen seems to cure male infertility by improving the quality of sperm parameters. PMID:26506651

  5. Endocytic Pathways and Recycling in Growing Pollen Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Onelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tube growth is based on transport of secretory vesicles into the apical region where they fuse with a small area of the plasma membrane. The amount of secretion greatly exceeds the quantity of membrane required for growth. Mechanisms of membrane retrieval have recently been demonstrated and partially characterized using FM (Fei Mao dyes or charged nanogold. Both these probes reveal that clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis occur in pollen tubes and are involved in distinct degradation pathways and membrane recycling. Exocytosis, internalization and sorting of PM proteins/lipids depend on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton and are involved in actin filament organization. However, some kinds of endocytic and exocytic processes occurring in the central area of the tip still need to be characterized. Analysis of secretion dynamics and data derived from endocytosis highlight the complexity of events occurring in the tip region and suggest a new model of pollen tube growth.

  6. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Toby Fraser

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporopollenin is the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is responsive to levels of ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of using fossil pollen and spore chemistry as a novel proxy for past UV flux. Phenolic compounds in sporopollenin can be quantified using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The high potential for preservation of pollen and spores in the geologic record, and the conservative nature of sporopollenin chemistry across the land plant phylogeny, means that this new proxy has the potential to reconstruct UV flux over much longer timescales than has previously been possible. This new tool has important implications for understanding the relationship between UV flux, solar insolation and climate in the past, as well as providing a possible means of assessing paleoaltitude, and ozone thickness.

  7. Allergen immunotherapy for birch pollen-allergic patients: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis. PMID:27140409

  8. The induction effect of irradiation on wheat pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mature pollen of 4 wheat varieties (lines) were irradiated with 5,10,20 and 30 Gy of 60Co-γ rays. The induction effect on the grain development of hybrid, the physiological damage of M1 and M2 were studied. The result indicated that 10 Gy was a suitable irradiation dose for maturing pollen. The seedling rate was 17.1%∼70.2% and the plant formation rate was about 40% in M1 with 10 Gy irradiation. In M2, the mutation characters including plant height, heat length, maturing date, glume colour and fertility were observed. The mutation rate of early-maturing reached 58.7% after self-crossing with the 10 Gy irradiated pollen

  9. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt;

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local...

  10. The pollen spectrum of honeys of Lipnik Gmina (Świętokrzyskie Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Stawiarz

    2012-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004 apicultural seasons, 25 samples of honeys were collected in 10 localities of Lipnik (świętokrzyskie Province) countryside. Pollen analysis was made according to the requirements of the International Commission for Bee Botany IUSB (Louveaux et al., 1978). There were identified pollen of 85 taxa in the examined samples of honeys: pollen of 62 nectariferous and 23 non-nectariferous plants. Participation of non-nectariferous plant pollen in particular samples ranged between 0...

  11. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Márcia Silva Santos; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de Souza; Pedro Correa Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa; Beatriz Ferreira Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de Freitas; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore...

  12. The possible role of honey bees in the spread of pollen from field trials

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjans, H.A.W.; Keulen, van, H.; Blacquière, T.; Booij, C.J.H.; Hok-A-Hin, C. H.; Cornelissen, A.C.M.; Dooremalen, van, C.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees are important pollinators in agricultural crops, home gardens, orchards and wildlife habitats. As they fly from flower to flower in search of nectar and pollen, they transfer pollen from plant to plant, thus fertilizing the plants and enabling them to bear fruit. In light of this, honey bees could be a factor in spreading pollen grains derived from genetically modified (GM) plants in field trials. The extent to which pollen dispersal occurs and the distances achieved depends on man...

  13. Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts from Monofloral Bee Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hongcheng; Wang Xue; Wang Kai; Li Chunyang

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used for many years in traditional medicine and supplementary nutrients. Bee pollen is mainly composed of nutrients and bioactive substances which might act as potential antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors. In this study, 14 species of monofloral bee pollen from China were collected to analyse their antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Our results revealed that virtually all the bee pollen samples possessed powerful antioxidant or tyrosinase inhibitory acti...

