Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D.; Beus, S.G.
2000-08-01
The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C{sub 0} = 1.35.
Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D.; Beus, S.G.
2000-01-01
The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C 0 = 1.35
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Jian; Zhang Mingyuan; Zhang Chaojie; Su Yuliang
2002-01-01
Distribution of local kinematic parameters of air-water bubbly flows in a horizontal tube with an ID of 35 mm was investigated. The local liquid velocity was measured with a cylindrical hot film probe, and local void fraction, bubble frequency and bubble velocity were measured with a double-sensor probe. It was found that the axial liquid velocity has a same profile as that of single liquid phase flow in the lower part of the tube, and it suffers a sudden reduction in the upper part of the tube. With increasing airflow rate, the liquid velocity would increase in the lower part of the tube, and further decrease at the upper part of the tube, respectively. Most bubbles are congested at the upper part of the tube, and the void fraction and bubble frequencies have similar profile and both are asymmetrical with the tube axis with their maximum values located near the upper tube wall
One-group interfacial area transport in vertical air-water bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Q.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Beus, S.G.
1997-01-01
In the two-fluid model for two-phase flows, interfacial area concentration is one of the most important closure relations that should be obtained from careful mechanistic modeling. The objective of this study is to develop a one-group interfacial area transport equation together with the modeling of the source and sink terms due to bubble breakage and coalescence. For bubble coalescence, two mechanisms are considered to be dominant in vertical two-phase bubbly flow. These are the random collisions between bubbles due to turbulence in the flow field, and the wake entrainment process due to the relative motion of the bubbles in the wake region of a seeding bubble. For bubble breakup, the impact of turbulent eddies is considered. These phenomena are modeled individually, resulting in a one-group interfacial area concentration transport equation with certain parameters to be determined from experimental data. Compared to the measured axial distribution of the interfacial area concentration under various flow conditions, these parameters are obtained for the reduced one-group, one-dimensional transport equation. The results indicate that the proposed models for bubble breakup and coalescence are appropriate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Pagliara
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Free surface flows in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions have a high aeration potential causing the flow characteristics to vary with slopes and discharges. The underlying mechanism of two-phase flow characteristics in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions were analyzed in an experimental setup assembled at the Laboratory of Hydraulic Protection of the Territory (PITLAB of the University of Pisa, Italy. Crushed angular rocks and hemispherical boulders were used to intensify the roughness of the bed. Flow rates per unit width ranging between 0.03 m2/s and 0.09 m2/s and slopes between 0.26 and 0.46 were tested over different arrangements of a rough bed. Analyses were mainly carried out in the inner flow region, which consists of both bubbly and intermediate flow regions. The findings revealed that the two-phase flow properties over the rough bed were much affected by rough bed arrangements. Turbulence features of two-phase flows over the rough bed were compared with those of the stepped chute data under similar flow conditions. Overall, the results highlight the flow features in the inner layers of the two-phase flow, showing that the maximum turbulence intensity decreases with the relative submergence, while the bubble frequency distribution is affected by the rough bed elements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carvalho, R.D.M.; Venturini, O.J.; Tanahashi, E.I. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba (Brazil); Neves, F. Jr. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba (Brazil); Franca, F.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas (Brazil)
2009-10-15
Multiphase flows are very common in industry, oftentimes involving very harsh environments and fluids. Accordingly, there is a need to determine the dispersed phase holdup using noninvasive fast responding techniques; besides, knowledge of the flow structure is essential for the assessment of the transport processes involved. The ultrasonic technique fulfills these requirements and could have the capability to provide the information required. In this paper, the potential of the ultrasonic technique for application to two-phase flows was investigated by checking acoustic attenuation data against experimental data on the void fraction and flow topology of vertical, upward, air-water bubbly flows in the zero to 15% void fraction range. The ultrasonic apparatus consisted of one emitter/receiver transducer and three other receivers at different positions along the pipe circumference; simultaneous high-speed motion pictures of the flow patterns were made at 250 and 1000 fps. The attenuation data for all sensors exhibited a systematic interrelated behavior with void fraction, thereby testifying to the capability of the ultrasonic technique to measure the dispersed phase holdup. From the motion pictures, basic gas phase structures and different flows patterns were identified that corroborated several features of the acoustic attenuation data. Finally, the acoustic wave transit time was also investigated as a function of void fraction. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanfang Huang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Multiphase flow measurements have become increasingly important in a wide range of industrial fields. In the present study, a dual needle-contact capacitance probe was newly designed to measure local void fractions and bubble velocity in a vertical channel, which was verified by digital high-speed camera system. The theoretical analyses and experiments show that the needle-contact capacitance probe can reliably measure void fractions with the readings almost independent of temperature and salinity for the experimental conditions. In addition, the trigger-level method was chosen as the signal processing method for the void fraction measurement, with a minimum relative error of −4.59%. The bubble velocity was accurately measured within a relative error of 10%. Meanwhile, dynamic response of the dual needle-contact capacitance probe was analyzed in detail. The probe was then used to obtain raw signals for vertical pipe flow regimes, including plug flow, slug flow, churn flow, and bubbly flow. Further experiments indicate that the time series of the output signals vary as the different flow regimes and are consistent with each flow structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koerner, S.; Friedel, L. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Stroemungsmechanik
1998-05-01
For the prediction of the establishing two-phase massflow for a given pressure difference across a narrow rectangular gap, beside others, the knowledge of the change of state of the gas phase and the fluiddynamic non-equilibrium in form of the slip velocity between the phases is needed. For an air/water bubbly flow it turned out by using high-speed cinematography that apart from the quick pressure decrease during the rapid acceleration at the gap inlet no significant difference between the measured and the predicted bubble size changes assuming an isothermal change of state of the air bubbles could be detected. The measured mean bubble velocities do not considerably deviate from the values calculated on the basis of a homogeneous flow. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Vorhersage des sich bei gegebener Druckdifferenz einstellenden Massenstroms eines Zweiphasengemischs durch enge Spalte ist neben der Zustandsaenderung der Gasphase waehrend der Druckabsenkung u.a. auch die Kenntnis des sich dabei einstellenden fluiddynamischen Ungleichgewichts in Form einer Relativgeschwindigkeit zwischen den Phasen von Bedeutung. Diese beiden Einfluesse wurden mit Hilfe der Hochgeschwindigkeitskinematographie fuer eine Wasser/Luft-Blasenstroemung untersucht. Abgesehen von der raschen Druckabsenkung aufgrund der ploetzlichen Querschnittsverengung im Spalteintritt treten keine nennenswerten Unterschiede zwischen den experimentell ermittelten und den unter der Annahme einer isothermen Zustandsaenderungen berechneten Volumenaenderung verschiedengrosser Blasen auf. Die mittlere Geschwindigkeit der Blasen unterscheidet sich dabei nicht wesentlich von der unter der Annahme einer homogenen Stroemung berechneten. (orig.)
Liquid velocity in upward and downward air-water flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Xiaodong; Paranjape, Sidharth; Kim, Seungjin; Ozar, Basar; Ishii, Mamoru
2004-01-01
Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void-weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions
Groen, J.S.
2004-01-01
In this project a detailed experimental analysis was performed of the dynamic flow field in bubbly flows, with the purpose of determining local hydrodynamics and scale effects. Measurements were done in gas-liquid systems (air-water bubble columns) and in gas-solid systems (air-sand bubbing
Hot-film anemometry in air-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delahaye, J.M.; Galaup, J.P.
1975-01-01
Local measurements of void fraction and liquid velocity in a steady-state air-water bubbly flow at atmospheric pressure are presented. Use was made of a constant temperature anemometer and of a conical hot-film probe. The signal was processed with a multi-channel analyzer. Void fraction and liquid velocities are determined from the amplitude histogram of the signal. The integrated void fraction over a diameter is compared with the average void fraction along the same diameter obtained with a γ-ray absorption method. The liquid volumetric flow-rate is calculated from the void fraction and liquid velocity profiles and compared with the indication given by a turbine flowmeter [fr
Flow visualization using bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henry, J.P.
1974-01-01
Soap bubbles were used for visualizing flows. The tests effected allowed some characteristics of flows around models in blow tunnels to be precised at mean velocities V 0 5 . The velocity of a bubble is measured by chronophotography, the bulk envelope of the trajectories is also registered [fr
A test section design to simulate horizontal two-phase air-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Cesar, Silvia B.G.; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos; Addor, Pedro N.
2002-01-01
In this work an air-water two-phase flow horizontal test section assembling at Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) is presented. The test section was designed to allow four-phase flow patterns to be simulated: bubble flow, stratified flow, wave flow and slug flow. These flow patterns will be identified by non-conventional ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. Based on the separated flow and drift-flux models the test section design steps are shown. A description of the test section and its instrumentation and data acquisition system is also provided. (author)
Air-water two-phase flow through a pipe junction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suu, Tetsuo
1991-01-01
The distribution of the local void fraction across the section of the conduit was studied experimentally in air-water two-phase flow flowing through a pipe junction with the branching angle of 90deg and the area ratio of unity. As in the previous report, the main conduit of the junction was set up vertically and upward air-water bubbly and slug flows were arranged in the main upstream section. If the flow regime, the quality and the ratio of lateral mass flow discharge of water to total mass flow discharge of water are the same, the larger the Reynolds number is, the more violent the variety of the local void fraction distribution adjacent to the branching part in the lateral conduit is. However, the variety in the main downstream section is scarcely influenced by the Reynolds number. (author)
Structure of two-phase air-water flows. Study of average void fraction and flow patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roumy, R.
1969-01-01
This report deals with experimental work on a two phase air-water mixture in vertical tubes of different diameters. The average void fraction was measured in a 2 metre long test section by means of quick-closing valves. Using resistive probes and photographic techniques, we have determined the flow patterns and developed diagrams to indicate the boundaries between the various patterns: independent bubbles, agglomerated bubbles, slugs, semi-annular, annular. In the case of bubble flow and slug flow, it is shown that the relationship between the average void fraction and the superficial velocities of the phases is given by: V sg = f( ) * g(V sl ). The function g(V sl ) for the case of independent bubbles has been found to be: g(V sl ) = V sl + 20. For semi-annular and annular flow conditions; it appears that the average void fraction depends, to a first approximation only on the ratio V sg /V sl . (author) [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koerner, S.; Friedel, L. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)
1997-12-01
To predict the mass flow of a two phase mixture at a given pressure difference through narrow gaps, apart from the change in state of the gas phase during pressure reduction, the knowledge of the fluid dynamics on balance which occurs in the form of a relative velocity between the phases is important. These two influences were examined with the aid of high speed cinematography for a water/air bubble flow. Apart from the quick reduction in pressure due to the sudden reduction in crossection at the entry to the gap, there are no significant differences between the experimentally determined volume change in bubbles of different sizes and that calculated assuming an isothermal change in state. The mean velocity of the bubbles does not differ appreciably from that calculated assuming an homogeneous flow. [Deutsch] Zur Vorhersage des sich bei gegebener Druckdifferenz einstellenden Massenstroms eines Zweiphasengemischs durch enge Spalte ist neben der Zustandsaenderung der Gasphase waehrend der Druckabsenkung u.a. auch die Kenntnis des sich dabei einstellenden fluiddynamischen Ungleichgewichts in Form einer Relativgeschwindigkeit zwischen den Phasen von Bedeutung. Diese beiden Einfluesse wurden mit Hilfe der Hochgeschwindigkeitskinematographie fuer eine Wasser/Luft-Blasenstroemung untersucht. Abgesehen von der raschen Druckabsenkung aufgrund der ploetzlichen Querschnittsverengung im Spalteintritt treten keine nennenswerten Unterschiede zwischen den experimentell ermittelten und den unter der Annahme einer isothermen Zustandsaenderungen berechneten Volumenaenderung verschiedengrosser Blasen auf. Die mittlere Geschwindigkeit der Blasen unterscheidet sich dabei nicht wesentlich von der unter der Annahme einer homogenen Stroemung berechneten. (orig.)
Impact of bubble wakes on a developing bubble flow in a vertical pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomiyama, A.; Makino, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Tamai, H.; Serizawa, A.; Zun, I.
1998-01-01
Three-dimensional two-way bubble tracking simulation of single large air bubbles rising through a stagnant water filled in a vertical pipe was conducted to investigate the structures of bubble wakes. Spatial distributions of time-averaged liquid velocity field, turbulent intensity and Reynolds stress caused by bubble wakes were deduced from the calculated local instantaneous liquid velocities. It was confirmed that wake structures are completely different from the ones estimated by a conventional wake model. Then, we developed a simple wake model based on the predicted time-averaged wake velocity fields, and implemented it into a 3D one-way bubble tracking method to examine the impact of bubble wake structures on time-spatial evolution of a developing air-water bubble flow in a vertical pipe. As a results, we confirmed that the developed wake model can give better prediction for flow pattern evolution than a conventional wake model
A study on the characteristics of upward air-water two-phase flow in a large pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Xiuzhong; Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakamura, Hideo
2003-01-01
Adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical large pipe (inner diameter, D: 0.2 m, ratio of pipe length to diameter, L/D: 60.5.) was experimentally investigated under various inlet conditions. Flow regime was observed and void fraction, bubble frequency, Sauter mean diameter, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and interfacial direction were measured with optical four-sensor probe. Characteristics of various flow regimes were analyzed carefully. Both the void fraction and the IAC demonstrated radial wall-peak and core-peak distributions in the undisturbed bubbly flow and the other flow regimes, respectively. The existence of bubbly secondary flow accounts for the core-peak distribution in the agitated bubbly, churn bubbly, churn slug and churn froth flow. The bubble frequency showed a wall-peak radial distribution only when the bubbles were small in diameter and the flow was in the undisturbed bubbly flow. The Sauter mean diameter of bubbles did not change much in the main flow of undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly and churn bubbly flow regimes and showed a core peak radial distribution in the churn slug flow. In the latter flow regime, the secondary flow disintegrated the bubbles, resulting in the decrease of the Sauter mean diameter. The measurements of the interfacial direction showed that the bubbly main flow and secondary flow can be displayed by the main flow peak and the secondary flow peak, respectively, in the PDF of the interfacial directional angle between the interfacial direction and the z-axis, η zi . The local average η zi at the bubble front hemispheres reflects the local bubble movement and is in direct connection with the flow regimes. Based on the analysis, the authors classified the flow regimes in the vertical large pipe quantitatively by the local average η zi . Bubbles in the liquid phase moved in a zigzag line with no inclination toward any direction in the plane vertical to z-axis in the pipe core. The axial differential
Development of Interfacial Structure in a Confined Air-Water Cap-Turbulent and Churn-Turbulent Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, X.; Kim, S.; Cheng, L.; Ishii, M.; Beus, S.G.
2001-01-01
The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined test section. Experiments of a total of 9 flow conditions in a cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 20-cm in width and 1-cm in gap. The miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. The bubbles captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired parameters are time-averaged local void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for both groups of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structure along the flow direction due to bubble interactions
Development of Interfacial Structure in a Confined Air-Water Cap-Turbulent and Churn-Turbulent Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Ling Cheng; Mamoru Ishii; Beus, Stephen G.
2002-01-01
The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined test section. Experiments of a total of 9 flow conditions in cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. Miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. The bubbles captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired parameters are time-averaged local void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for both groups of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structure along the flow direction due to bubble interactions. (authors)
Three dimensional turbulence structure measurements in air/water two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.K.L.
1986-01-01
The phenomena of turbulent air/water two phase upward and downward flows in a circular test section were investigated. Important flow quantities such as void fraction, liquid velocity, and Reynolds stresses were measured by using both single sensor and three sensor hot film probes. A digital data processing technique based on combined derivative and level thresholding was developed to determine the local void fraction from hot-film anemometer signals. The measured local void fraction was integrated and the result was compared with the chordal averaged void fraction measured by a gamma ray densitometer. It was found that the local measurement underestimated local void fraction due to surface tension effects and bubble deflection by the probe. A correlation based on local parameters characterizing probe/bubble interaction was developed, and it corrected the measured void fraction successfully. The measured void fraction profiles in upward flow and downward flow showed two distinct patterns. In upward flow, bubbles tend to migrate toward the wall and the void fraction profile shows a sharp peak near the wall. In downward flow, as the liquid velocity increases, the wall peaking phenomenon fades out and bubbles tend to migrate toward the center of the pipe
Interfacial area transport in a confined Bubbly flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering; Lincoln, F. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, Bechtel Bettis, Inc., PA (United States)
2001-07-01
The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired in an adiabatic air-water upward two-phase flow loop with a test section of 20 cm in width and 1 cm in gap. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of {+-}10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. (author)
Flowing Air-Water Cooled Slab Nd: Glass Laser
Lu, Baida; Cai, Bangwei; Liao, Y.; Xu, Shifa; Xin, Z.
1989-03-01
A zig-zag optical path slab geometry Nd: glass laser cooled through flowing air-water is developed by us. Theoretical studies on temperature distribution of slab and rod configurations in the unsteady state clarify the advantages of the slab geometry laser. The slab design and processing are also reported. In our experiments main laser output characteristics, e. g. laser efficiency, polarization, far-field divergence angle as well as resonator misalignment are investigated. The slab phosphate glass laser in combination with a crossed Porro-prism resonator demonstrates a good laser performance.
Experimental study of bubbly flow using image processing techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycfu@vt.edu; Liu, Yang, E-mail: liu130@vt.edu
2016-12-15
This paper presents an experimental study of bubbly flows at relatively high void fractions using an advanced image processing method. Bubble overlapping is a common problem in such flows and the past studies often treat the overlapping bubbles as a whole, which introduces considerable measurement uncertainties. In this study, a hybrid method combining intersection point detection and watershed segmentation is used to separate the overlapping bubbles. In order to reconstruct bubbles from separated segments, a systematic procedure is developed which can preserve more features captured in the raw image compared to the simple ellipse fitting method. The distributions of void fraction, interfacial area concentration, number density and velocity are obtained from the extracted bubble information. High-speed images of air-water bubbly flows are acquired and processed for eight test runs conducted in a 30 mm × 10 mm rectangular channel. The developed image processing scheme can effectively separate overlapping bubbles and the results compare well with the measurements by the gas flow meter and double-sensor conductivity probe. The development of flows in transverse and mainstream directions are analyzed and compared with the prediction made by the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE) and the bubble number density transport equation.
Slug flooding in air-water countercurrent vertical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jae Young; Raman, Roger; Chang, Jen-Shih
2000-01-01
This paper is to study slug flooding in the vertical air-water countercurrent flow loop with a porous liquid injector in the upper plenum. More water penetration into the bottom plenum in slug flooding is observed than the annular flooding because the flow regime changes from the slug flow regime or periodic slug/annular flow regime to annular flow regime due to the hysteresis between the onset of flooding and the bridging film. Experiments were made tubes of 0.995 cm, 2.07 cm, and 5.08 cm in diameter. A mechanistic model for the slug flooding with the solitary wave whose height is four time of the mean film thickness is developed to produce relations of the critical liquid flow rate and the mean film thickness. After fitting the critical liquid flow rate with the experimental data as a function of the Bond number, the gas flow rate for the slug flooding is obtained by substituting the critical liquid flow rate to the annular flooding criteria. The present experimental data evaluate the slug flooding condition developed here by substituting the correlations for mean film thickness models in the literature. The best prediction was made by the correlation for the mean film thickness of the present study which is same as Feind's correlation multiplied by 1.35. (author)
Optical characterization of bubbly flows with a near-critical-angle scattering technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onofri, Fabrice R.A.; Krzysiek, Mariusz [IUSTI, UMR, CNRS, University of Provence, Polytech' DME, Technopole Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France); Mroczka, Janusz [CEPM, Technical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Ren, Kuan-Fang [CORIA, UMR, CNRS, University of Rouen, Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray (France); Radev, Stefan [IMECH, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bonnet, Jean-Philippe [M2P2, UMR, CNRS, University Paul Cezanne, Aix-en-Provence (France)
2009-10-15
The newly developed critical angle refractometry and sizing technique (CARS) allows simultaneous and instantaneous characterization of the local size distribution and the relative refractive index (i.e. composition) of a cloud of bubbles. The paper presents the recent improvement of this technique by comparison of different light scattering models and inversion procedures. Experimental results carried in various air/water and air/water-ethanol bubbly flows clearly demonstrate the efficiency and the potential of this technique. (orig.)
Horizontal Air-Water Flow Analysis with Wire Mesh Sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Salve, M; Monni, G; Panella, B
2012-01-01
A Wire Mesh Sensor, based on the measurement of the local instantaneous conductivity of the two-phase mixture, has been used to characterize the fluid dynamics of the gas–liquid interface in a horizontal pipe flow. Experiments with a pipe of a nominal diameter of 19.5 mm and total length of 6 m, have been performed with air/water mixtures, at ambient conditions. The flow quality ranges from 0.00016 to 0.22 and the superficial velocities range from 0.1 to 10.5 m/s for air and from 0.02 to 1.7 m/s for water; the flow pattern is stratified, slug/plug and annular. A sensor (WMS200) with an inner diameter of 19.5 mm and a measuring matrix of 16×16 points equally distributed over the cross-section has been chosen for the measurements. From the analysis of the Wire Mesh Sensor digital signals the average and the local void fraction are evaluated and the flow patterns are identified with reference to space, time and flow rate boundary conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, T. H.; Yun, B. J.; Jeong, J. H. [Pusan National University, Geunjeong-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Studies were mostly about flow in upward flow in medium size circular tube. Although there are great differences between upward and downward flow, studies on vertical upward flow are much more active than those on vertical downward flow in a channel. In addition, due to the increase of surface forces and friction pressure drop, the pattern of gas-liquid two-phase flow bounded to the gap of inside the rectangular channel is different from that in a tube. The downward flow in a rectangular channel is universally applicable to cool the plate type nuclear fuel in research reactor. The sub-channel of the plate type nuclear fuel is designed with a few millimeters. Downward air-water two-phase flow in vertical rectangular channel was experimentally observed. The depth, width, and length of the rectangular channel is 2.35 mm, 66.7 mm, and 780 mm, respectively. The test section consists of transparent acrylic plates confined within a stainless steel frame. The flow patterns of the downward flow in high liquid velocity appeared to be similar to those observed in previous studies with upward flow. In downward flow, the transition lines for bubbly-slug and slug-churn flow shift to left in the flow regime map constructed with abscissa of the superficial gas velocity and ordinate of the superficial liquid velocity. The flow patterns observed with downward flow at low liquid velocity are different from those with upward flow.
Air-water flow in a vertical pipe with sudden changes of superficial water velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horst-Michael Prasser; Eckhard Krepper; Thomas Frank
2005-01-01
tests showing a monodisperse bubble size distribution were compared to CFD calculations using the code CFX-5. Applying the two fluid approach, the momentum interaction between the liquid and gas phase was considered. Additional to the interphase drag the non-drag forces like lift, wall lubrication and turbulent dispersion forces were taken into account, where the latter lead to the finally observable gas volume fraction distributions in the measurement cross section at z = 3.03 m due to their lateral balance perpendicular to the main flow direction. Detailed transient numerical simulations provide deep insight into the phase interaction, the physics and the transient behavior of the studied air-water two-phase flows. For the experimental conditions of dispersed bubbly flows without or with neglectable bubble coalescence and breakup the main flow features observed in the experiments could be reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively by the numerical simulation. Further research will be undertaken for the investigation of flow regime transition from gaseous phase volume fraction wall peak to core peak dominated flows. Further investigations will also include compressibility effects for the disperse bubbly phase. (authors)
Fluid dynamics of bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziegenhein, Thomas
2016-01-01
Bubbly flows can be found in many applications in chemical, biological and power engineering. Reliable simulation tools of such flows that allow the design of new processes and optimization of existing one are therefore highly desirable. CFD-simulations applying the multi-fluid approach are very promising to provide such a design tool for complete facilities. In the multi-fluid approach, however, closure models have to be formulated to model the interaction between the continuous and dispersed phase. Due to the complex nature of bubbly flows, different phenomena have to be taken into account and for every phenomenon different closure models exist. Therefore, reliable predictions of unknown bubbly flows are not yet possible with the multi-fluid approach. A strategy to overcome this problem is to define a baseline model in which the closure models including the model constants are fixed so that the limitations of the modeling can be evaluated by validating it on different experiments. Afterwards, the shortcomings are identified so that the baseline model can be stepwise improved without losing the validity for the already validated cases. This development of a baseline model is done in the present work by validating the baseline model developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf mainly basing on experimental data for bubbly pipe flows to bubble columns, bubble plumes and air-lift reactors that are relevant in chemical and biological engineering applications. In the present work, a large variety of such setups is used for validation. The buoyancy driven bubbly flows showed thereby a transient behavior on the scale of the facility. Since such large scales are characterized by the geometry of the facility, turbulence models cannot describe them. Therefore, the transient simulation of bubbly flows with two equation models based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. In combination with the before mentioned baseline model these
Fluid dynamics of bubbly flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ziegenhein, Thomas
2016-07-08
Bubbly flows can be found in many applications in chemical, biological and power engineering. Reliable simulation tools of such flows that allow the design of new processes and optimization of existing one are therefore highly desirable. CFD-simulations applying the multi-fluid approach are very promising to provide such a design tool for complete facilities. In the multi-fluid approach, however, closure models have to be formulated to model the interaction between the continuous and dispersed phase. Due to the complex nature of bubbly flows, different phenomena have to be taken into account and for every phenomenon different closure models exist. Therefore, reliable predictions of unknown bubbly flows are not yet possible with the multi-fluid approach. A strategy to overcome this problem is to define a baseline model in which the closure models including the model constants are fixed so that the limitations of the modeling can be evaluated by validating it on different experiments. Afterwards, the shortcomings are identified so that the baseline model can be stepwise improved without losing the validity for the already validated cases. This development of a baseline model is done in the present work by validating the baseline model developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf mainly basing on experimental data for bubbly pipe flows to bubble columns, bubble plumes and air-lift reactors that are relevant in chemical and biological engineering applications. In the present work, a large variety of such setups is used for validation. The buoyancy driven bubbly flows showed thereby a transient behavior on the scale of the facility. Since such large scales are characterized by the geometry of the facility, turbulence models cannot describe them. Therefore, the transient simulation of bubbly flows with two equation models based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. In combination with the before mentioned baseline model these
Image processing analysis on the air-water slug two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe
Dinaryanto, Okto; Widyatama, Arif; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Deendarlianto, Indarto
2016-06-01
Slug flow is a part of intermittent flow which is avoided in industrial application because of its irregularity and high pressure fluctuation. Those characteristics cause some problems such as internal corrosion and the damage of the pipeline construction. In order to understand the slug characteristics, some of the measurement techniques can be applied such as wire-mesh sensors, CECM, and high speed camera. The present study was aimed to determine slug characteristics by using image processing techniques. Experiment has been carried out in 26 mm i.d. acrylic horizontal pipe with 9 m long. Air-water flow was recorded 5 m from the air-water mixer using high speed video camera. Each of image sequence was processed using MATLAB. There are some steps including image complement, background subtraction, and image filtering that used in this algorithm to produce binary images. Special treatments also were applied to reduce the disturbance effect of dispersed bubble around the bubble. Furthermore, binary images were used to describe bubble contour and calculate slug parameter such as gas slug length, gas slug velocity, and slug frequency. As a result the effect of superficial gas velocity and superficial liquid velocity on the fundamental parameters can be understood. After comparing the results to the previous experimental results, the image processing techniques is a useful and potential technique to explain the slug characteristics.
Transition from slug to annular flow in horizontal air-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reismann, J.; John, H.; Seeger, W.
1981-11-01
The transition from slug to annular flow in horizontal air-water and steam-water flow was investigated. Test sections of 50; 66.6 and 80 mm ID were used. The system pressure was 0.2 and 0.5 MPa in the air-water experiments and 2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 MPa in the steam-water experiments. For flow pattern detection local impedance probes were used. This method was compared in a part of the experiments with differential pressure and gamma-beam measurements. The flow regime boundary is shifting strongly to smaller values of the superficial gas velocity with increasing pressure. Correlations from literature fit unsatisfactorily the experimental results. A new correlation is presented. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozar, Basar; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru; Euh, Dong-Jin
2009-01-01
The interfacial area transport of vertical, upward, air-water two-phase flows in an annular channel has been investigated at different system pressures. The inner and outer diameters of the annular channel were 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. Twenty three inlet flow conditions were selected, which coverED bubbly, cap-slug, and churn-turbulent flows. These flow conditions also overlapped with twelve conditions of our previous study for comparison. The local flow parameters, such as void fractions, interfacial area concentrations (IAC), and bubble interface velocities, were measured at nine radial positions for the three axial locations (z/D h =52, 149 and 230) and converted into area-averaged parameters. The axial evolutions of local flow structure was interpreted in terms of bubble coalescence, breakup, expansion of the gas-phase due to pressure drop and system pressure. An assessment of interfacial area transport equation (IATE) was made and compared with the experimental data. A discussion of the comparison between model prediction and the experimental results were made. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Inada, Fumio
2004-01-01
Air-water two-phase flow experiment was conducted to examine the basic flow characteristics of a centrifugal gas-liquid separator. Vertical transparent test section, which is 4 m in height, was used to imitate the scale of a BWR separator. Flow rate conditions of gas and liquid were fixed at 0.1 m 3 /s and 0.033 m 3 /s, respectively. Radial distributions of two-phase flow characteristics, such as void fraction, gas velocity and bubble chord length, were measured by traversing dual optical void probes in the test section, horizontally. The flow in the standpipe reached to quasi-developed state within the height-to-diameter aspect ratio H/D=10, which in turn can mean the maximum value for an ideal height design of a standpipe. The liquid film in the barrel showed a maximum thickness at 0.5 to 1 m in height from the swirler exit, which was a common result for three different standpipe length conditions, qualitatively and quantitatively. The empirical database obtained in this study would contribute practically to the validation of numerical analyses for an actual separator in a plant, and would also be academically useful for further investigations of two-phase flow in large-diameter pipes. (author)
Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields
Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S
2002-01-01
A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation
Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flow in a square bubble column
Bai, Wei; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2010-01-01
The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serizawa, A.; Huda, K.; Yamada, Y.; Kataoka, I.
1997-01-01
Experimental and numerical analyses were carried out on vertically upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow behavior in both horizontal and inclined rod bundles with either in-line or staggered array. The inclination angle of the rod bundle varied from 0 to 60 with respect to the horizontal. The measured phase distribution indicated non-uniform characteristics, particularly in the direction of the rod axis when the rods were inclined. The mechanisms for this non-uniform phase distribution is supposed to be due to: (1) Bubble segregation phenomenon which depends on the bubble size and shape: (2) bubble entrainment by the large scale secondary flow induced by the pressure gradient in the horizontal direction which crosses the rod bundle; (3) effects of bubble entrapment by vortices generated in the wake behind the rods which travel upward along the rod axis; and (4) effect of bubble entrainment by local flows sliding up along the front surface of the rods. The liquid velocity and turbulence distributions were also measured and discussed. In these speculations, the mechanisms for bubble bouncing at the curved rod surface and turbulence production induced by a bubble were discussed, based on visual observations. Finally, the bubble behaviors in vertically upward bubbly two-phase flow across horizontal rod bundle were analyzed based on a particle tracking method (one-way coupling). The predicted bubble trajectories clearly indicated the bubble entrapment by vortices in the wake region. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Xinquan [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sun, Xiaodong, E-mail: sun.200@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Liu, Yang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, 635 Prices Fork Road, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)
2016-12-15
This paper focuses on liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions and flow regimes, spanning from bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, to churn-turbulent flows. The measurements have been conducted in two test facilities, the first one with a circular test section and the second one with a rectangular test section. A particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system was used to acquire local liquid-phase turbulence information, including the time-averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise directions, and Reynolds stress. An optical phase separation method using fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique was adopted to extract the liquid-phase velocity information. An image pre-processing scheme was imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noise due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the raw PIV images. Four-sensor conductivity probes and high-speed images were also used to acquire the gas-phase information, which was aimed to understand the flow interfacial structure. The highest area-averaged void fraction covered in the measurements for the circular and rectangular test sections was about 40%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Xinquan; Sun, Xiaodong; Liu, Yang
2016-01-01
This paper focuses on liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions and flow regimes, spanning from bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, to churn-turbulent flows. The measurements have been conducted in two test facilities, the first one with a circular test section and the second one with a rectangular test section. A particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system was used to acquire local liquid-phase turbulence information, including the time-averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise directions, and Reynolds stress. An optical phase separation method using fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique was adopted to extract the liquid-phase velocity information. An image pre-processing scheme was imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noise due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the raw PIV images. Four-sensor conductivity probes and high-speed images were also used to acquire the gas-phase information, which was aimed to understand the flow interfacial structure. The highest area-averaged void fraction covered in the measurements for the circular and rectangular test sections was about 40%.
Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi
2014-01-01
In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable
Interfacial structures in downward two-phase bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, S.S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.
2003-01-01
Downward two-phase flow was studied considering its significance in view of Light Water Reactor Accidents (LWR) such as Loss of Heat Sink (LOHS) by feed water loss or secondary pipe break. The flow studied, was an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, vertically downward two-phase flow. The experimental test sections had internal hydraulic diameters of 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm. Flow regime map was obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology to minimize the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. A four sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, which characterize the interfacial structures. The local time averaged two-phase flow parameters measured were: void fraction (α), interfacial area concentration (a i ), bubble velocity (v g ), and Sauter mean diameter (D Sm ). The flow conditions were from the bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development revealed the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provided a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along the flow field. An interfacial area transport equation was developed for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration were compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.M.
2003-01-01
To qualify CFD codes for two-phase flows, they have to be equipped with constitutive laws describing the interaction between the gaseous and the liquid phases. In the case of bubble flow this particularly concerns the forces acting on the bubbles and bubble coalescence and break-up. To obtain detailed experimental data, an electrode wire-mesh sensor was used, which enables the measurement of the phase distribution with a very high resolution in space and in time. Air-water flow at ambient conditions in a vertical pipe (51.2 mm inner diameter) is investigated to have well defined boundary conditions. Local bubble size distributions are calculated from the data. The measurements were done in different distances from the gas injection device. As a result the development of bubble size distributions as well as the development of the radial gas fraction profiles can be studied. It was found, that the bubble size distribution as well as local effects determine the transition from bubble flow to slug flow. The data are used for the development of a model, which predicts the development of the bubble size distribution and the transition from bubble flow to slug flow in case of stationary flow in a vertical pipe. (orig.)
CFD simulations of a bubbly flow in a vertical pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krepper, E.
1999-01-01
Even at the very simple conditions of two phase flow in a vertical pipe, strong 3D effects are observed. The distribution of the gas phase over the cross section varies significantly between the different flow patterns, which are known for the vertical two-phase flow. The air water flow in a vertical tube having a diameter of 50 mm and a length of about 3 m was investigated in steady state tests for different liquid and gas superficial velocities. Several two phase flow measuring techniques were used. Applying a wire mesh sensor, developed in FZR, the void fraction could be determined over the whole cross section of the pipe. The working principle is based on the measurement of the local instantaneous conductivity of the two-phase mixture. At the investigated flow velocities, the rate of the image acquisition is sufficient to record the same bubble several times. This enables to determine bubble diameter distributions. Applying two similar wire mesh sensors with a distance of 50 mm one above the other, the influence of the wire mesh to the flow could be investigated. No essential disturbances of the two-phase flow by the mesh could be found for the investigated flow regimes. Performing an auto correlation between the signals of both sensors, also profiles of the gas velocity were determined. (orig.)
Local measurements in turbulent bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzanne, C.; Ellingsen, K.; Risso, F.; Roig, V.
1998-01-01
Local measurements methods in bubbly flows are discussed. Concerning liquid velocity measurement, problems linked to HFA and LDA are first analysed. Then simultaneously recorded velocity signals obtained by both anemometers are compared. New signal processing are developed for the two techniques. Bubble sizes and velocities measurements methods using intrusive double optical sensor probe are presented. Plane bubbly mixing layer has been investigated. Local measurements using the described methods are presented as examples. (author)
Interfacial area transport of bubbly flow in a small diameter pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hibiki, Takashi; Takamasa, Tomoji; Ishii, Mamoru
2001-01-01
In relation to the development of the interfacial area transport equation, this study focused on modeling of the interfacial area transport mechanism of vertical adiabatic air-water bubbly flows in a relatively small diameter pipe where the bubble size-to-pipe diameter ratio was relatively high and the radial motion of bubbles was restricted by the presence of the pipe wall. The sink term of the interfacial area concentration was modeled by considering wake entrainment as a possible bubble coalescence mechanism, whereas the source term was neglected by assuming negligibly small bubble breakup for low liquid velocity conditions based on visual observation. One-dimensional interfacial area transport equation with the derived sink term was evaluated by using five datasets of vertical adiabatic air-water bubbly flows measured in a 9.0 mm-diameter pipe (superficial gas velocity: 0.013-0.052 m/s, superficial liquid velocity: 0.58-1.0 m/s). The modeled interfacial area transport equation could reproduce the proper trend of the axial interfacial area transport and predict the measured interfacial area concentrations within an average relative deviation of ±11.1%. It was recognized that the present model would be promising for predicting the interfacial area transport of the examined bubbly flows. (author)
Structure and kinematics of bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lackme, C.
1967-01-01
This report deals with the components and use of resistivity probes in bubble flow. With a single probe, we have studied the longitudinal and radial structure of the flow. The very complicated evolution of the radial structure is shown by the measurement of the mean bubble flux at several points in the tube. A double probe associated with a device the principle of which is given in this report, permits the measure of the local velocity of bubbles. Unlike the mean bubble flux profile, the change in the velocity profile along the tube is not significant. We have achieved the synthesis of these two pieces of information, mean local bubble flux and local velocity, by computing the mean weighed velocity in the tube. This weighed velocity compares remarkably with the velocity computed from the volumetric gas flow rate and the mean void fraction. (author) [fr
CFD simulations of a bubbly flow in a vertical pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krepper, E.
2000-01-01
Even at the very simple conditions of two phase flow in a vertical pipe, strong 3D effects are observed. The distribution of the gas phase over the cross section varies significantly between the different flow patterns, which are known for the vertical two-phase flow. The air water flow in a vertical tube having a diameter of 50 mm and a length of about 3 m was investigated in steady state tests for different liquid and gas superficial velocities. Several two phase flow measuring techniques were used. Applying a wire mesh sensor, developed in FZR, the void fraction could be determined over the whole cross section of the pipe. The working principle is based on the measurement of the local instantaneous conductivity of the two-phase mixture. At the investigated flow velocities, the rate of the image acquisition is sufficient to record the same bubble several times. This enables to determine bubble diameter distributions. Applying two similar wire mesh sensors with a distance of 50 mm one above the other, the influence of the wire mesh to the flow could be investigated. No essential disturbances of the two-phase flow by the mesh could be found for the investigated flow regimes. Performing an auto correlation between the signals of both sensors, also profiles of the gas velocity were determined. In the CFD code CFX-4.2 several two-phase flow models were available. Using the code, volume fraction profiles were calculated and compared to the measured results for bubble flow regimes, to investigate the capability of these models (see also Krepper and Prasser [4] (1999)). (orig.)
Average properties of bidisperse bubbly flows
Serrano-García, J. C.; Mendez-Díaz, S.; Zenit, R.
2018-03-01
Experiments were performed in a vertical channel to study the properties of a bubbly flow composed of two distinct bubble size species. Bubbles were produced using a capillary bank with tubes with two distinct inner diameters; the flow through each capillary size was controlled such that the amount of large or small bubbles could be controlled. Using water and water-glycerin mixtures, a wide range of Reynolds and Weber number ranges were investigated. The gas volume fraction ranged between 0.5% and 6%. The measurements of the mean bubble velocity of each species and the liquid velocity variance were obtained and contrasted with the monodisperse flows with equivalent gas volume fractions. We found that the bidispersity can induce a reduction of the mean bubble velocity of the large species; for the small size species, the bubble velocity can be increased, decreased, or remain unaffected depending of the flow conditions. The liquid velocity variance of the bidisperse flows is, in general, bound by the values of the small and large monodisperse values; interestingly, in some cases, the liquid velocity fluctuations can be larger than either monodisperse case. A simple model for the liquid agitation for bidisperse flows is proposed, with good agreement with the experimental measurements.
Patterns of a slow air-water flow in a semispherical container
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.
2016-01-01
This numerical study analyzes the development of eddies in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a sealed semispherical container, driven by a rotating top disk. As the water height, Hw, increases, new flow cells emerge in both water and air. First, an eddy emerges near the axis-bottom int......This numerical study analyzes the development of eddies in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a sealed semispherical container, driven by a rotating top disk. As the water height, Hw, increases, new flow cells emerge in both water and air. First, an eddy emerges near the axis...... on the air flow. In contrast to flows in cylindrical and conical containers, there is no interaction with Moffatt corner vortices here....
Air-water two-phase flow in a four by four rod bundle with partial length rods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, Motoki; Kamei, Akihiro; Mizutani, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Shigeo; Tomiyama, Akio
2009-01-01
Partial length rods (PLR) are used in fuel bundles of BWR to reduce pressure drops in two-phase regions and to optimize the power distribution. Since little is known about effects of PLR on two-phase flows, air-water two-phase flow around PLRs in a four by four rod bundle is visualized by using a high-speed video camera. The experimental apparatus consists of acrylic channel box and transparent rods. Air and water at atmospheric pressure and room temperature are used for the gas and liquid phases, respectively. The ranges of the gas and liquid volume fluxes, J G and J L , are 0.4 L G L , the flow pattern in the downstream of PLR transits to slug flow, and the flow patterns in the surrounding subchannels transit to bubbly flow due to the redistribution of gas flow. (2) In annular flow, the liquid film on the PLR forms a liquid column above the end cap of PLR. Droplets are generated by column breakup and deposit on liquid films on the neighboring rods. (3) The liquid film thickness on the surface of neighbor rods facing the PLR increases and it reduces that on their opposite surface in the downstream of PLR. (author)
Air-water upward flow in prismatic channel of rectangular base
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Tofani, P. de.