  14. In vitro Manipulation of Impatiens glandulifera Pollen for Transporting Extracellular Substances to the Embryo Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from Impatiens glandulifera were manipulated in vitro to investigate the possibility of using them as a vector for transporting extracellular substances to the site of gamete fusion in the embryo sac. Manipulation of plant male and female gametophytes included studies on pollen culture in vitro, pollen viability and developmental state and loading of fluorescent probes by plasmolysis/endocytosis via germinating pollen.

  15. 19 Proteomic Analysis of Major and Minor Allergens From Isolated Pollen Cytoplasmic Granules

    OpenAIRE

    Chakra, Oussama Abou; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Thomas, Emmanuelle Demey; Vinh, Joëlle; Poncet, Pascal; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Sénéchal, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Background Grass pollen is one of the most important vectors of aeroallergens. Under atmospheric conditions, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs). The allergens associated with these intrinsic sub-fractions induce, in laboratory animals as well as in asthmatic patients allergic and inflammatory responses. The aims of this study were to characterize and identify the intrinsic allergens of PCGs, to compare them with those of pollen grains. Methods PCGs were isolated from...

  16. The Effects of Pollen Protein Content on Colony Development of the Bumblebee, Bombus Terrestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baloglu Güney Hikmet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pollen protein content on the colony development of Bombus terrestris were investigated by feeding queens and queenright colonies with four different pollen diets. We used three kinds of commercially available pure pollen (Cistus spp. 11.9%, Papaver somniferum 21.4%, and Sinapis arvensis 21.8% crude protein. We also used a mixture which was made up of equal weights of these pure pollens (18.4 % crude protein. All queens and colonies were fed with sugar syrup and pollen diets ad libitum (28 ± 1 ℃, 65 ± 5% RH. Until there were 50 workers reached, colonies fed with the Cistus pollen diet (167.4 ± 28.9 g consumed significantly more pollen than colonies fed with the Papaver pollen diet (140.7 ± 15.7 g, the mixed pollen diet (136.2 ± 20.1 g or colonies fed with the Sinapis pollen diet (132.4 ± 22.6 g. The date when there were 50 workers reached was approximately one week later in the colonies fed with the Cistus, and colonies fed with the Papaver diet than in the colonies fed with the Sinapis diet, and for colonies fed with the mixed pollen diets. Considering 8 tested criteria, the best performances were observed using the Sinapis, and using the mixed pollen diets. The lowest performances were observed using the Cistus pollen diet. Results showed that pollen sources play an important role in commercial bumblebee rearing. Results also showed that the polyfloral pollen diets are more suitable for mass rearing of bumblebees than the unifloral pollen diets.

  17. Pollen grains in the atmosphere of Konya (Turkey) and their relationship with meteorological factors, in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    KIZILPINAR¹, İlginç; Doğan, Cahit; Artaç, Hasibe; REİSLİ, İsmail; Pekcan, Sevgi

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric pollen was collected by a Burkard Volumetric 7-Day spore trap in Konya, Turkey, in 2008. In the present study, the pollen concentration is presented in relation to meteorological parameters (mean temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed). Pollen grains of 35 taxa were identified. Of these, 18 taxa were arboreal plants, while the others were non-arboreal plants. The distribution of the total pollen grains was as follows: arboreal plants, 61.29%; Poaceae, 16.09%; non...

  18. Bee Pollen-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Jang, Young-Sook; Oh, Jae-Won; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Hyun, In-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Bee pollen is pollen granules packed by honey bees and is widely consumed as natural healthy supplements. Bee pollen-induced anaphylaxis has rarely been reported, and its allergenic components have never been studied. A 40-year-old male came to the emergency room with generalized urticaria, facial edema, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 1 hour after ingesting one tablespoon of bee pollen. Oxygen saturation was 91%. His symptoms resolved after injection of epinephrine, c...