1984-01-01
Experiments had carried out to investigate the two-phase upward air-water flow structure, in a rectangular test section, by using independent measuring techniques, which comprise direct viewing and photography, electrical probes and gamma-ray attenuation. Flow pattern maps and correlations for flow pattern transitions, void fraction profiles, liquid film thickness and superficial average void fraction are proposed and compared to available data. (Author) [pt
Visualization of an air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flows
Kim, Hyunseok; Park, Hyungmin
2017-11-01
In the present study, three-dimensional deformation of air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flows at the Reynolds numbers of Re = 3000 and 10000 is measured with RICM (Reflection Interference Contrast Microscopy) technique. Two different types of roughness feature of circular hole and rectangular grate are considered, whose depth is 20 μm and diameter (or width) is varied between 20-200 μm. Since the air-water interface is always at de-pinned state at the considered condition, air-water interface shape and its sagging velocity is maintained to be almost constant as time goes one. In comparison with the previous results under the laminar flow, due to turbulent characteristics of the flow, sagging velocity is much faster. Based on the measured sagging profiles, a modified model to describe the air-water interface dynamics under turbulent flows is suggested. Supported by City of Seoul through Seoul Urban Data Science Laboratory Project (Grant No 0660-20170004) administered by SNU Big Data Institute.
Internal structure and interfacial velocity development for bubbly two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Huang, W.D.
1994-01-01
This paper describes an experimental study of the internal structure of air-water flowing horizontally. The double-sensor resistivity probe technique was applied for measurements of local interfacial parameters, including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble size distributions, bubble passing frequency and bubble interface velocity. Bubbly flow patterns at several flow conditions were examined at three axial locations, L/D=25, 148 and 253, in which the first measurement represents the entrance region where the flow develops, and the second and third may represent near fully developed bubbly flow patterns. The experimental results are presented in three-dimensional perspective plots of the interfacial parameters over the cross-section. These multi-dimensional presentations showed that the local values of the void fraction, interfacial area concentration and bubble passing frequency were nearly constant over the cross-section at L/D=25, with slight local peaking close to the channel wall. Although similar local peakings were observed at the second and third locations, the internal flow structure segregation due to buoyancy appeared to be very strong in the axial direction. A simple comparison of profiles of the interfacial parameters at the three locations indicated that the flow pattern development was a continuous process. Finally, it was shown that the so-called ''fully developed'' bubbly two-phase flow pattern cannot be established in a horizontal pipe and that there was no strong correspondence between void fraction and interface velocity profiles. ((orig.))
Visual study of air--water mixtures flowing inside serpentine tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farukhi, M.N.; Parker, J.D.
1974-01-01
Hydrodynamic behavior of air-water mixtures flowing inside serpentine tubes, with bends in the vertical plane, was investigated. Flow visualization was accomplished by injecting dye into the liquid phase and recording the events on color slides and color movies. For certain combinations of gas and liquid flow rates, in the annular type flow regime, ''film inversion'' was observed in the bend as well as in the straight section immediately downstream of the bend. A new flow regime map particularly applicable to two phase flow inside serpentine tubes is presented. (U.S.)
Comparative study of wall-force models for the simulation of bubbly flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rzehak, Roland, E-mail: r.rzehak@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, POB 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Krepper, Eckhard, E-mail: E.Krepper@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, POB 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Lifante, Conxita, E-mail: Conxita.Lifante@ansys.com [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Staudenfeldweg 12, 83624 Otterfing (Germany)
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of common models for the wall force with an experimental database. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of suitable closure for bubbly flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enables prediction of location and height of wall peak in void fraction profiles. - Abstract: Accurate numerical prediction of void-fraction profiles in bubbly multiphase-flow relies on suitable closure models for the momentum exchange between liquid and gas phases. We here consider forces acting on the bubbles in the vicinity of a wall. A number of different models for this so-called wall-force have been proposed in the literature and are implemented in widely used CFD-codes. Simulations using a selection of these models are compared with a set of experimental data on bubbly air-water flow in round pipes of different diameter. Based on the results, recommendations on suitable closures are given.
An Eulerian-Eulerian CFD Simulation of Air-Water Flow in a Pipe Separator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.A. Afolabi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD of air-water flow using Eulerian –Eulerian multiphase model and RSM mixture turbulence model to investigate its hydrodynamic flow behaviour in a 30 mm pipe separator. The simulated results are then compared with the stereoscopic PIV measurements at different axial positions. The comparison shows that the velocity distribution can be predicted with high accuracy using CFD. The numerical velocity profiles are also found to be in good qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. However, there were some discrepancies between the CFD results and the SPIV measurements at some axial positions away from the inlet section. Therefore, the CFD model could provide good physical understanding on the hydrodynamics flow behaviour for air-water in a pipe separator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing Dianchuan; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Liu Jingyu
2013-01-01
Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for air-water bubbly flow in an inclined circular tube was performed by using the double sensor probe method. Parameters including radial distributions of local void fraction, bubble passing frequency, interfacial area concentration and bubble equivalent diameter were measured using the probe. The inner diameter of test section is 50 mm, and the liquid superficial velocity is 0.144 m/s, with the gas superficial velocity ranging from 0 to 0.054 m/is. The results show that bubbles obviously move toward the upper wall and congregate. The local interfacial area concentration, bubble passing frequency and void fraction have similar radial distribution profiles. Different from the vertical condition, for a cross-sectional area of the test section, the peak value near the upper side increases, while decreases or even disappears near the underside. The local parameter increases as the radial positions change from lower to upper location, and the increased slope becomes larger as the inclination angles increase. The equivalent bubble diameter doesn't vary with radial position, superficial gas velocity and inclination angle, and bubble aggregation and breaking up nearly doesn't occur. The mechanism of effects of inclination on local parameter distribution for bubbly flow is explained by analyzing the transverse force governing the bubble motion. (authors)
Gas transfer in a bubbly wake flow
Karn, A.; Gulliver, J. S.; Monson, G. M.; Ellis, C.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Hong, J.
2016-05-01
The present work reports simultaneous bubble size and gas transfer measurements in a bubbly wake flow of a hydrofoil, designed to be similar to a hydroturbine blade. Bubble size was measured by a shadow imaging technique and found to have a Sauter mean diameter of 0.9 mm for a reference case. A lower gas flow rate, greater liquid velocities, and a larger angle of attack all resulted in an increased number of small size bubbles and a reduced weighted mean bubble size. Bubble-water gas transfer is measured by the disturbed equilibrium technique. The gas transfer model of Azbel (1981) is utilized to characterize the liquid film coefficient for gas transfer, with one scaling coefficient to reflect the fact that characteristic turbulent velocity is replaced by cross-sectional mean velocity. The coefficient was found to stay constant at a particular hydrofoil configuration while it varied within a narrow range of 0.52-0.60 for different gas/water flow conditions.
Role of mixed boundaries on flow in open capillary channels with curved air-water interfaces.
Zheng, Wenjuan; Wang, Lian-Ping; Or, Dani; Lazouskaya, Volha; Jin, Yan
2012-09-04
Flow in unsaturated porous media or in engineered microfluidic systems is dominated by capillary and viscous forces. Consequently, flow regimes may differ markedly from conventional flows, reflecting strong interfacial influences on small bodies of flowing liquids. In this work, we visualized liquid transport patterns in open capillary channels with a range of opening sizes from 0.6 to 5.0 mm using laser scanning confocal microscopy combined with fluorescent latex particles (1.0 μm) as tracers at a mean velocity of ∼0.50 mm s(-1). The observed velocity profiles indicate limited mobility at the air-water interface. The application of the Stokes equation with mixed boundary conditions (i.e., no slip on the channel walls and partial slip or shear stress at the air-water interface) clearly illustrates the increasing importance of interfacial shear stress with decreasing channel size. Interfacial shear stress emerges from the velocity gradient from the adjoining no-slip walls to the center where flow is trapped in a region in which capillary forces dominate. In addition, the increased contribution of capillary forces (relative to viscous forces) to flow on the microscale leads to increased interfacial curvature, which, together with interfacial shear stress, affects the velocity distribution and flow pattern (e.g., reverse flow in the contact line region). We found that partial slip, rather than the commonly used stress-free condition, provided a more accurate description of the boundary condition at the confined air-water interface, reflecting the key role that surface/interface effects play in controlling flow behavior on the nanoscale and microscale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakawa, Hideki; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori
2003-01-01
Microscopic structure in bubbly flows has been a topic of interest in the study of fluid dynamics. In the present paper, the ultrasonic Doppler method was applied to the measurement of bubbly. The experiments were carried out for an air-water dispersed bubbly flow in a 20 mm x 100 mm vertical rectangular channel having a void fraction smaller than 3%. Two ultrasonic transducers were installed on the outer surface of the test section with a contact angle of 45deg off the vertical axis, one facing upward and the other facing downward. By applying statistical methods to the two directional velocity profiles. Reynolds stress profiles were calculated. Furthermore, to clarify the wake effect induced by the leading bubbles, the velocity profiles were divided into two types of data. The first one is for all of the liquid data and the other is the data which did not include the wake effect. For Re m ≥ 1,593, it was observed that the bubbles suppressed the liquid turbulence. Furthermore, comparing with the Reynolds stress profiles in bubbly flow, it was found that Reynolds stress profiles varied with the amount of bubbles present in the flow and the effect of wake causes turbulence in the liquid. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zboray, Robert [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Dangendorf, Volker; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig 38116 (Germany); Mor, Ilan [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel)
2015-07-15
In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously.
Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Mor, Ilan; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai
2015-07-01
In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously.
Prediction of adiabatic bubbly flows in TRACE using the interfacial area transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talley, J.; Worosz, T.; Kim, S.; Mahaffy, J.; Bajorek, S.; Tien, K.
2011-01-01
The conventional thermal-hydraulic reactor system analysis codes utilize a two-field, two-fluid formulation to model two-phase flows. To close this model, static flow regime transition criteria and algebraic relations are utilized to estimate the interfacial area concentration (a i ). To better reflect the continuous evolution of two-phase flow, an experimental version of TRACE is being developed which implements the interfacial area transport equation (IATE) to replace the flow regime based approach. Dynamic estimation of a i is provided through the use of mechanistic models for bubble coalescence and disintegration. To account for the differences in bubble interactions and drag forces, two-group bubble transport is sought. As such, Group 1 accounts for the transport of spherical and distorted bubbles, while Group 2 accounts for the cap, slug, and churn-turbulent bubbles. Based on this categorization, a two-group IATE applicable to the range of dispersed two-phase flows has been previously developed. Recently, a one-group, one-dimensional, adiabatic IATE has been implemented into the TRACE code with mechanistic models accounting for: (1) bubble breakup due to turbulent impact of an eddy on a bubble, (2) bubble coalescence due to random collision driven by turbulent eddies, and (3) bubble coalescence due to the acceleration of a bubble in the wake region of a preceding bubble. To demonstrate the enhancement of the code's capability using the IATE, experimental data for a i , void fraction, and bubble velocity measured by a multi-sensor conductivity probe are compared to both the IATE and flow regime based predictions. In total, 50 air-water vertical co-current upward and downward bubbly flow conditions in pipes with diameters ranging from 2.54 to 20.32 cm are evaluated. It is found that TRACE, using the conventional flow regime relation, always underestimates a i . Moreover, the axial trend of the a i prediction is always quasi-linear because a i in the
Heat transfer to air-water two-phase flow in slug/churn region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadekar, V.V.; Tuzla, K.; Chen, J.C.
1996-01-01
Measured heat transfer data for air-water two-phase flow in the slug/churn flow region are reported. The measurements were obtained from a 1.3 m tall, 15.7 mm diameter vertical tube test-section. It is observed that the data exhibit different heat transfer characteristics to those predicted by the standard correlations for the convective component of flow boiling heat transfer. Comparison with the predictions of a slug flow model for evaporation shows a significant overprediction of the data. The reason for the overprediction is attributed to the sensible heating requirement of the gas phase. The slug flow model is therefore suitably modified for non-evaporating two-phase flow. This specially adapted model is found to give reasonably good predictions of the measured data
A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok
1995-01-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within ±8%
A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others
1995-09-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.
Sensitivity study of poisson corruption in tomographic measurements for air-water flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munshi, P.; Vaidya, M.S.
1993-01-01
An application of computerized tomography (CT) for measuring void fraction profiles in two-phase air-water flows was reported earlier. Those attempts involved some special radial methods for tomographic reconstruction and the popular convolution backprojection (CBP) method. The CBP method is capable of reconstructing void profiles for nonsymmetric flows also. In this paper, we investigate the effect of corrupted CT data for gamma-ray sources and aCBP algorithm. The corruption in such a case is due to the statistical (Poisson) nature of the source
Study of stream flow effects on bubble motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sami, S.S.
1983-01-01
The formation of air bubbles at constant-pressure by submerged orifices was investigated in both quiescent and moving streams inside a vertical tube. Parameters affecting the bubble rise velocity, such as bubble generating frequency and diameter, were studied and analyzed for bubbles rising in a chain and homogeneous mixture. A special technique for measuring bubble motion parameters has been developed, tested, and employed throughout the experimental investigation. The method is based on a water-air impedance variation. Results obtained in stagnant liquid show that increasing the bubble diameter serves to increase bubble rise velocity, while an opposite trend has been observed for stream liquid where the bubble diameter increase reduces the bubble rise velocity. The increase of bubble generation frequency generally increases the bubble rise velocity. Experimental data covered with bubble radial distribution showed symmetrical profiles of bubble velocity and frequency, and the radial distribution of the velocity profiles sometimes has two maxima and one minimum depending on the liquid velocity. Finally, in stagnant liquid, a normalized correlation has been developed to predict the terminal rise velocity in terms of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, single bubble rise velocity, and conduit dimensions. Another correlation is presented for forced bubbly flow, where the bubble rise velocity is expressed as a function of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, and water superficial velocity
Transient Air-Water Flow and Air Demand following an Opening Outlet Gate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In Sweden, the dam-safety guidelines call for an overhaul of many existing bottom outlets. During the opening of an outlet gate, understanding the transient air-water flow is essential for its safe operation, especially under submerged tailwater conditions. Three-dimensional CFD simulations are undertaken to examine air-water flow behaviors at both free and submerged outflows. The gate, hoisted by wire ropes and powered by AC, opens at a constant speed. A mesh is adapted to follow the gate movement. At the free outflow, the CFD simulations and model tests agree well in terms of outlet discharge capacity. Larger air vents lead to more air supply; the increment becomes, however, limited if the vent area is larger than 10 m2. At the submerged outflow, a hydraulic jump builds up in the conduit when the gate reaches approximately 45% of its full opening. The discharge is affected by the tailwater and slightly by the flow with the hydraulic jump. The flow features strong turbulent mixing of air and water, with build-up and break-up of air pockets and collisions of defragmented water bodies. The air demand rate is several times as much as required by steady-state hydraulic jump with free surface.
Air-water flow measurement for ERVC conditions by LIF/PIV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Jong Woong; Jeong, Yong Hoon
2016-01-01
Critical heat flux (CHF) of the external reactor vessel wall is a safety limit that indicate the integrity of the reactor vessel during the situation. Many research conducted CHF experiments in the IVR-ERVC conditions. However, the flow velocity field which is an important factor in the CHF mechanism were not studied enough in the IVR-ERVC situations. In this study, flow measurements including velocity vector field and the liquid velocity in the IVR-ERVC conditions were studied. The air-water two phase flow loop simulating IVRERVC conditions was set up and liquid velocity field was measured by LIF/PIV technique in this study. The experiment was conducted with and without air injection conditions. For the air-water flow experiment, liquid velocity at the outside of two phase boundary layer became higher and the two phase boundary layer thickness became smaller when the mass flux increases. The velocity data obtained in this study are expected to improve the CHF correlation in the IVR-ERVC situations.
Air-water flow measurement for ERVC conditions by LIF/PIV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Jong Woong; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
Critical heat flux (CHF) of the external reactor vessel wall is a safety limit that indicate the integrity of the reactor vessel during the situation. Many research conducted CHF experiments in the IVR-ERVC conditions. However, the flow velocity field which is an important factor in the CHF mechanism were not studied enough in the IVR-ERVC situations. In this study, flow measurements including velocity vector field and the liquid velocity in the IVR-ERVC conditions were studied. The air-water two phase flow loop simulating IVRERVC conditions was set up and liquid velocity field was measured by LIF/PIV technique in this study. The experiment was conducted with and without air injection conditions. For the air-water flow experiment, liquid velocity at the outside of two phase boundary layer became higher and the two phase boundary layer thickness became smaller when the mass flux increases. The velocity data obtained in this study are expected to improve the CHF correlation in the IVR-ERVC situations.
Bubble Generation in a Flowing Liquid Medium and Resulting Two-Phase Flow in Microgravity
Pais, S. C.; Kamotani, Y.; Bhunia, A.; Ostrach, S.
1999-01-01
The present investigation reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions, using both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. This study may be used in the conceptual design of a space-based thermal management system. Ensuing two-phase flow void fraction can be accurately monitored using a single nozzle gas injection system within a continuous liquid flow conduit, as utilized in the present investigation. Accurate monitoring of void fraction leads to precise control of heat and mass transfer coefficients related to a thermal management system; hence providing an efficient and highly effective means of removing heat aboard spacecraft or space stations. Our experiments are performed in parabolic flight aboard the modified DC-9 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft at NASA Lewis Research Center, using an air-water system. For the purpose of bubble dispersion in a flowing liquid, we use both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. In the co-flow geometry, air is introduced through a nozzle in the same direction with the liquid flow. On the other hand, in the cross-flow configuration, air is injected perpendicular to the direction of water flow, via a nozzle protruding inside the two-phase flow conduit. Three different flow conduit (pipe) diameters are used, namely, 1.27 cm, 1.9 cm and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of nozzle to pipe diameter (D(sub N))sup * are considered, namely (D(sub N))sup * = 0.1 and 0.2, while superficial liquid velocities are varied from 8 to 70 cm/s depending on flow conduit diameter. It is experimentally observed that by holding all other flow conditions and geometry constant, generated bubbles decrease in size with increase in superficial liquid velocity. Detached bubble diameter is shown to increase with air injection nozzle diameter. Likewise, generated bubbles grow in size with increasing pipe diameter. Along the same lines, it is shown that bubble frequency of formation increases and hence the time to detachment of a
Two-phase upward air water flow in a prismatic channel with rectangular base
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Tofani, P. de
1984-01-01
Two-phase liquid-gas mixtures provide suitable means to simulate water-water vapor flows, which may occur in nuclear reactor cores. The mastery of physical transport phenomena is of great importance, as far as the analysis of such thermal systems is concerned. Within the framework of thermal-hydraulic programs, experiments have been carried out to investigate the two-phase upward air-water flow structure, in a rectangular test section, by using independent measuring techniques, which comprise direct viewing and photography, electrical probes and gamma-ray attenuation. In this paper, flow pattern maps and correlations for flow pattern transitions, void fraction profiles, liquid film thickness and superficial average void fraction are proposed and compared to available data. (Author) [pt
Velocity and phase distribution measurements in vertical air-water annular flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vassallo, P.
1997-07-01
Annular flow topology for three air-water conditions in a vertical duct is investigated through the use of a traversing double-sensor hot-film anemometry probe and differential pressure measurements. Near wall measurements of mean and fluctuating velocities, as well as local void fraction, are taken in the liquid film, with the highest turbulent fluctuations occurring for the flow condition with the largest pressure drop. A modified law-of-the-wall formulation for wall shear is presented which, using near wall values of mean velocity and kinetic energy, agrees reasonably well with the average stress obtained from direct pressure drop measurements. The linear profile using wall coordinates in the logarithmic layer is preserved in annular flow; however, the slope and intercept of the profile differ from the single-phase values for the annular flow condition which has a thicker, more turbulent, liquid film
Experimental study of flow monitoring instruments in air-water, two-phase downflow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheppard, J.D.; Hayes, P.H.; Wynn, M.C.
1976-01-01
The performance of a turbine meter, target flow meter (drag disk), and a gamma densitometer was studied in air-water, two-phase vertical downflow. Air and water were metered into an 0.0889-m-ID (3.5-in.) piping system; air flows ranged from 0.007 to 0.3 m 3 /sec (16 to 500 scfm) and water flows ranged from 0.0006 to 0.03 m 3 /sec (10 to 500 gpm). The study included effects of flow rate, quality, flow regime, and flow dispersion on the mean and fluctuating components of the instrument signals. Wire screen flow dispersers located at the inlet to the test section had a significant effect on the readings of the drag disk and gamma densitometer, but had little effect on the turbine. Further, when flow dispersers were used, mass flow rates determined from the three instrument readings and a two-velocity, slip flow model showed good agreement with actual mass flow rate over a three-fold range in quality; mass flows determined with the drag disk and densitometer readings assuming homogeneous flow were nearly as accurate. However, when mass flows were calculated using the turbine and densitometer or turbine and drag disk readings assuming homogeneous flow, results were scattered and relatively inaccurate compared to the actual mass flows. Turbine meter data were used with a two-velocity turbine model and continuity relationships for each phase to determine the void fraction and mean phase velocities in the test section. The void fraction was compared with single beam gamma densitometer results and fluid momentum calculated from a two-velocity model was compared with drag disk readings
Transient analysis of air-water two-phase flow in channels and bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, H.J.; Ye, W.; Pertmer, G.A.
1992-01-01
The algorithm used in this paper is the Newton Block Gauss Seidel method, which has been applied to both simple and complex flow conditions in two-phase flow. This paper contains a description of difference techniques and an iterative solution algorithm that is used to solve the field and constitutive equations of the two-fluid model. In practice, this solution procedure has been proven to be stable and capable of generating solutions in problems where other schemes have failed. The method converges rapidly for reasonable error tolerances and is easily extended to three-dimensional geometries. Using air-water as the two-phase medium, transient flow behavior in several geometries of interest are shown. Flow through a vertical channel with flow obstruction, large U bends, and 90-deg bends are being demonstrated with variation of inlet void fraction and slip ratio. Significant changes in the velocity and void distribution profiles have been observed. Various regions of flow recirculation are obtained in the flow domain for each phase. The phasic velocity and void distributions are dominated by gravity-induced phase separation causing air to accumulate in the upper region. The influence of inlet slip ratio and interfacial momentum transfer on the transient flow profile has been demonstrated in detail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, C.; Bankoff, S.G.; Tankin, R.S.; Yuen, M.C.
1980-11-01
The perforated plate weeping phenomena have been studied in both air/water and steam/cold water systems. The air/water experiment is designed to investigate the effect of geometric factors of the perforated plate on the rate of weeping. A new dimensionless flow rate in the form of H star is suggested. The data obtained are successfully correlated by this H star scaling in the conventional flooding equation. The steam/cold water experiment is concentrated on locating the boundary between weeping and no weeping. The effects of water subcooling, water inlet flow rate, and position of water spray are investigated. Depending on the combination of these factors, several types of weeping were observed. The data obtained at high water spray position can be related to the air/water flooding correlation by replacing the stream flow rate to an effective stream flow rate, which is determined by the mixing efficiency above the plate
Modelling of boiling bubbly flows using a polydisperse approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaepffel, D.
2011-01-01
The objective of this work was to improve the modelling of boiling bubbly flows.We focused on the modelling of the polydisperse aspect of a bubble population, i.e. the fact that bubbles have different sizes and different velocities. The multi-size aspect of a bubble population can originate from various mechanisms. For the bubbly flows we are interested in, bubble coalescence, bubble break-up, phase change kinematics and/or gas compressibility inside the bubbles can be mentioned. Since, bubble velocity depends on bubble size, the bubble size spectrum also leads to a bubble velocity spectrum. An averaged model especially dedicated to dispersed flows is introduced in this thesis. Closure of averaged interphase transfer terms are written in a polydisperse framework, i.e. using a distribution function of the bubble sizes and velocities. A quadratic law and a cubic law are here proposed for the modelling of the size distribution function, whose evolution in space and time is then obtained with the use of the moment method. Our averaged model has been implemented in the NEPTUNE-CFD computation code in order to simulate the DEBORA experiment. The ability of our model to deal with sub-cooled boiling flows has therefore been evaluated. (author) [fr
Flow Regimes of Air-Water Counterflow Through Cross Corrugated Parallel Plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Almeida, V.F.
2000-06-07
Heretofore unknown flow regimes of air-water counterflow through a pair of transparent vertical parallel cross corrugated plates were observed via high-speed video. Air flows upward driven by pressure gradient and water, downward driven by gravity. The crimp geometry of the corrugations was drawn from typical corrugated sheets used as filling material in modern structured packed towers. Four regimes were featured, namely, rivulet, bicontinuous, flooding fronts, and flooding waves. It is conceivable that the regimes observed might constitute the basis for understanding how gas and liquid phases contend for available space in the interstices of structured packings in packed towers. Flow regime transitions were expressed in terms of liquid load (liquid superficial velocity) and gas flow factor parameters commonly used in pressure drop and capacity curves. We have carefully examined the range of parameters equivalent to the ill-understood high-liquid-flow operation in packed towers. More importantly, our findings should prove valuable in validating improved first-principles modeling of gas-liquid flows in these industrially important devices.
Experimental investigation and CFD validation of Horizontal Air/Water slug flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Hoehne, Thomas
2007-01-01
For the investigation of co-current two-phase flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC) was built at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). At the channel inlet, a special device provides adjustable and well-defined inlet boundary conditions and therefore very good CFD validation possibilities. The HAWAC facility is designed for the application of optical measurement techniques, which deliver the high resolution required for CDF validation. Therefore, the 8 m long acrylic glass test-section with rectangular cross-section provides good observation possibilities. High-speed video observation was applied during slug flow. The camera images show the generation of slug flow from the inlet of the test-section. Parallel to the experiments, CFD calculations were carried out. The aim of the numerical simulations is to validate the prediction of slug flow with the existing multiphase flow models built in the commercial code ANSYS CFX. The Euler-Euler two-fluid model with the free surface option was applied to a grid of 600,000 control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare well in terms of slug formation, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging, while quantitative comparison show that further model improvement is needed. (author)
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki
2010-01-01
In this study, the direct numerical simulation of a fully-developed turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles were conducted by means of the refined MARS method, turbulent Reynolds number 150, and Bubble Reynolds number 120. As the results, large-scale wake motions were observed round the bubbles. At the bubble located region, mean velocity was degreased and turbulent intensities and Reynolds shear stress were increased by the effects of the large-scale wake motions round bubbles. On the other hands, near wall region, bubbles might effect on the flow laminarlize and drag reduction. Two types of drag coefficient of bubble were estimated from the accelerated velocity of bubble and correlation equation as a function of Particle Reynolds number. Empirical correlation equation might be overestimated the drag effects in this Particle Reynolds number range. (author)
Video imaging measurement of interfacial wave velocity in air-water flow through a horizontal elbow
Al-Wazzan, Amir; Than, Cheok F.; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Yew, Chia W.
2001-10-01
Two-phase flow in pipelines containing elbows represents a common situation in the oil and gas industries. This study deals with the stratified flow regime between the gas and liquid phase through an elbow. It is of interest to study the change in wave characteristics by measuring the wave velocity and wavelength at the inlet and outlet of the elbow. The experiments were performed under concurrent air-water stratified flow in a horizontal transparent polycarbonate pipe of 0.05m diameter and superficial air and water velocities up to 8.97 and 0.0778 m/s respectively. A non-intrusive video imaging technique was applied to capture the waves. For image analysis, a frame by frame direct overlapping method was used to detect for pulsating flow and a pixel shifting method based on the detection of minimum values in the overlap function was used to determine wave velocity and wavelength. Under superficial gas velocity of less than 4.44 m/s, the results suggest a regular pulsating outflow produced by the elbow. At higher gas velocities, more random pulsation was found and the emergence of localized interfacial waves was detected. Wave velocities measured by this technique were found to produce satisfactory agreement with direct measurements.
Interaction of equal-size bubbles in shear flow.
Prakash, Jai; Lavrenteva, Olga M; Byk, Leonid; Nir, Avinoam
2013-04-01
The inertia-induced forces on two identical spherical bubbles in a simple shear flow at small but finite Reynolds number, for the case when the bubbles are within each other's inner viscous region, are calculated making use of the reciprocal theorem. This interaction force is further employed to model the dynamics of air bubbles injected to a viscous fluid sheared in a Couette device at the first shear flow instability where the bubbles are trapped inside the stable Taylor vortex. It was shown that, during a long time scale, the inertial interaction between the bubbles in the primary shear flow drives them away from each other and, as a result, equal-size bubbles eventually assume an ordered string with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We report on experiments showing the dynamic evolution of various numbers of bubbles. The results of the theory are in good agreement with the experimental observations.
Photothermally controlled Marangoni flow around a micro bubble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namura, Kyoko; Nakajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Kenji; Suzuki, Motofumi
2015-01-01
We have experimentally investigated the control of Marangoni flow around a micro bubble using photothermal conversion. Using a focused laser spot acting as a highly localized heat source on Au nanoparticles/dielectric/Ag mirror thin film enables us to create a micro bubble and to control the temperature gradient around the bubble at a micrometer scale. When we irradiate the laser next to the bubble, a strong main flow towards the bubble and two symmetric rotation flows on either side of it develop. The shape of this rotation flow shows a significant transformation depending on the relative position of the bubble and the laser spot. Using this controllable rotation flow, we have demonstrated sorting of the polystyrene spheres with diameters of 2 μm and 0.75 μm according to their size
Photothermally controlled Marangoni flow around a micro bubble
Namura, Kyoko; Nakajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Kenji; Suzuki, Motofumi
2015-01-01
We have experimentally investigated the control of Marangoni flow around a micro bubble using photothermal conversion. Using a focused laser spot acting as a highly localized heat source on Au nanoparticles/dielectric/Ag mirror thin film enables us to create a micro bubble and to control the temperature gradient around the bubble at a micrometer scale. When we irradiate the laser next to the bubble, a strong main flow towards the bubble and two symmetric rotation flows on either side of it develop. The shape of this rotation flow shows a significant transformation depending on the relative position of the bubble and the laser spot. Using this controllable rotation flow, we have demonstrated sorting of the polystyrene spheres with diameters of 2 μm and 0.75 μm according to their size.
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B.; Unrau, D.
1995-01-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the open-quotes standardclose quotes κ-ε transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B. [Chalk River Laboratories (Canada); Unrau, D. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
1995-09-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.
Bubble shape in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, Hanyang; Guo, Liejin
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The bubble shapes in intermittent flows are presented experimentally. • The nose-tail inversion phenomenon appears at a low Froude number in downward pipe. • Transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the bubble tail changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of the shape of isolated bubbles in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flows. It is found that the shapes of the nose and body of bubble depend on the Froude number defined by gas/liquid mixture velocity in a pipe, whereas the shape of the back of bubble region depends on both the Froude number and bubble length. The photographic studies show that the transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the back of the bubble changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump with the increase of the Froude number and bubble length. The effect of pipe inclination on characteristics of bubble is significant: The bubble is inversely located in a downwardly inclined pipe when the Froude number is low, and the transition from plug flow to slug flow in an upward inclined pipe is more ready to occur compared with that in a downwardly inclined pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumder, Abhik; Mehta, Balkrishna; Khandekar, Sameer
2013-01-01
Taylor bubble flow takes place when two immiscible fluids (liquid-liquid or gas-liquid) flow inside a tube of capillary dimensions within specific range of volume flow ratios. In the slug flows where gas and liquid are two different phases, liquid slugs are separated by elongated Taylor bubbles. This singular flow pattern is observed in many engineering mini-/micro-scale devices like pulsating heat pipes, gas-liquid-solid monolithic reactors, micro-two-phase heat exchangers, digital micro-fluidics, micro-scale mass transfer process, fuel cells, etc. The unique and complex flow characteristics require understanding on local, as well as global, spatio-temporal scales. In the present work, the axial stream-wise profile of the fluid and wall temperature for air-water (i) isolated single Taylor bubble and, (ii) a train of Taylor bubbles, in a horizontal square channel of size 3.3 mm x 3.3 mm x 350 mm, heated from the bottom (heated length = 175 mm), with the other three sides kept insulated, are reported at different gas volume flow ratios. The primary aim is to study the enhancement of heat transfer due to the Taylor bubble train flow, in comparison with thermally developing single-phase flows. Intrusion of a bubble in the liquid flow drastically changes the local temperature profiles. The axial distribution of time-averaged local Nusselt number (Nu z ) shows that Taylor bubble train regime increases the transport of heat up to 1.2-1.6 times more as compared with laminar single-phase liquid flow. In addition, for a given liquid flow Reynolds number, the heat transfer enhancement is a function of the geometrical parameters of the unit cell, i.e., the length of adjacent gas bubble and water plug. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Byeong Geon; Yun, Byong Jo; Kim, Kyoung Du
2014-01-01
It was mainly due to the fact that droplet entrainment affects the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the nuclear fuel rod in the Postulated accident conditions of NPP. Recently, droplet entrainment in the horizontally arranged primary piping system for the NPP is of interest because it affects directly the steam binding phenomena in the steam generators. Pan and Hanratty correlation is the only applicable one for the droplet entrainment rate model for horizontal flow. Moreover, there are no efforts for the model development on the basis of the droplet entrainment principal and physics phenomena. More recently, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) proposed a new mechanistic droplet generation model applicable in the horizontal pipe for the SPACE code. However, constitutive relations in this new model require three model coefficients which have not yet been decided. The purpose of present work is determining three model coefficients by visualization experiment. For these model coefficients, the major physical parameters regarding the interfacial disturbance wave should be measured in this experiments. There are the wave slope, liquid fraction, wave hypotenuse length, wave velocity, wave frequency, and wavelength in the major physical parameters. The experiment was conducted at an air water horizontal rectangular channel with the PIV system. In this study, the experimental conditions were stratified-way flow during the droplet generation. Three coefficients were determined based on several data related to the interfacial wave. Additionally, we manufactured the parallel wire conductance probe to measure the fluctuating water level over time, and compared the wave height measured by the parallel wire conductance probe and image processing from images taken by high speed camera. Experimental investigation was performed for droplet entrainment from phase interface wave in an air-water stratified flow. In the experiments, we measured major physical parameters
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Terzuoli
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Pressurized thermal shock (PTS modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA. Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX, and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD. The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling.
CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terzuoli, F.; Galassi, M.C.; Mazzini, D.; D'Auria, F.
2008-01-01
Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC) injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM) Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX), and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD). The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling
Development of Bubble Driven Flow CFD Model Applied for Aluminium Smelting Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.Q. Feng
2010-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model for the study of bubble driven bath flow in aluminium reduction cells. For validation purposes, the model development was conducted using a full scale air -water model of part of an aluminium reduction cell as a test-bed. The bubble induced turbulence has been modelled by either modifying bubble induced turbulence viscosity directly or by modifying bubble induced turbulence kinetic energy in a standard k- ε turbulence model. The relative performance of the two modelling approaches has been examined through comparison with experimental data taken under similar conditions using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. Detailed comparison has been conducted by point-wise comparison of liquid velocities to quantify the level of agreement between CFD simulation and PIV measurement. Both models can capture the key flow patterns determined by PIV measurement, while the modified turbulence kinetic energy model gives better agreement with flow patterns in the gap between anode and cathode.
Bubble behaviour and mean diameter in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeitoun, O.; Shoukri, M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)
1995-09-01
Bubble behaviour and mean bubble diameter in subcooled upward flow boiling in a vertical annular channel were investigated under low pressure and mass flux conditions. A high speed video system was used to visualize the subcooled flow boiling phenomenon. The high speed photographic results indicated that, contrary to the common understanding, bubbles tend to detach from the heating surface upstream of the net vapour generation point. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the mean bubble diameter along the subcooled flow boiling region. Data on the axial area-averaged void fraction distributions were also obtained using a single beam gamma densitometer. Effects of the liquid subcooling, applied heat flux and mass flux on the mean bubble size were investigated. A correlation for the mean bubble diameter as a function of the local subcooling, heat flux and mass flux was obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, Joao Eduardo [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, Nuno H.C. [EST Setubal, Polytechnic Institute of Setubal, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Setubal (Portugal); Matos, Jorge [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lisbon (Portugal); Frizell, Kathleen H. [U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)
2010-01-15
The development of a three-hole pressure probe with back-flushing combined with a conductivity probe, used for measuring simultaneously the magnitude and direction of the velocity vector in complex air-water flows, is described in this paper. The air-water flows envisaged in the current work are typically those occurring around the rotors of impulse hydraulic turbines (like the Pelton and Cross-Flow turbines), where the flow direction is not known prior to the data acquisition. The calibration of both the conductivity and three-hole pressure components of the combined probe in a rig built for the purpose, where the probe was placed in a position similar to that adopted for the flow measurements, will be reported. After concluding the calibration procedure, the probe was utilized in the outside region of a Cross-Flow turbine rotor. The experimental results obtained in the present study illustrate the satisfactory performance of the combined probe, and are encouraging toward its use for characterizing the velocity field of other complex air-water flows. (orig.)
Borges, João Eduardo; Pereira, Nuno H. C.; Matos, Jorge; Frizell, Kathleen H.
2010-01-01
The development of a three-hole pressure probe with back-flushing combined with a conductivity probe, used for measuring simultaneously the magnitude and direction of the velocity vector in complex air-water flows, is described in this paper. The air-water flows envisaged in the current work are typically those occurring around the rotors of impulse hydraulic turbines (like the Pelton and Cross-Flow turbines), where the flow direction is not known prior to the data acquisition. The calibration of both the conductivity and three-hole pressure components of the combined probe in a rig built for the purpose, where the probe was placed in a position similar to that adopted for the flow measurements, will be reported. After concluding the calibration procedure, the probe was utilized in the outside region of a Cross-Flow turbine rotor. The experimental results obtained in the present study illustrate the satisfactory performance of the combined probe, and are encouraging toward its use for characterizing the velocity field of other complex air-water flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luebbesmeyer, D.; Leoni, B.
1980-07-01
A new detector for measuring fluid velocities in two-phase flows by means of Noise-Analysis (especially Transient-Cross-Correlation-technique) has been developed. The detector utilizes a light-beam which is modulated by changes in the transparency of the two-phase flow. The results of nine measurements for different flow-regimes of vertical air/water-flows are shown. A main topic of these investigations was to answer the question if it is possible to identify the flow-pattern by looking at the shape of different 'Noise-Analytical-functions' (like APSD, CPSD, CCF etc.). The results prove that light-beam sensors are good detectors for fluid-velocity measurements in different flow regimes and in a wide range of fluid velocities starting with values of about 0.08 m/s up to values of 40 m/s. With respect to flow-pattern identification only the time-signals and the shape of the cross-power-density-function (CPSD) seem to be useful. (Auth.)
Second order numerical method of two-fluid model of air-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiselj, I.; Petelin, S.
1995-01-01
Model considered in this paper is six-equation two-fluid model used in computer code RELAP5. Air-water equations were taken in a code named PDE to avoid additional problems caused by condensation or vaporization. Terms with space derivatives were added in virtual mass term in momentum equations to ensure the hyperbolicity of the equations. Numerical method in PDE code is based on approximate Riemann solvers. Equations are solved on non-staggered grid with explicit time advancement and with upwind discretization of the convective terms in characteristic form of the equations. Flux limiters are used to find suitable combinations of the first (upwind) and the second order (Lax-Wendroff) discretization s which ensure second order accuracy on smooth solutions and damp oscillations around the discontinuities. Because of the small time steps required and because of its non-dissipative nature the scheme is suitable for the prediction of the fast transients: pressure waves, shock and rarefaction waves, water hammer or critical flow. Some preliminary results are presented for a shock tube problem and for Water Faucet problem - problems usually used as benchmarks for two-fluid computer codes. (author)
Bubble behavior in a vertical Taylor-Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murai, Y; Oiwa, H; Takeda, Y
2005-01-01
Bubble distributions organized in a vertical Taylor-Couette flow are experimentally investigated. Modification of shear stress due to bubbles is measured with a torque sensor installed on the rotating inner cylinder. The wall shear stress decreases as bubbles are injected in all the tested range of Re from 600 to 4500. The drag reduction ratio per void fraction measured in the present experiment, which indicates net gain of the drag reduction, has been evaluated. The gain was more than unity for Re 4000. The maximum gain achieved was around 10 at Re = 600, at which point the bubbles dispersed widely on the inner cylinder surface and effectively restrict momentum exchange of fluid between the two walls. The expansion of Taylor vortices in the vertical direction by the presence of bubbles was confirmed by flow visualization including particle tracking velocimetry. Such bubble behaviours interacting with Taylor vortices are discussed in detail in this paper
Bubbly flows around a two-dimensional circular cylinder
Lee, Jubeom; Park, Hyungmin
2016-11-01
Two-phase cross flows around a bluff body occur in many thermal-fluid systems like steam generators, heat exchangers and nuclear reactors. However, our current knowledge on the interactions among bubbles, bubble-induced flows and the bluff body are limited. In the present study, the gas-liquid bubbly flows around a solid circular cylinder are experimentally investigated while varying the mean void fraction from 5 to 27%. The surrounding liquid (water) is initially static and the liquid flow is only induced by the air bubbles. For the measurements, we use the high-speed two-phase particle image velocimetry techniques. First, depending on the mean void fraction, two regimes are classified with different preferential concentration of bubbles in the cylinder wake, which are explained in terms of hydrodynamic force balances acting on rising bubbles. Second, the differences between the two-phase and single-phase flows (while matching their Reynolds numbers) around a circular cylinder will be discussed in relation to effects of bubble dynamics and the bubble-induced turbulence on the cylinder wake. Supported by a Grant (MPSS-CG-2016-02) through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.
Local gas- and liquid-phase measurements for air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, X.; Sun, X.; Williams, M.; Fu, Y.; Liu, Y.