  19. Grass Pollen Count and Grass group 5-allergen Release across Eight European Countries: results from HIALINE

    OpenAIRE

    Buters, Jeroen M.; Albertini, Roberto; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Antunes, Celia M.; Berger, Uwe; Brandao, Rui M.; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Celenk, Sevcan; Galán, Carmen; Grewling, Lukazs; Kennedy, Roy; Prank, Marje; Rantio-Lehtimaki, Auli; Reese, Gerald; Sauliene, Ingrida

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grass pollen is considered to be the most important outdoor aeroallergen in Europe. The grass ‘pollen count’ is usually used as a proxy for exposure. However, HIALINE has shown that the birch and olive pollen count is not always congruent with allergen concentrations. We therefore simultaneously measured daily exposure to grass pollen and the concentration of group 5 major allergens across eight countries in Europe during 2009– 2011. Method: Air...

  20. Development and characterization of a recombinant, hypoallergenic, peptide-based vaccine for grass pollen allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Stegfellner, Gottfried; Maderegger, Bernhard; Hauer, Martina; Stolz, Frank; Niederberger, Verena; Marth, Katharina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Weiss, Richard; Thalhamer, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background Grass pollen is one of the most important sources of respiratory allergies worldwide. Objective This study describes the development of a grass pollen allergy vaccine based on recombinant hypoallergenic derivatives of the major timothy grass pollen allergens Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 by using a peptide-carrier approach. Methods Fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic peptides from the 4 major timothy grass pollen allergens and the PreS protein from hepatitis B viru...

  1. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Ramavovololona,; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Methods Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated i...

  2. Xanthium strumarium L. pollen concentration in aeroplankton of Lublin in the years 2003-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; W. Zwolan; Wolski, T; T. Baj

    2012-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur) pollen grains are included in allergenic types. During a three-year study (2003-2005) conducted by using the gravimetric method at two trap sites in Lublin, daily concentrations, maximum concentrations and annual sums of pollen grains, as well as the length of pollen seasons of this species were compared. The pollen season of common cocklebur starts in the first or second decade of July and lasts until the third decade of September. The length of the pol...

  3. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  4. Review of probabilistic pollen-climate transfer methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, Christian; Wahl, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    Pollen-climate transfer methods are reviewed from a Bayesian perspective and with a special focus on the formulation of uncertainties. This approach is motivated by recent developments of spatial multi-proxy Bayesian hierarchical models (BHM), which allow synthesizing local reconstructions from different proxies for a spatially complete picture of past climate. In order to enhance the pollen realism in these models we try to bridge the gap between spatial statistics and paleoclimatology and show how far classical pollen-climate transfer concepts such as regression methods, mutual climatic range, modern analogues, plant functional types, and biomes can be understood in novel ways by refining the data models used in BHMs. As a case study, we discuss modeling of uncertainty by introducing a new probabilistic pollen ratio model, which is a simplified variation of the modern analogue technique (MAT) including the concept of response surfaces and designed for later inclusion in a spatial multiproxy BHM. Applications to fossil pollen data from varved sediments in three nearby lakes in west-central Wisconsin, USA and for a Holocene fossil pollen record from southern California, USA provide local climate reconstructions of summer temperature for the past millennium and the Holocene respectively. The performance of the probabilistic model is generally similar in comparison to MAT-derived reconstructions using the same data. Furthermore, the combination of co-location and precise dating for the three fossil sites in Wisconsin allows us to study the issue of site-specific uncertainty and to test the assumption of ergodicity in a real-world example. A multivariate ensemble kernel dressing approach derived from the post-processing of climate simulations reveals that the overall interpretation based on the individual reconstructions remains essentially unchanged, but the single-site reconstructions underestimate the overall uncertainty.

  5. Gametophytic development of Brassica napus pollen in vitro enables examination of cytoskeleton and nuclear movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, E.; Wedzony, M.; Custers, J.B.M.; Kieft, H.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Isolated microspores and pollen suspension of Brassica napus “Topas” cultured in NLN-13 medium at 18°C follow gametophytic pathway and develop into pollen grains closely resembling pollen formed in planta. This culture system complemented with whole-mount immunocytochemical technology and novel conf

  6. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr;

    2009-01-01

    tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test...