2014-01-01
Local gas- and liquid-phase measurements of various gas-liquid two-phase flows, including bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, and churn-turbulent flows, were performed in an acrylic vertical channel with a rectangular cross section of 30 mm x 10 mm and height of 3.0 m. All the measurements were carried out at three measurement elevations along the flow channel, with z/D h = 9, 72, and 136, respectively, to study the flow development. The gas-phase velocity, void fraction, and bubble number frequency were measured using a double-sensor conductivity probe. A high-speed imaging system was utilized to perform the flow regime visualization and to provide additional quantitative information of the two-phase flow structure. An image processing scheme was developed to obtain the gas-phase velocity, void fraction, Sauter mean diameter, bubble number density, and interfacial area concentration. The liquid-phase velocity and turbulence measurements were conducted using a particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system, which enables whole-field and high-resolution data acquisition. An optical phase separation method, which uses fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique, is adopted to extract the velocity information of the liquid phase. An image pre-processing scheme is imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noises due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the images captured by the PIV-PLIF system. Due to the better light access and less bubble distortion in the narrow rectangular channel, the PIV-PLIF system were able to perform reasonably well in flows of even higher void fractions as compared to the situations with circular pipe test sections. The flow conditions being studied covered various flow regime transitions, void fractions, and liquid-phase flow Reynolds numbers. The obtained experimental data can also be used to validate two-phase CFD results. (author)
On Bubble Rising in Countercurrent Flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Večeř, M.; Leštinský, P.; Wichterle, K.; Růžička, Marek
2012-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 2012 (2012), A30 ISSN 1542-6580 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0972; GA ČR GA104/07/1110 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0069 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ellipsoidal bubble * bubble shape * bubble velocity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.790, year: 2011
Visualization of bubble behaviors in forced convective subcooled flow boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inaba, Noriaki; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori; Komeno, Toshihiro
2007-01-01
Condensation characteristics of vapor bubble after the departure from a heated section in forced convective subcooled flow boiling were studied visually by using a high speed camera. The purpose of the present study was to measure two-phase flow parameters in subcooled flow boiling. These two-phase flow parameters are void fraction, interfacial area concentration and Sauter mean diameter, which express bubble interface behaviors. The experimental set-up was designed to measure the two-phase flow parameters necessary for developing composite equations for the two fluid models in subcooled flow boiling. In the present experiments, the mass flux, liquid subcooling and the heater were varied within 100-1000kg/m 2 s, 2-10K and 100-300kW/m 2 respectively. Under these experimental conditions, the bubble images were obtained by a high-speed camera, and analyzed paying attention to the condensation of vapor bubbles. These two-phase parameters were obtained by the experimental data, such as the bubble parameter, the bubble volume and the bubble surface. In the calculation process of the two phase flow parameters, it was confirmed that these parameters are related to the void fraction. (author)
Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2006-03-15
Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munoz-Cobo, J.L. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Inst. de Ingenieria Energetica, Valencia (Spain); Chiva, S. [Univ. Jaume I, Dept. of Mechnical Engineering and Construction, Castellon (Spain); Abd El Aziz Essa, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Inst. de Ingenieria Energetica, Valencia (Spain); Mendes, S. [Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (Mexico)
2011-07-01
A set of air-water experiments have been performed under isothermal upward concurrent flow in a vertical column. The interfacial velocity, interfacial area of the bubbles and the void fraction distributions was obtained. Numerical validation of these results for bubbly flow conditions were performed by coupling a Lagrangian code which tracks the 3D motion of the individual bubbles, with an Eulerian one. Both Lagrangian and Eulerian calculations were performed in parallel and iterative self-consistent method was developed. The bubbles-induced turbulence is an important issue considered, to obtain good predictions of experimental results. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossetete, C.
1992-09-01
The most important and challenging problems in two-phase bubbly flow today are related to the physical understanding and the modeling of multidimensional phenomena such as the distribution of phases in space. We present here a critical review of the available experimental and theoretical studies in gas-liquid adiabatic and non-reactive upward bubbly flows which have been carried out to define and improve the physical models needed to close the three-dimensional two-fluid model equations. It appears that: so far, the axial development of two-phase upward bubbly flows has not been handled thoroughly. Little is known about the way the pressure gradient as well as the gas-liquid mixing conditions affect the distribution of phases, the problems related to the closing of the two-fluid model equations are far from being solved. The physical models proposed seem often to be too much complex considering how little we know about the mechanisms involved, there are still very few multidimensional numerical models whose results have been compared with experimental data on bubbly flows. The boundary conditions introduced in the codes as well as the sensitivity of the results to the parameters of the codes are never precisely stated. To bridge some of those gaps, we propose to perform an experimental and numerical study of the axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly flows in vertical pipes
Bubble parameters analysis of gas-liquid two-phase sparse bubbly flow based on image method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Yunlong; Zhou Hongjuan; Song Lianzhuang; Liu Qian
2012-01-01
The sparse rising bubbles of gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical pipe were measured and studied based on image method. The bubble images were acquired by high-speed video camera systems, the characteristic parameters of bubbles were extracted by using image processing techniques. Then velocity variation of rising bubbles were drawn. Area and centroid variation of single bubble were also drawn. And then parameters and movement law of bubbles were analyzed and studied. The test results showed that parameters of bubbles had been analyzed well by using image method. (authors)
Hydrodynamic of a deformed bubble in linear shear flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adoua, S.R.
2007-07-01
This work is devoted to the study of an oblate spheroidal bubble of prescribed shape set fixed in a linear shear flow using direct numerical simulation. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates using a finite volume method. The bubble response is studied over a wide range of the aspect ratio (1-2.7), the bubble Reynolds number (50-2000) and the non-dimensional shear rate (0.-1.2). The numerical simulations shows that the shear flow imposes a plane symmetry of the wake whatever the parameters of the flow. The trailing vorticity is organized into two anti-symmetrical counter rotating tubes with a sign imposed by the competition of two mechanisms (the Lighthill mechanism and the instability of the wake). Whatever the Reynolds number, the lift coefficient reaches the analytical value obtained in an inviscid, weakly sheared flow corresponding to a lift force oriented in the same direction as that of a spherical bubble. For moderate Reynolds numbers, the direction of the lift force reverses when the bubble aspect ratio is large enough as observed in experiments. This reversal occurs for aspect ratios larger than 2.225 and is found to be directly linked to the sign of the trailing vorticity which is concentrated within two counter-rotating threads which propel the bubble in a direction depending of their sign of rotation. The behavior of the drag does not revel any significant effect induced by the wake structure and follows a quadratic increase with the shear rate. Finally, the torque experienced by the bubble also reverses for the same conditions inducing the reversal of the lift force. By varying the orientation of the bubble in the shear flow, a stable equilibrium position is found corresponding to a weak angle between the small axis of the bubble and the flow direction. (author)
A Generalized turbulent dispersion model for bubbly flow numerical simulation in NEPTUNE-CFD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laviéville, Jérôme, E-mail: Jerome-marcel.lavieville@edf.fr; Mérigoux, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.merigoux@edf.fr; Guingo, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.guingo@edf.fr; Baudry, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.baudry@edf.fr; Mimouni, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr
2017-02-15
The NEPTUNE-CFD code, based upon an Eulerian multi-fluid model, is developed within the framework of the NEPTUNE project, financially supported by EDF (Electricité de France), CEA (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives), IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire) and AREVA-NP. NEPTUNE-CFD is mainly focused on Nuclear Safety applications involving two-phase water-steam flows, like two-phase Pressurized Shock (PTS) and Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB). Many of these applications involve bubbly flows, particularly, for application to flows in PWR fuel assemblies, including studies related to DNB. Considering a very usual model for interfacial forces acting on bubbles, including drag, virtual mass and lift forces, the turbulent dispersion force is often added to moderate the lift effect in orthogonal directions to the main flow and get the right dispersion shape. This paper presents a formal derivation of this force, considering on the one hand, the fluctuating part of drag and virtual mass, and on the other hand, Turbulent Pressure derivation obtained by comparison between Lagrangian and Eulerian description of bubbles motion. An extension of the Tchen’s theory is used to express the turbulent kinetic energy of bubbles and the two-fluid turbulent covariance tensor in terms of liquid turbulent velocities and time scale. The model obtained by this way, called Generalized Turbulent Dispersion Model (GTD), does not require any user parameter. The model is validated against Liu & Bankoff air-water experiment, Arizona State University (ASU) experiment, DEBORA experiment and Texas A&M University (TAMU) boiling flow experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Byung Ryung
1997-02-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of interfacial friction factor, wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in a long horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow condition. A series of experiments have been conducted in adiabatic countercurrent stratified flow with the round pipe and rectangular duct test section to develop the interfacial friction factor and the criterion of onset of slugging in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow. An adiabatic semi-empirical correlation for interfacial friction factor has been developed based on the surface roughness concept. A comparison of the measured data in this study and of other investigators with the predictions of the present correlation shows that the agreement is within ±30% error, and that the present correlation is applicable to a broader range of water flow rate than the correlations of previous investigators. The theories which can calculate the wave height and criteria of onset of slug flow in a stratified wavy flow regime have been developed based on the concept of total energy conservation and also wave theory. This theoretical criteria agree better with the measured data than the other criteria available in the literature, but the criteria range about 92∼107% of the measured data. An empirical formula for the criterion has been also developed and compared with the formula in the literatures. Comparison between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory shows that the agreement is within ±8%
Fluid-elastic instability in tube arrays subjected to air-water and steam-water cross-flow
Mitra, D.; Dhir, V. K.; Catton, I.
2009-10-01
Flow induced vibrations in heat exchanger tubes have led to numerous accidents and economic losses in the past. Efforts have been made to systematically study the cause of these vibrations and develop remedial design criteria for their avoidance. In this research, experiments were systematically carried out with air-water and steam-water cross-flow over horizontal tubes. A normal square tube array of pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.4 was used in the experiments. The tubes were suspended from piano wires and strain gauges were used to measure the vibrations. Tubes made of aluminum; stainless steel and brass were systematically tested by maintaining approximately the same stiffness in the tube-wire systems. Instability was clearly seen in single phase and two-phase flow and the critical flow velocity was found to be proportional to tube mass. The present study shows that fully flexible arrays become unstable at a lower flow velocity when compared to a single flexible tube surrounded by rigid tubes. It is also found that tubes are more stable in steam-water flow as compared to air-water flow. Nucleate boiling on the tube surface is also found to have a stabilizing effect on fluid-elastic instability.
Investigation of air-water flow in a horizontal pipe with 90 degree bends using wire mesh sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowden, R.C.; Yang, S.K., E-mail: robert.bowden@cnl.ca, E-mail: sun-kyu.yang@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)
2015-07-01
Wire mesh sensors were used to investigate the void fraction distribution along a 9 meter long, 50.8 mm diameter, horizontal test section that contained two 90 degree bends. Deionised water and compressed air were used as the working fluids, with the bubbly flow regime achieved at a superficial liquid velocity of 3.5 m/s and superficial gas velocities that varied between 0.1 and 1.2 m/s. The effects of superficial gas velocity and axial location on the void fraction distribution were investigated. Bubble and slug flow patterns were identified using a probability density function analysis based on a Gaussian mixture model. (author)
Two-phase flow regimes for counter-current air-water flows in narrow rectangular channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Byong Joo; Sohn, Byung Hu; Jeong, Si Young
2001-01-01
A study of counter-current two-phase flow in narrow rectangular channels has been performed. Two-phase flow regimes were experimentally investigated in a 760 mm long and 100 mm wide test section with 2.0 and 5.0 mm gap widths. The resulting flow regime maps were compared with the existing transition criteria. The experimental data and the transition criteria of the models showed relatively good agreement. However, the discrepancies between the experimental data and the model predictions of the flow regime transition became pronounced as the gap width increased. As the gap width increased the transition gas superficial velocities increased. The critical void fraction for the bubbly-to-slug transition was observed to be about 0.25. The two-phase distribution parameter for the slug flow was larger for the narrower channel. The uncertainties in the distribution parameter could lead to a disagreement in slug-to-churn transition between the experimental findings and the transition criteria. For the transition from churn to annular flow the effect of liquid superficial velocity was found to be insignificant
Interface tracking simulations of bubbly flows in PWR relevant geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Jun, E-mail: jfang3@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Rasquin, Michel, E-mail: michel.rasquin@colorado.edu [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bolotnov, Igor A., E-mail: igor_bolotnov@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Simulations were performed for turbulent bubbly flows in PWR subchannel geometry. • Liquid turbulence is fully resolved by direct numerical simulation approach. • Bubble behavior is captured using level-set interface tracking method. • Time-averaged single- and two-phase turbulent flow statistical quantities are obtained. - Abstract: The advances in high performance computing (HPC) have allowed direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach coupled with interface tracking methods (ITM) to perform high fidelity simulations of turbulent bubbly flows in various complex geometries. In this work, we have chosen the geometry of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core subchannel to perform a set of interface tracking simulations (ITS) with fully resolved liquid turbulence. The presented research utilizes a massively parallel finite-element based code, PHASTA, for the subchannel geometry simulations of bubbly flow turbulence. The main objective for this research is to demonstrate the ITS capabilities in gaining new insight into bubble/turbulence interactions and assisting the development of improved closure laws for multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD). Both single- and two-phase turbulent flows were studied within a single PWR subchannel. The analysis of numerical results includes the mean gas and liquid velocity profiles, void fraction distribution and turbulent kinetic energy profiles. Two sets of flow rates and bubble sizes were used in the simulations. The chosen flow rates corresponded to the Reynolds numbers of 29,079 and 80,775 based on channel hydraulic diameter (D{sub h}) and mean velocity. The finite element unstructured grids utilized for these simulations include 53.8 million and 1.11 billion elements, respectively. This has allowed to fully resolve all the turbulence scales and the deformable interfaces of individual bubbles. For the two-phase flow simulations, a 1% bubble volume fraction was used which resulted in 17 bubbles in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caraghiaur, Diana; Frid, Wiktor; Tillmark, Nils
2004-01-01
In recent years, advance numerical simulation tools based on CFD methods have been increasingly used in various multi-phase flow applications. One of these is two-phase flow in fuel assemblies of Boiling Water Reactors. The important and often missing aspect of this development is validation of CFD codes against proper experimental data. The purpose of the current paper is to present detailed pressure measurements over a spacer grid in low pressure adiabatic single- and bubbly two-phase flow, which will be used to further develop a CFD code for BWR fuel bundle analysis. The experiments have been carried out in a n asymmetric 24-rod sub-bundle, representing one quarter of a Westinghouse SVEA-96 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Single-phase flow measurements have been performed at superficial velocities between 0.90-4.50 m/s and in the two-phase flow, which was simulated by air-water mixture, measurements have been performed at void fractions ranging from 4 to 12% and liquid superficial velocity of 4.50 m/s. In order to increase the number of measuring points, five pressure taps were drilled in one of the rods, which was easily moved vertically by a traversing system, covering most of the points in axial direction. Any of the rods in the bundle could be substitute by the pressure sensing rod and the measurements were made for five pressure taps facing-angles. A detailed pressure distribution comparison between single- and two-phase flows for different sub-channel positions and different flow conditions was performed over one of the spacers. In addition, single-phase pressure drop measurements in the upper part of the test section comprising two spacer grids have been carried out. (author)
Mitsche, Matthew A; Wang, Libo; Small, Donald M
2010-03-11
Phospholipid monolayers play a critical role in the structure and stabilization of biological interfaces, including all membranes, the alveoli of the lungs, fat droplets in adipose tissue, and lipoproteins. The behavior of phospholipids in bilayers and at an air-water interface is well understood. However, the study of phospholipids at oil-water interfaces is limited due to technical challenges. In this study, egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) was deposited from small unilamellar vesicles onto a bubble of either air or triolein (TO) formed in a low-salt buffer. The surface tension (gamma) was measured using a drop tensiometer. We observed that EPC binds irreversibly to both interfaces and at equilibrium exerts approximately 12 and 15 mN/m of pressure (Pi) at an air and TO interface, respectively. After EPC was bound to the interface, the unbound EPC was washed out of the cuvette, and the surface was compressed to study the Pi/area relationship. To determine the surface concentration (Gamma), which cannot be measured directly, compression isotherms from a Langmuir trough and drop tensiometer were compared. The air-water interfaces had identical characteristics using both techniques; thus, Gamma on the bubble can be determined by overlaying the two isotherms. Both TO and EPC are surface-active, so in a mixed TO/EPC monolayer, both molecules will be exposed to water. Since TO is less surface-active than EPC, as Pi increases, the TO is progressively ejected. To understand the Pi/area isotherm of EPC on a TO bubble, a variety of TO-EPC mixtures were spread at the air-water interface. The isotherms show an abrupt break in the curve caused by the ejection of TO from the monolayer into a new bulk phase. By overlaying the compression isotherm above the ejection point with a TO bubble compression isotherm, Gamma can be estimated. This allows determination of Gamma of EPC on a TO bubble as a function of Pi.
Interfacial shear stress and hold-up in an air-water annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukano, T.; Ousaka, A.; Kawakami, Y.; Tominaga, A.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on an experimental investigation that was made into hold-up, frictional pressure drop and interfacial shear stress of an air-water two-phase annular flow in horizontal and vertical up- and downward flows to make clear the effects of tube diameter and flow direction on them. The tube diameters examined are 10mm, 16mm and 26mm. Both the hold-up and the pressure drop considerably changed with time. Especially, the amplitude of the variation of the hold-up was quite larger in comparison with its averaged value in the cause of disturbance wave flow. for the time averaged hold-up and interfacial friction factor, we got new correlations, by which we can estimate them within an accuracy of ±20% and ±30%, respectively, independent of the flow direction and the tube diameter
Bubble gate for in-plane flow control.
Oskooei, Ali; Abolhasani, Milad; Günther, Axel
2013-07-07
We introduce a miniature gate valve as a readily implementable strategy for actively controlling the flow of liquids on-chip, within a footprint of less than one square millimetre. Bubble gates provide for simple, consistent and scalable control of liquid flow in microchannel networks, are compatible with different bulk microfabrication processes and substrate materials, and require neither electrodes nor moving parts. A bubble gate consists of two microchannel sections: a liquid-filled channel and a gas channel that intercepts the liquid channel to form a T-junction. The open or closed state of a bubble gate is determined by selecting between two distinct gas pressure levels: the lower level corresponds to the "open" state while the higher level corresponds to the "closed" state. During closure, a gas bubble penetrates from the gas channel into the liquid, flanked by a column of equidistantly spaced micropillars on each side, until the flow of liquid is completely obstructed. We fabricated bubble gates using single-layer soft lithographic and bulk silicon micromachining procedures and evaluated their performance with a combination of theory and experimentation. We assessed the dynamic behaviour during more than 300 open-and-close cycles and report the operating pressure envelope for different bubble gate configurations and for the working fluids: de-ionized water, ethanol and a biological buffer. We obtained excellent agreement between the experimentally determined bubble gate operational envelope and a theoretical prediction based on static wetting behaviour. We report case studies that serve to illustrate the utility of bubble gates for liquid sampling in single and multi-layer microfluidic devices. Scalability of our strategy was demonstrated by simultaneously addressing 128 bubble gates.
Transient Flow Dynamics in Optical Micro Well Involving Gas Bubbles
Johnson, B.; Chen, C. P.; Jenkins, A.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L. A.; Steele, A.; Flores, G.
2006-01-01
The Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD) team at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center is utilizing Lab-On-a-Chip to support technology development specifically for Space Exploration. In this paper, we investigate the transient two-phase flow patterns in an optic well configuration with an entrapped bubble through numerical simulation. Specifically, the filling processes of a liquid inside an expanded chamber that has bubbles entrapped. Due to the back flow created by channel expansion, the entrapped bubbles tend to stay stationary at the immediate downstream of the expansion. Due to the huge difference between the gas and liquid densities, mass conservation issues associated with numerical diffusion need to be specially addressed. The results are presented in terms of the movement of the bubble through the optic well. Bubble removal strategies are developed that involve only pressure gradients across the optic well. Results show that for the bubble to be moved through the well, pressure pulsations must be utilized in order to create pressure gradients across the bubble itself.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Nikolaj; Stroe, Rodica-Elisabeta; Hedensted, Lau
2016-01-01
in MATLAB and NI Vision in LabVIEW to determine shape and diameter of the bubbles. Three bubble regions are observed; adherence, bubble diffusion and bulk region. For stagnant liquid flow the mean bubble diameter increases from 30 to 60 μm going from the adherence region to the bulk region, which...
Measurement of the local void fraction in two-phase air-water flow with a hot-film anemometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.
1968-01-01
The experimental knowledge of the local void-fraction is basic for the derivation of the constitutive equations of two-phase flows. This report deals with measurements of the local void-fraction based on the use of a constant temperature hot-film anemometer associated with a multichannel analyser. After determining the void-fraction profile along a diameter of a vertical pipe (40 mm I.D.), in which air and water flow upwards, we compare the void-fraction averaged over the diameter with the average value measured directly by a γ-ray method. Two runs were made in bubble flow and a third in slug flow. The two methods give results in a good agreement especially for bubble flow. The void-fraction averaged over the cross-section was also calculated from the different profiles and compared in a good manner with the experimental results of R. ROUMY. For bubble flow we verified the theory of S.G. BANKOFF about the shape of the void-fraction profiles. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Hho Jung; Cha, Jong Hee; Cho, Sung Jae; Chun, Moon Hyun
1991-01-01
The process of flooding phenomenon in a vertical adiabatic 3 x 3 tube bundle flow channel has been studied experimentally. A series of tests was performed, using three types of tube bundle differing only in the number of spacer grids attached, to investigate the effects of spacer grids and multi-flow channel interactions on the air-water counter-current flow limitations. Experimentally determined flooding points at various water film Reynolds numbers for three different test sections are presented in graphical form and compared with entrainment criterion for co-current flow and instability criteria. In addition, empirical flooding correlations of the Kutateladze type are obtained for each type of test section using liquid penetration data
Stratification of bubbly horizontal flows: modeling and experimental validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bottin, M.
2010-01-01
Hot films and optical probes enabled the acquisition of measurements in bubbly flows at 5, 20 and 40 diameters from the inlet of the vein on the METERO facility which test section is a horizontal circular pipe of 100 mm inner diameter. The distribution of the different phases, the existence of coalescence and sedimentation mechanisms, the influence of the liquid and gas flow rates, the radial and axial evolutions are analyzed thanks to fast camera videos and numerous and varied experimental results (void fraction, bubbles sizes, interfacial area, mean and fluctuating velocities and turbulent kinetic energy of the liquid phase). Some models, based on the idea that the flow reaches an equilibrium state sufficiently far from the inlet of the pipe, were developed to simulate mean interfacial area and turbulent kinetic energy transports in bubbly flows. (author)
Chang, Chun; Ju, Yang; Xie, Heping; Zhou, Quanlin; Gao, Feng
2017-07-04
Two-phase flow interfacial dynamics in rough fractures is fundamental to understanding fluid transport in fractured media. The Haines jump of non-Darcy flow in porous media has been investigated at pore scales, but its fundamental processes in rough fractures remain unclear. In this study, the micron-scale Haines jump of the air-water interface in rough fractures was investigated under drainage conditions, with the air-water interface tracked using dyed water and an imaging system. The results indicate that the interfacial velocities represent significant Haines jumps when the meniscus passes from a narrow "throat" to a wide "body", with jump velocities as high as five times the bulk drainage velocity. Locally, each velocity jump corresponds to a fracture aperture variation; statistically, the velocity variations follow an exponential function of the aperture variations at a length scale of ~100 µm to ~100 mm. This spatial-scale-invariant correlation may indicate that the high-speed local velocities during the Haines jump would not average out spatially for a bulk system. The results may help in understanding the origin of interface instabilities and the resulting non-uniform phase distribution, as well as the micron-scale essence of the spatial and temporal instability of two-phase flow in fractured media at the macroscopic scale.
Interface tracking computations of bubble dynamics in nucleate flow boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giustini, G.
2015-01-01
The boiling process is of utter importance for the design and operation of water-cooled nuclear reactors. Despite continuous effort over the past decades, a fully mechanistic model of boiling in the presence of a solid surface has not yet been achieved. Uncertainties exist at fundamental level, since the microscopic phenomena governing nucleate boiling are still not understood, and as regards 'component scale' modelling, which relies heavily on empirical representations of wall boiling. Accurate models of these phenomena at sub-milli-metric scale are capable of elucidating the various processes and to produce quantitative data needed for up-scaling. Within this context, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) represents a powerful tool for CFD analysis of boiling flows. In this contribution, DNS coupled with an Interface Tracking method (Y. Sato, B. Niceno, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 249, 15 September 2013, Pages 127-161) are used to analyse the hydrodynamics and heat transfer associated with heat diffusion controlled bubble growth at a solid substrate during nucleate flow boiling. The growth of successive bubbles from a single nucleation site is simulated with a computational model that includes heat conduction in the solid substrate and evaporation from the liquid film (micro-layer) present beneath the bubble. Bubble evolution is investigated and the additional (with respect to single phase convection) heat transfer mechanisms due to the ebullition cycle are quantified. The simulations show that latent heat exchange due to evaporation in the micro-layer and sensible heat exchange during the waiting time after bubble departure are the main heat transfer mechanisms. It is found that the presence of an imposed flow normal to the bubble rising path determines a complex velocity and temperature distribution near the nucleation site. This conditions can result in bubble sliding, and influence bubble shape, departure diameter and departure frequency
Physical cleaning by bubbly streaming flow in an ultrasound field
Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita
2017-11-01
Low-intensity ultrasonic cleaning with gas-supersaturated water is a promising method of physical cleaning without erosion; we are able to trigger cavitation bubble nucleation by weak ultrasound under gas supersaturation and thus clean material surfaces by mild bubble dynamics. Here, we perform particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of liquid flow and cavitation bubble translation in an ultrasonic cleaning bath driven at 28 kHz and then relate it to cleaning tests using glass slides at which silica particles are attached. The ultrasound pressure amplitude at the cleaning spot is set at 1.4 atm. We select the supersaturation level of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a parameter and control it by oxygen microbubble aeration. It follows from the PIV measurement that the liquid flow is enhanced by the cavitation bubble translation driven by acoustic radiation force; this trend becomes clearer when the bubbles appear more densely as the DO supersaturation increases. In the cleaning tests, the cleaned areas appear as straight streaks. This suggests that physical cleaning is achieved mainly by cavitation bubbles that translate in ultrasound fields.
Particle Transport and Size Sorting in Bubble Microstreaming Flow
Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha
2014-11-01
Ultrasonic driving of sessile semicylindrical bubbles results in powerful steady streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. In a microchannel, this flow field pattern can be fine-tuned to achieve size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles at scales much smaller than the bubble itself; the sorting mechanism has been successfully described based on simple geometrical considerations. We investigate the sorting process in more detail, both experimentally (using new parameter variations that allow greater control over the sorting) and theoretically (incorporating the device geometry as well as the superimposed channel flow into an asymptotic theory). This results in optimized criteria for size sorting and a theoretical description that closely matches the particle behavior close to the bubble, the crucial region for size sorting.
Bubble Pinch-Off in a Rotating Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergmann, Raymond; Andersen, Anders Peter; van der Meer, Devaraj
2009-01-01
We create air bubbles at the tip of a "bathtub vortex" which reaches to a finite depth. The bathtub vortex is formed by letting water drain through a small hole at the bottom of a rotating cylindrical container. The tip of the needlelike surface dip is unstable at high rotation rates and releases...... bubbles which are carried down by the flow. Using high-speed imaging we find that the minimal neck radius of the unstable tip decreases in time as a power law with an exponent close to 1/3. This exponent was found by Gordillo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 194501 (2005)] to govern gas flow driven pinch...
Dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble for the steady cavitating flow
Cai, Jun; Huai, Xiulan; Li, Xunfeng
2009-12-01
In this paper, by introducing the flow velocity item into the classical Rayleigh-Plesset dynamic equation, a new equation, which does not involve the time term and can describe the motion of cavitation bubble in the steady cavitating flow, has been obtained. By solving the new motion equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control, the dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble driven by the varying pressure field downstream of a venturi cavitation reactor are numerically simulated. The effects of liquid temperature (corresponding to the saturated vapor pressure of liquid), cavitation number and inlet pressure of venturi on radial motion of bubble and pressure pulse due to the radial motion are analyzed and discussed in detail. Some dynamic behaviors of bubble different from those in previous papers are displayed. In addition, the internal relationship between bubble dynamics and process intensification is also discussed. The simulation results reported in this work reveal the variation laws of cavitation intensity with the flow conditions of liquid, and will lay a foundation for the practical application of hydrodynamic cavitation technology.
Effects of mixing methods on phase distribution in vertical bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monji, Hideaki; Matsui, Goichi; Sugiyama, Takayuki.
1992-01-01
The mechanism of the phase distribution formation in a bubble flow is one of the most important problems in the control of two-phase flow systems. The effect of mixing methods on the phase distribution was experimentally investigated by using upward nitrogen gas-water bubble flow under the condition of fixed flow rates. The experimental results show that the diameter of the gas injection hole influences the phase distribution through the bubble size. The location of the injection hole and the direction of injection do not influence the phase distribution of fully developed bubble flow. The transitive equivalent bubble size from the coring bubble flow to the sliding bubble flow corresponds to the bubble shape transition. The analytical results show that the phase distribution may be predictable if the phase profile is judged from the bubble size. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.
2013-01-01
A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could...... and do form occasionally. Cutting across and comparing such varied asset types provides some rich insights into the nature of bubbles – and offers an inductive way to arrive at the typology of bubbles....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jinzhao; Giot, M.
1992-01-01
A series of experiments has been performed on air-water countercurrent flow through short multi-tube geometries (tube number n = 3, diameter d = 36mm, length I = 2d, 10d and 20d). The time-varying thicknesses of the liquid films trickling down the individual tubes are measured by means of conductance probes mounted flush at different locations of the inner wall surfaces. Detailed time series analyses of the measured film thicknesses provide some useful information about the film flow behavior as well as the interfacial wave characteristics in individual tubes, which can be used as some guidelines for developing more general predictive flooding models. 18 refs., 18 figs., 1 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Shirong; Suzuki, Yumiko; Aritomi, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu
1998-01-01
The authors have developed a new measurement system which consisted of an Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor (UVP) and a Video Data Processing Unit (VDP) in order to clarify the two-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for two-dimensional two-phase flow. In the present paper, the proposed measurement system is applied to fully developed bubbly cocurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. In addition, the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity, which was defined as a ratio of the standard deviation of velocity fluctuation in a bubbly flow to that in a water single phase flow, were examined. Next, these flow characteristics were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows reported in our previous paper. Finally, concerning the drift flux model, the distribution parameter and drift velocity were obtained directly from both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles, and their results were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)
Determination of bubble parameters in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira Lira, C.A.B. de.
1980-01-01
A development of a probe-detector system for measurement of bubble parameters like size, rise velocity and void fraction in two-phase flow is presented. The method uses an electro resistivity probe and a compact electronic circuit has been developed for obtain this purpose. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yanlin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping; Wang Junfeng
2011-01-01
A theoretical model was developed to predict the bubbly to churn flow pattern transition for vertical upward flows in narrow rectangular channel. The model was developed based on the imbalance theory of Helmholtz and some reasonable assumptions. The maximum ideal bubble in narrow rectangular channel and the thermal hydraulics boundary condition leading to bubbly flow to churn flow pattern transition was calculated. The model was validated by experimental data from previous researches. Comparison between predicted result and experimental result shows a reasonable good agreement. (author)
Experimental investigation of single small bubble motion in linear shear flow in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zhongchun; Zhao, Yang; Song, Xiaoming; Yu, Hongxing; Jiang, Shengyao; Ishii, Mamoru
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The bubble motion in simple linear shear flow was experimentally investigated. • The bubble trajectories, bubble velocity and drag and lift force were obtained using image process routine. • The bubble trajectory was coupled with a zigzag motion and incline path. • The lift force was kept negative and it decreased when bubble diameter and shear flow magnitude increased. - Abstract: The motion of small bubble in a simple shear flow in water was experimental studied. Stable shear flow with low turbulence level was achieved with curved screen and measured using LDV. The bubbles were captured by high speed camera and the captured images were processed with digital image routine. The bubble was released from a capillary tube. The instantaneous bubble position, bubble velocity and forces were obtained based on the captured parameters. The quasi-steady lift coefficient was determined by the linear fitting of the bubble trajectory of several cycles. The results indicated that the lateral migration was coupled with the zigzag motion of bubble in the present experiment. The bubble migrated to the left side and its quasi-steady lift coefficient was negative. Good repeatable results were observed by measurements of 18 bubbles. The bubble motion in shear flow in water was first experimental studied and negative lift force was observed in the present study condition. The lift coefficient decreased when shear stress magnitude or bubble diameter increased in the present experiment condition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamai, Hidesada; Tomiyama, Akio
2004-01-01
A three-dimensional one-way bubble tracking method is one of the most promising numerical methods for the prediction of a developing bubble flow in a vertical pipe, provided that several constitutive models are prepared. In this study, a bubble shape, an equation of bubble motion, a liquid velocity profile, a pressure field, turbulent fluctuation and bubble coalescence are modeled based on available knowledge on bubble dynamics. Bubble shapes are classified into four types in terms of bubble equivalent diameter. A wake velocity model is introduced to simulate approaching process among bubbles due to wake entrainment. Bubble coalescence is treated as a stochastic phenomenon with the aid of coalescence probabilities that depend on the sizes of two interacting bubbles. The proposed method can predict time-spatial evolution of flow pattern in a developing bubble-slug flow. (author)
Modeling on bubbly to churn flow pattern transition in narrow rectangular channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yanlin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping; Wang Junfeng
2012-01-01
A theoretical model based on some reasonable concepts was developed to predict the bubbly flow to churn flow pattern transition in vertical narrow rectangular channel under flow boiling condition. The maximum size of ideal bubble in narrow rectangular channel was calculated based on previous literature. The thermal hydraulics boundary condition of bubbly to churn flow pattern transition was exported from Helmholtz and maximum size of ideal bubble. The theoretical model was validated by existent experimental data. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Seok Min; Lee, Un Chul; Bae, Sung Won; Chung, Bub Dong
2004-01-01
The Multi-Dimensional flow models in system code have been developed during the past many years. RELAP5-3D, CATHARE and TRACE has its specific multi-dimensional flow models and successfully applied it to the system safety analysis. In KAERI, also, MARS(Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) code was developed by integrating RELAP5/MOD3 code and COBRA-TF code. Even though COBRA-TF module can analyze three-dimensional flow models, it has a limitation to apply 3D shear stress dominant phenomena or cylindrical geometry. Therefore, Multi-dimensional analysis models are newly developed by implementing three-dimensional momentum flux and diffusion terms. The multi-dimensional model has been assessed compared with multi-dimensional conceptual problems and CFD code results. Although the assessment results were reasonable, the multi-dimensional model has not been validated to two-phase flow using experimental data. In this paper, the multi-dimensional air-water two-phase flow experiment was simulated and analyzed
Statistical criterion for Bubbly-slug flow transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zigler, J; Elias, E [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-01
The investigation of flow pattern transitions is still an interesting problem in the research of multiphase Row. It has been studied theoretically, and experimental confirmation of the models has been found by many investigators. The present paper deals with a statistical approach to bubbly-slug transitions in a vertical upward two phase flow and a new transition criterion is deduced from experimental data (authors).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roumy, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-07-01
This report deals with experimental work on a two phase air-water mixture in vertical tubes of different diameters. The average void fraction was measured in a 2 metre long test section by means of quick-closing valves. Using resistive probes and photographic techniques, we have determined the flow patterns and developed diagrams to indicate the boundaries between the various patterns: independent bubbles, agglomerated bubbles, slugs, semi-annular, annular. In the case of bubble flow and slug flow, it is shown that the relationship between the average void fraction and the superficial velocities of the phases is given by: V{sub sg} = f(<{alpha}>) * g(V{sub sl}). The function g(V{sub sl}) for the case of independent bubbles has been found to be: g(V{sub sl}) = V{sub sl} + 20. For semi-annular and annular flow conditions; it appears that the average void fraction depends, to a first approximation only on the ratio V{sub sg}/V{sub sl}. (author) [French] Ce rapport est une etude experimentale d'un melange diphasique eau-air dans des tubes verticaux de differents diametres. Nous avons mesure la fraction de vide moyenne dans une portion de canal de longueur 2 m, au moyen d'un systeme de vannes a fermeture rapide et simultanee. Au moyen de sondes resistives et de photographies nous avons determine la configuration de l'ecoulement et trace des cartes donnant les frontieres entre les differentes configurations d'ecoulement: bulles independantes, bulles agglomerees, bouchons, semi-annulaire, annulaire. Nous montrons que pour les regimes a bulles et a bouchons, une equation de la forme V{sub sg} = f(<{alpha}>) * g(V{sub sl}) relie la fraction de vide moyenne aux vitesses superficielles de chacune des phases. Nous avons pu determiner la fonction g(V{sub sl}) dans le cas du regime a bulles independantes, et nous trouvons g(V{sub sl}) = V{sub sl} + 20. Pour les regimes semi-annulaire et annulaire, il semble qu'en premiere approximation, la fraction de vide moyenne ne depende que
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu.
1997-01-01
The authors have developed a measurement system which is composed of an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and a video data processing unit in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system was applied for bubbly countercurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. Next, turbulence intensity in a continuous liquid phase was defined as a standard deviation of velocity fluctuation, and the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity in the channel was clarified as a ratio of the standard deviation of flow fluctuation in a bubbly countercurrent flow to that in a water single phase flow. Finally, the distribution parameter and drift velocity used in the drift flux model for bubbly countercurrent flows were calculated from the obtained velocity profiles of both phases and void fraction profile, and were compared with the correlation proposed for bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)
Countercurrent Air-Water Flow in a Scale-Down Model of a Pressurizer Surge Line
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Futatsugi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Steam generated in a reactor core and water condensed in a pressurizer form a countercurrent flow in a surge line between a hot leg and the pressurizer during reflux cooling. Characteristics of countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL in a 1/10-scale model of the surge line were measured using air and water at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The experimental results show that CCFL takes place at three different locations, that is, at the upper junction, in the surge line, and at the lower junction, and its characteristics are governed by the most dominating flow limitation among the three. Effects of inclination angle and elbows of the surge line on CCFL characteristics were also investigated experimentally. The effects of inclination angle on CCFL depend on the flow direction, that is, the effect is large for the nearly horizontal flow and small for the vertical flow at the upper junction. The presence of elbows increases the flow limitation in the surge line, whereas the flow limitations at the upper and lower junctions do not depend on the presence of elbows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sari, Salih [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Erguen, Sule [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Barik, Muhammet; Kocar, Cemil; Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2009-03-15
In this study, isothermal turbulent bubbly flow is mechanistically modeled. For the modeling, Fluent version 6.3.26 is used as the computational fluid dynamics solver. First, the mechanistic models that simulate the interphase momentum transfer between the gas (bubbles) and liquid (continuous) phases are investigated, and proper models for the known flow conditions are selected. Second, an interfacial area transport equation (IATE) solution is added to Fluent's solution scheme in order to model the interphase momentum transfer mechanisms. In addition to solving IATE, bubble number density (BND) approach is also added to Fluent and this approach is also used in the simulations. Different source/sink models derived for the IATE and BND models are also investigated. The simulations of experiments based on the available data in literature are performed by using IATE and BND models in two and three-dimensions. The results show that the simulations performed by using IATE and BND models agree with each other and with the experimental data. The simulations performed in three-dimensions give better agreement with the experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sari, Salih; Erguen, Sule; Barik, Muhammet; Kocar, Cemil; Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi
2009-01-01
In this study, isothermal turbulent bubbly flow is mechanistically modeled. For the modeling, Fluent version 6.3.26 is used as the computational fluid dynamics solver. First, the mechanistic models that simulate the interphase momentum transfer between the gas (bubbles) and liquid (continuous) phases are investigated, and proper models for the known flow conditions are selected. Second, an interfacial area transport equation (IATE) solution is added to Fluent's solution scheme in order to model the interphase momentum transfer mechanisms. In addition to solving IATE, bubble number density (BND) approach is also added to Fluent and this approach is also used in the simulations. Different source/sink models derived for the IATE and BND models are also investigated. The simulations of experiments based on the available data in literature are performed by using IATE and BND models in two and three-dimensions. The results show that the simulations performed by using IATE and BND models agree with each other and with the experimental data. The simulations performed in three-dimensions give better agreement with the experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, H.; Park, G. C.
2000-01-01
The object of experiment is improved model of evaporative heat transfer coefficient using interfacial friction factor on evaporation. Experiments have been conducted with near-vertical(87 .deg.) flat plate on evaporation for air-water countercurrent stratified flow. Experiment facility is consisted of 1.7m length and 0.2 X 0.005m cross section, the one side direct heating system which have 10kw power capacity. The interfacial shear stress, pressure drop and temperatures in test section were measured. These parameters were measured by DP-103 pressure transducer, K-type thermocouple, RTD and Hot Wire Anemometer(HWA). Experimental results were inclination as increased interfacial shear stress with increased the evaporation rate. Interfacial shear stress was increased as increased water flow rate and air flow rate too. For the evaluation of the measured evaporative heat transfer coefficients and physical understanding of the evaporation phenomena, the evaporative heat transfer coefficients were obtained through the simple calculation process by the use of mass transfer coefficient correlation and the experimental data of wavy film surface effect on shear and on evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, Stephan Gerhard
2015-01-01
A stratified counter-current two-phase gas/liquid flow can occur in various technical systems. In the past investigations have mainly been motivated by the possible occurrence of these flows in accident scenarios of nuclear light water-reactors and in numerous applications in process engineering. However, the precise forecast of flow parameters, is still challenging, for instance due to their strong dependency on the geometric boundary conditions. A new approach which uses CFD methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics) promises a better understanding of the flow phenomena and simultaneously a higher scalability of the findings. RANS methods (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) are preferred in order to compute industrial processes and geometries. A very deep understanding of the flow behavior and equation systems based on real physics are necessary preconditions to develop the equation system for a reliable RANS approach with predictive power. Therefore, local highly resolved, experimental data is needed in order to provide and validate the required turbulence and phase interaction models. The central objective of this work is to provide the data needed for the code development for these unsteady, turbulent and three-dimensional flows. Experiments were carried out at the WENKA facility (Water Entrainment Channel Karlsruhe) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The work consists of a detailed description of the test-facility including a new bended channel, the measurement techniques and the experimental results. The characterization of the new channel was done by flow maps. A high-speed imaging study gives an impression of the occurring flow regimes, and different flow phenomena like droplet separation. The velocity distributions as well as various turbulence values were investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). In the liquid phase fluorescent tracer-particles were used to suppress optical reflections from the phase surface (fluorescent PIV, FPIV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baroni, Douglas B.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Motta, Mauricio S.
2011-01-01
The development of advanced nuclear reactor conceptions depends largely on the amount of available data to the designer. Non invasive ultrasonic techniques can contribute to the evaluation of gas-liquid two-phase regimes in the nuclear thermo-hydraulic circuits. A key-point for success of those techniques is the interpretation of the ultrasonic signal. In this work, a methodology based in artificial neural networks (ANN) is proposed to predict size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly flow. To accomplish that, an air feed system control was used to obtain specific bubbly flows in an experimental system utilizing a Plexiglas vertical bubbly column. Four different size distribution of bubbles were generated. The bubbles were photographed and measured. To evaluate the different size distribution of bubbles it was used the ultrasonic reflected echo on the opposite wall of the column. Then, an ANN has been developed for predicting size distribution of bubbles by using the frequency spectra of the ultrasonic signal as input. A trained artificial neural network using ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain can evaluate with a good precision the size distribution of bubbles generated in this system. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baroni, Douglas B.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A., E-mail: douglasbaroni@ien.gov.b, E-mail: lamy@ien.gov.b, E-mail: bittenc@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S. [Escola Tecnica Estadual Visconde de Maua (ETEVM/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Motta, Mauricio S., E-mail: mmotta@cefet-rj.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2011-07-01
The development of advanced nuclear reactor conceptions depends largely on the amount of available data to the designer. Non invasive ultrasonic techniques can contribute to the evaluation of gas-liquid two-phase regimes in the nuclear thermo-hydraulic circuits. A key-point for success of those techniques is the interpretation of the ultrasonic signal. In this work, a methodology based in artificial neural networks (ANN) is proposed to predict size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly flow. To accomplish that, an air feed system control was used to obtain specific bubbly flows in an experimental system utilizing a Plexiglas vertical bubbly column. Four different size distribution of bubbles were generated. The bubbles were photographed and measured. To evaluate the different size distribution of bubbles it was used the ultrasonic reflected echo on the opposite wall of the column. Then, an ANN has been developed for predicting size distribution of bubbles by using the frequency spectra of the ultrasonic signal as input. A trained artificial neural network using ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain can evaluate with a good precision the size distribution of bubbles generated in this system. (author)
Two-phase flow characterisation by nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leblond, J.; Javelot, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebon, L.
1998-01-01
The results presented in this paper demonstrate the performance of the PFGSE-NMR to obtain a complete characterisation of two-phase flows. Different methods are proposed to characterise air-water flows in different regimes: stationary two-phase flows and flows in transient condition. Finally a modified PFGSE is proposed to analyse the turbulence of air-water bubbly flow. (author)
Flow measurement in bubbly and slug flow regimes using the electromagnetic flowmeter developed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cha, Jae Eun; Ahn, Yeh Chan; Seo, Kyung Woo; Kim, Moo Hwan
2002-01-01
In order to investigate the characteristics of electromagnetic flowmeter in two-phase flow, an AC electromagnetic flowmeter was designed and manufactured. In various flow conditions, the signals and noises from the flowmeter were obtained and analyzed by comparison with the observed flow patterns with a high speed CCD camera. The experiment with the void simulators in which rod shaped non-conducting material was used was carried out to investigate the effect of the bubble position and the void fraction on the flowmeter. Based on the results from the void simulator, two-phase flow experiments encompassed from bubbly to slug flow regime were conducted. The simple relation ΔU TP = ΔU SP /(1-α) was verified with measurements of the potential difference and the void fraction. Due to the lack of homogeneity in a real two-phase flow, the discrepancy between the relation and the present measurement was slightly increased with void fraction and also liquid volumetric flux j f . Whereas there is no difference in the shape of the raw signal between single-phase flow and bubbly flow, the signal amplitude for bubbly flow is higher than that for single-phase flow at the same water flow rate, since the passage area of the water flow is reduced. In the case of slug flow, the phase and the amplitude of the flowmeter output show dramatically the flow characteristics around each slug bubble and the position of a slug bubble itself. Therefore, the electromagnetic flowmeter shows a good possibility of being useful for identifying the flow regimes
Titrated flow versus fixed flow Bubble Nasal CPAP for respiratory distress in preterm neonates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srinivas eMurki
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Background: The clinical effects of a pre-fixed flow of air-oxygen versus a flow titrated according to visible bubbling are not well understood.Objective: To compare the effects of a fixed flow (5 L/min and titrated flow ( flow just enough to ensure bubbling at different set pressures on delivered intra-prong pressure, gas exchange and clinical parameters in preterm infants on bubble CPAP for respiratory distress.Methods: Preterm infants less than 35 weeks gestation on bubble CPAP and less than 96 h of age, were enrolled in this cross over study. They were subjected to 30 minute periods of titrated flow and fixed flow. At the end of both epochs, gas flow rate, set pressure, FiO2, SpO2, Silverman retraction score, respiratory rate , abdominal girth, and blood gases were recorded. The delivered intra-prong pressure was measured by an electronic manometer. Results: Sixty nine recordings were made in 54 infants. For each of the set CPAP pressures (4, 5 and 6 cm H2O, the mean delivered pressure with a fixed flow of 5 L/min was higher than that delivered by the titrated flow. During the fixed flow epoch, the delivered pressure was closer to and higher than the set pressure resulting in higher PaO2 and lower PaCO2 as compared to titrated flow epoch. In the titrated flow period, the delivered pressure was consistently lower than the set pressure. Conclusion: In preterm infants on bubble CPAP with set pressures of 4 to 6 cm H2O, a fixed flow of 5 L/min is more effective than a flow titrated to ensure adequate visible bubbling. It achieves higher delivered pressures, better oxygenation and ventilation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bayod, R.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, J.; Martinez Bazan, C.
2005-07-01
In this report, a simplified model of the break-up of an air bubble in a turbulent water flow is proposed and analyzed numerically. According to Hinze's theory, and our experimental observations, the external flow field is assumed asymmetric and irrotational for away from the bubble. furthermore the turbulent flow-field is modelled by an asymmetric hyperbolic flow-field and the evolution of the air-water interface is calculated by the levels-set method for a wide range of Reynolds and Weber numbers. Therefore, the break-up times are obtained for super-critical weber numbers and different Reynolds numbers. Therefore, the break-up times are obtained for super-critical Weber and Reynolds numbers allows the comparison of the numeric with our experimental results. Other possible break-up mechanisms for subcritical Weber number, i. e. the break-up by resonance, are also considered. (Author) 20 refs.
Numerical study of the bubbly flow regime in micro-channel flow boiling
Bhuvankar, Pramod; Dabiri, Sadegh
2017-11-01
Two-phase flow accompanied by boiling in micro-channel heat sinks is an effective means for heat removal from computer chips. We present a numerical study of flow boiling in micro-channels with conjugate heat transfer with a focus on the bubbly flow regime. The bubbles are assumed to nucleate at a pre-determined location and frequency. The Navier Stokes equations are solved using a single fluid formulation with the Front tracking method. Phase change is implemented using the deficit in heat flux across the bubble interface. The analytical solution for bubble growth in a superheated liquid is used as a benchmark to validate the mentioned numerical method. Water and FC-72 are studied as the operating fluids in a micro-channel made of Copper with a focus on hotspot mitigation. The micro-channel of cross-section 231 μm × 1000 μm , is used to study the effects of vertical up-flow, vertical down-flow and horizontal flow of the mentioned fluids on the heat transfer coefficients. A simple film model accounting for mass and energy conservation is applied wherever the bubble approaches closer than a cell width to the wall. The results of the simulation are compared with existing experimental data for bubble growth rates and heat transfer coefficients.
Numerical simulation study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in nuclear reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: ssfmorghi@gmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Puente, Jesus, E-mail: jpuente720@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educaçao Tecnologica Celso Suckowda Fonseca (CEFET), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Baliza, Ana R., E-mail: baliza@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Eletronuclear Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)
2017-07-01
After a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the temperature of the fuel elements cladding increases dramatically due to the heat produced by the fission products decay, which is not adequately removed by the vapor contained in the core. In order to avoid this sharp rise in temperature and consequent melting of the core, the Emergency Core Cooling System is activated. This system initially injects borated water from accumulator tanks of the reactor through the inlet pipe (cold leg) and the outlet pipe (hot leg), or through the cold leg only, depending on the plant manufacturer. Some manufacturers add to this, direct injection into the upper plenum of the reactor. The penetration of water into the reactor core is a complex thermo fluid dynamic process because it involves the mixing of water with the vapor contained in the reactor, added to that generated in the contact of the water with the still hot surfaces in various geometries. In some critical locations, the vapor flowing in the opposite direction of the water can control the penetration of this into the core. This phenomenon is known as Countercurrent Flow Limitation (CCFL) or Flooding, and it is characterized by the control that a gas exerts in the liquid flow in the opposite direction. This work presents a proposal to use a CFD to simulate the CCFL phenomenon. Numerical computing can provide important information and data that is difficult or expensive to measure or test experimentally. Given the importance of computational science today, it can be considered a third and independent branch of science on an equal footing with the theoretical and experimental sciences. (author)
Analysis of bubbly flow using particle image velocimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todd, D.R.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.; Schmidl, W.D.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A and M University, Nuclear Engineering Dept., College Stagion, TX (United States); Sanchez-Silva, F. [ESIME, INP (Mexico)
2001-07-01
The local phasic velocities can be determined in two-phase flows if the phases can be separated during analysis. The continuous liquid velocity field can be captured using standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques in two-phase flows. PIV is now a well-established, standard flow measurement technique, which provides instantaneous velocity fields in a two-dimensional plane of finite thickness. PIV can be extended to three dimensions within the plane with special considerations. A three-dimensional shadow PIV (SPIV) measurement apparatus can be used to capture the dispersed phase flow parameters such as velocity and interfacial area. The SPIV images contain only the bubble images, and can be easily analyzed and the results used to separate the dispersed phase from the continuous phase in PIV data. An experimental system that combines the traditional PIV technique with SPIV will be described and sample data will be analyzed to demonstrate an advanced turbulence measurement method in a two-phase bubbly flow system. Also, a qualitative error analysis method that allows users to reduce the number of erroneous vectors obtained from the PIV measurements will be discussed. (authors)
Analysis of bubbly flow using particle image velocimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todd, D.R.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.; Schmidl, W.D.; Hassan, Y.A.; Sanchez-Silva, F.
2001-01-01
The local phasic velocities can be determined in two-phase flows if the phases can be separated during analysis. The continuous liquid velocity field can be captured using standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques in two-phase flows. PIV is now a well-established, standard flow measurement technique, which provides instantaneous velocity fields in a two-dimensional plane of finite thickness. PIV can be extended to three dimensions within the plane with special considerations. A three-dimensional shadow PIV (SPIV) measurement apparatus can be used to capture the dispersed phase flow parameters such as velocity and interfacial area. The SPIV images contain only the bubble images, and can be easily analyzed and the results used to separate the dispersed phase from the continuous phase in PIV data. An experimental system that combines the traditional PIV technique with SPIV will be described and sample data will be analyzed to demonstrate an advanced turbulence measurement method in a two-phase bubbly flow system. Also, a qualitative error analysis method that allows users to reduce the number of erroneous vectors obtained from the PIV measurements will be discussed. (authors)
Effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile in vertical bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamasa, Tomoji
1988-01-01
An experimental study of upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow in an entry region was performed with various rough wall test tubes. The objective of the work is to clarify the effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile. The fluid flows in the vertical circular test tube of 25 mm I.D. under nearly atmospheric pressure, at room temperature. The void profile changes from a pattern similar in appearance to the saddle shape which has local void peaks near the wall, into the power law shape whose curve is approximated by a power law formula, with increasing wall roughness and/or entry length. That is, wall roughness and entry length have a similar effect upon void profile. There are two patterns in the power law shape, a pattern with sharp center peak and a pattern with obtuse center peak. As wall roughness and/or entry length increase, the void profile changes from the former pattern to the latter pattern. At enough long entry length (L/D ≅ 150), every void profile has almost the same power law shape independent of wall roughness. Some void profiles are asymmetric to the axis. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Vasconcelos, Victor, E-mail: ymo@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2015-07-01
For the experimental study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in Nuclear Reactors, were built at CDTN an acrylic test sections with the same geometric shape of 'hot leg' of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The hydraulic circuit is designed to be used with air and water at pressures near to atmospheric and ambient temperature. Due to the complexity of the CCFL experimental, the numerical simulation has been used. The aim of the numerical simulations is the validation of experimental data. It is a global trend, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and prediction of physical phenomena related to heat transfer in nuclear reactors. The most used CFD codes are: FLUENT®, STAR- CD®, Open Foam® and CFX®. In CFD, closure models are required that must be validated, especially if they are to be applied to nuclear reactor safety. The Thermal- Hydraulics Laboratory of CDTN offers computing infrastructure and license to use commercial code CFX®. This article describes a review about CCFL and the use of CFD for numerical simulation of this phenomenal for Nuclear Rector. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Vasconcelos, Victor
2015-01-01
For the experimental study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in Nuclear Reactors, were built at CDTN an acrylic test sections with the same geometric shape of 'hot leg' of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The hydraulic circuit is designed to be used with air and water at pressures near to atmospheric and ambient temperature. Due to the complexity of the CCFL experimental, the numerical simulation has been used. The aim of the numerical simulations is the validation of experimental data. It is a global trend, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and prediction of physical phenomena related to heat transfer in nuclear reactors. The most used CFD codes are: FLUENT®, STAR- CD®, Open Foam® and CFX®. In CFD, closure models are required that must be validated, especially if they are to be applied to nuclear reactor safety. The Thermal- Hydraulics Laboratory of CDTN offers computing infrastructure and license to use commercial code CFX®. This article describes a review about CCFL and the use of CFD for numerical simulation of this phenomenal for Nuclear Rector. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Ki Won [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Thanh Hung [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Revankar, Shripad T., E-mail: shripad@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • Two-phase flow regimes and transition behavior were observed in the coolant channel. • Test were conducted for natural circulation with air-water. • Data were obtained on flow regime, void fraction, flow rates and re-wetting time. • The data were related to a cooling capability of core catcher system. - Abstract: Ex-vessel core catcher cooling system driven by natural circulation is designed using a full scaled air-water system. A transparent half symmetric section of a core catcher coolant channel of a pressurized water reactor was designed with instrumentations for local void fraction measurement and flow visualization. Two designs of air-water top separator water tanks are studied including one with modified ‘super-step’ design which prevents gas entrainment into down-comer. In the experiment air flow rates are set corresponding to steam generation rate for given corium decay power. Measurements of natural circulation flow rate, spatial local void fraction distribution and re-wetting time near the top wall are carried out for various air flow rates which simulate boiling-induced vapor generation. Since heat transfer and critical heat flux are strongly dependent on the water mass flow rate and development of two-phase flow on the heated wall, knowledge of two-phase flow characteristics in the coolant channel is essential. Results on flow visualization showing two phase flow structure specifically near the high void accumulation regions, local void profiles, rewetting time, and natural circulation flow rate are presented for various air flow rates that simulate corium power levels. The data are useful in assessing the cooling capability of and safety of the core catcher system.
Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.
Interfacial area concentration in gas–liquid bubbly to churn flow regimes in large diameter pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A systematic method to predict interfacial area concentration (IAC) is presented. • A correlation for group 1 bubble void fraction is proposed. • Correlations of IAC and bubble diameter are developed for group 1 bubbles. • Correlations of IAC and bubble diameter are developed for group 2 bubbles. • The newly-developed two-group IAC model compares well with collected databases. - Abstract: This study performed a survey on existing correlations for interfacial area concentration (IAC) prediction and collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes. Although some of these existing correlations were developed by partly using the IAC databases taken in the low-void-fraction two-phase flows in large diameter pipes, no correlation can satisfactorily predict the IAC in the two-phase flows changing from bubbly, cap bubbly to churn flow in the collected database of large diameter pipes. So this study presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for the bubbly-to-churn flows in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group 1: spherical or distorted bubble, group 2: cap bubble). A correlation was developed to predict the group 1 void fraction by using the void fraction for all bubble. The group 1 bubble IAC and bubble diameter were modeled by using the key parameters such as group 1 void fraction and bubble Reynolds number based on the analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. The correlations of IAC and bubble diameter for group 2 cap bubbles were developed by taking into account the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles and the comparison between a newly-derived drift velocity correlation for large diameter pipes and the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes. The predictions from the newly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amjad Asad
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the hydrodynamics of a bubble column is investigated numerically using the discrete bubble model, which tracks the dispersed bubbles individually in a liquid column. The discrete bubble model is combined with the volume of fluid approach to account for a proper free surface boundary condition at the liquid–gas interface. This improves describing the backflow region, which takes place close to the wall region. The numerical simulation is conducted by means of the open source computational fluid dynamics library OpenFOAM®. In order to validate the numerical model, experimental results of a bubble column are used. The numerical prediction shows an overall good agreement compared to the experimental data. The effect of injection conditions and the influence of the drag closures on bubble dynamics are investigated in the current paper. Here, the significant effect of injection boundary conditions on bubble dynamics and flow velocity in the studied cavity is revealed. Moreover, the impact of the choice of the drag closure on the liquid velocity field and on bubble behavior is indicated by comparing three drag closures derived from former studies.
Studies on modelling of bubble driven flows in chemical reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grevskott, Sverre
1997-12-31
Multiphase reactors are widely used in the process industry, especially in the petrochemical industry. They very often are characterized by very good thermal control and high heat transfer coefficients against heating and cooling surfaces. This thesis first reviews recent advances in bubble column modelling, focusing on the fundamental flow equations, drag forces, transversal forces and added mass forces. The mathematical equations for the bubble column reactor are developed, using an Eulerian description for the continuous and dispersed phase in tensor notation. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are given, and the k-{epsilon} and Rice-Geary models for turbulence are described. The different algebraic solvers used in the model are described, as are relaxation procedures. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental values. Attention is focused on the modelling of void fractions and gas velocities in the column. The energy conservation equation has been included in the bubble column model in order to model temperature distributions in a heated reactor. The conservation equation of chemical species has been included to simulate absorption of CO{sub 2}. Simulated axial and radial mass fraction profiles for CO{sub 2} in the gas phase are compared with measured values. Simulations of the dynamic behaviour of the column are also presented. 189 refs., 124 figs., 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahreini, Mohammad; Ramiar, Abas; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Condensing bubble is numerically investigated using VOF model in OpenFOAM package. • Bubble mass reduces as it goes through condensation and achieves higher velocities. • At a certain time the slope of changing bubble diameter with time, varies suddenly. • Larger bubbles experience more lateral migration to higher velocity regions. • Bubbles migrate back to a lower velocity region for higher liquid subcooling rates. - Abstract: In this paper, numerical simulation of the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow is performed. The interface between two-phase is tracked via the volume of fluid (VOF) method with continuous surface force (CSF) model, implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD package. In order to simulate the condensing bubble with the OpenFOAM code, the original energy equation and mass transfer model for phase change have been modified and a new solver is developed. The Newtonian flow is solved using the finite volume scheme based on the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. Comparison of the simulation results with previous experimental data revealed that the model predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. The bubble lifetime is almost proportional to bubble initial size and is prolonged by increasing the system pressure. In addition, the initial bubble size, subcooling of liquid and velocity gradient play an important role in the bubble deformation behavior. Velocity gradient makes the bubble move to the higher velocity region and the subcooling rate makes it to move back to the lower velocity region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahreini, Mohammad, E-mail: m.bahreini1990@gmail.com; Ramiar, Abas, E-mail: aramiar@nit.ac.ir; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar, E-mail: ranjbar@nit.ac.ir
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Condensing bubble is numerically investigated using VOF model in OpenFOAM package. • Bubble mass reduces as it goes through condensation and achieves higher velocities. • At a certain time the slope of changing bubble diameter with time, varies suddenly. • Larger bubbles experience more lateral migration to higher velocity regions. • Bubbles migrate back to a lower velocity region for higher liquid subcooling rates. - Abstract: In this paper, numerical simulation of the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow is performed. The interface between two-phase is tracked via the volume of fluid (VOF) method with continuous surface force (CSF) model, implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD package. In order to simulate the condensing bubble with the OpenFOAM code, the original energy equation and mass transfer model for phase change have been modified and a new solver is developed. The Newtonian flow is solved using the finite volume scheme based on the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. Comparison of the simulation results with previous experimental data revealed that the model predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. The bubble lifetime is almost proportional to bubble initial size and is prolonged by increasing the system pressure. In addition, the initial bubble size, subcooling of liquid and velocity gradient play an important role in the bubble deformation behavior. Velocity gradient makes the bubble move to the higher velocity region and the subcooling rate makes it to move back to the lower velocity region.
A method for bubble volume calculating in vertical two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, H Y; Dong, F
2009-01-01
The movement of bubble is a basic subject in gas-liquid two-phase flow research. A method for calculating bubble volume which is one of the most important characters in bubble motion research was proposed. A suit of visualized experimental device was designed and set up. Single bubble rising in stagnant liquid in a rectangular tank was studied using the high-speed video system. Bubbles generated by four orifice with different diameter (1mm, 2mm, 3mm, 4mm) were recorded respectively. Sequences of recorded high-speed images were processed by digital image processing method, such as image noise remove, binary image transform, bubble filling, and so on. then, Several parameters could be obtained from the processed image. Bubble area, equivalent diameter, bubble velocity, bubble acceleration are all indispensable in bubble volume calculating. In order to get the force balance equation, forces that work on bubble along vertical direction, including drag force, virtual mass force, buoyancy, gravity and liquid thrust, were analyzed. Finally, the bubble volume formula could be derived from the force balance equation and bubble parameters. Examples were given to shown the computing process and results. Comparison of the bubble volume calculated by geomettic method and the present method have shown the superiority of the proposed method in this paper.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Soon Heung; Baek, Won Pil; Ban, In Cheol [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)
2002-03-01
The project contribute to understand and to clarify the physical mechanism of flow nucleate boiling and CHF phenomena through the visualization experiments. the results are useful in the development of the enhancement device of heat transfer and to enhance nuclear fuel safety 1. Visual experimental facility 2. Application method of visualization Technique 3. Visualization results of flow nucleate boiling regime - Overall Bubble Behavior on the Heated Surface - Bubble Behavior near CHF Condition - Identification of Flow Structure - Three-layer flow structure 4. Quantifying of bubble parameter through a digital image processing - Image Processing Techniques - Classification of objects and measurements of the size - Three dimensional surface plot with using the luminance 5. Development and estimation of a correlation between bubble diameter and flow parameter - The effect of system parameter on bubble diameter - The development of a bubble diameter correlation . 49 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)
Acoustic bubble enhanced pinched flow fractionation for microparticle separation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng
2015-01-01
Pinched flow fractionation is a simple method for separating micron-sized particles by size, but has certain intrinsic limitations, e.g. requirement of a pinched segment similar to particle size and limited separation distance. In this paper, we developed an acoustic bubble enhanced pinched flow fractionation (PFF) method for microparticle separation. The proposed technique utilized microbubble streaming flows to overcome the limitations of conventional PFF. Our device has demonstrated separation of different sized microparticles (diameters 10 and 2 μm) with a larger pinched segment (60 μm) and at different buffer/particle solution flow rate ratios (5–25). The separation distances between particles are larger (as much as twice as large) than those achieved with conventional PFF. In addition, the separation position and distance can be adjusted by changing the driving voltage. The robust performance is due to the unique features of the flow field inside the pinched segment. We investigated several factors, including flow rate ratio, total flow rate and driving voltage, that affect the separation performance. (paper)
Performance Tests for Bubble Blockage Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Kwang Soon; Wi, Kyung Jin; Park, Rae Joon; Wan, Han Seong
2014-01-01
Postulated severe core damage accidents have a high threat risk for the safety of human health and jeopardize the environment. Versatile measures have been suggested and applied to mitigate severe accidents in nuclear power plants. To improve the thermal margin for the severe accident measures in high-power reactors, engineered corium cooling systems involving boiling-induced two-phase natural circulation have been proposed for decay heat removal. A boiling-induced natural circulation flow is generated in a coolant path between a hot vessel wall and cold coolant reservoir. In general, it is possible for some bubbles to be entrained in the natural circulation loop. If some bubbles entrain in the liquid phase flow passage, flow instability may occur, that is, the natural circulation mass flow rate may be oscillated. A new device to block the entraining bubbles is proposed and verified using air-water test loop. To avoid bubbles entrained in the natural circulation flow loop, a new device was proposed and verified using an air-water test loop. The air injection and liquid circulation loop was prepared, and the tests for the bubble blockage devices were performed by varying the geometry and shape of the devices. The performance of the bubble blockage device was more effective as the area ratio of the inlet to the down-comer increased, and the device height decreased. If the device has a rim to generate a vortex zone, the bubbles will be most effectively blocked
Modeling of bubble coalescence and disintegration in confined upward two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Xiaodong; Kim, Seungjin; Ishii, Mamoru; Beus, Stephen G.
2004-01-01
This paper presents the modeling of bubble interaction mechanisms in the two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) for confined gas-liquid two-phase flow. The transport equation is applicable to bubbly, cap-turbulent, and churn-turbulent flow regimes. In the two-group IATE, bubbles are categorized into two groups: spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. Thus, two sets of equations are used to describe the generation and destruction rates of bubble number density, void fraction, and interfacial area concentration for the two groups of bubbles due to bubble expansion and compression, coalescence and disintegration, and phase change. Five major bubble interaction mechanisms are identified for the gas-liquid two-phase flow of interest, and are analytically modeled as the source/sink terms for the transport equation in the confined flow. These models include both intra-group and inter-group bubble interactions
Zhang, D.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2005-01-01
Numerical simulations of the gas-liquid bubbly flow in a bubble column were conducted with the commercial CFD package CFX-4.4 to investigate the performance of three models (Pfleger and Becker, 2001; Sato and Sekoguchi, 1975; Troshko and Hassan, 2001) to account for the bubble-induced turbulence in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, In-Cheol; Lee, Seung Jun; Youn, Young Jung; Park, Jong Kuk; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong Jin
2015-01-01
CMFD (Computation Multi-Fluid Dynamics) tools have been being developed to simulate two-phase flow safety problems in nuclear reactor, including the precise prediction of local bubble parameters in subcooled boiling flow. However, a lot of complicated phenomena are encountered in the subcooled boiling flow such as bubble nucleation and departure, interfacial drag of bubbles, lateral migration of bubbles, bubble coalescence and break-up, and condensation of bubbles, and the constitutive models for these phenomena are not yet complete. As a result, it is a difficult task to predict the radial profile of bubble parameters and its propagation along the flow direction. Several experiments were performed to measure the local bubble parameters for the validation of the CMFD code analysis and improvement of the constitutive models of the subcooled boiling flow, and to enhance the fundamental understanding on the subcooled boiling flow. The information on the propagation of the local flow parameters along the flow direction was not provided because the measurements were conducted at the fixed elevation. In SUBO experiments, the radial profiles of local bubble parameters, liquid velocity and temperature were obtained for steam-water subcooled boiling flow in a vertical annulus. The local flow parameters were measured at six elevations along the flow direction. The pressure was in the range of 0.15 to 0.2 MPa. We have launched an experimental program to investigate quantify the local subcooled boiling flow structure under elevated pressure condition in order to provide high precision experimental data for thorough validation of up-to-date CMFD codes. In the present study, the first set of experimental data on the propagation of the radial profile of the bubble parameters was obtained for the subcooled boiling flow of R-134a in a pressurized vertical annulus channel. An experimental program was launched for an in-depth investigation of a subcooled boiling flow in an elevated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk
2011-01-01
The range of gas-liquid flow applications in today's technology is immensely wide. Important examples can be found in chemical reactors, boiling and condensation equipments as well as nuclear reactors. In gas-liquid flows, the bubble size distribution plays an important role in the phase structure and interfacial exchange behaviors. It is therefore necessary to take into account the dynamic change of the bubble size distribution to get good predictions in CFD. An efficient 1D Multi-Bubble-Size-Class Test Solver was introduced in Lucas et al. (2001) for the simulation of the development of the flow structure along a vertical pipe. The model considers a large number of bubble classes. It solves the radial profiles of liquid and gas velocities, bubble-size class resolved gas fraction profiles as well as turbulence parameters on basis of the bubble size distribution present at the given axial position. The evolution of the flow along the height is assumed to be solely caused by the progress of bubble coalescence and break-up resulting in a bubble size distribution changing in the axial direction. In this model, the bubble coalescence and breakup models are very important for reasonable predictions of the bubble size distribution. Many bubble coalescence and breakup models have been proposed in the literature. However, some obvious discrepancies exist in the models; for example, the daughter bubble size distributions are greatly different from different bubble breakup models, as reviewed in our previous publication (Liao and Lucas, 2009a; 2010). Therefore, it is necessary to compare and evaluate typical bubble coalescence and breakup models that have been commonly used in the literature. Thus, this work is aimed to make a comparison of several typical bubble coalescence and breakup models and to discuss in detail the ability of the Test Solver to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution. (orig.)
Enhanced CHF with Bubble Cutter and Artificial Flow in Nuclear Plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Chan Hee; Suh, Kune Y.
2013-01-01
The main goal of this paper is to body out the notions of forced convection system for enhanced local streams and air bubbles cutting (and/or pushing, breaking) system to explain how CHF can be improved and how those bubble cutter systems are applicable to NPPs. In this paper, the bubble cutter system and an artificial flow system which can cut (and/or push and break) air bubbles is bodied out to drag bubbles. It also make the surface wet condition of heated surfaces and improve heat transfer and prevent on creation of bubbles on the heated surfaces or heat exchangers or reactor cores. Namely, concepts and application methods to increase CHF are presented for NPPs. Enhanced critical heat flux (CHF) is one of our prospective aims for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Previous work has studied the flow boiling CHF enhancement with surfactant solutions under atmospheric pressure because surfactant solutions or surface conditions have an effect on the behavior of occurrence air bubbles on a heated surface. Another possible improvement is to improve efficiency of heat transfer or to body out some types of bubble breaking (and/or pushing, breaking) systems or an artificial flow of fluid that can tear off air bubbles or push hot liquid and bubbles on a surface of heater. During this study, it will be observed that those possible structures can elicit increased CHF by means of maintenance of contact with a coolant such as water
CFD modelling of polydispersed bubbly two-phase flow around an obstacle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krepper, Eckhard; Beyer, Matthias; Frank, Thomas; Lucas, Dirk; Prasser, Horst-Michael
2009-01-01
A population balance model (the Inhomogeneous MUSIG model) has recently been developed in close cooperation between ANSYS-CFX and Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and implemented into the CFD-Code CFX [Krepper, E., Lucas, D., Prasser, H.-M, 2005. On the modelling of bubbly flow in vertical pipes. Nucl. Eng. Des. 235, 597-611; Frank, T., Zwart, P.J., Shi, J.-M., Krepper, E., Rohde, U., 2005. Inhomogeneous MUSIG Model-a population balance approach for polydispersed bubbly flows, International Conference 'Nuclear Energy for New Europe 2005', Bled, Slovenia, September 5-8, 2005; Krepper, E., Beyer, M., Frank, Th., Lucas, D., Prasser, H.-M., 2007. Application of a population balance approach for polydispersed bubbly flows, 6th Int. Conf. on Multiphase Flow Leipzig 2007, (paper 378)]. The current paper presents a brief description of the model principles. The capabilities of this model are discussed via the example of a bubbly flow around a half-moon shaped obstacle arranged in a 200 mm pipe. In applying the Inhomogeneous MUSIG approach, a deeper understanding of the flow structures is possible and the model allows effects of polydispersion to be investigated. For the complex flow around the obstacle, the general structure of the flow was well reproduced in the simulations. This test case demonstrates the complicated interplay between size dependent bubble migration and the effects of bubble coalescence and breakup on real flows. The closure models that characterize the bubble forces responsible for the simulation of bubble migration show agreement with the experimental observations. However, clear deviations occur for bubble coalescence and fragmentation. The models applied here, which describe bubble fragmentation and coalescence could be proved as a weakness in the validity of numerous CFD analyses of vertical upward two-phase pipe flow. Further work on this topic is under way.
Investigation of bubble flow regimes in nucleate boiling of highly-wetting liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, W.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Simon, T.W.
1991-01-01
This paper describes an investigation of the bubble flow regimes in nucleate boiling of FC-72, a highly-wetting liquid. Theoretically analysis of vapor bubble generation and departure from the heated surface reveals that the heat fluxes required for the merging of consecutive bubbles, for highly-wetting liquids, lie in the upper range of the nucleate boiling heat flux. A visual and photographic study of nucleate boiling from sputtered platinum surfaces has supported the theoretical results and shown that the isolated bubble behavior extends to at least 50-80% of the critical heat flux, considerably higher than observed by others with water. Lateral coalescence of adjacent bubbles has been found to be a more likely cause of the termination of the isolated bubble regime. These findings suggest that thermal transport models which are based on isolated bubble behavior may be applicable to nearly the entire range of nucleate boiling of electronic cooling fluids
Hydraulic Properties of Porous Media Saturated with Nanoparticle-Stabilized Air-Water Foam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xianglei Zheng
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The foam generated by the mixture of air and water has a much higher viscosity and lower mobility than those of pure water or gas that constitutes the air-water foam. The possibility of using the air-water foam as a flow barrier for the purpose of groundwater and soil remediation is explored in this paper. A nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam was fabricated by vigorously stirring the nano-fluid in pressurized condition. The foam bubble size distribution was analyzed with a microscope. The viscosities of foams generated with the solutions with several nanoparticle concentrations were measured as a function of time. The breakthrough pressure of foam-saturated microfluidic chips and sand columns were obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of a foam-filled sand column was measured after foam breakthrough. The results show that: (1 bubble coalescence and the Ostwald ripening are believed to be the reason of bubble size distribution change; (2 the viscosity of nanoparticle-stabilized foam and the breakthrough pressures decreased with time once the foam was generated; (3 the hydraulic conductivity of the foam-filled sand column was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of a water-saturated sand column even after the foam-breakthrough. Based on the results in this study, the nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam could be injected into contaminated soils to generate vertical barriers for temporary hydraulic conductivity reduction.
Modeling and Measurements of Multiphase Flow and Bubble Entrapment in Steel Continuous Casting
Jin, Kai; Thomas, Brian G.; Ruan, Xiaoming
2016-02-01
In steel continuous casting, argon gas is usually injected to prevent clogging, but the bubbles also affect the flow pattern, and may become entrapped to form defects in the final product. To investigate this behavior, plant measurements were conducted, and a computational model was applied to simulate turbulent flow of the molten steel and the transport and capture of argon gas bubbles into the solidifying shell in a continuous slab caster. First, the flow field was solved with an Eulerian k- ɛ model of the steel, which was two-way coupled with a Lagrangian model of the large bubbles using a discrete random walk method to simulate their turbulent dispersion. The flow predicted on the top surface agreed well with nailboard measurements and indicated strong cross flow caused by biased flow of Ar gas due to the slide-gate orientation. Then, the trajectories and capture of over two million bubbles (25 μm to 5 mm diameter range) were simulated using two different capture criteria (simple and advanced). Results with the advanced capture criterion agreed well with measurements of the number, locations, and sizes of captured bubbles, especially for larger bubbles. The relative capture fraction of 0.3 pct was close to the measured 0.4 pct for 1 mm bubbles and occurred mainly near the top surface. About 85 pct of smaller bubbles were captured, mostly deeper down in the caster. Due to the biased flow, more bubbles were captured on the inner radius, especially near the nozzle. On the outer radius, more bubbles were captured near to narrow face. The model presented here is an efficient tool to study the capture of bubbles and inclusion particles in solidification processes.
Modelling and critical analysis of bubbly flows of dilute nanofluids in a vertical tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xiangdong; Yuan, Yang [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Tu, Jiyuan, E-mail: jiyuan.tu@rmit.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, PO Box 1021, Beijing 100086 (China)
2016-04-15
Highlights: • The classic two-fluid model needs improvement for nanofluid bubbly flows. • The nanoparticle self-assembly changes the interfacial behaviours of bubbles. • Key job is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms. - Abstract: The bubbly flows of air–nanofluid and air–water in a vertical tube were numerically simulated using the two-fluid model. Comparison of the numerical results against the experimental data of Park and Chang (2011) demonstrated that the classic two-fluid model, although agreed well with the air–water data, was not applicable to the air–nanofluid bubbly flow. It was suggested that in a bubbly flow system, the existence of interfaces allows the spontaneous formation of a thin layer of nanoparticle assembly at the interfaces, which significantly changes the interfacial behaviours of the air bubbles and the roles of the interfacial forces. As the conservation equations of the classic two-fluid model are still applicable to nanofluids, the mechanisms underlying the modified interfacial behaviours need to be carefully taken into account when modelling air–nanofluid bubbly flows. Thus, one of the key tasks when modelling bubbly flows of air–nanofluid using the two-fluid model is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms according to the interfacial behaviour modifications induced by nanoparticles.
Dynamics and noise emission of laser induced cavitation bubbles in a vortical flow field
Oweis, Ghanem F.; Choi, Jaehyug; Ceccio, Steven L.
2004-03-01
The sound produced by the collapse of discrete cavitation bubbles was examined. Laser-generated cavitation bubbles were produced in both a quiescent and a vortical flow. The sound produced by the collapse of the cavitation bubbles was recorded, and its spectral content was determined. It was found that the risetime of the sound pulse produced by the collapse of single, spherical cavitation bubbles in quiescent fluid exceeded that of the slew rate of the hydrophone, which is consistent with previously published results. It was found that, as collapsing bubbles were deformed by the vortical flow, the acoustic impulse of the bubbles was reduced. Collapsing nonspherical bubbles often created a sound pulse with a risetime that exceeded that of the hydrophone slew rate, although the acoustic impulse created by the bubbles was influenced largely by the degree to which the bubbles became nonspherical before collapse. The noise produced by the slow growth of cavitation bubbles in the vortex core was not detectable. These results have implications for the interpretation of hydrodynamic cavitation noise produced by vortex cavitation.
Fluid Mechanics of Taylor Bubbles and Slug Flows in Vertical Channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anglart, Henryk; Podowski, Michael Z.
2002-01-01
Fluid mechanics of Taylor bubbles and slug flows is investigated in vertical, circular channels using detailed, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations. The Volume of Fluid model with the interface-sharpening algorithm, implemented in the commercial CFX4 code, is used to predict the shape and velocity of Taylor bubbles moving along a vertical channel. Several cases are investigated, including both a single Taylor bubble and a train of bubbles rising in water. It is shown that the potential flow solution underpredicts the water film thickness around Taylor bubbles. Furthermore, the computer simulations that are performed reveal the importance of properly modeling the three-dimensional nature of phenomena governing the motion of Taylor bubbles. Based on the present results, a new formula for the evaluation of bubble shape is derived. Both the shape of Taylor bubbles and the bubble rise velocity predicted by the proposed model agree well with experimental observations. Furthermore, the present model shows good promise in predicting the coalescence of Taylor bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.Y.
1993-01-01
The upper limit to countercurrent flow, namely, flooding, is important to analyze the reactor coolability during an emergency cooling system (ECS) phase as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) such as a double-ended guillotine break in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor system. During normal operation, the reactor coolant system utilizes downward flow through concentric heated tubes with ribs, which subdivided each annular channel into four subchannels. In this paper, a new flooding correlation has been developed based on the analytical models and literature data for adiabatic, steady-state, one-dimensional, air-water flow to predict flooding phenomenon in the SRS reactor assembly channel, which may have a counter-current air-water flow pattern during the ECS phase. In addition, the correlation was benchmarked against the experimental data conducted under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory multislit channel, which is close to the SRS assembly geometry. Furthermore, the correlation has also been used as a constitutive relationship in a new two-component two-phase thermal-hydraulics code FLOWTRAN-TF, which has been developed for a detailed analysis of SRS reactor assembly behavior during LOCA scenarios. Finally, the flooding correlation was applied to the predictions of critical heat flux, and the results were compared with the data taken by the SRS heat transfer laboratory under a single annular channel with ribs and a multiannular prototypic test rig
Zhu, Kang; Li, Yanzhong; Wang, Jiaojiao; Ma, Yuan; Wang, Lei; Xie, Fushou
2018-05-01
Bubble formation and condensation in liquid pipes occur widely in industrial systems such as cryogenic propellant feeding system. In this paper, an integrated theoretical model is established to give a comprehensive description of the bubble formation, motion and condensation process. The model is validated by numerical simulations and bubble condensation experiments from references, and good agreements are achieved. The bubble departure diameter at the orifice and the flow condensation length in the liquid channel are predicted by the model, and effects of various influencing parameters on bubble behaviors are analyzed. Prediction results indicate that the orifice diameter, the gas feeding rate, and the liquid velocity are the primary influence factors on the bubble departure diameter. The interfacial heat transfer as well as the bubble departure diameter has a direct impact on the bubble flow condensation length, which increases by 2.5 times over a system pressure range of 0.1 0.4 MPa, and decreases by 85% over a liquid subcooling range of 5 30 K. This work could be beneficial to the prediction of bubble formation and flow condensation processes and the design of cryogenic transfer pipes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.
1996-01-01
The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)
Dynamic simulation of dispersed gas-liquid two-phase flow using a discrete bubble model.