  7. A note on the pollen representation of ivy (Hedera helix L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, S

    2001-01-01

    Pollen productivity and dispersal of ivy (Hedera helix) is discussed on the basis of a simple surface sample study in a situation that has been followed for about 30 yr. The pollen production of a special ivy plant was estimated for the flowering season of 1998. Hedera pollen dispersal was followed

  8. A Multiscale Vibrational Spectroscopic Approach for Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Bagcioglu, Murat; Zimmermann, Boris; Kohler, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of pollen grains reveals valuable information on biology, ecology, forensics, climate change, insect migration, food sources and aeroallergens. Vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopies offer chemical characterization of pollen via identifiable spectral features without any sample pretreatment. We have compared the level of chemical information that can be obtained by different multiscale vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Methodology Pollen from 15 different spec...

  9. Selective suppression of antibody production with the aid of radiolabelled birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the clonal selection theory we intended to prevent the development of artificially induced birch pollen allergy in rabbits with the aid of of the radiolabelled pollen allergen (75-1000 μCi125 I-pollen/animal) intravenously administered prior to pollen sensitization. The birch pollen allergen, in accordance with Burnet's working hypothesis, reacts only with a genetically determining B cell subpopulation. The fixation of the radiolabelled birch pollen allergen to the receptors of the competent B cell clone causes the lesion of the latter. Compared with the control group, this group of rabbits showed an extensive suppression of anaphylactic reagin-like PCA-antibodies, and haemagglutinating antibodies in the blood as well as in nasal secretion. In addition, we tried to influence the already ongoing synthesis of the antibodies with the aid of a subsequent intravenously administered radiolabelled birch pollen allergen (750-1000μCi125 I-pollen/animal). An intensive suppression of the synthesis of antibodies could also be proved in this case. The simultaneous immunization of the control rabbits with birch pollen and egg albumin resulted in the production of antibodies against both antigens, as expected. The hot-labelled birch pollen antigen intravenously injected before or after immunization with egg albumin and birch pollen led selectively to suppression of anti-birch-pollen PCA antibodies. The synthesis of anti-egg albumin PCA antibodies was unaffected. (author)

  10. New colporate pollen taxa from Neyveli lignite, South India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Misra, B.K. (Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India))

    1991-02-19

    Four new pollen genera: {ital Bacuspinulopollenites} {ital Cuddaloripollis}, {ital Scrobiculatricolporites}, {ital Tamilipollenites} and seven new species from the subsurface lignite samples of the Mine III area of the Neyveli Lignite Field are described. {ital Tricolporopilites} (Kar and Saxena) Kar 1985 is amended and three new species {ital T. uniformis}, {ital T. differentialis} and {ital T. tectatus} are assigned to it. These colporate angiospermous pollen taxa provide additional information on the palynofloral composition of the main lignite seam encountered in three boreholes. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Ulmus pollen at Sibisa Swamp, North Sumatra (Ulmaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maloney, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Ulmus pollen characterised by a four-pored morphology was reported from samples of various ages taken from the radiocarbon dated pollen sites of Pea Sim-sim and Tao Sipinggan and in one sample from the undated Pea Sijajap record (Maloney, 1984). All these sites are located on the Toba Plateau, south of Lake Toba, over 50 km away from the nearest existing sources (Touw & Van Steenis, 1968) of Ulmus lancaeafolia Roxb. ex Wall. Sibisa Swamp is situated east of Lake Toba, at 98°58'E, 2°33'N, near...

  12. Study on Pollen Chromosome Doubling in Zenjimaru Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiao-feng; LUO Zheng-rong

    2003-01-01

    The factors influencing pollen chromosome doubling in Zenjimaru persimmon were studied,based on the knowledge of meiosis process of pollen mother cells. The results showed: (1) the suitable concen-tration of colchicine was 0.3 - 0.5%; (2) the best doubling effect could be obtained during the period fromthe dipiotene stage to the diakinasis stage, and the highest proportion was up to 40.6 %; (3) considering giantpollen ratio and proportion of staminate-flower collection, the better treating frequency was 3 times; (4) giantpollen, which formed mainly from dyad and had bigger cell nucleus volume, was unreduced and hexaploid.

  13. Anther and pollen development: A conserved developmental pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Fernández; Talle, Behzad; Wilson, Zoe A

    2015-11-01

    Pollen development is a critical step in plant development that is needed for successful breeding and seed formation. Manipulation of male fertility has proved a useful trait for hybrid breeding and increased crop yield. However, although there is a good understanding developing of the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen anther development in model species, such as Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about the equivalent processes in important crops. Nevertheless the onset of increased genomic information and genetic tools is facilitating translation of information from the models to crops, such as barley and wheat; this will enable increased understanding and manipulation of these pathways for agricultural improvement. PMID:26310290

  14. Pollen germination in vitro of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    M. W. Borys; Ma F. Soria Alatorre; A. B. Salazar

    2014-01-01

    The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K.) Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé) and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston) was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width) of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season). The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selecti...

  15. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  16. Effect of space flight on meiosis of pollen mother cells and its derived pollens in impatiens balsamina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of space flight on meiosis of pollen mother cells and meiosis of microspores in Impatiens balsamina were investigated. It was found that meiosis showed abnormal in most plants germinated from seeds after space flight, and chromosome fragment, chromosomal bridge and lagging chromosome were observed in the process of meiosis in these plants. Disproportional segregation of chromosome, multipolar division and multinucleus were also observed in most plants, which developed into paraspores with different chromosome number. Mitosis of microspores was found to be abnormal in most plants, and the number of chromosome in microspore unequal. The fertility of the pollens was tested with iodic solution; it was found that the fertility of pollens varied in different plants. (authors)

  17. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  18. Using Satellite-Based Earth Science Data in a Public Health Decision-Support System to Track and Forecast Pollen Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Budge, A.

    2013-12-01

    There is widespread recognition within the public health community that ongoing changes in climate are expected to increasingly pose threats to human health. Environmentally induced health risks to populations with respiratory illnesses are a growing concern globally. Of particular concern are dust and smoke events carrying PM2.5 and PM10 particle sizes, ozone, and pollen. There is considerable interest in documenting the precise linkages between changing patterns in the climate and how these shifts impact the prevalence of respiratory illnesses. The establishment of these linkages can drive the development of early warning and forecasting systems to alert health care professionals of impending air-quality events. As a component of a larger NASA-funded project on Integration of Airborne Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems, the Earth Data Analysis Center (EDAC) at the University of New Mexico, is developing web-based visualization and analysis services for forecasting pollen concentration data. This decision-support system, New Mexico's Environmental Public Health Tracking System (NMEPHTS), funded by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), aims to improve health awareness and services by linking health effects data with levels and frequency of environmental exposure. The forecast of atmospheric events with high pollen concentrations has employed a modified version of the DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model, a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling. In this application, PREAM (Pollen Regional Atmospheric Model) models pollen emission using a MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Model outputs are verified and validated with ground-based records of pollen release timing and quantities. Outputs of the PREAM model are post-processed and archived in EDAC's Geographic Storage, Transformation, and

  19. The surface pollen and relative pollen production of the desert vegetation of the Alashan Plateau, western Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Herzschuh; H. Kürschner; MA Yuzhen

    2003-01-01

    This preliminary investigation focuses on the comparison of the recentpollen precipitation and its related vegetation of eight different plant communities in the Alashan Region, the most western part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Most zonal and azonal communities can be well identified by their pollen spectra. Relative pollen production factors of various plant taxa have beencalculated and the following sequences from over- to under represented taxa have been found for zonal vegetation: Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia, Ephedra, Nitraria,Reaumuria, Calligonum, Zygophyllum; and for azonal vegetation: Peganum, Populus, Tamarix, Lycium.