Delnoij, E.; Lammers, F.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria
1997-01-01
In this paper a detailed hydrodynamic model for gas-liquid two-phase flow will be presented. The model is based on a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach and describes the time-dependent two-dimensional motion of small, spherical gas bubbles in a bubble column operating in the homogeneous regime. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Tao; Li, Weizhong; Yang, Shuai
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The bubble departure diameter is proportional to g −0.425 in quiescent fluid. • The bubble release frequency is proportional to g 0.678 in quiescent fluid. • The simulation result supports the transient micro-convection model. • The bubble departure diameter has exponential relation with inlet velocity. • The bubble release frequency has linear relation with inlet velocity. -- Abstract: Nucleate boiling flows on a horizontal plate are studied in this paper by a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, where both quiescent and slowly flowing ambient are concerned. The process of a single bubble growth on and departure from the superheated wall is simulated. The simulation result supports the transient micro-convection model. The bubble departure diameter and the release frequency are investigated from the simulation result. It is found that the bubble departure diameter and the release frequency are proportional to g −0.425 and g 0.678 in quiescent fluid, respectively, where g is the gravitational acceleration. Nucleate boiling in slowly flowing ambient is also calculated in consideration of forced convection. It is presented that the bubble departure diameter and the release frequency have exponential relationship and linear relationship with inlet velocity in slowly flowing fluid, respectively
Growth and detachment of single hydrogen bubbles in a magnetohydrodynamic shear flow
Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Karnbach, Franziska; Mutschke, Gerd; Yang, Xuegeng; Eckert, Kerstin; Uhlemann, Margitta; Cierpka, Christian
2017-09-01
This study investigates the effect of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow on the growth and detachment of single sub-millimeter-sized hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles were electrolytically generated at a horizontal Pt microelectrode (100 μ m in diameter) in an acidic environment (1 M H2SO4 ). The inherent electric field was superimposed by a homogeneous electrode-parallel magnetic field of up to 700 mT to generate Lorentz forces in the electrolyte, which drive the MHD flow. The growth and motion of the hydrogen bubble was analyzed by microscopic high-speed imaging and measurements of the electric current, while particle tracking velocimetry (μ PTV ) and particle image velocimetry (μ PIV ) were applied to measure the surrounding electrolyte flow. In addition, numerical flow simulations were performed based on the experimental conditions. The results show a significant reduction of the bubble growth time and detachment diameter with increasing magnetic induction, which is known to improve the efficiency of water electrolysis. In order to gain further insight into the bubble detachment mechanism, an analysis of the forces acting on the bubble was performed. The strong MHD-induced drag force causes the bubble to slowly slide away from the center of the microelectrode before its detachment. This motion increases the active electrode area and enhances the bubble growth rate. The results further indicate that at large current densities the coalescence of tiny bubbles formed at the foot of the main bubble might play an important role for the bubble detachment. Moreover, the occurrence of Marangoni stresses at the gas-liquid interface is discussed.
Vapor bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling in annuli heated by water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Licheng Sun; Zhongning Sun; Changqi Yan
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: This paper describes experimental and theoretical work conducted on vapor bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling at atmospheric pressure. The test section is mainly consisted of two concentrically installed circular tubes, the outside tube is made of quartz and therefore all test courses can be visualized. Water is forced to flow through annuli with gap sizes of 3 mm and 5 mm, and is heated by high temperature water in the inner tube. The main objective is to visually study the bubble behavior of subcooled flow boiling water in the condition of surface heated by water. The results show that bubbles depart from wall directly or slide a certain distance before departure, this is same as that heated by electricity. There exists a bubble layer near the wall, most bubbles move and disappear in the layer after departure, the bubble sliding behavior is not very obvious in 5 mm annulus, however, we found that most bubbles in 3 mm annulus will slide a long distance before departure and their growth courses are different from usual experimental results. The bubbles are not always growing, but shrinking a little quickly after growing for some time, and then the course will repeat for some times till they depart from wall or disappeared, the collision and coalescence of bubbles is very common and makes the bubbles depart from wall more easily in 3 mm annulus. At last, the forces on bubbles growing and detaching in flow along the wall are analyzed to comprehend these phenomena more accurately. (authors)
Inhomogeneous MUSIG Model - a population balance approach for polydispersed bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, T.; Zwart, P.J.; Shi, J.; Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.; Rohde, U.
2005-01-01
Many flow regimes in Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS) Research are characterized by multiphase flows, with one phase being a continuous liquid and the other phase consisting of gas or vapour of the liquid phase. In the range of low to intermediate volume fraction of the gaseous phase the multiphase flow under consideration is a bubbly or slug flow, where the disperse phase is characterized by an evolving bubble size distribution due to bubble breakup and coalescence processes. The paper presents a generalized inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) Model. Within this model the disperse gaseous phase is divided into N inhomogeneous velocity groups (phases) and each of these groups is subdivided into M bubble size classes. Bubble breakup and coalescence processes between all bubble size classes are taken into account by appropriate models. The derived inhomogeneous MUSIG model has been validated against experimental data from the TOPFLOW test facility at the Research Center Rossendorf (FZR). Comparisons of gas volume fraction and velocity profiles with TOPFLOW-074 test case data are provided, showing the applicability and accuracy of the model for polydispersed bubbly flow in large diameter vertical pipe flow. (author)
A heat transfer model for evaporating micro-channel coalescing bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Consolini, L.; Thome, J.R.
2009-01-01
The current study presents a one-dimensional model of confined coalescing bubble flow for the prediction of micro-channel convective boiling heat transfer. Coalescing bubble flow has recently been identified as one of the characteristic flow patterns to be found in micro-scale systems, occurring at intermediate vapor qualities between the isolated bubble and the fully annular regimes. As two or more bubbles bond under the action of inertia and surface tension, the passage frequency of the bubble liquid slug pair declines, with a redistribution of liquid among the remaining flow structures. Assuming heat transfer to occur only by conduction through the thin evaporating liquid film surrounding individual bubbles, the present model includes a simplified description of the dynamics of the thin film evaporation process that takes into account the added mass transfer by breakup of the bridging liquid slugs. The new model has been confronted against experimental data taken within the coalescing bubble flow mode that have been identified by a diabatic micro-scale flow pattern map. The comparisons for three different fluids (R-134a, R-236fa and R-245fa) gave encouraging results with 83% of the database predicted within a ± 30% error band. (author)
PIV measurement of a contraction flow using micro-bubble tracer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Masaaki; Irabu, Kunio; Teruya, Isao; Nitta, Munehiro
2009-01-01
Recently, a technique using the micro-bubbles is focused. It was applied to many fields such as purification of rivers and lakes, washing the industrial parts, growth of plants and marine products. The characteristics of micro-bubbles are small size, wide surface area, low terminal velocity, and so on. If this micro-bubble is available as tracer of PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), environment load would become lower because it doesn't need to discard particle. In this paper, we make a micro-bubble generator with Venturi type mechanism. The generated micro-bubbles are applied to a vertical channel flow with contraction. We validate about traceability of the micro-bubble tracer in comparison with the particle tracer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gómez-Zarzuela, C.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G. [Institute for Industrial Safety, Radiology and Environmental (ISIRYM), Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain); Peña-Monferrer, C.; Chiva, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana (Spain); Muñoz-Cobo, J.L., E-mail: congoque@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: cpena@uji.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain)
2017-07-01
Two-phase flow simulation has been an extended research topic over the years due to the importance of predicting with accuracy the flow behavior within different installations, including nuclear power plants. Some of them are low pressure events, like low water pressure injection, nuclear refueling or natural circulation. This work is devoted to investigate the level of accuracy of the results when a two-phase flow experiment, which has been carried out at low pressure, is performed in a one-dimensional simulation code. In particular, the codes that have been selected to represent the experiment are the best-estimate system codes RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACE v5.0 patch4. The experiment consists in a long vertical pipe along which an air-water fluid in bubbly regime moves upwards in adiabatic conditions and atmospheric pressure. The simulations have been first performed in both codes with their original correlations, which are based on the drift flux model for the case of bubbly regime in vertical pipes. Then, a different implementation for the drag force has been undertaken, in order to perform a simulation with equivalent bubble diameter to the experiment. Results show that the calculation obtained from the codes are within the ranges of validity of the experiment with some discrepancies, which leads to the conclusion that the use of a drag correlation approach is more realistic than drift flux model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gómez-Zarzuela, C.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Peña-Monferrer, C.; Chiva, S.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.
2017-01-01
Two-phase flow simulation has been an extended research topic over the years due to the importance of predicting with accuracy the flow behavior within different installations, including nuclear power plants. Some of them are low pressure events, like low water pressure injection, nuclear refueling or natural circulation. This work is devoted to investigate the level of accuracy of the results when a two-phase flow experiment, which has been carried out at low pressure, is performed in a one-dimensional simulation code. In particular, the codes that have been selected to represent the experiment are the best-estimate system codes RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACE v5.0 patch4. The experiment consists in a long vertical pipe along which an air-water fluid in bubbly regime moves upwards in adiabatic conditions and atmospheric pressure. The simulations have been first performed in both codes with their original correlations, which are based on the drift flux model for the case of bubbly regime in vertical pipes. Then, a different implementation for the drag force has been undertaken, in order to perform a simulation with equivalent bubble diameter to the experiment. Results show that the calculation obtained from the codes are within the ranges of validity of the experiment with some discrepancies, which leads to the conclusion that the use of a drag correlation approach is more realistic than drift flux model. (author)
Current Flow in the Bubble and Stripe Phases
Friess, B.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.
2018-03-01
The spontaneous ordering of spins and charges in geometric patterns is currently under scrutiny in a number of different material systems. A topic of particular interest is the interaction of such ordered phases with itinerant electrons driven by an externally imposed current. It not only provides important information on the charge ordering itself but potentially also allows manipulating the shape and symmetry of the underlying pattern if current flow is strong enough. Unfortunately, conventional transport methods probing the macroscopic resistance suffer from the fact that the voltage drop along the sample edges provides only indirect information on the bulk properties because a complex current distribution is elicited by the inhomogeneous ground state. Here, we promote the use of surface acoustic waves to study these broken-symmetry phases and specifically address the bubble and stripe phases emerging in high-quality two-dimensional electron systems in GaAs /AlGaAs heterostructures as prototypical examples. When driving a unidirectional current, we find a surprising discrepancy between the sound propagation probing the bulk of the sample and the voltage drop along the sample edges. Our results prove that the current-induced modifications observed in resistive transport measurements are in fact a local phenomenon only, leaving the majority of the sample unaltered. More generally, our findings shed new light on the extent to which these ordered electron phases are impacted by an external current and underline the intrinsic advantages of acoustic measurements for the study of such inhomogeneous phases.
μ-PIV measurements of the ensemble flow fields surrounding a migrating semi-infinite bubble.
Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Smith, Bradford J; Gaver, Donald P
2009-08-01
Microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements of ensemble flow fields surrounding a steadily-migrating semi-infinite bubble through the novel adaptation of a computer controlled linear motor flow control system. The system was programmed to generate a square wave velocity input in order to produce accurate constant bubble propagation repeatedly and effectively through a fused glass capillary tube. We present a novel technique for re-positioning of the coordinate axis to the bubble tip frame of reference in each instantaneous field through the analysis of the sudden change of standard deviation of centerline velocity profiles across the bubble interface. Ensemble averages were then computed in this bubble tip frame of reference. Combined fluid systems of water/air, glycerol/air, and glycerol/Si-oil were used to investigate flows comparable to computational simulations described in Smith and Gaver (2008) and to past experimental observations of interfacial shape. Fluorescent particle images were also analyzed to measure the residual film thickness trailing behind the bubble. The flow fields and film thickness agree very well with the computational simulations as well as existing experimental and analytical results. Particle accumulation and migration associated with the flow patterns near the bubble tip after long experimental durations are discussed as potential sources of error in the experimental method.
μ-PIV measurements of the ensemble flow fields surrounding a migrating semi-infinite bubble
Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Smith, Bradford J.; Gaver, Donald P.
2012-01-01
Microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements of ensemble flow fields surrounding a steadily-migrating semi-infinite bubble through the novel adaptation of a computer controlled linear motor flow control system. The system was programmed to generate a square wave velocity input in order to produce accurate constant bubble propagation repeatedly and effectively through a fused glass capillary tube. We present a novel technique for re-positioning of the coordinate axis to the bubble tip frame of reference in each instantaneous field through the analysis of the sudden change of standard deviation of centerline velocity profiles across the bubble interface. Ensemble averages were then computed in this bubble tip frame of reference. Combined fluid systems of water/air, glycerol/air, and glycerol/Si-oil were used to investigate flows comparable to computational simulations described in Smith and Gaver (2008) and to past experimental observations of interfacial shape. Fluorescent particle images were also analyzed to measure the residual film thickness trailing behind the bubble. The flow fields and film thickness agree very well with the computational simulations as well as existing experimental and analytical results. Particle accumulation and migration associated with the flow patterns near the bubble tip after long experimental durations are discussed as potential sources of error in the experimental method. PMID:23049158
Mode transition in bubbly Taylor-Couette flow measured by PTV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, K; Tasaka, Y; Murai, Y; Takeda, T
2009-01-01
The drag acting to the inner cylinder in Taylor-Couette flow system can be reduced by bubble injection. In this research, relationship between drag reduction and change of vortical structure in a Taylor-Couette flow is investigated by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). The velocity vector field in the r-z cross section and the bubble concentration in the front view (z-θ plane) are measured. This paper describes the change of vortical structures with bubbles, and the mode transition that is sensitively affected by the bubbles is discussed. The bubbles accumulate in the three parts relative to vortex position by the interaction between bubbles and vortices. The status of bubble's distribution is different depending on position. This difference affects mode transition as its trigger significantly. The presence of bubbles affects the transition from toroidal mode to spiral mode but does not induce the transition from spiral mode to toroidal mode. Further we found that Taylor vortex bifurcates and a pair of vortices coalesces when the flow switches between spiral mode and toroidal mode.
Saffari, H.; Moosavi, R.
2014-11-01
In this article, turbulent single-phase and two-phase (air-water) bubbly fluid flows in a vertical helical coil are analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of the pipe diameter, coil diameter, coil pitch, Reynolds number, and void fraction on the pressure loss, friction coefficient, and flow characteristics are investigated. The Eulerian-Eulerian model is used in this work to simulate the two-phase fluid flow. Three-dimensional governing equations of continuity, momentum, and energy are solved by using the finite volume method. The k- ɛ turbulence model is used to calculate turbulence fluctuations. The SIMPLE algorithm is employed to solve the velocity and pressure fields. Due to the effect of a secondary force in helical pipes, the friction coefficient is found to be higher in helical pipes than in straight pipes. The friction coefficient increases with an increase in the curvature, pipe diameter, and coil pitch and decreases with an increase in the coil diameter and void fraction. The close correlation between the numerical results obtained in this study and the numerical and empirical results of other researchers confirm the accuracy of the applied method. For void fractions up to 0.1, the numerical results indicate that the friction coefficient increases with increasing the pipe diameter and keeping the coil pitch and diameter constant and decreases with increasing the coil diameter. Finally, with an increase in the Reynolds number, the friction coefficient decreases, while the void fraction increases.
Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.
1997-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive measurement technique, which can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time varying full field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. This information can be further processed into information such as vorticity and pathlines. Other flow measurement techniques (Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Hot Wire Anemometry, etc...) only provide quantitative information at a single point. PIV can be used to study turbulence structures if a sufficient amount of data can be acquired and analyzed, and it can also be extended to study two-phase flows if both phases can be distinguished. In this study, the flow structure around a bubble rising in a pipe filled with water was studied in three-dimensions. The velocity of the rising bubble and the velocity field of the surrounding water was measured. Then the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses were calculated from the experimental data. (author)
Numerical simulation of secondary flow in bubbly turbulent flow in sub-channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeno, Tsutomu; Kataoka, Isao
2009-01-01
Secondary flow in bubbly turbulent flow in sub-channel was simulated by using an algebraic turbulence stress model. The mass, momentum, turbulence energy and bubble diffusion equations were used as fundamental equation. The basis for these equations was the two-fluid model: the equation of liquid phase was picked up from the equation system theoretically derived for the gas-liquid two-fluid turbulent flow. The fundamental equation was transformed onto a generalized coordinate system fitted to the computational domain in sub-channel. It was discretized for the SIMPLE algorism using the finite-volume method. The shape of sub-channel causes a distortion of the computational mesh, and orthogonal nature of the mesh is sometimes broken. An iterative method to satisfy a requirement for the contra-variant velocity was introduced to represent accurate symmetric boundary condition. Two-phase flow at a steady state was simulated for different magnitude of secondary flow and void fraction. The secondary flow enhanced the momentum transport in sub-channel and accelerated the liquid phase in the rod gap. This effect was slightly mitigated when the void fraction increased. The acceleration can contribute to effective cooling in the rod gap. The numerical result implied a phenomenon of industrial interest. This suggested that experimental approach is necessary to validate the numerical model and to identify the phenomenon. (author)
Murki, Srinivas; Das, Ratan Kumar; Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Praveen
2015-01-01
The clinical effects of a pre-fixed flow of air-oxygen versus a flow titrated according to visible bubbling are not well understood. To compare the effects of a fixed flow (5 L/min) and titrated flow (flow just enough to ensure bubbling) at different set pressures on delivered intra-prong pressure, gas exchange and clinical parameters in preterm infants on bubble CPAP for respiratory distress. Preterm infants rate, set pressure, FiO2, SpO2, Silverman retraction score, respiratory rate, abdominal girth, and blood gases were recorded. The delivered intra-prong pressure was measured by an electronic manometer. 69 recordings were made in 54 infants. For each of the set CPAP pressures (4, 5, and 6 cm H2O), the mean delivered pressure with a fixed flow of 5 L/min was higher than that delivered by the titrated flow. During the fixed flow epoch, the delivered pressure was closer to and higher than the set pressure resulting in higher PaO2 and lower PaCO2 as compared to titrated flow epoch. In the titrated flow period, the delivered pressure was consistently lower than the set pressure. In preterm infants on bubble CPAP with set pressures of 4-6 cm H2O, a fixed flow of 5 L/min is more effective than a flow titrated to ensure adequate visible bubbling. It achieves higher delivered pressures, better oxygenation and ventilation.
A study of vapor bubble departure in subcooled flow boiling at low pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donevski, Bozin; Saga, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Toshio; Segawa, Shigeki
1999-01-01
An experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics in sub-cooled flow boiling was conducted using the flow visualization and digital image processing methods. Vapor bubble departure departure in subcooled flow boiling have been experimentally investigated over a range of mass flux G=0.384 (kg/m 2 s), and heat flux q w = 27.2 x 10 4 (W/m 2 ), for the subcooled flow boiling region. It has been observed that once a vapor bubble departs from a nucleation site, it typically slides along the heating surface at sonic finite distance down-stream of nucleation site. The image processing method proposed in this study is based on the detachment and tracing of the edges of the bubbles and their background. The proposed method can be used in various fields of engineering applications. (Original)
A study of bubbly flow characteristics in a vertical tube using wire mesh tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wangjiraniran, Weerin; Motegi, Yuichi; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori; Richter, Steffen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko
2003-01-01
For the development of nuclear reactors and the assessment of their safety features, the development of computer code with the high quantity database from the measurement as well as the understanding of the multiphase flow physics are necessary. In this study, the characteristics of bubbly flow in a vertical tube are investigated using Wire Mesh Tomography (WMT). Void fraction is detected from the dependency of electrical conductivity on the local void fraction. The developed sensor is a circular type with two parallel measuring planes to have the capability of gas velocity and bubble size evaluation. The experiment is conducted in a 50 mm ID tube at the fully developed condition (93D). The mean bubble size is treated as a constant parameter independent from the superficial gas and liquid velocity by using the bubble generator with a water sub flow. The result shows the capability of WMT for bubbly flow characteristic study. The effects of superficial gas and liquid velocity and the additional bubble intensity on the void fraction distribution are presented. These effects are supposed to change the lateral lift force in both magnitude and directions which induce the bubble migrated toward to or depart from the wall. (author)
Prominence Bubble Shear Flows and the Coupled Kelvin-Helmholtz — Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Berger, Thomas; Hillier, Andrew
2017-08-01
Prominence bubbles are large arched structures that rise from below into quiescent prominences, often growing to heights on the order of 10 Mm before going unstable and generating plume upflows. While there is general agreement that emerging flux below pre-existing prominences causes the structures, there is lack of agreement on the nature of the bubbles and the cause of the instability flows. One hypothesis is that the bubbles contain coronal temperature plasma and rise into the prominence above due to both magnetic and thermal buoyancy, eventually breaking down via a magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to release hot plasma and magnetic flux and helicity into the overlying coronal flux rope. Another posits that the bubbles are actually just “arcades” in the prominence indicating a magnetic separator line between the bipole and the prominence fields with the observed upflows and downflows caused by reconnection along the separator. We analyze Hinode/SOT, SDO/AIA, and IRIS observations of prominence bubbles, focusing on characteristics of the bubble boundary layers that may discriminate between the two hypotheses. We find speeds on the order of 10 km/s in prominence plasma downflows and lateral shear flows along the bubble boundary. Inflows to the boundary gradually increase the thickness and brightness of the layer until plasma drains from there, apparently around the dome-like bubble domain. In one case, shear flow across the bubble boundary develops Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices that we use to infer flow speeds in the low-density bubble on the order of 100 km/sec. IRIS spectra indicate that plasma flows on the bubble boundary at transition region temperatures achieve Doppler speeds on the order of 50 km/s, consistent with this inference. Combined magnetic KH-RT instability analysis leads to flux density estimates of 10 G with a field angle of 30° to the prominence, consistent with vector magnetic field measurements. In contrast, we find no evidence
Bubble induced flow field modulation for pool boiling enhancement over a tubular surface
Raghupathi, P. A.; Joshi, I. M.; Jaikumar, A.; Emery, T. S.; Kandlikar, S. G.
2017-06-01
We demonstrate the efficacy of using a strategically placed enhancement feature to modify the trajectory of bubbles nucleating on a horizontal tubular surface to increase both the critical heat flux (CHF) and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC). The CHF on a plain tube is shown to be triggered by a local dryout at the bottom of the tube due to vapor agglomeration. To mitigate this effect and delay CHF, the nucleating bubble trajectory is modified by incorporating a bubble diverter placed axially at the bottom of the tube. The nucleating bubble at the base of the diverter experiences a tangential evaporation momentum force (EMF) which causes the bubble to grow sideways away from the tube and avoid localized bubble patches that are responsible for CHF initiation. High speed imaging confirmed the lateral displacement of the bubbles away from the diverter closely matched with the theoretical predictions using EMF and buoyancy forces. Since the EMF is stronger at higher heat fluxes, bubble displacement increases with heat flux and results in the formation of separate liquid-vapor pathways wherein the liquid enters almost unobstructed at the bottom and the vapor bubble leaves sideways. Experimental results yielded CHF and HTC enhancements of ˜60% and ˜75%, respectively, with the diverter configuration when compared to a plain tube. This work can be used for guidance in developing enhancement strategies to effectively modulate the liquid-vapor flow around the heater surface at various locations to enhance HTC and CHF.
Large amplitude oscillation of a boiling bubble growing at a wall in stagnation flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geld, C.W.M. van der; Berg, R. van de; Peukert, P.
2009-01-01
A boiling bubble is created on an artificial site that is part of a bubble generator that is mounted at the center of a pipe. Downflow of water impinges on the bubble generator and creates a stagnation flow above the artificial cavity. Stable axisymmetric elongation in the direction away from the wall and multiple shape oscillation cycles are observed. The time of growth and attachment is typically of the order of 250 ms. Amongst the length scales that characterize the bubble shape is the radius of curvature of the upper part of the bubble, R. The period of oscillation, T, is strongly dependent on time, as is R. The parameters C and m in the defining equation T = C R m √(ρL/σ) have been determined by fitting to data of more than 100 bubbles. For each operating condition, the same values of C and m have been found. The value of m is 1.49 ± 0.02, which is explained from the continuous growth of the bubble and from the relation to the period of oscillation of a free bubble deforming in the fundamental mode corresponding to the third Legendre Polynomial. For the latter, R is the radius of the volume-equivalent sphere, R 0 , and C is √12, while for attached boiling bubbles C is found to amount 1.9√12. The difference is easily explained from the continuous growth, difference in definition, finite amplitude oscillation and proximity of the wall. (author)
Automated high-speed video analysis of the bubble dynamics in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurus, Reinhold; Ilchenko, Volodymyr; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Garching (Germany)
2004-04-01
Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and a very good optical access. For the optical observation of the bubble behaviour the high-speed cinematography is used. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, a huge number of bubble cycles could be analysed. The structure of the developed algorithms for the detection of the bubble diameter, the bubble lifetime, the lifetime after the detachment process and the waiting time between two bubble cycles is described. Subsequently, the results from using these automated procedures are presented. A remarkable novelty is the presentation of all results as distribution functions. This is of physical importance because the commonly applied spatial and temporal averaging leads to a loss of information and, moreover, to an unjustified deterministic view of the boiling process, which exhibits in reality a very wide spread of bubble sizes and characteristic times. The results show that the mass flux dominates the temporal bubble behaviour. An increase of the liquid mass flux reveals a strong decrease of the bubble life - and waiting time. In contrast, the variation of the heat flux has a much smaller impact. It is shown in addition that the investigation of the bubble history using automated algorithms delivers novel information with respect to the bubble lift-off probability. (Author)
Automated high-speed video analysis of the bubble dynamics in subcooled flow boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maurus, Reinhold; Ilchenko, Volodymyr; Sattelmayer, Thomas
2004-01-01
Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and a very good optical access. For the optical observation of the bubble behaviour the high-speed cinematography is used. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, a huge number of bubble cycles could be analysed. The structure of the developed algorithms for the detection of the bubble diameter, the bubble lifetime, the lifetime after the detachment process and the waiting time between two bubble cycles is described. Subsequently, the results from using these automated procedures are presented. A remarkable novelty is the presentation of all results as distribution functions. This is of physical importance because the commonly applied spatial and temporal averaging leads to a loss of information and, moreover, to an unjustified deterministic view of the boiling process, which exhibits in reality a very wide spread of bubble sizes and characteristic times. The results show that the mass flux dominates the temporal bubble behaviour. An increase of the liquid mass flux reveals a strong decrease of the bubble life- and waiting time. In contrast, the variation of the heat flux has a much smaller impact. It is shown in addition that the investigation of the bubble history using automated algorithms delivers novel information with respect to the bubble lift-off probability
Interfacial area concentration in gas–liquid bubbly to churn-turbulent flow regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozar, B.; Dixit, A.; Chen, S.W.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A systematic approach to predict the interfacial area concentration is presented. ► Two group approach for categorizing bubbles is used. ► Prediction of Group-1 bubble size and void fraction are key elements of this work. ► The proposed approach compares well with selected databases. - Abstract: There are very few established correlations to predict the interfacial area concentration beyond the bubbly flow regime in cap-slug and churn-turbulent flow regimes. Present study shows a systematic approach to estimate the interfacial area concentration in bubbly, cap-slug and churn-turbulent flow regimes. Ishii and Mishima’s (1980) formulation and the two group approach for categorizing bubbles (Group-1: spherical or distorted bubble, Group-2: cap bubble) are used to estimate the interfacial area concentration. The key parameters in this framework are the estimation of Group-1 bubble size and the amount of void in the liquid slug, which is a function of Group-1 void fraction. Hibiki and Ishii’s (2002) correlation is utilized to predict the size of the Group-1 bubbles. A correlation is developed to estimate the Group-1 void fraction. The developed model for the estimation of interfacial area concentration is compared with the three existing datasets. These are data for air–water flow taken in annular geometry and round tube and also for air–NaOH solution taken in round tube. The estimation accuracies for these data sets are ±36.4%, ±26.5% and ±37.4%, respectively. These datasets cover a wide range of flow regimes and different physical properties.
Wu, Chuan; Wen, Guojun; Han, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming
2016-09-17
The parameters of gas-liquid two-phase flow bubbles in field coalbed methane (CBM) wells are of great significance for analyzing coalbed methane output, judging faults in CBM wells, and developing gas drainage and extraction processes, which stimulates an urgent need for detecting bubble parameters for CBM wells in the field. However, existing bubble detectors cannot meet the requirements of the working environments of CBM wells. Therefore, this paper reports findings on the principles of measuring the flow pattern, velocity, and volume of two-phase flow bubbles based on conductivity, from which a new bubble sensor was designed. The structural parameters and other parameters of the sensor were then computed, the "water film phenomenon" produced by the sensor was analyzed, and the appropriate materials for making the sensor were tested and selected. After the sensor was successfully devised, laboratory tests and field tests were performed, and the test results indicated that the sensor was highly reliable and could detect the flow patterns of two-phase flows, as well as the quantities, velocities, and volumes of bubbles. With a velocity measurement error of ±5% and a volume measurement error of ±7%, the sensor can meet the requirements of field use. Finally, the characteristics and deficiencies of the bubble sensor are summarized based on an analysis of the measurement errors and a comparison of existing bubble-measuring devices and the designed sensor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuan Wu
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The parameters of gas-liquid two-phase flow bubbles in field coalbed methane (CBM wells are of great significance for analyzing coalbed methane output, judging faults in CBM wells, and developing gas drainage and extraction processes, which stimulates an urgent need for detecting bubble parameters for CBM wells in the field. However, existing bubble detectors cannot meet the requirements of the working environments of CBM wells. Therefore, this paper reports findings on the principles of measuring the flow pattern, velocity, and volume of two-phase flow bubbles based on conductivity, from which a new bubble sensor was designed. The structural parameters and other parameters of the sensor were then computed, the “water film phenomenon” produced by the sensor was analyzed, and the appropriate materials for making the sensor were tested and selected. After the sensor was successfully devised, laboratory tests and field tests were performed, and the test results indicated that the sensor was highly reliable and could detect the flow patterns of two-phase flows, as well as the quantities, velocities, and volumes of bubbles. With a velocity measurement error of ±5% and a volume measurement error of ±7%, the sensor can meet the requirements of field use. Finally, the characteristics and deficiencies of the bubble sensor are summarized based on an analysis of the measurement errors and a comparison of existing bubble-measuring devices and the designed sensor.
Wu, Chuan; Wen, Guojun; Han, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming
2016-01-01
The parameters of gas-liquid two-phase flow bubbles in field coalbed methane (CBM) wells are of great significance for analyzing coalbed methane output, judging faults in CBM wells, and developing gas drainage and extraction processes, which stimulates an urgent need for detecting bubble parameters for CBM wells in the field. However, existing bubble detectors cannot meet the requirements of the working environments of CBM wells. Therefore, this paper reports findings on the principles of measuring the flow pattern, velocity, and volume of two-phase flow bubbles based on conductivity, from which a new bubble sensor was designed. The structural parameters and other parameters of the sensor were then computed, the “water film phenomenon” produced by the sensor was analyzed, and the appropriate materials for making the sensor were tested and selected. After the sensor was successfully devised, laboratory tests and field tests were performed, and the test results indicated that the sensor was highly reliable and could detect the flow patterns of two-phase flows, as well as the quantities, velocities, and volumes of bubbles. With a velocity measurement error of ±5% and a volume measurement error of ±7%, the sensor can meet the requirements of field use. Finally, the characteristics and deficiencies of the bubble sensor are summarized based on an analysis of the measurement errors and a comparison of existing bubble-measuring devices and the designed sensor. PMID:27649206
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hideo
1996-05-01
The slug flow transitions and related phenomena for horizontal two-phase flows were studied for a better prediction of two-phase flows that typically appear during the reactor loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). For better representation of the flow conditions experimentally, two large-scaled facility: TPTF for high-pressure steam/water two-phase flows and large duct test facility for air/water two-phase flows, were used. The visual observation of the flow using a video-probe was performed in the TPTF experiments for good understanding of the phenomena. The currently-used models and correlations based mostly on the small-scale low-pressure experiments were reviewed and improved based on these experimental results. The modified Taitel-Dukler model for prediction of transition into slug flow from wavy flow and the modified Steen-Wallis correlation for prediction of onset of liquid entrainment from the interfacial waves were obtained. An empirical correlation for the gas-liquid interfacial friction factor was obtained further for prediction of liquid levels at wavy flow. The region of slug flow regime that is generally under influences of the channel height and system pressure was predicted well when these models and correlations were applied together. (author). 90 refs
Well-posed Euler model of shock-induced two-phase flow in bubbly liquid
Tukhvatullina, R. R.; Frolov, S. M.
2018-03-01
A well-posed mathematical model of non-isothermal two-phase two-velocity flow of bubbly liquid is proposed. The model is based on the two-phase Euler equations with the introduction of an additional pressure at the gas bubble surface, which ensures the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for a system of governing equations with homogeneous initial conditions, and the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for radial pulsations of gas bubbles. The applicability conditions of the model are formulated. The model is validated by comparing one-dimensional calculations of shock wave propagation in liquids with gas bubbles with a gas volume fraction of 0.005-0.3 with experimental data. The model is shown to provide satisfactory results for the shock propagation velocity, pressure profiles, and the shock-induced motion of the bubbly liquid column.
Regularities of growth, condensation, solution of vapour and gaseous bubbles in turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avdeev, A.A.
1988-01-01
Corrections for interphase transfer exchange intensity and for bubbles dynamics in the forced turbulent flow as well are obtained on the basis of the surface periodical restoration model. Analysis of the effects, caused by turbulence additional generation due to bubbles floating-up within gravity field, is carried out. Formulae for calculating interphase heat and mass transfer at bubbling are suggested. Application limits for the developed model are determined. Comparison of calculation results according to the derived universal dependence with experimental data on growth rates and condensation of vapour bubble, and on solution rates of gaseous bubbles in water (Re=8x10 3 -2x10 6 ; Pr0.83-568, pressure up to 10 MPa) has revealed their good agreeme nt
Neeley, W E; Wardlaw, S C; Yates, T; Hollingsworth, W G; Swinnen, M E
1976-02-01
We describe a high-performance colorimeter with an electronic bubble gate for use with miniaturized continuous-flow analyzers. The colorimeter has a flow-through cuvette with optically flat quartz windows that allows a bubbled stream to pass freely without any breakup or retention of bubbles. The fluid volume in the light path is only 1.8 mul. The electronic bubble gate selectively removes that portion of the photodector signal produced by the air bubbles passing through the flow cell and allows that portion of the signal attributable to the fluid segment to pass to the recorder. The colorimeter is easy to use, rugged, inexpensive, and requires minimal adjustments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munoz-Cobo, Jose L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Chiva, Sergio [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Essa, Mohamed Ali Abd El Aziz [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Mendes, Santos [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)
2012-01-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have simulated bubbly flow in vertical pipes by coupling a Lagrangian model to an Eulerian one, and to a 3D random walk model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of experiments in a vertical column with isothermal co-current two phase flow have been performed and used to validate the previous model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the influence of the turbulence induced by the bubbles on the results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of experimental and computed results has been performed for different boundary conditions. - Abstract: A set of two phase flow experiments for different conditions ranging from bubbly flow to cap/slug flow have been performed under isothermal concurrent upward air-water flow conditions in a vertical column of 3 m height. Special attention in these experiments was devoted to the transition from bubbly to cap/slug flow. The interfacial velocity of the bubbles and the void fraction distribution was obtained using 2 and 4 sensors conductivity probes. Numerical simulations of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions were performed by coupling a Lagrangian code with an Eulerian one. The first one tracks the 3D motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates (r, {phi}, z) inside the fluid field under the action of the following forces: buoyancy, drag, lift, wall lubrication. Also we have incorporated a 3D stochastic differential equation model to account for the random motion of the individual bubbles in the turbulent velocity field of the carrier liquid. Also we have considered the deformations undergone by the bubbles when they touch the walls of the pipe and are compressed until they rebound. The velocity and turbulence fields of the liquid phase were computed by solving the time dependent conservation equations in its Reynolds Averaged Transport Equation form (RANS). The turbulent kinetic energy k, and the dissipation rate {epsilon} transport equations
Modeling of radial gas fraction profiles for bubble flow in vertical pipes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany)
2001-07-01
The paper presents a method for the prediction of radial gas fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. The method is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. Assuming a large number of bubble size classes radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. The results of the model are compared with experimental data for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. The experiments were performed at a vertical test loop (inner diameter 50 mm) in FZ-Rossendorf using a wire mesh sensor. The sensor enables the determination of void distributions in the cross section of the loop. A special evaluation procedure supplies bubble size distributions as well as local distributions of bubbles within a predefined interval of bubble sizes. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to core peaking is well predicted. (authors)
Modeling of radial gas fraction profiles for bubble flow in vertical pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M.
2001-01-01
The paper presents a method for the prediction of radial gas fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. The method is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. Assuming a large number of bubble size classes radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. The results of the model are compared with experimental data for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. The experiments were performed at a vertical test loop (inner diameter 50 mm) in FZ-Rossendorf using a wire mesh sensor. The sensor enables the determination of void distributions in the cross section of the loop. A special evaluation procedure supplies bubble size distributions as well as local distributions of bubbles within a predefined interval of bubble sizes. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to core peaking is well predicted. (authors)
A Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Rising Taylor Bubbles
Scammell, Alexander David
2016-01-01
Practical application of flow boiling to ground- and space-based thermal management systems hinges on the ability to predict the systems heat removal capabilities under expected operating conditions. Research in this field has shown that the heat transfer coefficient within two-phase heat exchangers can be largely dependent on the experienced flow regime. This finding has inspired an effort to develop mechanistic heat transfer models for each flow pattern which are likely to outperform traditional empirical correlations. As a contribution to the effort, this work aimed to identify the heat transfer mechanisms for the slug flow regime through analysis of individual Taylor bubbles.An experimental apparatus was developed to inject single vapor Taylor bubbles into co-currently flowing liquid HFE 7100. The heat transfer was measured as the bubble rose through a 6 mm inner diameter heated tube using an infrared thermography technique. High-speed flow visualization was obtained and the bubble film thickness measured in an adiabatic section. Experiments were conducted at various liquid mass fluxes (43-200 kgm2s) and gravity levels (0.01g-1.8g) to characterize the effect of bubble drift velocityon the heat transfer mechanisms. Variable gravity testing was conducted during a NASA parabolic flight campaign.Results from the experiments showed that the drift velocity strongly affects the hydrodynamics and heat transfer of single elongated bubbles. At low gravity levels, bubbles exhibited shapes characteristic of capillary flows and the heat transfer enhancement due to the bubble was dominated by conduction through the thin film. At moderate to high gravity, traditional Taylor bubbles provided small values of enhancement within the film, but large peaks in the wake heat transfer occurred due to turbulent vortices induced by the film plunging into the trailing liquid slug. Characteristics of the wake heat transfer profiles were analyzed and related to the predicted velocity field
Visualisation of air–water bubbly column flow using array Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Munkhbat Batsaikhan
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental study of bubbly two-phase flow in a rectangular bubble column was performed using two ultrasonic array sensors, which can measure the instantaneous velocity of gas bubbles on multiple measurement lines. After the sound pressure distribution of sensors had been evaluated with a needle hydrophone technique, the array sensors were applied to two-phase bubble column. To assess the accuracy of the measurement system with array sensors for one and two-dimensional velocity, a simultaneous measurement was performed with an optical measurement technique called particle image velocimetry (PIV. Experimental results showed that accuracy of the measurement system with array sensors is under 10% for one-dimensional velocity profile measurement compared with PIV technique. The accuracy of the system was estimated to be under 20% along the mean flow direction in the case of two-dimensional vector mapping.
Experiments on Breakup of Bubbles in a Turbulent Flow.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vejražka, Jiří; Zedníková, Mária; Stanovský, Petr
2018-01-01
Roč. 64, č. 2 (2018), s. 740-757 ISSN 0001-1541 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubble * breakup * turbulence Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.836, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, R.J.; Ralph, J.C.; Wade, C.D.
1981-03-01
Air-water simulation studies of two phase steam water flow relevant to the upper plenum of a PWR during reflood situations have recently been undertaken at Harwell for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In order to give confidence that the simulation fluids were capable of modelling the important features of the actual system, a relatively basic comparison experiment has been carried out. Water entrainment and deposition tests have been carried out on a pair of 2.5 cm diameter vertical rods mounted in a cross flow of steam or air in a 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm tunnel. The air and steam systems exhibited similar characteristics to one another. A 'critical' film flowrate was identified for the rods which, once reached, either by injection through the sinters or by entrainment from the main two phase stream, was not exceeded with further water addition. The 'critical' film flowrate decreased with increase of cross flow velocity and was lower for air than steam at the same velocity. The results from the air and steam tests were found to be reasonably well correlated on the basis of the cross flow momentum flux of the air or steam
Modeling of turbulent bubbly flows; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents a bulles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellakhal, Ghazi
2005-03-15
The two-phase flows involve interfacial interactions which modify significantly the structure of the mean and fluctuating flow fields. The design of the two-fluid models adapted to industrial flows requires the taking into account of the effect of these interactions in the closure relations adopted. The work developed in this thesis concerns the development of first order two-fluid models deduced by reduction of second order closures. The adopted reasoning, based on the principle of decomposition of the Reynolds stress tensor into two statistically independent contributions turbulent and pseudo-turbulent parts, allows to preserve the physical contents of the second order relations closure. Analysis of the turbulence structure in two basic flows: homogeneous bubbly flows uniform and with a constant shear allows to deduce a formulation of the two-phase turbulent viscosity involving the characteristic scales of bubbly turbulence, as well as an analytical description of modification of the homogeneous turbulence structure induced by the bubbles presence. The Eulerian two-fluid model was then generalized with the case of the inhomogeneous flows with low void fractions. The numerical results obtained by the application of this model integrated in the computer code MELODIF in the case of free sheared turbulent bubbly flow of wake showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and made it possible to analyze the modification of the characteristic scales of such flow by the interfacial interactions. The two-fluid first order model is generalized finally with the case of high void fractions bubbly flows where the hydrodynamic interactions between the bubbles are not negligible any more. (author)
Front‐tracking simulations of bubbles rising in non‐Newtonian fluids
Battistella, Alessandro; Van Schijndel, J.G.; Baltussen, Maike W.
2017-01-01
In the wide and complex field of multiphase flows, bubbly flows with non-Newtonian liquids are encountered in several important applications, such as in polymer solutions or fermentation broths. Despite the widespread application of non-Newtonian liquids, most of the models and closures used in industry are valid for Newtonian fluids only, if not even restricted to air-water systems. However, it is well known that the non-Newtonian rheology significantly influences the liquid and bubble behav...
On the One-Dimensional Modeling of Vertical Upward Bubbly Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Peña-Monferrer
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The one-dimensional two-fluid model approach has been traditionally used in thermal-hydraulics codes for the analysis of transients and accidents in water–cooled nuclear power plants. This paper investigates the performance of RELAP5/MOD3 predicting vertical upward bubbly flow at low velocity conditions. For bubbly flow and vertical pipes, this code applies the drift-velocity approach, showing important discrepancies with the experiments compared. Then, we use a classical formulation of the drag coefficient approach to evaluate the performance of both approaches. This is based on the critical Weber criteria and includes several assumptions for the calculation of the interfacial area and bubble size that are evaluated in this work. A more accurate drag coefficient approach is proposed and implemented in RELAP5/MOD3. Instead of using the Weber criteria, the bubble size distribution is directly considered. This allows the calculation of the interfacial area directly from the definition of Sauter mean diameter of a distribution. The results show that only the proposed approach was able to predict all the flow characteristics, in particular the bubble size and interfacial area concentration. Finally, the computational results are analyzed and validated with cross-section area average measurements of void fraction, dispersed phase velocity, bubble size, and interfacial area concentration.
Heat transfer in a laminar separation bubble affected by oscillating external flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wissink, J.G.; Michelassi, V.; Rodi, W.
2004-01-01
A three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of passive heat transfer in a Laminar Separation Bubble (LSB) over a flat plate affected by oscillating external flow is presented. The oscillation imposes a periodicity which is employed for phase-averaging. The flat plate is kept at a uniform, low temperature. The local Nusselt number, Nu, is determined as a function of phase. In the dead-air region of the bubble Nu is found to be relatively small, while it peaks in the recirculation region where hot outer fluid gets entrained and is transported towards the flat plate. Each period a new separation bubble is formed, that merges with the old separation bubble. The reverse flow inside the separation bubble reaches values of up to 60% of the local free-stream velocity, which is sufficient to make the separation bubble absolutely unstable such that self-sustained turbulence can exist. For the phase-averaged flow, neither the turbulent viscosity hypothesis nor the temperature gradient-diffusion hypothesis is found to hold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christophe Morel
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the modeling of boiling multisize bubbly flows and its application to the simulation of the DEBORA experiment. We follow the method proposed originally by Kamp, assuming a given mathematical expression for the bubble diameter pdf. The original model is completed by the addition of some new terms for vapor compressibility and phase change. The liquid-to-interface heat transfer term, which essentially determines the bubbles condensation rate in the DEBORA experiment, is also modeled with care. First numerical results realized with the Neptune_CFD code are presented and discussed.
Numerical calculation of velocity distribution near a vertical flat plate immersed in bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuura, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Horihata, Hideyuki; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Aragaki, Tsutomu; Yamada, Ikuho; Isoda, Shinji.
1992-01-01
Liquid and gas velocity distributions for bubble flow near a vertical flat plate were calculated numerically by using the SIMPLER method, where the flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, and at steady state. The two-fluid flow model was used in the numerical analysis. To calculate the drag force on a small bubble, Stokes' law for a rigid sphere is applicable. The dimensionless velocity distributions which were arranged with characteristic boundary layer thickness and maximum liquid velocity were adjusted with a single line and their forms were similar to that for single-phase wall-jet flow. The average wall shear stress derived from the velocity gradient at the plate wall was strongly affected by bubble diameter but not by inlet liquid velocity. The present dimensionless velocity distributions obtained numerically agreed well with previous experimental results, and the proposed numerical algorithm was validated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donevski, Bozin; Saga, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Toshio; Segawa, Shigeki
1998-01-01
This study presents the development of an image processing technique for studying the dynamic behavior of vapor bubbles in a two-phase bubbly flow. It focuses on the quantitative assessment of some basic parameters such as a local bubble size and size distribution in the range of void fraction between 0.03 < a < 0.07. The image processing methodology is based upon the computer evaluation of high speed motion pictures obtained from the flow field in the region of underdeveloped subcooled flow boiling for a variety of experimental conditions. This technique has the advantage of providing computer measurements and extracting the bubbles of the two-phase bubbly flow. This method appears to be promising for determining the governing mechanisms in subcooled flow boiling, particularly near the point of net vapor generation. The data collected by the image analysis software can be incorporated into the new models and computer codes currently under development which are aimed at incorporating the effect of vapor generation and condensation separately. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su
2008-01-01
Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated
Bubble Column with Electrolytes: Gas Holdup and Flow Regimes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Orvalho, Sandra; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří
2009-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 17 (2009), s. 8237-8243 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA ČR GP104/09/P255; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200720801; GA MŠk LA319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble column * hydrodynamics * surfactants Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.758, year: 2009
Bubble nucleation of R134A refrigerant in a pressurized flow boiling system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murshed, S.M. Sohel; Vereen, Keon; Kumar, Ranganathan [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering], e-mail: rnkumar@mail.ucf.edu
2009-07-01
The effect of heat flux and pressure on bubble nucleation of R134a refrigerant in a flow boiling system is experimentally studied. An experimental facility was built and an innovative concept of thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) technique was introduced for the high resolution and accurate measurement of the overall heater surface temperature. The visualization and image recording process is performed by employing two synchronized high resolution and high speed cameras which simultaneously capture colored TLC images as well as bubble nucleation activities at high frame rates. Experiments were conducted at different high pressures ranging from 690 to 830 kPa and at different heat flux conditions in order to identify their influence on flow boiling performance specially bubbling event. Present results demonstrate that both the heat flux and pressure influence the bubble generation rate and size. For example, bubble generation frequency and size are found to increase with heat flux. An increase in pressure of 137 kPa (from 690 to 827 kPa) increased the bubble frequency and size about 32 Hz and 20 {mu}m, respectively. (author)
Bubble nucleation of R134A refrigerant in a pressurized flow boiling system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murshed, S.M. Sohel; Vereen, Keon; Kumar, Ranganathan
2009-01-01
The effect of heat flux and pressure on bubble nucleation of R134a refrigerant in a flow boiling system is experimentally studied. An experimental facility was built and an innovative concept of thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) technique was introduced for the high resolution and accurate measurement of the overall heater surface temperature. The visualization and image recording process is performed by employing two synchronized high resolution and high speed cameras which simultaneously capture colored TLC images as well as bubble nucleation activities at high frame rates. Experiments were conducted at different high pressures ranging from 690 to 830 kPa and at different heat flux conditions in order to identify their influence on flow boiling performance specially bubbling event. Present results demonstrate that both the heat flux and pressure influence the bubble generation rate and size. For example, bubble generation frequency and size are found to increase with heat flux. An increase in pressure of 137 kPa (from 690 to 827 kPa) increased the bubble frequency and size about 32 Hz and 20 μm, respectively. (author)
Size-sensitive particle trajectories in three-dimensional micro-bubble acoustic streaming flows
Volk, Andreas; Rossi, Massimiliano; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Kähler, Christian; Marin, Alvaro
2015-11-01
Oscillating microbubbles generate steady streaming flows with interesting features and promising applications for microparticle manipulation. The flow around oscillating semi-cylindrical bubbles has been typically assumed to be independent of the axial coordinate. However, it has been recently revealed that particle motion is strongly three-dimensional: Small tracer particles follow vortical trajectories with pronounced axial displacements near the bubble, weaving a toroidal stream-surface. A well-known consequence of bubble streaming flows is size-dependent particle migration, which can be exploited for sorting and trapping of microparticles in microfluidic devices. In this talk, we will show how the three-dimensional toroidal topology found for small tracer particles is modified as the particle size increases up to 1/3 of the bubble radius. Our results show size-sensitive particle positioning along the axis of the semi-cylindrical bubble. In order to analyze the three-dimensional sorting and trapping capabilities of the system, experiments with an imposed flow and polydisperse particle solutions are also shown.
Large amplitude oscillation of a boiling bubble growing at a wall in stagnation flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geld, C.W.M. van der; Berg, R. van de; Peukert, P. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering], e-mail: C.W.M._v.d.Geld@tue.nl
2009-07-01
A boiling bubble is created on an artificial site that is part of a bubble generator that is mounted at the center of a pipe. Downflow of water impinges on the bubble generator and creates a stagnation flow above the artificial cavity. Stable axisymmetric elongation in the direction away from the wall and multiple shape oscillation cycles are observed. The time of growth and attachment is typically of the order of 250 ms. Amongst the length scales that characterize the bubble shape is the radius of curvature of the upper part of the bubble, R. The period of oscillation, T, is strongly dependent on time, as is R. The parameters C and m in the defining equation T = C R{sup m} {radical}({rho}L/{sigma}) have been determined by fitting to data of more than 100 bubbles. For each operating condition, the same values of C and m have been found. The value of m is 1.49 {+-} 0.02, which is explained from the continuous growth of the bubble and from the relation to the period of oscillation of a free bubble deforming in the fundamental mode corresponding to the third Legendre Polynomial. For the latter, R is the radius of the volume-equivalent sphere, R{sub 0}, and C is {radical}12, while for attached boiling bubbles C is found to amount 1.9{radical}12. The difference is easily explained from the continuous growth, difference in definition, finite amplitude oscillation and proximity of the wall. (author)
Fluid-Elastic Instability of U-Tube Bundle in Air-Water Two-Phase Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, In Cheol; Lee, Chang Hee; Yun, Young Jung; Chung, Heung June
2007-03-01
Using steam generator U-tube flow-induced vibration test facility, the flow-induced vibration characteristics of U-tube in row 34-44 and line 71-77 were investigated. Air and water at room temperature and near atmospheric pressure were used as working fluids. In the present experiments, followings were evaluated under two-phase cross-flow condition: the fundamental vibration responses and the critical gap velocity for a fluid-elastic instability of U-tubes, the damping ratio and hydrodynamic mass of U-tubes. In addition, the fluid-elastic instability factor, K, was preliminary assessed using Connors' relation. In the case of the U-tubes which are not supported by partial egg-crate in OPR100 steam generator, it has been found that the vibration displacement of those U-tubes are highly possible to exceed the design limit even by a turbulent excitation mechanism. The damping ratio of U-tubes measured in the present experiments was significantly higher than the OPR1000 steam generator design value. The fluid-elastic instability factor of U-tube bundle obtained in the present experiments were preliminary evaluated to be mostly in the range of 6.5-10.5
Majumder, Sambit; Majumder, Abhik; Bhaumik, Swapan
2016-07-01
The present microelectronics market demands devices with high power dissipation capabilities having enhanced cooling per unit area. The drive for miniaturizing the devices to even micro level dimensions is shooting up the applied heat flux on such devices, resulting in complexity in heat transfer and cooling management. In this paper, a method of CPU processor cooling is introduced where active and passive cooling techniques are incorporated simultaneously. A heat sink consisting of fins is designed, where water flows internally through the mini-channel fins and air flows externally. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed for large set of Reynolds number in laminar region using finite volume method for both developing flows. The dimensions of mini-channel fins are varied for several aspect ratios such as 1, 1.33, 2 and 4. Constant temperature (T) boundary condition is applied at heat sink base. Channel fluid temperature, pressure drop are analyzed to obtain best cooling option in the present study. It has been observed that as the aspect ratio of the channel decreases Nusselt number decreases while pressure drop increases. However, Nusselt number increases with increase in Reynolds number.
Bubble Formation in Yield Stress Fluids Using Flow-Focusing and T-Junction Devices.
Laborie, Benoit; Rouyer, Florence; Angelescu, Dan E; Lorenceau, Elise
2015-05-22
We study the production of bubbles inside yield stress fluids (YSFs) in axisymmetric T-junction and flow-focusing devices. Taking advantage of yield stress over capillary stress, we exhibit a robust break-up mechanism reminiscent of the geometrical operating regime in 2D flow-focusing devices for Newtonian fluids. We report that when the gas is pressure driven, the dynamics is unsteady due to hydrodynamic feedback and YSF deposition on the walls of the channels. However, the present study also identifies pathways for potential steady-state production of bubbly YSFs at large scale.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lackme, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
This report deals with the components and use of resistivity probes in bubble flow. With a single probe, we have studied the longitudinal and radial structure of the flow. The very complicated evolution of the radial structure is shown by the measurement of the mean bubble flux at several points in the tube. A double probe associated with a device the principle of which is given in this report, permits the measure of the local velocity of bubbles. Unlike the mean bubble flux profile, the change in the velocity profile along the tube is not significant. We have achieved the synthesis of these two pieces of information, mean local bubble flux and local velocity, by computing the mean weighed velocity in the tube. This weighed velocity compares remarkably with the velocity computed from the volumetric gas flow rate and the mean void fraction. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite d'une etude methodologique des ecoulements diphasiques a bulles. Les fluides sont l'air et l'eau, ils circulent du bas vers le haut dans un tube vertical de 32 mm de diametre et 2 metres de long. Cette etude a pour but de permettre une description fine de l'ecoulement. Pour cela, il a ete necessaire de developper des appareillages nouveaux et de mettre au point les methodes d'analyses correspondantes. La valeur des mesures effectuees et des methodes utilisees apparait dans une comparaison concluante et conclusive entre des resultats de mesures globales et des resultats integres de mesures locales. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Xiaodong; Kim, Seungjin; Ishii, Mamoru; Beus, Stephen G.
2003-01-01
This paper presents the modeling of bubble interaction mechanisms in the two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) for confined gas-liquid two-phase flow. The transport equation is applicable to bubbly, cap-turbulent, and churn-turbulent flow regimes. In the two-group IATE, bubbles are categorized into two groups: spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. Thus, two sets of equations are used to describe the generation and destruction rates of bubble number density, void fraction, and interfacial area concentration for the two groups of bubbles due to bubble expansion and compression, coalescence and disintegration, and phase change. Five major bubble interaction mechanisms are identified for the gas-liquid two-phase flow of interest, and are analytically modeled as the source/sink terms for the transport equations based on certain assumptions for the confined flow. These models include both intra-group (within a certain group) and inter-group (between two groups) bubble interactions. The comparisons of the prediction by the one-dimensional two-group IATE with experimental data are presented in the second paper of this series. (author)
Effect of a uniform magnetic field on dielectric two-phase bubbly flows using the level set method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, M.R.; Hadidi, A.; Nimvari, M.E.
2012-01-01
In this study, the behavior of a single bubble in a dielectric viscous fluid under a uniform magnetic field has been simulated numerically using the Level Set method in two-phase bubbly flow. The two-phase bubbly flow was considered to be laminar and homogeneous. Deformation of the bubble was considered to be due to buoyancy and magnetic forces induced from the external applied magnetic field. A computer code was developed to solve the problem using the flow field, the interface of two phases, and the magnetic field. The Finite Volume method was applied using the SIMPLE algorithm to discretize the governing equations. Using this algorithm enables us to calculate the pressure parameter, which has been eliminated by previous researchers because of the complexity of the two-phase flow. The finite difference method was used to solve the magnetic field equation. The results outlined in the present study agree well with the existing experimental data and numerical results. These results show that the magnetic field affects and controls the shape, size, velocity, and location of the bubble. - Highlights: ►A bubble behavior was simulated numerically. ► A single bubble behavior was considered in a dielectric viscous fluid. ► A uniform magnetic field is used to study a bubble behavior. ► Deformation of the bubble was considered using the Level Set method. ► The magnetic field affects the shape, size, velocity, and location of the bubble.
Measurement of void fraction and bubble size distribution in two-phase flow system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huahun, G.
1987-01-01
The importance of study two phase flow parameter and microstructure has appeared increasingly, with the development of two-phase flow discipline. In the paper, the measurement methods of several important microstructure parameter in a two phase flow vertical channel have been studied. Using conductance probe the two phase flow pattern and the average void fraction have been measured previously by the authors. This paper concerns microstructure of the bubble size distribution and local void fraction. The authors studied the methods of measuring bubble velocity, size distribution and local void fraction using double conductance probes and a set of apparatus. Based on our experiments and Yoshihiro work, a formula of calculated local void fraction has been deduced by using the statistical characteristics of bubbles in two phase flow and the relation between calculated bubble size and voltage has been determined. Finally the authors checked by using photograph and fast valve, which is classical but reliable. The results are the same with what has been studied before
Visual Observations of Bubbly Flow in a Subchannel by using Optical Measurement Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Seok Kyu; Choo, Yeon Jun; Kim, B. D.; Song, Chul Hwa
2008-01-01
PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurement technique is widely used in the experimental study on the fluid flow in many industrial fields. In the study of the subchannel mixing in a nuclear reactor, there have been many works by using optical measurement techniques and almost of these were limited to the single phase flow. But many occasions of safety issues in a nuclear power plant are in a condition of two phase flow. In an application of two phase flow in subchannels, intrusive probes i.e., a conductivity sensor or an optical sensor were generally used. But these probes cause breaks or distortions of bubbles when contact. PIV technique is one of the non-intrusive measurement methods which can avoid the problem of intrusive probes. This study presents an applicability of the PIV technique on an experimental study of a bubbly flow in the subchannel geometry. The bubble peaking in a subchannel according to the bubble sizes was demonstrated. The HSC (high speed camera) was also used to confirm the PIV measurement results
Bubble extinction in Hele-Shaw flow with surface tension and kinetic undercooling regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallaston, Michael C; McCue, Scott W
2013-01-01
We perform an analytic and numerical study of an inviscid contracting bubble in a two-dimensional Hele-Shaw cell, where the effects of both surface tension and kinetic undercooling on the moving bubble boundary are not neglected. In contrast to expanding bubbles, in which both boundary effects regularize the ill-posedness arising from the viscous (Saffman–Taylor) instability, we show that in contracting bubbles the two boundary effects are in competition, with surface tension stabilizing the boundary, and kinetic undercooling destabilizing it. This competition leads to interesting bifurcation behaviour in the asymptotic shape of the bubble in the limit it approaches extinction. In this limit, the boundary may tend to become either circular, or approach a line or ‘slit’ of zero thickness, depending on the initial condition and the value of a nondimensional surface tension parameter. We show that over a critical range of surface tension values, both these asymptotic shapes are stable. In this regime there exists a third, unstable branch of limiting self-similar bubble shapes, with an asymptotic aspect ratio (dependent on the surface tension) between zero and one. We support our asymptotic analysis with a numerical scheme that utilizes the applicability of complex variable theory to Hele-Shaw flow. (paper)
Lattice Boltzmann Study of Bubbles on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface under Shear Flow
Chen, Wei; Wang, Kai; Hou, Guoxiang; Leng, Wenjun
2018-01-01
This paper studies shear flow over a 2D patterned superhydrophobic surface using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Single component Shan-Chen multiphase model and Carnahan-Starling EOS are adopted to handle the liquid-gas flow on superhydrophobic surface with entrapped micro-bubbles. The shape of bubble interface and its influence on slip length under different shear rates are investigated. With increasing shear rate, the bubble interface deforms. Then the contact lines are depinned from the slot edges and move downstream. When the shear rate is high enough, a continuous gas layer forms. If the protrusion angle is small, the gas layer forms and collapse periodically, and accordingly the slip length changes periodically. While if the protrusion angle is large, the gas layer is steady and separates the solid wall from liquid, resulting in a very large slip length.
Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc
2004-12-01
As air is injected into a flowing liquid, the resultant bubble characteristics depend on the properties of the injector, near-wall flow, and flowing liquid. Previous research has shown that near-wall bubbles can significantly reduce skin-friction drag. Air was injected into the turbulent boundary layer on a test section wall of a water tunnel containing various concentrations of salt and surfactant (Triton-X-100, Union Carbide). Photographic records show that the mean bubble diameter decreased monotonically with increasing salt and surfactant concentrations. Here, 33 ppt saltwater bubbles had one quarter, and 20 ppm Triton-X-100 bubbles had one half of the mean diameter of freshwater bubbles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xia; Sun, Xiaodong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Two-group interfacial area transport equation was implemented into a three-field two-fluid model in Fluent. • Numerical model was developed for cap-bubbly flows in a narrow rectangular flow channel. • Numerical simulations were performed for cap-bubbly flows with uniform void inlets and with central peaked void inlets. • Code simulations showed a significant improve over the conventional two-fluid model. - Abstract: Knowledge of cap-bubbly flows is of great interest due to its role in understanding of the flow regime transition from bubbly to slug or churn-turbulent flows. One of the key characteristics of such flows is the existence of bubbles in different sizes and shapes associated with their distinctive dynamic natures. This important feature is, however, generally not well captured by many available two-phase flow modeling approaches. In this study, a modified two-fluid model, namely a three-field, two-fluid model, is proposed. In this model, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group-1 while cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group-2. A two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) is implemented to describe dynamic changes of interfacial structure in each bubble group, resulting from intra- and inter-group interactions and phase changes due to evaporation and condensation. Attention is also paid to appropriate constitutive relations of the interfacial transfers due to mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium between the different fields. The proposed three-field, two-fluid model is used to predict the phase distributions of adiabatic air–water flows in a confined rectangular duct. Good agreement between the simulation results from the proposed model and relevant experimental data indicates that the proposed model is promising as an improved computational tool for two-phase cap-bubbly flow simulations in rectangular flow ducts
Some characteristics of developing bubbly flow in a vertical mini pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hibiki, T.; Hazuku, T.; Takamasa, T.; Ishii, M.
2007-01-01
Accurate prediction of the flow parameters is essential to successful development of the interfacial transfer terms in the two-phase flow formulation in a mini channel. From this point of view, axial measurements of flow parameters such as void fraction, interfacial area concentration, gas velocity, bubble Sauter mean diameter, and bubble number density were performed by the image processing method at five axial locations in vertical upward developing bubbly flows using a 1.02 mm-diameter pipe. The frictional pressure loss was also measured by a differential pressure cell. In the experiment, the superficial liquid velocity and the void fraction ranged from 1.02 m/s to 4.89 m/s and from 0.980% to 24.6%, respectively. The constitutive equation for the drift velocity applicable to mini channel flow was developed by considering the effect of the frictional pressure loss on the drift velocity. The constitutive equation for the distribution parameter was also developed by considering the flow transition from laminar to turbulent flows. The drift-flux model with the modeled constitutive equations for the distribution parameter and drift velocity agreed with the measured void fractions within the averaged prediction accuracy of ±6.76%. The applicability of the existing interfacial area concentration model to mini channel flow was validated by the measured interfacial data
PIV measurement of turbulent bubbly mixing layer flow with polymer additives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ning, T; Guo, F; Chen, B; Zhang, X
2009-01-01
Based on experimental investigation of single-phase turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives, bubbly mixing layer was experimentally investigated by PIV. The velocity ratio between high and low speed is 4:1 and the Reynolds number based on the velocity difference of two steams and hydraulic diameter of the channel ranges is 73333. Gas bubbles with about 0.5% gas fraction were injected into pure water mixing layer with/without polymer additives from three different parts at the end of the splitter plate. The comparison between single phase and bubbly mixing layer shows clearly that the dynamic development of mixing layer is great influenced by the bubble injection. Similar with single phase, the Reynolds stress and vorticity still concentrate in a coniform area of central mixing flow field part and the width will increase with increasing the Reynolds number. Mean Reynolds stress will decrease with bubble injection in high Reynolds numbers and the decreasing of Reynolds stress with polymer additives is much more than pure water case.
Balance of liquid-phase turbulence kinetic energy equation for bubble-train flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilic, Milica; Woerner, Martin; Cacuci, Dan Gabriel
2004-01-01
In this paper the investigation of bubble-induced turbulence using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of bubbly two-phase flow is reported. DNS computations are performed for a bubble-driven liquid motion induced by a regular train of ellipsoidal bubbles rising through an initially stagnant liquid within a plane vertical channel. DNS data are used to evaluate balance terms in the balance equation for the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy. The evaluation comprises single-phase-like terms (diffusion, dissipation and production) as well as the interfacial term. Special emphasis is placed on the procedure for evaluation of interfacial quantities. Quantitative analysis of the balance equation for the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy shows the importance of the interfacial term which is the only source term. The DNS results are further used to validate closure assumptions employed in modelling of the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy transport in gas-liquid bubbly flows. In this context, the performance of respective closure relations in the transport equation for liquid turbulence kinetic energy within the two-phase k-ε and the two-phase k-l model is evaluated. (author)
Motil, Brian J.; Green, R. D.; Nahra, H. K.; Sridhar, K. R.
2000-01-01
For long-duration space missions, the life support and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems necessary to lower the mass and volume of consumables carried from Earth will require more sophisticated chemical processing technologies involving gas-liquid two-phase flows. This paper discusses some preliminary two-phase flow work in packed columns and generation of bubbly suspensions, two types of flow systems that can exist in a number of chemical processing devices. The experimental hardware for a co-current flow, packed column operated in two ground-based low gravity facilities (two-second drop tower and KC- 135 low-gravity aircraft) is described. The preliminary results of this experimental work are discussed. The flow regimes observed and the conditions under which these flow regimes occur are compared with the available co-current packed column experimental work performed in normal gravity. For bubbly suspensions, the experimental hardware for generation of uniformly sized bubbles in Couette flow in microgravity conditions is described. Experimental work was performed on a number of bubbler designs, and the capillary bubble tube was found to produce the most consistent size bubbles. Low air flow rates and low Couette flow produce consistent 2-3 mm bubbles, the size of interest for the "Behavior of Rapidly Sheared Bubbly Suspension" flight experiment. Finally the mass transfer implications of these two-phase flows is qualitatively discussed.
Hatzell, Marta C.; Logan, Bruce E.
2013-01-01
) accumulation within the stack, reducing overall system performance. The management and minimization of bubbles formed in RED flow fields is an important operational issue which has yet to be addressed. Flow fields with and without spacers in RED stacks were
Dynamic features of bubble induced by a nanosecond pulse laser in still and flowing water
Charee, Wisan; Tangwarodomnukun, Viboon
2018-03-01
Underwater laser ablation techniques have been developed and employed to synthesis nanoparticles, to texture workpiece surface and to assist the material removal in laser machining process. However, the understanding of laser-material-water interactions, bubble formation and effects of water flow on ablation performance has still been very limited. This paper thus aims at exploring the formation and collapse of bubbles during the laser ablation of silicon in water. The effects of water flow rate on bubble formation and its consequences to the laser disturbance and cut features obtained in silicon were observed by using a high speed camera. A nanosecond pulse laser emitting the laser pulse energy of 0.2-0.5 mJ was employed in the experiment. The results showed that the bubble size was found to increase with the laser pulse energy. The use of high water flow rate can importantly facilitate the ejection of ablated particles from the workpiece surface, hence resulting in less deposition to the work surface and minimizing any disturbance to the laser beam during the ablation in water. Furthermore, a clean micro-groove in silicon wafer can successfully be produced when the process was performed in the high water flow rate condition. The findings of this study could provide an essential guideline for process selection, control and improvement in the laser micro-/submicro-fabrication using the underwater technique.
Air-water tests in support of LLTR series II Test A-4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, K.
1980-07-01
A series of tests injecting air into a tank of stagnant water was conducted in June 1980 utilizing the GE Plenum Mixing Test Facility in San Jose, California. The test was concerned with investigating the behavior of air jets at a submerged orifice in water over a wide range of flow rates. The main objective was to improve the basic understanding of gas-liquid phenomena (e.g., leak dynamics, gas bubble agglomeration, etc.) in a simulated tube bundle through visualization. The experimental results from these air-water tests will be used as a guide to help select the leak size for LLTR Series II Test A-4 because air-water system is a good simulation of water-sodium mixture
A numerical framework for bubble transport in a subcooled fluid flow
Jareteg, Klas; Sasic, Srdjan; Vinai, Paolo; Demazière, Christophe
2017-09-01
In this paper we present a framework for the simulation of dispersed bubbly two-phase flows, with the specific aim of describing vapor-liquid systems with condensation. We formulate and implement a framework that consists of a population balance equation (PBE) for the bubble size distribution and an Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid solver. The PBE is discretized using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) in which we include the condensation of the bubbles as an internal phase space convection. We investigate the robustness of the DQMOM formulation and the numerical issues arising from the rapid shrinkage of the vapor bubbles. In contrast to a PBE method based on the multiple-size-group (MUSIG) method, the DQMOM formulation allows us to compute a distribution with dynamic bubble sizes. Such a property is advantageous to capture the wide range of bubble sizes associated with the condensation process. Furthermore, we compare the computational performance of the DQMOM-based framework with the MUSIG method. The results demonstrate that DQMOM is able to retrieve the bubble size distribution with a good numerical precision in only a small fraction of the computational time required by MUSIG. For the two-fluid solver, we examine the implementation of the mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation equations in relation to the coupling to the PBE. In particular, we propose a formulation of the pressure and liquid continuity equations, that was shown to correctly preserve mass when computing the vapor fraction with DQMOM. In addition, the conservation of enthalpy was also proven. Therefore a consistent overall framework that couples the PBE and two-fluid solvers is achieved.
Undulations on the surface of elongated bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows
Magnini, M.; Ferrari, A.; Thome, J. R.; Stone, H. A.
2017-08-01
A systematic analysis is presented of the undulations appearing on the surface of long bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows. CFD simulations of the flow are performed with a self-improved version of the open-source solver ESI OpenFOAM (release 2.3.1), for Ca =0.002 -0.1 and Re =0.1 -1000 , where Ca =μ U /σ and Re =2 ρ U R /μ , with μ and ρ being, respectively, the viscosity and density of the liquid, σ the surface tension, U the bubble velocity, and R the tube radius. A model, based on an extension of the classical axisymmetric Bretherton theory, accounting for inertia and for the curvature of the tube's wall, is adopted to better understand the CFD results. The thickness of the liquid film, and the wavelength and decay rate of the undulations extracted from the CFD simulations, agree well with those obtained with the theoretical model. Inertial effects appear when the Weber number of the flow We =Ca Re =O (10-1) and are manifest by a larger number of undulation crests that become evident on the surface of the rear meniscus of the bubble. This study demonstrates that the necessary bubble length for a flat liquid film region to exist between the rear and front menisci rapidly increases above 10 R when Ca >0.01 and the value of the Reynolds number approaches 1000.
Numerical predictions of bubbly two-phase flows with OpenFOAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michta, E.; Fu, K.; Anglart, H.; Angele, K.
2011-01-01
A new model for simulation of bubbly two-phase flows has been developed and implemented into an open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code OpenFOAM. The model employs the two-fluid framework with closure relationships for the interfacial momentum transfer. The bubble size is calculated based on the solution of the interfacial area concentration equations. The predictions are validated against a wide range of experimental data containing measured void fraction, the phasic velocity and the interfacial area concentration. The new model demonstrates the ability to capture the wall peaking of void fraction for small bubbles. The predicted levels of void fraction and phasic velocities are in good agreement with measured data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitremann, J.M.; Guilpin, C.; Postaire, J.
1976-01-01
The measurement of the interface velocity in a two-phase gas-liquid flow is a difficult problem, owing to the dispersion of the velocity components of individual bubbles, gas-slugs, droplets, waves, etc. An entirely automatic method is presented, it gives the velocity of slugs and bubbles independently, by discrimination of local phase probe signals into a 'slug' signal and a 'bubble' signal feeding a shape-recognition program. Both discriminated void fractions are also calculated by the apparatus [fr
CFD analysis of bubble microlayer and growth in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Owoeye, Eyitayo James, E-mail: msgenius10@ufl.edu; Schubring, DuWanye, E-mail: dlschubring@ufl.edu
2016-08-01
Highlights: • A new LES-microlayer model is introduced. • Analogous to the unresolved SGS in LES, analysis of bubble microlayer was performed. • The thickness of bubble microlayer was computed at both steady and transient states. • The macroscale two-phase behavior was captured with VOF coupled with AMR. • Numerical validations were performed for both the micro- and macro-region analyses. - Abstract: A numerical study of single bubble growth in turbulent subcooled flow boiling was carried out. The macro- and micro-regions of the bubble were analyzed by introducing a LES-microlayer model. Analogous to the unresolved sub-grid scale (SGS) in LES, a microlayer analysis was performed to capture the unresolved thermal scales for the micro-region heat transfer by deriving equations for the microlayer thickness at steady and transient states. The phase change at the macro-region was based on Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface tracking method coupled with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used to model the turbulence characteristics. The numerical model was validated with multiple experimental data from the open literature. This study includes parametric variations that cover the operating conditions of boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR). The numerical model was used to study the microlayer thickness, growth rate, dynamics, and distortion of the bubble.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, In-Cheol, E-mail: chuic@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Seung-Jun; Youn, Young Jung; Park, Jong Kuk; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Song, Chul-Hwa
2017-02-15
Experiments were performed to quantify the local bubble parameters such as void fraction, bubble velocity, interfacial area concentration, and Sauter mean diameter for the subcooled boiling flow of a refrigerant R-134a in a pressurized vertical annulus channel. Optical fiber void probe and double pressure boundary visualization windows were installed at four measurement stations with different elevations, thus enabling the quantification of local bubble parameters and observation of global boiling structure. Using high-resolution traverse systems for the optical fiber void probes and the heating tube, the radial profiles of the bubble parameters and their axial propagation can be evaluated at any elevation of the whole heating region. At this first phase of the experiments, three tests were conducted by varying the pressure, heat flux, mass flux, and local liquid subcooling. The radial profiles of the bubble parameters were obtained at seven elevations. The pressure condition of the present experiments covered the normal operating pressure of PWRs according to the similarity criteria. The present experimental data will be useful for thorough validation and improvement of the CMFD (Computation Multi-Fluid Dynamics) codes and constitutive relations.
A study of water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji
2000-01-01
Water hammer phenomena caused by a rapid valve closure, that is, shock phenomena in two-phase flows, are an important problem for the safety assessment of a hypothetical LOCA. This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component tow-phase bubbly flow. In order to clarify the characteristics of water hammer phenomena, experiments for a one-component two-phase flow of Freon R-113 were conducted and a numerical simulation of pressure transients was developed. An overall picture of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase flow is presented an discussed. (author)
Size-selective sorting in bubble streaming flows: Particle migration on fast time scales
Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha
2015-11-01
Steady streaming from ultrasonically driven microbubbles is an increasingly popular technique in microfluidics because such devices are easily manufactured and generate powerful and highly controllable flows. Combining streaming and Poiseuille transport flows allows for passive size-sensitive sorting at particle sizes and selectivities much smaller than the bubble radius. The crucial particle deflection and separation takes place over very small times (milliseconds) and length scales (20-30 microns) and can be rationalized using a simplified geometric mechanism. A quantitative theoretical description is achieved through the application of recent results on three-dimensional streaming flow field contributions. To develop a more fundamental understanding of the particle dynamics, we use high-speed photography of trajectories in polydisperse particle suspensions, recording the particle motion on the time scale of the bubble oscillation. Our data reveal the dependence of particle displacement on driving phase, particle size, oscillatory flow speed, and streaming speed. With this information, the effective repulsive force exerted by the bubble on the particle can be quantified, showing for the first time how fast, selective particle migration is effected in a streaming flow. We acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under grant number CBET-1236141.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin J.H.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A gas-liquid Taylor bubble flow occurs in small diameter channels in which gas bubbles are separated by slugs of pure liquid. This type of flow regime is well suited for solid catalyzed gas-liquid reactors in which the reaction efficiency is a strong function of axial dispersion in the regions of pure liquid. This paper presents an experimental study of liquid phase axial dispersion in a Taylor bubble flow developed in a horizontal tube using high speed photography and radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD analysis. A parametric dependence of axial dispersion on average volume fraction of gas phase was also investigated by varying the relative volumetric flow rates of the two phases. 137mBa produced from a 137Cs/137mBa radionuclide generator was used as radiotracer and measurements were made using the NaI(Tl scintillation detectors. Validation of 137mBa in the form of barium chloride as aqueous phase radiotracer was also carried out. Axial Dispersion Model (ADM was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system and the results of the experiment are presented. It was observed that the system is characterized by very high values of Peclet Number (Pe∼102 which reveals an approaching plug type flow. The experimental and model estimated values of mean residence times were observed in agreement with each other.
Development of converter to change gas-liquid two-phase slug flow to bubbly flow in a vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakaguchi, T.; Minagawa, H.; Hamaguchi, H.; Shakutusi, H.; Ono, M.; Mizuta, H.
1989-01-01
The mechanical and/or the thermal fatigue fracture of pipelines due to the pulsating characteristics of slug flow will be prevented if slug flow is changed to bubbly flow. Then kinds of flow pattern converters were developed and tested in a vertical tube of 30.3 mm I.D. This paper reports that the converter composed of five stages of porous plates is useful. The sintered porous plates of spherical particles made acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin and bronze are selected from 76 kinds of porous plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bottoni, M.; Sengpiel, W.
1992-01-01
Starting from the rigorous formulation of the conservation equations for mass, momentum and enthalpy, derived for a two-phase flow by volume averaging microscopic balance equations over Eulerian control cells, the article discusses the formulation of the terms describing exchanges between the phases. Two flow regimes are taken into consideration, bubbly flow, applicable for small or medium void fractions, and annular flow, for large void fractions. When lack of knowledge of volume-averaged physical quantities make the rigorously formulated terms useless for computational purposes, modelling of these terms is discussed. 3 figs., 15 refs
Numerical analysis of flow field formed by air bubble dischanging through a sparger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H. W.; Bae, Y. Y.
2002-01-01
In both a boiling water reactor and an advanced type of pressurized water reactor APR1400 being constructed in Korea, water, air and steam successively discharge into a subcooled water pool through spargers, when a pressure relieving system is in operation. During the discharging processes, the air bubble clouds produce a low-frequency and high-amplitude oscillatory loading, which may result in significant damages to the submerged structures if the resonance between bubble clouds and structures occur. This study deals with a numerical analysis of the flow field due to the oscillation of air bubble clouds by using a commercial thermal hydraulic analysis code FLUENT, version 4.5. The VOF (Volume Of Fluid) model was used to simulate the interface of water, air and steam flows, since it is known to be suitable for the large bubble simulation and it enables to treat air as a compressible fluid. A good agreement between the analysis results and the ABB-Atom test results, which had been performed for the development of BWR sparger, was obtained
Bubble-free on-chip continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction: concept and application.
Wu, Wenming; Kang, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Nae Yoon
2011-06-07
Bubble formation inside a microscale channel is a significant problem in general microfluidic experiments. The problem becomes especially crucial when performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a chip which is subject to repetitive temperature changes. In this paper, we propose a bubble-free sample injection scheme applicable for continuous-flow PCR inside a glass/PDMS hybrid microfluidic chip, and attempt to provide a theoretical basis concerning bubble formation and elimination. Highly viscous paraffin oil plugs are employed in both the anterior and posterior ends of a sample plug, completely encapsulating the sample and eliminating possible nucleation sites for bubbles. In this way, internal channel pressure is increased, and vaporization of the sample is prevented, suppressing bubble formation. Use of an oil plug in the posterior end of the sample plug aids in maintaining a stable flow of a sample at a constant rate inside a heated microchannel throughout the entire reaction, as compared to using an air plug. By adopting the proposed sample injection scheme, we demonstrate various practical applications. On-chip continuous-flow PCR is performed employing genomic DNA extracted from a clinical single hair root sample, and its D1S80 locus is successfully amplified. Also, chip reusability is assessed using a plasmid vector. A single chip is used up to 10 times repeatedly without being destroyed, maintaining almost equal intensities of the resulting amplicons after each run, ensuring the reliability and reproducibility of the proposed sample injection scheme. In addition, the use of a commercially-available and highly cost-effective hot plate as a potential candidate for the heating source is investigated.
Bubble splitting under gas–liquid–liquid three-phase flow in a double T-junction microchannel
Liu, Yanyan; Yue, Jun; Zhao, Shuainan; Yao, Chaoqun; Chen, Guangwen
Gas–aqueous liquid–oil three-phase flow was generated in a microchannel with a double T-junction. Under the squeezing of the dispersed aqueous phase at the second T-junction (T2), the splitting of bubbles generated from the first T-junction (T1) was investigated. During the bubble splitting process,
Two-phase PIV of bubbly flows: status and trends
Deen, N.G.; Westerweel, Jerry; Delnoij, E.
2002-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a measurement technique that has received a lot of attention for this purpose in the last decade. PIV is an optical and thus non-intrusive measurement technique that gives instantaneous 2D velocity data for a whole plane in a 3D flow field. In this paper we will
Single-phase and two phase bubbly flow in a T connection: theoretical and experimental study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hervieu, Eric
1988-01-01
The objective of this research thesis is to highlight the driving factors of the separation of phases of a bubbly flow in a T junction, and to develop a prediction model. In a first part, the author reports the rigorous formulation of equations averaged on the T volume. He shows that it's not possible to solve globally the problem with these equations. Then, he reports a bibliographical study on the modelling of a bubbly flow, and, based upon this study, highlights intrinsic characteristics of the flow, and explains its dynamic mechanisms. He reports the development of the theoretical model, and describes the experimental installation used to validate it. In the third part, he reports the study of the liquid-gas interaction, and presents the adopted approach: study of the behaviour of an isolated bubble within a single-phase flow. Experimentation is used to check theoretical predictions. Results are used to compute phase separation. The obtained results are again compared with experimental results to validate the global relevance of the model [fr
1992-01-01
After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.
1980-12-08
The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.
Avdeev, Alexander A
2016-01-01
This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...
CFD4NRS with a focus on experimental and CMFD investigations of bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.; Simiano, M.; Milenkovic, R.; Zboray, R.; De Cachard, F.; Smith, B.; Sigg, B.
2007-01-01
The paper discusses first current computational trends related to reactor safety problems and developments needed, as well as the need for new kinds of much more detailed experimental data for the validation of the new methods and codes. The numerous bubbly flow experiments conducted during the last decade at PSI are then reviewed and put in perspective with regards to the needs of the analysts. The latest experiments produced first-of-a-kind sets of experimental data from bubbly plumes and jets. Some of these data were ensemble or phase averaged to filter large-scale meandering and oscillations or coherent structures and make the time-dependent small-scale effects and stress terms visible. The large data sets that have been created can be further mined to extract additional information for the two-phase flow analyst. (authors)
Investigation of two-phase bubbly flows using laser doppler anemometry
Marié , Jean-Louis
1983-01-01
International audience; The present work is devoted to the development of an accurate and reliable laser Doppler anemometer technique (L.D.A.) meant for the measurement of the characteristics of twoephase bubbly flows. Most of these characteristics are the various statistical moments of the velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds stress tensor components within the continuous phase but also, under well defined conditions, the mean slip velocity of the dispersed phase. Although this technique w...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Subash L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Brooks, Caleb S. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Schlegel, Joshua P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Liu, Yang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Buchanan, John R. [Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corporation, Bettis Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Void distribution in narrow rectangular channel with various non-uniform inlet conditions. • Modeling of void diffusion due to bubble collision force. • Validation of new modeling in adiabatic air–water two-phase flow in a narrow channel. - Abstract: The prediction capability of the two-fluid model for gas–liquid dispersed two-phase flow depends on the accuracy of the closure relations for the interfacial forces. In previous studies of two-phase flow Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), interfacial force models for a single isolated bubble has been extended to disperse two-phase flow assuming the effect in a swarm of bubbles is similar. Limited studies have been performed investigating the effect of the bubble concentration on the lateral phase distribution. Bubbles, while moving through the liquid phase, may undergo turbulence-driven random collision with neighboring bubbles without significant coalescence. The rate of these collisions depends upon the bubble approach velocity and bubble spacing. The bubble collision frequency is expected to be higher in locations with higher bubble concentrations, i.e., volume fraction. This turbulence-driven random collision causes the diffusion of the bubbles from high concentration to low concentration. Based on experimental observations, a phenomenological model has been developed for a “turbulence-induced bubble collision force” for use in the two-fluid model. For testing the validity of the model, two-phase flow data measured at Purdue University are utilized. The geometry is a 10 mm × 200 mm cross section channel. Experimentally, non-uniform inlet boundary conditions are applied with different sparger combinations to vary the volume fraction distribution across the wider dimension. Examining uniform and non-uniform inlet data allows for the influence of the volume fraction to be studied as a separate effect. The turbulence-induced bubble collision force has been implemented in ANSYS CFX. The
CFD4NRS with a focus on experimental and CMFD investigations of bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.; Simiano, M.; Milenkovic, R.; Kubasch, J.; Milelli, M.; Zboray, R.; De Cachard, F.; Smith, B.; Lakehal, D.; Sigg, B.