  20. Glutathione-S-Transferase: A Minor Allergen in Birch Pollen due to Limited Release from Hydrated Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Deifl; Christian Zwicker; Eva Vejvar; Claudia Kitzmüller; Gabriele Gadermaier; Birgit Nagl; Susanne Vrtala; Peter Briza; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.; Beatrice Jahn-Schmid; Fatima Ferreira; Barbara Bohle

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST) was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST). Methodology bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. T...

  1. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming

    2008-09-01

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  2. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar 'Sumian 22' pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 x 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 x 1016 to 0.78 x 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton

  3. Effects of gamma-irradiation-induced mutation on upland cotton pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the demonstrated value of gamma ray as a tool in plant mutation research, in the genetic plant species upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), such mutations have not been extensively studied. To investigate these questions, the upland cotton cultivar 'Sumian 22' pollen grains were irradiated by gamma rays (20Gy). The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested considering the ultrastructure changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, DNA polymorphism in the pollen grains, the actin filament in pollen tube, fertilization, and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which were irradiation with γ-rays. As compared with the control, although the cell structures inside the pollen grain were destroyed, its exine and interior walls of the pollen grain were not etched. The amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rate decreased by 37%. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined by 38%, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13-h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened. No evident change of the fecundation time of ovule was observed. The significant difference on DNA polymorphism was found between irradiation pollen grain and control after pollination by Simple sequence repeats (SSR) molecular marker. The actin filament of the apical domain in pollen tube was destabilized, and in the approximately apical domain, the actin cytoskeleton component disappeared. Various mutants were appeared in the M1 progenies. These results indicate that gamma rays can cause a series of biological changes in irradiated-pollen grains and their progenies of upland cotton. (author)

  4. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yanjie [College of Agronomy, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210095 (China); Wu Lijun; Wu Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang Qingya [College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Tang Canming [College of Agronomy, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210095 (China)], E-mail: tang20@jlonline.com

    2008-09-15

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar 'Sumian 22' pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 x 10{sup -3} Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 x 10{sup 16} to 0.78 x 10{sup 16} N{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N{sup +} ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  5. How does pollen chemistry impact development and feeding behaviour of polylectic bees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse Vanderplanck

    Full Text Available Larvae and imagos of bees rely exclusively on floral rewards as a food source but host-plant range can vary greatly among bee species. While oligolectic species forage on pollen from a single family of host plants, polylectic bees, such as bumblebees, collect pollen from many families of plants. These polylectic species contend with interspecific variability in essential nutrients of their host-plants but we have only a limited understanding of the way in which chemicals and chemical combinations influence bee development and feeding behaviour. In this paper, we investigated five different pollen diets (Calluna vulgaris, Cistus sp., Cytisus scoparius, Salix caprea and Sorbus aucuparia to determine how their chemical content affected bumblebee colony development and pollen/syrup collection. Three compounds were used to characterise pollen content: polypeptides, amino acids and sterols. Several parameters were used to determine the impact of diet on micro-colonies: (i Number and weight of larvae (total and mean weight of larvae, (ii weight of pollen collected, (iii pollen efficacy (total weight of larvae divided by weight of the pollen collected and (iv syrup collection. Our results show that pollen collection is similar regardless of chemical variation in pollen diet while syrup collection is variable. Micro-colonies fed on S. aucuparia and C. scoparius pollen produced larger larvae (i.e. better mates and winter survivors and fed less on nectar compared to the other diets. Pollen from both of these species contains 24-methylenecholesterol and high concentrations of polypeptides/total amino acids. This pollen nutritional "theme" seems therefore to promote worker reproduction in B. terrestris micro-colonies and could be linked to high fitness for queenright colonies. As workers are able to selectively forage on pollen of high chemical quality, plants may be evolutionarily selected for their pollen content, which might attract and increase the

  6. Subcellular Localization of the S Locus F-box Protein AhSLF-S2 in Pollen and Pollen Tubes of Self-Incompatible Antirrhinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yun WANG; Yong-Biao XUE