2008-01-01
The paper discusses first current computational trends related to reactor safety problems and developments needed, as well as the need for new kinds of much more detailed experimental data for the validation of the new methods and codes. The numerous bubbly flow experiments conducted during the last decade at PSI are then reviewed and put in perspective with regards to the needs of the analysts. The latest experiments produced first-of-a-kind sets of experimental data from bubbly plumes and jets. Some of these data were conditionally ensemble or phase averaged to separate the effects of large-scale meandering and oscillations or coherent structures from the time-dependent small-scale effects; then the Reynolds stress terms could be properly identified. The large data sets that have been created can be further mined to extract additional information for the two-phase flow analyst. The companion analytical developments and simulations of bubbly flows with RANS and LES methods are discussed. LES methods are needed to overcome some of the basic limitations of RANS simulations
CFD4NRS with a focus on experimental and CMFD investigations of bubbly flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zurich (Switzerland); Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); ASCOMP GmbH, Technoparkstrasse 1, Einstein H22, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: yadi@ethz.ch; Simiano, M.; Milenkovic, R. [Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kubasch, J. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zurich (Switzerland); Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Milelli, M.; Zboray, R.; De Cachard, F.; Smith, B. [Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lakehal, D. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zurich (Switzerland); ASCOMP GmbH, Technoparkstrasse 1, Einstein H22, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Sigg, B. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zurich (Switzerland)
2008-03-15
The paper discusses first current computational trends related to reactor safety problems and developments needed, as well as the need for new kinds of much more detailed experimental data for the validation of the new methods and codes. The numerous bubbly flow experiments conducted during the last decade at PSI are then reviewed and put in perspective with regards to the needs of the analysts. The latest experiments produced first-of-a-kind sets of experimental data from bubbly plumes and jets. Some of these data were conditionally ensemble or phase averaged to separate the effects of large-scale meandering and oscillations or coherent structures from the time-dependent small-scale effects; then the Reynolds stress terms could be properly identified. The large data sets that have been created can be further mined to extract additional information for the two-phase flow analyst. The companion analytical developments and simulations of bubbly flows with RANS and LES methods are discussed. LES methods are needed to overcome some of the basic limitations of RANS simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adoua, S.R
2007-07-15
This work is devoted to the study of an oblate spheroidal bubble of prescribed shape set fixed in a linear shear flow using direct numerical simulation. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates using a finite volume method. The bubble response is studied over a wide range of the aspect ratio (1-2.7), the bubble Reynolds number (50-2000) and the non-dimensional shear rate (0.-1.2). The numerical simulations shows that the shear flow imposes a plane symmetry of the wake whatever the parameters of the flow. The trailing vorticity is organized into two anti-symmetrical counter rotating tubes with a sign imposed by the competition of two mechanisms (the Lighthill mechanism and the instability of the wake). Whatever the Reynolds number, the lift coefficient reaches the analytical value obtained in an inviscid, weakly sheared flow corresponding to a lift force oriented in the same direction as that of a spherical bubble. For moderate Reynolds numbers, the direction of the lift force reverses when the bubble aspect ratio is large enough as observed in experiments. This reversal occurs for aspect ratios larger than 2.225 and is found to be directly linked to the sign of the trailing vorticity which is concentrated within two counter-rotating threads which propel the bubble in a direction depending of their sign of rotation. The behavior of the drag does not revel any significant effect induced by the wake structure and follows a quadratic increase with the shear rate. Finally, the torque experienced by the bubble also reverses for the same conditions inducing the reversal of the lift force. By varying the orientation of the bubble in the shear flow, a stable equilibrium position is found corresponding to a weak angle between the small axis of the bubble and the flow direction. (author)
Analysis of the flow in stenosed carotid artery bifurcation models--hydrogen-bubble visualisation.
Palmen, D E; van de Vosse, F N; Janssen, J D; van Dongen, M E
1994-05-01
This paper deals with the effect of geometric changes of mild stenoses on large-scale flow disturbances in the carotid artery bifurcation. Hydrogen-bubble visualisation experiments have been performed in Plexiglas models of a non-stenosed and a 25% stenosed carotid artery bifurcation. The flow conditions approximate physiological flow. The experiments show that shortly after the onset of the diastolic phase vortex formation occurs in the plane of symmetry. This vortex formation is found in a shear layer, which is formed in the carotid sinus. The shear layer is located between a region with low shear rates at the non-divider wall and a region with high shear rates at the divider wall. In order to gain insight into the parameters that are important with respect to the stability of the shear layer, experiments have been performed in which the influence of the shape of the flow pulse, the Reynolds number (Re), the Womersley parameter (alpha) and the flow division ratio (gamma) on the flow phenomena is studied. From these experiments it appears that the flow phenomena in the carotid artery bifurcation are significantly influenced by Re, alpha the systolic acceleration (sa) and deceleration (sd) and the duration of the peak-systolic flow (Tmax). With these results a simplified flow pulse is chosen, with which the experiments in the non-stenosed and the 25% stenosed bifurcation are performed. Comparison of the hydrogen-bubble profiles in the 0 and 25% stenosed models with similar flow conditions shows that the geometric change of the 25% stenosis only slightly influences the flow phenomena. The most striking influences are found in the stability of the shear layer. Quantitative experiments by means of laser Doppler anemometry measurements and numerical computations are needed to analyse the influence of the stenosis of the flow field more accurately.
HUBBLE-BUBBLE 1. A computer program for the analysis of non-equilibrium flows of water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mather, D.J.
1978-02-01
A description is given of the computer program HUBBLE-BUBBLE I which simulates the non-equilibrium flow of water and steam in a pipe. The code is designed to examine the transient flow developing in a pipe containing hot compressed water following the rupture of a retaining diaphragm. Allowance is made for an area change in the pipe. Particular attention is paid to the non-equilibrium development of vapour bubbles and to the transition from a bubble-liquid regime to a droplet-vapour regime. The mathematical and computational model is described together with a summary of the FORTRAN subroutines and listing of data input. (UK)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Acher
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A simulation model for 3D polydisperse bubble column flows in an Eulerian/Eulerian framework is presented. A computationally efficient and numerically stable algorithm is created by making use of quadrature method of moments (QMOM functionalities, in conjunction with appropriate breakup and coalescence models. To account for size dependent bubble motion, the constituent moments of the bubble size distribution function are transported with individual velocities. Validation of the simulation results against experimental and numerical data of Hansen [1] show the capability of the present model to accurately predict complex gas-liquid flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Wen; Chen Peipei; Jones, Barclay G.; Newell, Ty A.
2008-01-01
This study examines the bubble detachment phenomena under subcooled nucleate boiling conditions, in order to obtain a better understanding of the bubble dynamics on horizontal flat heat exchangers. Refrigerant R134a is chosen as a simulant fluid due to its merits of having smaller surface tension, reduced latent heat, and lower boiling temperature than water. Experiments are run with varying experimental parameters, e.g. pressure, inlet subcooled level, flow rate, etc. Digital images are obtained at frame rates up to 4000 frames/s, showing the characteristics of bubble movements. Bubble departure and bubble lift-off, which are described as bubbles detaching from the original nucleation sites and bubbles detaching from the horizontal heated surface respectively, are both considered and measured. Results are compared against the model proposed by Klausner et al. for the prediction of bubble detachment sizes. While good overall agreement is shown, it is suggested that finite rather than zero bubble contact area should be assumed, which improves the model prediction at the pressure range of 300-500 kPa while playing no significant role at a lower pressure of 150 kPa where the model was originally benchmarked. The impact of heated surface structure is studied whose results provide support to the above assumption
A new electrode-mesh tomograph for advanced studies on bubbly flow characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richter, St.; Aritomi, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
2001-07-01
For studies on the characteristics of bubble flow in a rectangular channel (20 x 100 mm) a new electrode-mesh tomograph have been applied. The measuring principle is based on local conductivity measurement and a signal concerning. The applied sensor scans the local void fraction distribution in 2 parallel planes, separated 1.5 mm in flow direction, with a resolution of 3.0 x 2.2 mm and a overall sampling rate of 1200 Hz (all 256 points). Algorithm for the calculation of the local instantaneous void fraction distribution and the true gas velocity are presented. Based on these values the approximate shape of bubbles have been reconstructed and the gas volume flow through the sensor evaluated. The superficial gas velocity as well as the local distribution of the gas volume flux can be calculated. An extensive sensitivity study illustrating the applicability and accuracy is presented, based on experimental observations as well as theoretical considerations. The evaluated results are compared with high-speed video observations of the flow field as well as data comparing the reconstructed volume flow with measurements by a laminar flow meter. Good agreement can be stated. (author)
Structure analysis of bubble driven flow by time-resolved PIV and POD techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyun Dong; Yi, Seung Jae; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Kyung Chun
2010-01-01
In this paper, the recirculation flow motion and turbulence characteristics of liquid flow driven by air bubble stream in a rectangular water tank are studied. The time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is adopted for the quantitative visualization and analysis. 532nm Diode CW laser is used for illumination and orange fluorescent (λex = 540nm, λem = 584nm) particle images are acquired by a 1280X1024 high-speed camera. To obtain clean particle images, 545nm long pass optical filter and an image intensifier are employed and the flow rate of compressed air is 3/min at 0.5MPa. The recirculation and mixing flow field is further investigated by timeresolved Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis technique. It is observed that the large scale recirculation resulting from the interaction between rising bubble stream and side wall is the most dominant flow structure and there are small scale vortical structures moving along with the large scale recirculation flow. It is also verified that the sum of 20 modes of velocity field has about 67.4% of total turbulent energy
Numerical Predictions of Bubbly Two-Phase Flows with OpenFOAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edouard Michta
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A new model for simulation of bubbly two-phase flows has been developed and implemented into an open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code OpenFOAM. The model employs the two-fluid framework with closure relationships for the interfacial momentum transfer. The bubble size is calculated based on the solution of the transport equation of the interfacial area concentration. The predictions are validated against selected data obtained in the DEDALE experiment and containing the measured void fraction, the phasic velocities and the interfacial area concentration. In general, good agreement between calculated and measured data is demonstrated; however, the relative phasic velocity is systematically over-predicted. The levels of void fraction and the observed wall void peaking are well captured in the calculations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peña-Monferrer, C.; Passalacqua, A.; Chiva, S.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A population balance equation solved with QMOM approximation is implemented in OpenFOAM. • Available models for interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence are analyzed. • A vertical pipe flow is simulated for different bubbly flow conditions. • Two-phase flow characteristics in vertical pipes are properly predicted. - Abstract: An Eulerian–Eulerian approach was investigated to model adiabatic bubbly flow with CFD techniques. In the framework of the OpenFOAM"® software, a two-fluid model solver was modified to include a population balance equation, solved with the quadrature method of moments approximation to predict upward bubbly flow in vertical pipes considering the polydisperse nature of two-phase flow. Some progress have been made recently solving population balance equations in OpenFOAM"® and this research aims to extend its application to the case of vertical pipes under different conditions of liquid and gas velocities. In order to test the solver for nuclear applications, interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence models were included to provide to this solver the capability to correctly predict the behavior of the continuous and disperse phases. Two-phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and liquid are used to validate the model and its implementation. Radial profiles of void fraction, gas and liquid velocities, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity are compared to the computational results. These results are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, showing the capability of the solver to predict two-phase flow characteristics.
Wire-Mesh Tomography Measurements of Void Fraction in Rectangular Bubble Columns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reddy Vanga, B.N.; Lopez de Bertodano, M.A.; Zaruba, A.; Prasser, H.M.; Krepper, E.
2004-01-01
Bubble Columns are widely used in the process industry and their scale-up from laboratory scale units to industrial units have been a subject of extensive study. The void fraction distribution in the bubble column is affected by the column size, superficial velocity of the dispersed phase, height of the liquid column, size of the gas bubbles, flow regime, sparger design and geometry of the bubble column. The void fraction distribution in turn affects the interfacial momentum transfer in the bubble column. The void fraction distribution in a rectangular bubble column 10 cm wide and 2 cm deep has been measured using Wire-Mesh Tomography. Experiments were performed in an air-water system with the column operating in the dispersed bubbly flow regime. The experiments also serve the purpose of studying the performance of wire-mesh sensors in batch flows. A 'wall peak' has been observed in the measured void fraction profiles, for the higher gas flow rates. This 'wall peak' seems to be unique, as this distribution has not been previously reported in bubble column literature. Low gas flow rates yielded the conventional 'center peak' void profile. The effect of column height and superficial gas velocity on the void distribution has been investigated. Wire-mesh Tomography also facilitates the measurement of bubble size distribution in the column. This paper presents the measurement principle and the experimental results for a wide range of superficial gas velocities. (authors)
Fermi bubbles inflated by winds launched from the hot accretion flow in Sgr A*
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mou, Guobin; Yuan, Feng; Bu, Defu; Sun, Mouyuan; Su, Meng
2014-01-01
A pair of giant gamma-ray Bubbles has been revealed by Fermi-LAT. In this paper we investigate their formation mechanism. Observations have indicated that the activity of the supermassive black hole located at the Galactic center, Sgr A*, was much stronger than at the present time. Specifically, one possibility is that while Sgr A* was also in the hot accretion regime, the accretion rate should be 10 3 -10 4 times higher during the past ∼10 7 yr. On the other hand, recent magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of hot accretion flows have unambiguously shown the existence and obtained the properties of strong winds. Based on this knowledge, by performing three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we show in this paper that the Fermi Bubbles could be inflated by winds launched from the 'past' hot accretion flow in Sgr A*. In our model, the active phase of Sgr A* is required to last for about 10 million years and it was quenched no more than 0.2 million years ago. The central molecular zone (CMZ) is included and it collimates the wind orientation toward the Galactic poles. Viscosity suppresses the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and results in the smoothness of the Bubbles edge. The main observational features of the Bubbles can be well explained. Specifically, the ROSAT X-ray features are interpreted by the shocked interstellar medium and the interaction region between the wind and CMZ gas. The thermal pressure and temperature obtained in our model are consistent with recent Suzaku observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kweon, H.; Park, K. C.
2001-01-01
An analogy for evaporative heat transfer with mass transfer was derived. From von-Karman analogy which has been applied between heat and momentum transfer in single phase turbulent flow, a modified Karman analogy was suggested at present paper. Nusselt number from this analogy showed good agreement with experimental results. Such a result shows that the analogy for a complex heat transfer mode between heat transfer and momentum transfer accompanying evaporation or condensation on the interface can be established
A theoretical analysis of the weak shock waves propagating through a bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jun, Gu Sik; Kim, Heuy Dong; Baek, Seung Cheol
2004-01-01
Two-phase flow of liquid and gas through pipe lines are frequently encountered in nuclear power plant or industrial facility. Pressure waves which can be generated by a valve operation or any other cause in pipe lines propagate through the two-phase flow, often leading to severe noise and vibration problems or fatigue failure of pipe line system. It is of practical importance to predict the propagation characteristics of the pressure waves for the safety design for the pipe line. In the present study, a theoretical analysis is performed to understand the propagation characteristics of a weak shock wave in a bubbly flow. A wave equation is developed using a small perturbation method to analyze the weak shock wave through a bubbly flow with comparably low void fractions. It is known that the elasticity of pipe and void fraction significantly affect the propagation speed of shock wave, but the frequency of relaxation oscillation which is generated behind the shock wave is not strongly influenced by the elasticity of pipe. The present analytical results are in close agreement with existing experimental data
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Xue, Le; Zhang, Shan-Shan
2017-03-01
Characterizing the flow structure underlying the evolution of oil-in-water bubbly flow remains a contemporary challenge of great interests and complexity. In particular, the oil droplets dispersing in a water continuum with diverse size make the study of oil-in-water bubbly flow really difficult. To study this issue, we first design a novel complex impedance sensor and systematically conduct vertical oil-water flow experiments. Based on the multivariate complex impedance measurements, we define modalities associated with the spatial transient flow structures and construct modality transition-based network for each flow condition to study the evolution of flow structures. In order to reveal the unique flow structures underlying the oil-in-water bubbly flow, we filter the inferred modality transition-based network by removing the edges with small weight and resulting isolated nodes. Then, the weighted clustering coefficient entropy and weighted average path length are employed for quantitatively assessing the original network and filtered network. The differences in network measures enable to efficiently characterize the evolution of the oil-in-water bubbly flow structures.
High speed ultrasonic system to measure bubbles velocities in a horizontal two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Jian Su; Farias, Marcos S.; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Lamy, Carlos A.
2009-01-01
In this work, a non invasive technique consisting of a high speed ultrasonic multitransducer pulse-echo system was developed to characterize gas-liquid two-phase flow parameters that are important in the study of the primary refrigeration circuit of nuclear reactors. The high speed ultrasonic system consists of two transducers (10 MHz/φ 6.35 mm), a generator/multiplexer board, and software that selects and has a data acquisition system of the ultrasonic signals. The resolutions of the system and the pulse time generated from each transducer are, respectively, 10 ns and 1.06 ms. The system initially was used in the local instantaneous measurement of gas-liquid interface in a circular horizontal pipe test section made of a 5 m long stainless steel pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter, where the elongated bubbles velocity was measured (Taylor bubbles). The results show that the high speed ultrasonic pulse-echo system provides good results for the determination of elongated bubbles velocities. (author)
Robertson, J.; Metcalfe, G.; Wang, S.; Barnes, S. J.
2014-12-01
The concentration of bubbles, crystals or droplets into small volumes of magma is a key trigger for many interesting magmatic processes. For example, gas slugs driving Strombolian eruptions form from the coalesence of exsolved bubbles within a volcanic conduit, while Ni-Cu-PGE magmatic sulfide deposits require a concentration of dense sulfide droplets from a large volume of magma to form a massive ore body. However the physical mechanism for this clustering remains unresolved - especially since small particles in active magma flows are expected to mostly track flow streamlines rather than clustering. We have uncovered a previously unreported clustering mechanism which is applicable to magmatic flows. This mechanism involves the interaction of particles with two kinds of chaotic flow structure: (a) high-strain regions within the well-mixed chaotic zones of the flow, and (b) unmixed islands of stability within the chaotic flow, known as Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) regions. The first figure shows the difference between chaotic and KAM regions in a chaotic laminar pipe flow. Trapping occurs when particles are scattered from high-strain regions in the chaotic zones and become trapped in the KAM regions, leading to a rapid concentration of particles relative to their original distribution (shown in the second series of figures). Using a combination of these analogue experiments and theoretical analysis we outline the conditions under which this clustering process can occur. We examine the onset of secondary density-related instabilities and the effects of increased particle-particle interaction within the clustered particles, and highlight the impact of particle clustering on the dynamics of magma ascent and emplacement.
Heat and mass transfers between two stratified liquid phases in a bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapuerta, C.
2006-10-01
During an hypothetical major accident in a pressurized water reactor, the deterioration of the core can produce a stratified pool crossed by a bubbly flow. This latter strongly impacts the heat transfers, whose intensities are crucial in the progression of the accident. In this context, this work is devoted to the diffuse interface modelling for the study of an-isothermal incompressible flows, composed of three immiscible components, with no phase change. In the diffuse interface methods, the system evolution is driven by the minimization of a free energy. The originality of our approach, derived from the Cahn-Hilliard model, is based on the particular form of the energy we proposed, which enables to have an algebraically and dynamically consistent model, in the following sense: on the one hand, the triphasic free energy is equal to the diphasic one when only two phases are present; on the other, if a phase is not initially present then it will not appear during system evolution, this last property being stable with respect to numerical errors. The existence and the uniqueness of weak and strong solutions are proved in two and three dimensions as well as a stability result for metastable states. The modelling of an an-isothermal three phase flow is further accomplished by coupling the Cahn-Hilliard equations with the energy balance and Navier-Stokes equations where surface tensions are taken into account through volume capillary forces. These equations are discretized in time and space in order to preserve properties of continuous model (volume conservation, energy estimate). Different numerical results are given, from the validation case of the lens spreading between two phases, to the study of the heat and mass transfers through a liquid/liquid interface crossed by a single bubble or a series of bubbles. (author)
Numerical modelling of isothermal gas-liquid two-phase bubbly flow in vertical pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamoah, S.
2014-07-01
In order to qualify CFD codes for accurate numerical predictions of transient evolution of flow regimes in a vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow, suitable closure models are needed. The current study focuses on detailed numerical investigation of the interfacial driving force models and assessment of two population balance model approaches viz. the MUltiple-Size-Group (MUSIG) and one-group Interfacial Area Transport Equation (lATE) using the two-fluid modelling approach. Numerical predictions of five primitive variables: gas volume fraction, interfacial area concentration, Sauter mean bubble diameter, gas velocity and liquid velocity; have been validated against experimental data of Monros et al., (2013). Three specific objectives have been completed in this study. Firstly, under the assumption of mono-disperse bubbles, a consistent set of interfacial force models have been investigated. The effect of drag, lift, wall lubrication and turbulent dispersion forces has been assessed. New parameters have been introduced in the wall lubrication force models of Antal et al., (1991) and Frank et al., (2004, 2008) as well as implementing additional drag coefficient models using CFX Expression Language (CEl). The Tomiyama, (1998) lift coefficient model has been modified in this study. In general, the predictions from the sets of interfacial force models yielded satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. A set of Grace drag coefficient model, Tomiyama lift coefficient model, Antal wall force model, and Favre averaged turbulent dispersion force were found to provide the best agreement with the experimental data. Secondly, a model validation study to assess the performance of existing coalescence and breakup models of the MUSIG model in simulating bubbly flow in vertical configuration has been conducted. The breakup model of Luo and Svendsen, (1996) and coalescence model of Prince and Blanch, (1990) have been implemented. Detailed analysis has been performed for the wall
Flow patterns in a slurry-bubble-column reactor under reaction conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toselane, B.A.; Brown, D.M.; Zou, B.S.; Dudukovic, M.P. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)
1995-12-31
The gas and liquid radioactive tracer response curves obtained in an industrial bubble column reactor of height to diameter ratio of 10 are analyzed and the suitability of the axial dispersion model for interpretation of the results is discussed. The relationship between the tracer concentration distribution and measured detector response of the soluble gas tracer (Ar-41) is possibly dominated by the dissolved gas. The one dimensional axial dispersion model cannot match all the experimental observations well and the flow pattern of the undissolved gas cannot be determined with certainty.
Turbulent Bubbly Flow in a Vertical Pipe Computed By an Eddy-Resolving Reynolds Stress Model
2014-09-19
the numerical code OpenFOAM R©. 1 Introduction Turbulent bubbly flows are encountered in many industrially relevant applications, such as chemical in...performed using the OpenFOAM -2.2.2 computational code utilizing a cell- center-based finite volume method on an unstructured numerical grid. The...the mean Courant number is always below 0.4. The utilized turbulence models were implemented into the so-called twoPhaseEulerFoam solver in OpenFOAM , to
A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon
1997-01-01
This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variation in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denten, J.G.; Ishii, M.
1988-11-01
A visual study of film boiling using still photographic and high- speed motion picture methods was carried out in order to analyze the post-CHF hydrodynamics for steady-state inlet pre-CHF two-phase flow regimes. Pre-CHF two-phase flow regimes were established by introducing Freon 113 liquid and nitrogen gas into a jet core injection nozzle. An idealized, post-CHF two-phase core initial flow geometry (cylindrical multiphase jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was established at the nozzle exit by introducing nitrogen gas into the annular gap between the jet nozzle two-phase effluent and the heated test section inlet. For the present study three basic post-CHF flow regimes have been observed: the rough wavy regime (inverted annular flow preliminary break down), the agitated regime (transition between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow), and the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. For pre-CHF bubbly flow in the jet nozzle, the post-CHF flow (beginning from jet nozzle exit/heated test section inlet) consists of the rough wavy regime, followed by the agitated and then the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. In the same way, for pre-CHF slug flow in the jet core, the post-CHF flow is comprised of the agitated regime at the nozzle exit, followed by the dispersed regime. Pre-CHF annular jet core flow results in a small, depleted post-CHF agitated flow regime at the nozzle exit, immediately followed by the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported, with particular attention given to the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow. 43 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs
Fan, Wenwen; Yuan, LinJiang; Li, Yonglin
2018-06-04
The flow pattern is considered to play an important role in the formation of aerobic granular sludge in a bubble column reactor; therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of the flow in the reactor. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for bubble column reactor was established to visualize the flow patterns of two-phase air-liquid flow and three-phase air-liquid-sludge flow under different ratios of height to diameter (H/D ratio) and superficial gas upflow velocities (SGVs). Moreover, a simulation of the three-phase flow pattern at the same SGV and different characteristics of the sludge was performed in this study. The results show that not only SGV but also properties of sludge involve the transformation of flow behaviors and relative velocity between liquid and sludge. For the original activated sludge floc to cultivate aerobic granules, the flow pattern has nothing to do with sludge, but is influenced by SGV, and the vortices is occurred and the relative velocity is increased with an increase in SGV; the two-phase flow can simplify the three-phase flow that predicts the flow pattern development in bubble column reactor (BCR) for aerobic granulation. For the aerobic granules, the liquid flow behavior developed from the symmetrical circular flow to numbers and small-size vortices with an increase in the sludge diameter, the relative velocity is amount up to u r =5.0, it is 29.4 times of original floc sludge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Balkrishna; Khandekar, Sameer
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Infra-red thermographic study of Taylor bubble train flow in square mini-channel. • Design of experiments for measurement of local streamwise Nusselt number. • Minimizing conjugate heat transfer effects and resulting errors in data reduction. • Benchmarking against single-phase flow and three-dimensional computations. • Local heat transfer enhancement up to two times due to Taylor bubble train flow. -- Abstract: In mini/micro confined internal flow systems, Taylor bubble train flow takes place within specific range of respective volume flow ratios, wherein the liquid slugs get separated by elongated Taylor bubbles, resulting in an intermittent flow situation. This unique flow characteristic requires understanding of transport phenomena on global, as well as on local spatio-temporal scales. In this context, an experimental design methodology and its validation are presented in this work, with an aim of measuring the local heat transfer coefficient by employing high-resolution InfraRed Thermography. The effect of conjugate heat transfer on the true estimate of local transport coefficients, and subsequent data reduction technique, is discerned. Local heat transfer coefficient for (i) hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing single-phase flow in three-side heated channel and, (ii) non-boiling, air–water Taylor bubble train flow is measured and compared in a mini-channel of square cross-section (5 mm × 5 mm; D h = 5 mm, Bo ≈ 3.4) machined on a stainless steel substrate (300 mm × 25 mm × 11 mm). The design of the setup ensures near uniform heat flux condition at the solid–fluid interface; the conjugate effects arising from the axial back conduction in the substrate are thus minimized. For benchmarking, the data from single-phase flow is also compared with three-dimensional computational simulations. Depending on the employed volume flow ratio, it is concluded that enhancement of nearly 1.2–2.0 times in time
Li, Hao; Sun, Baojiang; Guo, Yanli; Gao, Yonghai; Zhao, Xinxin
2018-02-01
The air-water flow characteristics under pressure in the range of 1-6 MPa in a vertical annulus were evaluated in this report. Time-resolved bubble rising velocity and void fraction were also measured using an electrical void fraction meter. The results showed that the pressure has remarkable effect on the density, bubble size and rise velocity of the gas. Four flow patterns (bubble, cap-bubble, cap-slug, and churn) were also observed instead of Taylor bubble at high pressure. Additionally, the transition process from bubble to cap-bubble was investigated at atmospheric and high pressures, respectively. The results revealed that the flow regime transition criteria for atmospheric pressure do not work at high pressure, hence a new flow regime transition model for annular flow channel geometry was developed to predict the flow regime transition, which thereafter exhibited high accuracy at high pressure condition.
Active flow control of the laminar separation bubble on a plunging airfoil near stall
Pande, Arth; Agate, Mark; Little, Jesse; Fasel, Hermann
2017-11-01
The effects of small amplitude (A/c = 0.048) high frequency (πfc/U∞ = 0.70) plunging motion on the X-56A airfoil are examined experimentally at Re = 200,000 for 12° angle of attack (CL,MAX = 12.25°) . The purpose of this research is to study the aerodynamic influence of structural motion when the wing is vibrating close to its eigenfrequency near static stall. Specific focus is placed on the laminar separation bubble (LSB) near the leading edge and its control via plasma actuation. In the baseline case, the leading edge bubble bursts during the oscillation cycle causing moment stall. A collaborative computational effort has shown that small amplitude forcing at a frequency that is most amplified by the primary instability of the LSB (FLSB+= 1, Fc+= 52) generates coherent spanwise vortices that entrain freestream momentum, thus reducing separation all while maintaining a laminar flow state. Results (PIV and surface pressure) indicate that a similar control mechanism is effective in the experiments. This is significant given the existence of freestream turbulence in the wind tunnel which has been shown to limit the efficacy of this active flow control technique in a model problem using Direct Numerical Simulation. The implications of these results are discussed.
Air water loop - an experimental facility to study thermal hydraulics of AHWR steam drum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagul, R.K.; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Jain, V.; Vijayan, P.K.
2014-05-01
In the proposed Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) the coolant recirculation in the primary system is achieved by two-phase natural circulation. The two-phase steam-water mixture from the reactor core is separated in steam drum by gravity. Gravity separation of phases may lead to undesirable phenomena - carryover and carryunder. Carryover is the entrainment of liquid droplets in the vapor phase.Carryover needs to be minimized to avoid erosion corrosion of turbine blades. Carryunder is the entrainment of vapor bubbles with liquid flowing back to reactor core. Significant carryunder may in turn lead to reduced flow resulting in reduced CHF margin and stability in the coolant channel. An Air-Water Loop (AWL) has been designed to carry out the experiments relevant to AHWR steam drum. The design features and scaling philosophy is described in this report. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markfort, D.; Kaiser, A.; Dohmen, A.
1975-01-01
In a reactor cooled by forced circulation the gas bubbles carried along with the coolant flow are separated before entering the reactor core or forced away into the external zones. For this purpose the coolant is radially guided into a plenum below the core and deflected to a tangential direction by means of flow guide elements. The flow runs spirally downwards. On the bubbles, during their dwell time in this channel, the buoyant force and a force towards the axis of symmetry of the tank are exerted. The major part of the coolant is directed into a radial direction by means of a guiding apparatus in the lower section of the channel and guided through a chimney in the plenum to the center of the reactor core. This inner chimney is enclosed by an outer chimney for the core edge zones through which coolant with a small share of bubbles is taken away. (RW) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Je-Eun; Takei, Masahiro; Doh, Deog-Hee; Jo, Hyo-Jae; Hassan, Yassin A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier
2008-01-01
Currently, wavelet transforms are widely used for the analyses of particle image velocimetry (PIV) velocity vector fields. This is because the wavelet provides not only spatial information of the velocity vectors, but also of the time and frequency domains. In this study, a discrete wavelet transform is applied to real PIV images of bubbly flows. The vector fields obtained by a self-made cross-correlation PIV algorithm were used for the discrete wavelet transform. The performances of the discrete wavelet transforms were investigated by changing the level of power of discretization. The images decomposed by wavelet multi-resolution showed conspicuous characteristics of the bubbly flows for the different levels. A high spatial bubble concentrated area could be evaluated by the constructed discrete wavelet transform algorithm, in which high-leveled wavelets play dominant roles in revealing the flow characteristics
Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.
1985-01-01
The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior
Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Combes, F.; Edge, A. C.; Hogan, M. T.; McDonald, M.; Salomé, P.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.
2017-12-01
We present new ALMA observations tracing the morphology and velocity structure of the molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster Abell 1795. The molecular gas lies in two filaments that extend 5-7 kpc to the N and S from the nucleus and project exclusively around the outer edges of two inner radio bubbles. Radio jets launched by the central active galactic nucleus have inflated bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot atmosphere surrounding the central galaxy. The N filament has a smoothly increasing velocity gradient along its length from the central galaxy's systemic velocity at the nucleus to -370 km s^{-1}, the average velocity of the surrounding galaxies, at the furthest extent. The S filament has a similarly smooth but shallower velocity gradient and appears to have partially collapsed in a burst of star formation. The close spatial association with the radio lobes, together with the ordered velocity gradients and narrow velocity dispersions, shows that the molecular filaments are gas flows entrained by the expanding radio bubbles. Assuming a Galactic XCO factor, the total molecular gas mass is 3.2 ± 0.2 × 109 M⊙. More than half lies above the N radio bubble. Lifting the molecular clouds appears to require an infeasibly efficient coupling between the molecular gas and the radio bubble. The energy required also exceeds the mechanical power of the N radio bubble by a factor of 2. Stimulated feedback, where the radio bubbles lift low-entropy X-ray gas that becomes thermally unstable and rapidly cools in situ, provides a plausible model. Multiple generations of radio bubbles are required to lift this substantial gas mass. The close morphological association then indicates that the cold gas either moulds the newly expanding bubbles or is itself pushed aside and shaped as they inflate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Denten, J.P.
1988-01-01
Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point. 45 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Denten, J.P.
1989-01-01
Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-critical heat flux (CHF) flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point
Diagnostics of BubbleMode Vortex Breakdown in Swirling Flow in a Large-Aspect-Ratio Cylinder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulikov, D. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Naumov, Igor
2014-01-01
We report for the first time on the possible formation of regions with counterflow (bubble-mode vortex breakdown or explosion) at the center of strongly swirling flow generated by a rotating endwall in a large-aspect-ratio cylindrical cavity filled with a liquid medium. Previously, the possibility...... of bubble-mode breakdown was studied in detail for cylindrical cavities of moderate aspect ratio (length to radius ratios up to H/R ∼ 3.5), while flows in large-aspect-ratio cylinders were only associated with regimes of self-organized helical vortex multiplets. In the present study, a regime...
Bubble boundary estimation in an annulus two-phase flow using electrical impedance tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jeong Seong
2008-02-01
For the visualization of the phase boundary in an annulus two-phase flows, the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) technique is introduced. In EIT, a set of predetermined electrical currents is injected trough the electrodes placed on the boundary of the flow passage and the induced electrical potentials are measured on the electrode. With the relationship between the injected currents and the induced voltages, the electrical conductivity distribution across the flow domain is estimated through the image reconstruction algorithm. In this, the conductivity distribution corresponds to the phase distribution. In the application of EIT to two-phase flows where there are only two conductivity values, the conductivity distribution estimation problem can be transformed into the boundary estimation problem. This paper considers a bubble boundary estimation with EIT in an annulus two-phase flows. And in many industrial cases there are a priori known internal structures inside the vessels which could be used as internal electrodes in tomographical imaging. In this paper internal electrodes were considered in electrical impedance tomography. As the image reconstruction algorithm, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is adopted since from the control theory it is reported that the UKF shows better performance than the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that has been commonly used. The UKF algorithm was formulated to be incorporate into the image reconstruction algorithm for the present problem. Also, phantom experiments have been conducted to evaluate the improvement by UKF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jeong Seong; Chung, Soon Il; Ljaz, Umer Zeeshan; Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Kim, Kyung Youn; Kim, Sin Kim
2007-01-01
For the visualization of the phase boundary in annular two-phase flows, the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) technique is introduced. In ERT, a set of predetermined electrical currents is injected trough the electrodes placed on the boundary of the flow passage and the induced electrical potentials are measured on the electrode. With the relationship between the injected currents and the induced voltages, the electrical conductivity distribution across the flow domain is estimated through the image reconstruction algorithm. In this, the conductivity distribution corresponds to the phase distribution. In the application of ERT to two-phase flows where there are only two conductivity values, the conductivity distribution estimation problem can be transformed into the boundary estimation problem. This paper considers a bubble boundary estimation with ERT in annular two-phase flows. As the image reconstruction algorithm, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is adopted since from the control theory it is reported that the UKF shows better performance than the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that has been commonly used. We formulated the UKF algorithm to be incorporate into the image reconstruction algorithm for the present problem. Also, phantom experiments have been conducted to evaluate the improvement by UKF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Lihui; He Xiaoqing; Wang Xiangchun; Fu Lixia
2009-01-01
Water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid, which is used to exploit depleted reservoirs, is a complicated multiphase flow system that is composed of gas, water, oil, polymer, surfactants and solids. The gas phase is separate from bulk water by two layers and three membranes. They are 'surface tension reducing membrane', 'high viscosity layer', 'high viscosity fixing membrane', 'compatibility enhancing membrane' and 'concentration transition layer of liner high polymer (LHP) and surfactants' from every gas phase centre to the bulk water. 'Surface tension reducing membrane', 'high viscosity layer' and 'high viscosity fixing membrane' bond closely to pack air forming 'air-bag', 'compatibility enhancing membrane' and 'concentration transition layer of LHP and surfactants' absorb outside 'air-bag' to form 'incompact zone'. From another point of view, 'air-bag' and 'incompact zone' compose micro-bubble. Dynamic changes of 'incompact zone' enable micro-bubble to exist lonely or aggregate together, and lead the whole fluid, which can wet both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface, to possess very high viscosity at an extremely low shear rate but to possess good fluidity at a higher shear rate. When the water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid encounters leakage zones, it will automatically regulate the sizes and shapes of the bubbles according to the slot width of fracture, the height of cavern as well as the aperture of openings, or seal them by making use of high viscosity of the system at a very low shear rate. Measurements of the rheological parameters indicate that water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid has very high plastic viscosity, yield point, initial gel, final gel and high ratio of yield point and plastic viscosity. All of these properties make the multiphase flow system meet the requirements of petroleum drilling industry. Research on interface between gas and bulk water of this multiphase flow system can provide us with information of synthesizing effective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peña-Monferrer, C., E-mail: cmonfer@upv.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); Passalacqua, A., E-mail: albertop@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chiva, S., E-mail: schiva@emc.uji.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, 12080 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Muñoz-Cobo, J.L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain)
2016-05-15
Highlights: • A population balance equation solved with QMOM approximation is implemented in OpenFOAM. • Available models for interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence are analyzed. • A vertical pipe flow is simulated for different bubbly flow conditions. • Two-phase flow characteristics in vertical pipes are properly predicted. - Abstract: An Eulerian–Eulerian approach was investigated to model adiabatic bubbly flow with CFD techniques. In the framework of the OpenFOAM{sup ®} software, a two-fluid model solver was modified to include a population balance equation, solved with the quadrature method of moments approximation to predict upward bubbly flow in vertical pipes considering the polydisperse nature of two-phase flow. Some progress have been made recently solving population balance equations in OpenFOAM{sup ®} and this research aims to extend its application to the case of vertical pipes under different conditions of liquid and gas velocities. In order to test the solver for nuclear applications, interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence models were included to provide to this solver the capability to correctly predict the behavior of the continuous and disperse phases. Two-phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and liquid are used to validate the model and its implementation. Radial profiles of void fraction, gas and liquid velocities, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity are compared to the computational results. These results are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, showing the capability of the solver to predict two-phase flow characteristics.
Interfacial Bubble Deformations
Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert
Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.
Modeling studies of electrolyte flow and bubble behavior in advanced Hall cells
Shekhar, R.; Evans, J. W.
Much research was performed in recent years by corporations and university/government labs on materials for use in advanced Hall-Heroult cells. Attention has focussed on materials for use as wettable cathodes and inert anodes and much was achieved in terms of material development. Comparatively less attention was devoted to how these materials might be incorporated in new or existing cells, i.e., to how the cells should be designed and redesigned, to take full advantage of these materials. The effort, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, to address this issue, is described. The primary objectives are cell design where electrolyte flow can be managed to promote both the removal of the anode gas bubbles and the convection of dissolved alumina in the inter-electrode region, under conditions where the anode-cathode distance is small. The principal experimental tool was a water model consisting of a large tank in which simulated anodes can be suspended in either the horizontal or vertical configurations. Gas generation was by forcing compressed air through porous graphite and the fine bubbles characteristic of inert anodes were produced by adding butanol to the water. Velocities were measured using a laser Doppler velocimeter. Velocity measurements with two different anode designs (one that is flat and the other that has grooves) are presented. The results show that the electrode configuration has a significant effect on the fluid flow pattern in the inter-electrode region. Furthermore, it is shown that rapid fluid flow is obtained when the cell is operated with a submerged anode.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussain Alamin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Due to their ease of manufacture, high heat transfer efficiency and compact design, helically coiled heat exchangers are increasingly being adopted in a number of industries. The higher heat transfer efficiency over straight pipes is due to the secondary flow that develops as a result of the centrifugal force. In spite of the widespread use of helically coiled heat exchangers, and the presence of bubbly two-phase flow in a number of systems, very few studies have investigated the resultant flow characteristics. This paper will therefore present the results of CFD simulations for the two-phase bubbly flow in helically coiled heat exchangers as a function of the volumetric void fraction and the tube cross-section design. The CFD results are compared to the scarce flow visualisation experimental results available in the open literature.
Hussain, Alamin; Fsadni, Andrew M.