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the S locus F-box (SLF) protein was examined by immunocytochemistry and Western blot techniques using an antibody against the C-terminal part of AhSLF-S2 in self-incompatible lines of Antirrhinum. Abundant gold particles were found where pollen tubes emerge in vitro. With the elongation of pollen tubes, binding sites for the antibody were found in the cytoplasm of the pollen tubes,including the peripheral part of the endoplasmic reticulum. After germination in vitro for 16 h, the product of AhSLF-S2 and possibly its allelic products could still be detectable, implying that the SLF protein has a role in the elongating process of pollen tubes. The present study provides evidence at the protein level that the SLF protein is present in pollen cytoplasm during pollen tube growth. These findings are discussed, as is their potential role in the self-incompatible response in Antirrhinum.

  7. Intestinal allergic inflammation in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to pollen season, IgE sensitization profile and gastrointestinal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rentzos, Georgios; Lundberg, Vanja; Stotzer, Per-Ove; Pullerits, Teet; Telemo, Esbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Background Birch pollen allergic patients frequently experience gastrointestinal upset accompanied by a local allergic inflammation in the small intestine especially during the pollen season. However, it is not known if the GI pathology is connected to the subjective symptoms of the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune pathology of the duodenal mucosa and the serum IgE antibody profiles in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to their gastrointestinal symptoms...

  8. Pollen-Specific Aquaporins NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 Are Required for Pollen Development and Pollination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Juliana Andrea Pérez; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Yaneff, Agustín; Barberini, María Laura; Mecchia, Martín Alejandro; Amodeo, Gabriela; Soto, Gabriela Cynthia; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo

    2016-05-01

    In flowers with dry stigmas, pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube growth require spatial and temporal regulation of water and nutrient transport. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes, we characterized NIP4;1 and NIP4;2, two pollen-specific aquaporins of Arabidopsis thaliana. NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 are paralogs found exclusively in the angiosperm lineage. Although they have 84% amino acid identity, they displayed different expression patterns. NIP4;1 has low expression levels in mature pollen, while NIP4;2 expression peaks during pollen tube growth. Additionally, NIP4;1pro:GUS flowers showed GUS activity in mature pollen and pollen tubes, whereas NIP4;2pro:GUS flowers only in pollen tubes. Single T-DNA mutants and double artificial microRNA knockdowns had fewer seeds per silique and reduced pollen germination and pollen tube length. Transport assays in oocytes showed NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 function as water and nonionic channels. We also found that NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 C termini are phosphorylated by a pollen-specific CPK that modifies their water permeability. Survival assays in yeast indicated that NIP4;1 also transports ammonia, urea, boric acid, and H2O2 Thus, we propose that aquaporins NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 are exclusive components of the reproductive apparatus of angiosperms with partially redundant roles in pollen development and pollination. PMID:27095837

  9. Feature Extraction and Machine Learning for the Classification of Brazilian Savannah Pollen Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Junior Silva; da Silva, Gercina Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    The classification of pollen species and types is an important task in many areas like forensic palynology, archaeological palynology and melissopalynology. This paper presents the first annotated image dataset for the Brazilian Savannah pollen types that can be used to train and test computer vision based automatic pollen classifiers. A first baseline human and computer performance for this dataset has been established using 805 pollen images of 23 pollen types. In order to access the computer performance, a combination of three feature extractors and four machine learning techniques has been implemented, fine tuned and tested. The results of these tests are also presented in this paper. PMID:27276196

  10. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Becker, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen...... with other components that simulate pollen release in order to calculate urban-scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are additionally available...

  11. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  12. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide open-quotes stand-offclose quotes capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected

  13. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  14. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  15. Lipophilic extracts composition of honey-bee collected pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Sandra; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Dias, L. G.; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Silvestre, Armando; Simões, Mário

    2003-01-01

    Honey-bee derived products such as pollen have been applied for centuries in traditional medicine as well as in food diets and supplementary nutrition due to their nutritional and physiological properties, above all in regard to their healthy effects on the human organism

  16. Pollen cone anatomy of Classostrobus crossii sp. nov. (Cheirolepidiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Gar W.; Mapes, Gene [Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens OH 45701 (United States); Hilton, Jason [Department of Earth Sciences, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hollingworth, Neville T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith Newburgh, Dorchester, Dorset, DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-02

    Discovery of a permineralized fossil cone in Mesozoic deposits of southern England provides an opportunity to document the first detailed evidence of internal pollen cone anatomy for the extinct conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae. The specimen, described here as Classostrobus crossii sp. nov., occurs in a calcareous nodule recovered from Middle Jurassic marine sediments of the Lower Callovian Sigaloceras calloviense biozone, Kellaways, near Cirencester, England. The cone is 2.0 cm long and 1.8 cm wide. Sporophylls diverge helically from the axis. Each sporophyll displays a narrow stalk and a distal lamina approx. 11 mm long that tapers to a pointed tip. There is also a basal keel that bends inward at the bottom and sides to form a shallow pocket. A single vascular bundle diverges from the cone axis, extends distally into the sporophyll stalk at the contact of two distinctly different histological zones, and further expands into the distal lamina as transfusion tracheids. Several pollen sacs are attached abaxially at the juncture of the sporophyll stalk and keel. Pollen is roughly spheroidal, 26-35 {mu}m in diameter, with unequal polar caps separated by a striated belt with a subequatorial furrow. This specimen helps clarify the range of variation in the morphology of Mesozoic conifer pollen cones. (author)

  17. Bee pollen flavonoid/phenolic characterization in different flowering periods

    OpenAIRE

    Monsanto, M.; Anjos, O.; Campos, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the choice made by honey bees all over the time two apiaries in the region of Beira Interior were selected for evaluation of the variance of floral pollen sources used by them in three different flowering periods.

  18. La longévité du pollen de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Connaître la longévité d’un pollen est une donnée particulièrement intéressante dans le cadre des études de risques de dissémination du pollen. En effet, cela permet de savoir combien de temps une parcelle dont la floraison est terminée reste une source de pollen fécondant. Par ailleurs, une étude de la longévité du pollen pourrait permettre de mieux comprendre les résultats en apparence contradictoires obtenus au cours de diverses expérimentations menées sur la dissémination du pollen de colza. Ainsi, alors que des travaux montrent que ce pollen est peu anémophile [1] et qu’au niveau de la parcelle sa dispersion se fait sur de courtes distances [2-4], des cas de contaminations sur de grandes distances ont été signalés [5] et les relevés palynologiques effectués sur des filtres (placés à 10 m de hauteur, voire plus confirment que ce pollen peut se disperser sur de grandes distances [6]. Toutefois, on ignore si le pollen ainsi collecté est viable ou non. Si l’on fait l’hypothèse que cette dernière dispersion se fait par le biais de la mise en suspension du pollen dans l’air dans les couches de l’atmosphère et que son transport dure un certain temps, il devient également nécessaire de connaître la durée de vie du pollen pour mieux évaluer les risques de ce type de dissémination. Au plan méthodologique, mesurer la longévité du pollen peut a priori paraître simple. Cependant les critères retenus peuvent être nombreux et divers : mesure de la viabilité, mesure du pouvoir germinatif in vitro ou in vivo, mesure du pouvoir fécondant réel. Dans chacun des cas, les techniques appliquées sont différentes et chacune comporte des biais parfois importants tels que des faux-positifs dans les tests colorimétriques de viabilité, l’incidence du milieu de culture dans les tests de germination in vitro, sans parler des tests présentant des risques carcinogènes pour l’expérimentateur [7]. De plus

  19. Size modification of recent pollen grains under different treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of various chemicals on the size of recent pollen grains of Corylus avellana L. and Quercus robur L. was studied. The size of acetolysed grains was affected by the treatment prior to acetolysis and moreover by the duration of acetolysis. Preparation methods, which produce comparable sizes

  20. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375