2016-03-01
Due to their ease of manufacture, high heat transfer efficiency and compact design, helically coiled heat exchangers are increasingly being adopted in a number of industries. The higher heat transfer efficiency over straight pipes is due to the secondary flow that develops as a result of the centrifugal force. In spite of the widespread use of helically coiled heat exchangers, and the presence of bubbly two-phase flow in a number of systems, very few studies have investigated the resultant flow characteristics. This paper will therefore present the results of CFD simulations for the two-phase bubbly flow in helically coiled heat exchangers as a function of the volumetric void fraction and the tube cross-section design. The CFD results are compared to the scarce flow visualisation experimental results available in the open literature.
Modeling Bubble Flow and Current Density Distribution in an Alkaline Electrolysis Cell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravichandra S. Jupudi
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of bubbles on the current density distribution over the electrodes of an alkaline electrolyzer cell is studied using a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model. Model includes Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow methodology to model the multiphase flow of Hydrogen and Oxygen with water and the behavior of each phase is accounted for using first principle. Hydrogen/Oxygen evolution, flow field and current density distribution are incorporated in the model to account for the complicated physics involved in the process. Fluent 6.2 is used to solve two-phase flow and electrochemistry is incorporated using UDF (User Defined Function feature of Fluent. Model is validated with mesh refinement study and by comparison with experimental measurements. Model is found to replicate the effect of cell voltage and inter-electrode gap (distance between the electrodes on current density accurately. Further, model is found to capture the existence of optimum cell height. The validated model is expected to be a very useful tool in the design and optimization of alkaline electrolyzer cells.
Modeling and simulation of the bubble-induced flow in wine fermentation vessels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schmidt Dominik
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Detailed flow pattern analyses regarding wine fermentations conducted without mechanical agitation are limited to lab-scale investigations, as industrial size measurements are expensive and difficult to realize. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD methods can offer an alternative and more flexible approach to gain insight into such bubble induced fluid flows. Therefore, the aim of this study was to transfer the findings of existing research onto a CFD model capable of capturing the three- dimensional flow pattern in industrial scale wine fermentation vessels. First results were obtained by using an extended version of the OpenFOAM® (v.2.2.x solver multiphaseEulerFoam for modeling the gas-liquid two phase system. With parameters from the most vigorous phase of wine fermentation a fully developed, unsteady flow regime could be established after approx. 120 s of real time. Thereby the groundwork for further evaluations of e.g. mixing efficiency or cooling equipment optimizations with CFD methods is laid.
Gas bubble dimensions in Archean lava flows indicate low air pressure at 2.7 Ga
Som, S. M.; Buick, R.; Hagadorn, J.; Blake, T.; Perreault, J.; Harnmeijer, J.; Catling, D. C.
2014-12-01
Air pressure constrains atmospheric composition, which, in turn, is linked to the Earth system through biogeochemical cycles and fluxes of volatiles from and to the Earth's interior. Previous studies have only placed maximum levels on surface air pressure for the early Earth [1]. Here, we calculate an absolute value for Archean barometric pressure using gas bubble size (vesicle) distributions in uninflated basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level 2.7 billion years ago in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. These vesicles have been filled in by secondary minerals deposited during metasomatism and so are now amydules, but thin sections show that infilling did not change vesicle dimensions. Amygdule dimensions are measured using high-resolution X-ray tomography from core samples obtained from the top and bottom of the lava flows. The modal size expressed at the top and at the bottom of an uninflated flow can be linked to atmospheric pressure using the ideal gas law. Such a technique has been verified as a paleoaltimeter using Hawaiian Quaternary lava flows [2]. We use statistical methods to estimate the mean and standard deviation of the volumetric size of the amygdules by applying 'bootstrap'resampling and the Central Limit Theorem. Our data indicate a surprisingly low atmospheric pressure. Greater nitrogen burial under anaerobic conditions likely explains lower pressure. Refs: [1] Som et al. (2012) Nature 484, 359-262. D. L. Sahagian et al. (2002) J. Geol., 110, 671-685.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinto, A.M.F.R.; Campos, J.B.L. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Universidade do Porto Rua (Portugal); Coelho Pinheiro, M.N. [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica, Politecnico de Coimbra (Portugal)
2001-12-01
An experimental study on the interaction between Taylor bubbles rising through a co-current flowing liquid in a vertical tube with 32 mm of internal diameter is reported. The flow pattern in the bubble's wake was turbulent and the flow regime in the liquid slug was either turbulent or laminar. When the flow regime in the liquid slug is turbulent (i) the minimum distance between bubbles above which there is no interaction is 5D-6D; (ii) the bubble's rising velocity is in excellent agreement with the Nicklin relation; (iii) the experimental values of the bubble length compare well with theoretical predictions (Barnea 1990); (iv) the distance between consecutive bubbles varied from 13D to 16D and is insensitive to the liquid Reynolds number. When the flow regime in the liquid slug is laminar (i) the wake length is about 5D-6D; (ii) the minimum distance between bubbles above which there is no interaction is higher than 25D; (iii) the bubble's rising velocity is significantly smaller than theoretical predictions. These results were explained in the light of the findings of Pinto et al. (1998) on coalescence of two Taylor bubbles rising through a co-current liquid. (orig.)
Ultrasonic determination of interfacial area, void fraction and Sauter mean diameter in bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bensler, Henri-Paul
1990-01-01
In this research thesis, the author shows that it is possible to determine, by means of a single measurement, the interface surface, the vacuum rate, and the Sauter mean diameter in a bubbly water-air flow. The developed technique relies on the measurement of the attenuation of an ultrasound beam by the two-phase medium, and on the use of broadband transducers associated with a multi-frequency screening method. Tests in standing water or in forced convection are performed in ducts with a square cross section with a side of 40, 80, or 120 mm. Values obtained with ultrasounds are compared with those determined by using photographs (interface surfaces, Sauter diameters) or by using a gauge pressure, or by using X rays (vacuum rate). This method based on ultrasound attenuation reveals to be simple and in good agreement with reference methods [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Changqi; Jin Guangyuan; Sun Licheng; Wang Yang
2015-01-01
Characteristics of local parameters of bubbly flow were investigated in rectangular channel (40 mm × 3 mm) under inclined and rolling conditions. Under vertical condition, the distribution type 'wall peak' and 'core peak' are observed, and 'core peak' exists when the liquid superficial velocity is low and the gas superficial velocity is high. Under inclined condition, the peaks of two distribution types get strengthened at the top of the channel, and weakened at the bottom. Under rolling condition, the peaks of two distribution types get strengthened compared with the same angle under inclined condition when the angle is getting larger. The influence from rolling motion gets stronger on the peak of two distribution types when the rolling movement is more violent. (authors)
Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.
1985-01-01
The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined
Contribution to the study of techniques of measurement of interface surface area in bubble flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veteau, Jean-Michel
1981-01-01
This research thesis addresses problems raised by the measurement of the interface area per volume unit in duct bubble flows. The author first reports a literature survey of existing methods (photographic, chemical and optical methods) which give access to the value of the parameter which is commonly named 'specific surface area'. He analyses under which conditions these methods lead to a rigorous determination of the SVIM (mean integral volume surface). The author highlights the theoretical contributions of models related to each of these methods which are indeed global methods as they allow the interface surface area to be directly obtained in a given volume of a two-phase mixture. Then, the author reports the development of an original technique based on the use of phase detecting local probes. In the next part, the author compares photographic and optical methods, on the one hand, and optical and local methods, on the other hand. Recommendations are made for the development of local methods [fr
Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidl, W.; Hassan, Y.A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.
1996-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a nonintrusive measurement technique that can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time-varying, full-field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. The quantitative spatial velocity information can be further processed into information of flow parameters such as vorticity and turbulence over extended areas. The objective of this study was to apply recent advances and improvements in the PIV flow measurement technique to the full-field, nonintrusive analysis of a three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow system in such a manner that both components of the two-phase system could be experimentally quantified
Gomez-Suarez, C; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ
2001-01-01
Particle size was found to be an important factor in air bubble-induced detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber and generally polystyrene particles with a diameter of 806 nm detached less than particles with a diameter of 1400 nm. Particle
Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos
2003-08-01
An anti-bubble is a striking kind of bubble in liquid that seemingly does not comply the buoyancy, and after few minutes it disappears suddenly inside the liquid. Different from a simple air bubble that rises directly to the liquid surface, an anti-bubble wanders around in the fluid due to its slightly lesser density than the surrounding liquid. In spite of this odd behavior, an anti-bubble can be understood as the opposite of a conventional soap bubble in air, which is a shell of liquid surrounding air, and an anti-bubble is a shell of air surrounding a drop of the liquid inside the liquid. Two-phase flow has been a subject of interest due to its relevance to process equipment for contacting gases and liquids applied in industry. A chain of bubbles rising in a liquid formed from a nozzle is a two-phase flow, and there are certain conditions in which spherical air shells, called anti-bubbles, are produced. The purpose of this work is mainly to note the existence of anti-bubbling regime as a sequel of a bubbling system. We initially have presented the experimental apparatus. After this we have described the evolution of the bubbling regimes, and emulated the effect of bubbling coalescence with simple maps. Then is shown the inverted dripping as a consequence of the bubble coalescence, and finally the conditions for anti-bubble formation.
3-dimensional Simulation of an Air-lift Pump from Bubbly to Slug Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Hongrae; Jo, Daeseong [Kyungpook National Univ, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The air-lift pump has been used in various applications with its merit that it can pump up without any moving parts. E.g. coffee percolator, petroleum industry, suction dredge, OTEC i.e. ocean thermal energy conversion and so on. By the merit, it has high durability for high temperature water or vapor, and fluid-solid mixture like waste water, muddy water and crude, which cause problems when it's pumped up with general pumps. In this regard, the air-lift pump has been one of the most desirable technology. A typical air-lift pump configuration is illustrated in Figure 01. The principle of this pump is very simple. When air is injected from the injector at bottom of a submerged tube, i.e., air bubbles are suspended in the liquid, the average density of the mixture in the tube is less than that of the surrounding fluid in the reservoir. Then hydrostatic pressure over the length of the tube is decreased. This buoyancy force causes a pumping action. The comparison of the simulated results, experimental result, and theoretical result is been able by data shown as Figure 04. They have similar trends but they also have a little differences because there are some limits of simulating the flow regimes. At the different flow condition, different coefficients for friction factor or pressure drop should be used, but this simulation uses a laminar condition and the theoretical equations are valid only for slug regime where the air flow rate is lower than the other regimes. From these causes, the differences has arisen, and difference comes bigger as the air flow rate increases, i.e., becoming annular flow regime or churn flow regime.
Are high flow nasal cannulae noisier than bubble CPAP for preterm infants?
Roberts, C T; Dawson, J A; Alquoka, E; Carew, P J; Donath, S M; Davis, P G; Manley, B J
2014-07-01
Noise exposure in the neonatal intensive care unit is believed to be a risk factor for hearing loss in preterm neonates. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices exceed recommended noise levels. High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are an increasingly popular alternative to CPAP for treating preterm infants, but there are no in vivo studies assessing noise production by HFNC. To study whether HFNC are noisier than bubble CPAP (BCPAP) for preterm infants. An observational study of preterm infants receiving HFNC or BCPAP. Noise levels within the external auditory meatus (EAM) were measured using a microphone probe tube connected to a calibrated digital dosimeter. Noise was measured across a range of frequencies and reported as decibels A-weighted (dBA). A total of 21 HFNC and 13 BCPAP noise measurements were performed in 21 infants. HFNC gas flows were 2-5 L/min, and BCPAP gas flows were 6-10 L/min with set pressures of 5-7 cm of water. There was no evidence of a difference in average noise levels measured at the EAM: mean difference (95% CI) of -1.6 (-4.0 to 0.9) dBA for HFNC compared to BCPAP. At low frequency (500 Hz), HFNC was mean (95% CI) 3.0 (0.3 to 5.7) dBA quieter than BCPAP. Noise increased with increasing BCPAP gas flow (p=0.007), but not with increasing set pressure. There was a trend to noise increasing with increasing HFNC gas flows. At the gas flows studied, HFNC are not noisier than BCPAP for preterm infants.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal
2011-12-01
The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory was established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective of reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions are performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime, which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer. Our team is developing a research tool to aid in understanding the physicochemical processes occurring in the SBCR. A robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) consisting of thirteen species, which are CO reactant, H2 reactant, hydrocarbon product, and H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid plus catalyst is outlined. Mechanistic submodels for interfacial momentum transfer in the churn-turbulent flow regime are incorporated, along with bubble breakup/coalescence and two-phase turbulence submodels. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield. The model includes heat generation produced by the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. A property method approach is employed to incorporate vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) in a robust manner. Physical and thermodynamic properties as functions of changes in both pressure and temperature are obtained from VLE calculations performed external to the CMFD solver. The novelty of this approach is in its simplicity, as well as its
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Chul Hwa
1995-02-01
An experimental and analytical work is performed to investigate the relation between the developing phenomena in bubble flow and the propagation phenomena of void waves. For this purpose, the structural developments in bubble flow and the propagation property of void waves are measured over a broad range of flow conditions including the bubble-to-slug flow regime transition (BSFRT) region. And a linear stability analysis is performed, based on the two-fluid model, to establish the analytical model on the wave propagation parameters, and the predictability of the model is validated by comparing analytical results with experimental observations. In the experimental work, an impedance void meter is developed to measure the void fraction, and a series of test are performed by varying the bubble size in order to investigate the bubble size effect on the bubble flow structures for various flow conditions. Statistical signal processing techniques are applied to void signals in order to objectively identify the changing modes of bubble flow structures and to estimate the wave propagation properties. The impedance void meter developed in this study showed very good temporal and spatial resolutions enough to identify the developing phenomena in bubble flow structures and to investigate the void wave propagations, and the void distribution effect could be minimized by electrically shielding the guard electrodes. It was also designed so that the inherent errors due to the phase shifts between channels be negligible. Various features occurred in the transitional process of bubble flow could be objectively identified by introducing some statistical parameters evaluated from void signals. Two distinct modes of structural development in bubble flow were observed in the transitional process, and they are found to be much influenced by the initial bubble size. And the mechanism to govern BSFRT could be characterized by two ways depending on the developing modes of bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhongchun, Li; Xiaoming, Song; Shengyao, Jiang; Jiyang, Yu
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A VOF simulation of bubble in low viscosity fluid was conducted. • Lift force in different viscosity fluid had different lateral migration characteristics. • Bubble with different size migrated to different direction. • Shear stress triggered the bubble deformation process and the bubble deformation came along with the oscillation behaviors. - Abstract: Two phase flow systems have been widely used in industrial engineering. Phase distribution characteristics are vital to the safety operation and optimization design of two phase flow systems. Lift force has been known as perpendicular to the bubbles’ moving direction, which is one of the mechanisms of interfacial momentum transfer. While most widely used lift force correlations, such as the correlation of Tomiyama et al. (2002), were obtained by experimentally tracking single bubble trajectories in high viscosity glycerol–water mixture, the applicability of these models into low viscosity fluid, such as water in nuclear engineering system, needs to be further evaluated. In the present paper, bubble in low viscosity fluid in shear flow was investigated in a full 3D numerical simulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to capture the interface. The fluid parameter: fluid viscosity, bubble parameter: diameter and external flow parameters: shear stress magnitude and liquid velocity were examined. Comparing with bubble in high viscosity shear flow and bubble in low viscosity still flow, relative large bubble in low viscosity shear flow keep an oscillation way towards the moving wall and experienced a shape deformation process. The oscillation amplitude increased as the viscosity of fluid decreased. Small bubble migrated to the static wall in a line with larger migration velocity than that in high viscosity fluid and no deformation occurred. The shear stress triggered the oscillation behaviors while it had no direct influence with the behavior. The liquid velocity had no effect on
Mathematical well-posedness of a two-fluid equations for bubbly two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okawa, Tomio; Kataoka, Isao
2000-01-01
It is widely known that two-fluid equations used in most engineering applications do not satisfy the necessary condition for being mathematical well-posed as initial-value problems. In the case of stratified two-phase flows, several researchers have revealed that differential models satisfying the necessary condition are to be derived if the pressure difference between the phases is related to the spatial gradient of the void fraction through the effects of gravity or surface tension. While, in the case of dispersed two-phase flows, no physically reasonable method to derive mathematically well-posed two-fluid model has been proposed. In the present study, particularly focusing on the effect of interfacial pressure terms, we derived the mathematically closed form of the volume-averaged two-fluid model for bubbly two-phase flows. As a result of characteristic analyses, it was shown that the proposed two-fluid equations satisfy the necessary condition of mathematical well-posedness if the void fraction is sufficiently small. (author)
Yagui, Ana Cristina Zanon; Vale, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade; Haddad, Luciana Branco; Prado, Cristiane; Rossi, Felipe Souza; Deutsch, Alice D Agostini; Rebello, Celso Moura
2011-01-01
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) using devices with variable flow or bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) regarding CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, total CPAP and oxygen time, and length of intensive care unit and hospital stay in neonates with moderate respiratory distress (RD) and birth weight (BW) ≥ 1,500 g. Forty newborns requiring NCPAP were randomized into two study groups: variable flow group (VF) and continuous flow group (CF). The study was conducted between October 2008 and April 2010. Demographic data, CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, and total CPAP and oxygen time were recorded. Categorical outcomes were tested using the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test. Continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The level of significance was set at p CPAP failure (21.1 and 20.0% for VF and CF, respectively; p = 1.000), air leak syndrome (10.5 and 5.0%, respectively; p = 0.605), total CPAP time (median: 22.0 h, interquartile range [IQR]: 8.00-31.00 h and median: 22.0 h, IQR: 6.00-32.00 h, respectively; p = 0.822), and total oxygen time (median: 24.00 h, IQR: 7.00-85.00 h and median: 21.00 h, IQR: 9.50-66.75 h, respectively; p = 0.779). In newborns with BW ≥ 1,500 g and moderate RD, the use of continuous flow NCPAP showed the same benefits as the use of variable flow NCPAP.
Hatzell, Marta C.
2013-11-01
Ammonium bicarbonate has recently been demonstrated to be an excellent thermolytic solution for energy generation in reverse electrodialysis (RED) stacks. However, operating RED stacks at room temperatures can promote gaseous bubble (CO2, NH3) accumulation within the stack, reducing overall system performance. The management and minimization of bubbles formed in RED flow fields is an important operational issue which has yet to be addressed. Flow fields with and without spacers in RED stacks were analyzed to determine how both fluid flow and the buildup and removal of bubbles affected performance. In the presence of a spacer, the membrane resistance increased by ~50Ω, resulting in a decrease in power density by 30% from 0.140Wm-2 to 0.093Wm-2. Shorter channels reduced concentration polarization affects, and resulted in 3-23% higher limiting current density. Gas accumulation was minimized through the use of short vertically aligned channels, and consequently the amount of the membrane area covered by bubbles was reduced from ~20% to 7% which caused a 12% increase in power density. As ammonium bicarbonate RED systems are scaled up, attention to channel aspect ratio, length, and alignment will enable more stable performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Lakehal, D.; Métrailler, D.; Reboux, S.
2017-06-01
This paper presents Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results of a turbulent water flow in a channel at Reτ = 400 laden with 0.25 mm diameter air bubbles clustered near the wall (maximum void fraction of α = 8% at y+ ˜ 20). The bubbles were fully resolved using the level set approach built within the CFD/CMFD code TransAT. The fluid properties (air and water) were kept real, including density, viscosity, and surface tension coefficient. The aim of this work is to understand the effects of the bubbles on near-wall turbulence, paving the way towards convective wall-boiling flow studies. The interactions between the gas bubbles and the water stream were studied through an in-depth analysis of the turbulence statistics. The near-wall flow is overall affected by the bubbles, which act like roughness elements during the early phase, prior to their departure from the wall. The average profiles are clearly altered by the bubbles dynamics near the wall, which somewhat contrasts with the findings from similar studies [J. Lu and G. Tryggvason, "Dynamics of nearly spherical bubbles in a turbulent channel upflow," J. Fluid Mech. 732, 166 (2013)], most probably because the bubbles were introduced uniformly in the flow and not concentrated at the wall. The shape of the bubbles measured as the apparent to initial diameter ratio is found to change by a factor of at least two, in particular at the later stages when the bubbles burst out from the boundary layer. The clustering of the bubbles seems to be primarily localized in the zone populated by high-speed streaks and independent of their size. More importantly, the bubbly flow seems to differ from the single-phase flow in terms of turbulent stress distribution and energy exchange, in which all the stress components seem to be increased in the region very close to the wall, by up to 40%. The decay in the energy spectra near the wall was found to be significantly slower for the bubbly flow than for a single-phase flow, which
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goto, Shoji; Ishizaki, Yasuo; Ohashi, Hirotada; Akiyama, Mamoru
1995-01-01
Simulation of transient two-phase flow has been performed by solving transient hydrodynamic equations. However, constitution relations used in this simulation are primarily based on steady-state experimental results. Thus it is important to understand the transient behavior of bubbles and slugs, in particular, transient behavior of the void fraction, the interfacial area and the flow pattern, to confirm the applicability of the present simulation method and to advance two-phase flow simulation further. The present study deals with measurement of transient two-phase flow. We have measured local and instantaneous void fractions using imaging techniques, and compared the experimental data with simulation results. (author)
A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
A comparative study of the lattice Boltzmann and volume of fluid method for the rising bubble flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryu, Seung Yeob; Park, Cheon Tae; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-10-15
Recently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has gained much attention for its ability to simulate fluid flows, and for its potential advantages over a conventional CFD method. The key advantages of LBM are, (1) suitability for parallel computations, (2) absence of the need to solve the time-consuming Poisson equation for a pressure, and (3) an ease with the way multiphase flows, complex geometries and interfacial dynamics may be treated. Nevertheless, the LBM is considered as a mere alternative CFD tools, not a promising approach. The motion of the bubbles in a liquid has been the focus of both academic and practical interest. The central problem is the relationship between the rise velocity, bubble shape due to the interface deformation and flow field. The buoyancy effect due to density difference in the two phase flows is characterized with Eotvos and Morton numbers. In this study, a single bubble rising under a buoyancy is simulated with LBM and VOF based on conventional CFD method. The two simulation results are compared with the previous experiments. The main objective of the present work is to establish the lattice Boltzmann method as a viable tool for the simulation of multiphase or multi-component flows
A comparative study of the lattice Boltzmann and volume of fluid method for the rising bubble flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, Seung Yeob; Park, Cheon Tae; Choi, Suhn
2010-01-01
Recently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has gained much attention for its ability to simulate fluid flows, and for its potential advantages over a conventional CFD method. The key advantages of LBM are, (1) suitability for parallel computations, (2) absence of the need to solve the time-consuming Poisson equation for a pressure, and (3) an ease with the way multiphase flows, complex geometries and interfacial dynamics may be treated. Nevertheless, the LBM is considered as a mere alternative CFD tools, not a promising approach. The motion of the bubbles in a liquid has been the focus of both academic and practical interest. The central problem is the relationship between the rise velocity, bubble shape due to the interface deformation and flow field. The buoyancy effect due to density difference in the two phase flows is characterized with Eotvos and Morton numbers. In this study, a single bubble rising under a buoyancy is simulated with LBM and VOF based on conventional CFD method. The two simulation results are compared with the previous experiments. The main objective of the present work is to establish the lattice Boltzmann method as a viable tool for the simulation of multiphase or multi-component flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, A.-S.; Kuo, T.-C.; Ling, P.-H.
2003-01-01
The phase transport phenomenon of the high-pressure two-phase turbulent bubbly flow involves complicated interfacial interactions of the mass, momentum, and energy transfer processes between phases, revealing that an enormous effort is required in characterizing the liquid-gas flow behavior. Nonetheless, the instantaneous information of bubbly flow properties is often desired for many industrial applications. This investigation aims to demonstrate the successful use of neural networks in the real-time determination of two-phase flow properties at elevated pressures. Three back-propagation neural networks, trained with the simulation results of a comprehensive theoretical model, are established to predict the transport characteristics (specifically the distributions of void-fraction and axial liquid-gas velocities) of upward turbulent bubbly pipe flows at pressures covering 3.5-7.0 MPa. Comparisons of the predictions with the test target vectors indicate that the averaged root-mean-squared (RMS) error for each one of three back-propagation neural networks is within 4.59%. In addition, this study appraises the effects of different network parameters, including the number of hidden nodes, the type of transfer function, the number of training pairs, the learning rate-increasing ratio, the learning rate-decreasing ratio, and the momentum value, on the training quality of neural networks.
Magnini, M.; Beisel, A. M.; Ferrari, A.; Thome, J. R.
2017-11-01
The fluid mechanics of elongated bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows in micro-geometries is important in pore-scale flow processes for enhanced oil recovery and mobilization of colloids in unsaturated soil. The efficiency of such processes is traditionally related to the thickness of the liquid film trapped between the elongated bubble and the pore's wall, which is assumed constant. However, the surface of long bubbles presents undulations in the vicinity of the rear meniscus, which may significantly decrease the local thickness of the liquid film, thus impacting the process of interest. This study presents a systematic analysis of these undulations and the minimum film thickness induced in the range Ca = 0.001- 0.5 and Re = 0.1- 2000 . Pore-scale Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed with a self-improved version of the opensource solver ESI OpenFOAM which is based on a Volume of Fluid method to track the gas-liquid interface. A lubrication model based on the extension of the classical axisymmetric Bretherton theory is utilized to better understand the CFD results. The profiles of the rear meniscus of the bubble obtained with the lubrication model agree fairly well with those extracted from the CFD simulations. This study shows that the Weber number of the flow, We = Ca Re , is the parameter that best describes the dynamics of the interfacial waves. When We 0.1, a larger number of wave crests becomes evident on the surface of the rear meniscus of the bubble. The liquid film thickness at the crests of the undulations thins considerably as the Reynolds number is increased, down to less than 60% of the value measured in the flat film region. This may significantly influence important environmental processes, such as the detachment and mobilization of micron-sized pollutants and pathogenic micro-organisms adhering at the pore's wall in unsaturated soil.
Suarez, CG; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ
1999-01-01
The detachment of polystyrene particles adhering to collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to a passing air bubble has been studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Particle detachment decreased linearly with increasing air bubble velocity and
Dynamic film thickness between bubbles and wall in a narrow channel
Ito, Daisuke; Damsohn, Manuel; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Aritomi, Masanori
2011-09-01
The present paper describes a novel technique to characterize the behavior of the liquid film between gas bubbles and the wall in a narrow channel. The method is based on the electrical conductance. Two liquid film sensors are installed on both opposite walls in a narrow rectangular channel. The liquid film thickness underneath the gas bubbles is recorded by the first sensor, while the void fraction information is obtained by measuring the conductance between the pair of opposite sensors. Both measurements are taken on a large two-dimensional domain and with a high speed. This makes it possible to obtain the two-dimensional distribution of the dynamic liquid film between the bubbles and the wall. In this study, this method was applied to an air-water flow ranging from bubbly to churn regimes in the narrow channel with a gap width of 1.5 mm.
Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel
2014-01-01
The Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) is a wickless, grooved heat pipe and we report on a full- scale fluids experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The CVB system consists of a relatively simple setup a quartz cuvette with sharp corners partially filled with either pentane or an ideal mixture of pentane and isohexane as the working fluids. Along with temperature and pressure measurements, the two-dimensional thickness profile of the menisci formed at the corners of the quartz cuvette was determined using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM). Even with the large, millimeter dimensions of the CVB, interfacial forces dominate in these exceedingly small Bond Number systems. The experiments were carried out at various power inputs. Although conceptually simple, the transport processes were found to be very complex with many different regions. At the heated end of the CVB, due to a high temperature gradient, we observed Marangoni flow at some power inputs. This region from the heated end to the central drop region is defined as a Marangoni dominated region. We present a simple analysis based on interfacial phenomena using only measurements from the ISS experiments that lead to a predictive equation for the thickness of the film near the heated end of the CVB. The average pressure gradient for flow in the film is assumed due to the measured capillary pressure at the two ends of the liquid film and that the pressure stress gradient due to cohesion self adjusts to a constant value over a distance L. The boundary conditions are the no slip condition at the wall interface and an interfacial shear stress at the liquid- vapor interface due to the Marangoni stress, which is due to the high temperature gradient. Although the heated end is extremely complex, since it includes three- dimensional variations in radiation, conduction, evaporation, condensation, fluid flow and interfacial forces, we find that using the above simplifying assumptions, a simple successful
Modeling quiescent phase transport of air bubbles induced by breaking waves
Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.; Ma, Gangfeng
Simultaneous modeling of both the acoustic phase and quiescent phase of breaking wave-induced air bubbles involves a large range of length scales from microns to meters and time scales from milliseconds to seconds, and thus is computational unaffordable in a surfzone-scale computational domain. In this study, we use an air bubble entrainment formula in a two-fluid model to predict air bubble evolution in the quiescent phase in a breaking wave event. The breaking wave-induced air bubble entrainment is formulated by connecting the shear production at the air-water interface and the bubble number intensity with a certain bubble size spectra observed in laboratory experiments. A two-fluid model is developed based on the partial differential equations of the gas-liquid mixture phase and the continuum bubble phase, which has multiple size bubble groups representing a polydisperse bubble population. An enhanced 2-DV VOF (Volume of Fluid) model with a k - ɛ turbulence closure is used to model the mixture phase. The bubble phase is governed by the advection-diffusion equations of the gas molar concentration and bubble intensity for groups of bubbles with different sizes. The model is used to simulate air bubble plumes measured in laboratory experiments. Numerical results indicate that, with an appropriate parameter in the air entrainment formula, the model is able to predict the main features of bubbly flows as evidenced by reasonable agreement with measured void fraction. Bubbles larger than an intermediate radius of O(1 mm) make a major contribution to void fraction in the near-crest region. Smaller bubbles tend to penetrate deeper and stay longer in the water column, resulting in significant contribution to the cross-sectional area of the bubble cloud. An underprediction of void fraction is found at the beginning of wave breaking when large air pockets take place. The core region of high void fraction predicted by the model is dislocated due to use of the shear
Simulating Bubble Plumes from Breaking Waves with a Forced-Air Venturi
Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Maben, J. R.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Duplessis, P.; Kieber, D. J.; Beaupre, S. R.; Frossard, A. A.; Kinsey, J. D.; Zhu, Y.; Lu, X.; Bisgrove, J.
2017-12-01
It has been hypothesized that the size distribution of bubbles in subsurface seawater is a major factor that modulates the corresponding size distribution of primary marine aerosol (PMA) generated when those bubbles burst at the air-water interface. A primary physical control of the bubble size distribution produced by wave breaking is the associated turbulence that disintegrates larger bubbles into smaller ones. This leads to two characteristic features of bubble size distributions: (1) the Hinze scale which reflects a bubble size above which disintegration is possible based on turbulence intensity and (2) the slopes of log-linear regressions of the size distribution on either side of the Hinze scale that indicate the state of plume evolution or age. A Venturi with tunable seawater and forced air flow rates was designed and deployed in an artificial PMA generator to produce bubble plumes representative of breaking waves. This approach provides direct control of turbulence intensity and, thus, the resulting bubble size distribution characterizable by observations of the Hinze scale and the simulated plume age over a range of known air detrainment rates. Evaluation of performance in different seawater types over the western North Atlantic demonstrated that the Venturi produced bubble plumes with parameter values that bracket the range of those observed in laboratory and field experiments. Specifically, the seawater flow rate modulated the value of the Hinze scale while the forced-air flow rate modulated the plume age parameters. Results indicate that the size distribution of sub-surface bubbles within the generator did not significantly modulate the corresponding number size distribution of PMA produced via bubble bursting.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delhaye, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
The experimental knowledge of the local void-fraction is basic for the derivation of the constitutive equations of two-phase flows. This report deals with measurements of the local void-fraction based on the use of a constant temperature hot-film anemometer associated with a multichannel analyser. After determining the void-fraction profile along a diameter of a vertical pipe (40 mm I.D.), in which air and water flow upwards, we compare the void-fraction averaged over the diameter with the average value measured directly by a {gamma}-ray method. Two runs were made in bubble flow and a third in slug flow. The two methods give results in a good agreement especially for bubble flow. The void-fraction averaged over the cross-section was also calculated from the different profiles and compared in a good manner with the experimental results of R. ROUMY. For bubble flow we verified the theory of S.G. BANKOFF about the shape of the void-fraction profiles. (author) [French] Nous proposons une methode de mesure du taux de vide local a en ecoulement diphasique, basee sur l'emploi d'un anemometre a film chaud a temperature constante dont on etudie la repartition du signal en amplitude dans un analyseur multicanaux. Ayant trace un profil de taux de vide local suivant un diametre d'une conduite verticale de section circulaire parcourue par un ecoulement ascendant d'eau et d'air, nous avons compare la moyenne de {alpha} sur ce diametre a la valeur obtenue par une methode d'absorption de rayons {gamma}. Les essais ont ete faits en ecoulements a bulles et a bouchons. Les deux methodes donnent des resultats concordants en particulier pour les ecoulements a bulles. Le taux de vide moyenne dans la section, calcule a partir des differents profils, a egalement ete compare avec succes aux resultats experimentaux de R. ROUMY. Dans l'etude de la structure radiale des ecoulements a bulles, nous avons verifie l'hypothese de S.G. BAJMKOFF. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delhaye, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
The experimental knowledge of the local void-fraction is basic for the derivation of the constitutive equations of two-phase flows. This report deals with measurements of the local void-fraction based on the use of a constant temperature hot-film anemometer associated with a multichannel analyser. After determining the void-fraction profile along a diameter of a vertical pipe (40 mm I.D.), in which air and water flow upwards, we compare the void-fraction averaged over the diameter with the average value measured directly by a {gamma}-ray method. Two runs were made in bubble flow and a third in slug flow. The two methods give results in a good agreement especially for bubble flow. The void-fraction averaged over the cross-section was also calculated from the different profiles and compared in a good manner with the experimental results of R. ROUMY. For bubble flow we verified the theory of S.G. BANKOFF about the shape of the void-fraction profiles. (author) [French] Nous proposons une methode de mesure du taux de vide local a en ecoulement diphasique, basee sur l'emploi d'un anemometre a film chaud a temperature constante dont on etudie la repartition du signal en amplitude dans un analyseur multicanaux. Ayant trace un profil de taux de vide local suivant un diametre d'une conduite verticale de section circulaire parcourue par un ecoulement ascendant d'eau et d'air, nous avons compare la moyenne de {alpha} sur ce diametre a la valeur obtenue par une methode d'absorption de rayons {gamma}. Les essais ont ete faits en ecoulements a bulles et a bouchons. Les deux methodes donnent des resultats concordants en particulier pour les ecoulements a bulles. Le taux de vide moyenne dans la section, calcule a partir des differents profils, a egalement ete compare avec succes aux resultats experimentaux de R. ROUMY. Dans l'etude de la structure radiale des ecoulements a bulles, nous avons verifie l'hypothese de S.G. BAJMKOFF. (auteur)
Development of Bubble Lift-off Diameter Model for Subcooled Boiling Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang, Nhan Hien; Chu, Incheol; Song Chulhwa; Euh, Dongjin
2014-01-01
A lot of models and correlations for predicting the bubble departure/lift-off diameter are available in the literature. Most of them were developed based on a hydrodynamic principle, which balances forces acting on a bubble at the departure/lift-off point. One difficulty of these models is lack of essential information, such as bubble front velocity, liquid velocity, or relative velocity, to estimate the active force elements. Hence, the lift-off bubble diameter predicted by these hydrodynamic-controlled models may be suffered a large uncertainty. In contract to the hydrodynamic approach, there are few models developed based on the heat transfer aspect. By balancing the heat conducted through a microlayer underneath a bubble with the heat taken away by condensation at the upper part of the bubble, Unal derived a heat-controlled model of the bubble lift-off diameter. This model did not consider the role of superheat liquid layer surrounding the bubble as well as the effect of liquid properties on the heat transfer process. Beside these two approaches, several empirical correlations have been proposed based on dimensionless analyses for measured experimental databases. The application of these correlations to different experiments conditions is, of course, questionable because of the lack of physical bases. Regarding the heat transfer accompanied by a vapor bubble, four involved heat transfer regions surrounding this bubble can be defined as in Fig. 1. These are dry region, microlayer, superheated liquid layer (SpLL) and subcooled liquid layer (SbLL). The existing of the microlayer is confirmed by experiments, and it is considered to be very effective in the heat transfer. Sernas and Hoper defined five types of the microlayer and indicated that the microlayer acting as a very thick liquid layer gives a best prediction for the bubble growth. However, beside the microlayer, the SpLL might play an important role in the heat transfer if its effective heat transfer area
Matsumoto, Daichi; Fukudome, Koji; Wada, Hirofumi
2016-10-01
Understanding the hydrodynamic properties of fluid flow in a curving pipe and channel is important for controlling the flow behavior in technologies and biomechanics. The nature of the resulting flow in a bent pipe is extremely complicated because of the presence of a cross-stream secondary flow. In an attempt to disentangle this complexity, we investigate the fluid dynamics in a bent channel via the direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equation in two spatial dimensions. We exploit the absence of secondary flow from our model and systematically investigate the flow structure along the channel as a function of both the bend angle and Reynolds number of the laminar-to-turbulent regime. We numerically suggest a scaling relation between the shape of the separation bubble and the flow conductance, and construct an integrated phase diagram.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Won Woong; Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Jeong Ik; Bang, Young Seok
2015-01-01
In particular, CCFL(the counter current flow limitation) occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have flows in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate from two code to the famous Dukler's CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. In the nuclear reactor system, CCFL is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to flow in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate to the famous Dukler
Interfacial structures in confined cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Xiaodong; Kim, Seungjin; Cheng Ling; Ishii, Mamoru; Beus, Stephen G.
2004-01-01
The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined flow passage. Experiments of a total of 13 flow conditions in cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 200 mm in width and 10 mm in gap. Miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. Bubble characteristics captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired local parameters are time-averaged void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for each group of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed in detail. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structures along the flow direction due to bubble interactions and the hydrodynamic effects. Furthermore, these data can serve as one part of the experimental data for investigation of the interfacial area transport in a confined two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, W.; Jones, B.G.; Newell, T.A.
2004-01-01
Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is an unexpected deviation in the core axial power distribution from the predicted curve. AOA is a current major consideration for reactors operating at increased power levels and is becoming immediate threat to nuclear power's competitiveness in the market. Despite much effort focusing on this topic, a comprehensive understanding is far from being developed. However, previous research indicates first, that a close connection exists between subcooled nucleate boiling occurring in core region and the formation of crud, which directly results in AOA phenomena, secondly, that deposition is greater, and sometimes much greater, on heated than on unheated surfaces. A number of researchers have suggested that boiling promotes deposition, and several observed increased deposition in the subcooled boiling region. Limited detailed information is available on the interaction between heat and mass transfer in subcooled nucleate boiling (SNB) flow. Bubbles formed in SNB region play an important role in helping the formation of crud. This research examines bubble behavior under SNB condition from the dynamic point of view, using a high fidelity digital imaging apparatus. Freon R-134a is chosen as a simulant fluid due to its merit of having smaller surface tension and lower boiling temperature. The apparatus is operated at reduced pressure. Series of images at frame rates up to 4000 frames/s were obtained, showing different characteristics of bubble behavior with varying experimental parameters e.g. flow velocity, fluid subcooled level, etc. Analyses that combine the experimental results with analytical result on flow field in velocity boundary layer are considered. A tentative suggestion is that a rolling movement of a bubble accompanies its sliding along the heating surface in the flow channel. Numerical computations using FLUENT v5.5 have been performed to support this conclusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deendarlianto; Ousaka, Akiharu; Kariyasaki, Akira; Fukano, Tohru
2005-01-01
The liquid film characteristics at the onset of flooding in an inclined pipe (16 mm i.d. and 2.2 m in length) have been investigated experimentally. A constant electric current method and visual observation were utilized to elucidate the flow mechanisms at the onset of flooding. Two mechanisms are clarified to control the flooding in lower flooding and upper flooding, respectively. The lower flooding occurred at lower liquid flow rate and high pipe inclination angle. In this mechanism, the liquid film does not block the pipe cross-section. On the other hand, the upper flooding occurred at higher liquid flow rate and low pipe inclination angle. In this case, blocking of the pipe cross-section by large wave and entrainment plays an important role. The experimental data indicated that there was no reversal motion of liquid film at the onset of flooding during the operation of both lower flooding and upper flooding. The effects of pipe inclination angle on the onset of flooding are also discussed
Synchrotron radiation microtomography of Taylor bubbles in capillary two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boden, Stephan; Santos Rolo, Tomy dos; Baumbach, Tilo; Hampel, Uwe
2014-01-01
We report on a study to measure the three-dimensional shape of Taylor bubbles in capillaries using synchrotron radiation in conjunction with ultrafast radiographic imaging. Moving Taylor bubbles in 2-mm round and square capillaries were radiographically scanned with an ultrahigh frame rate of up to 36,000 fps and 5.6-μm pixel separation. Consecutive images were properly processed to yield 2D transmission radiographs of high contrast-to-noise ratio. Application of 3D tomographic image reconstruction disclosed the 3D bubble shape. The results provide a reference data base for development of sophisticated interface resolving CFD computations. (orig.)
Synchrotron radiation microtomography of Taylor bubbles in capillary two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boden, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, Dresden (Germany); Santos Rolo, Tomy dos; Baumbach, Tilo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (TUD), AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Dresden (Germany)
2014-07-15
We report on a study to measure the three-dimensional shape of Taylor bubbles in capillaries using synchrotron radiation in conjunction with ultrafast radiographic imaging. Moving Taylor bubbles in 2-mm round and square capillaries were radiographically scanned with an ultrahigh frame rate of up to 36,000 fps and 5.6-μm pixel separation. Consecutive images were properly processed to yield 2D transmission radiographs of high contrast-to-noise ratio. Application of 3D tomographic image reconstruction disclosed the 3D bubble shape. The results provide a reference data base for development of sophisticated interface resolving CFD computations. (orig.)
Synchrotron radiation microtomography of Taylor bubbles in capillary two-phase flow
Boden, Stephan; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Baumbach, Tilo; Hampel, Uwe
2014-07-01
We report on a study to measure the three-dimensional shape of Taylor bubbles in capillaries using synchrotron radiation in conjunction with ultrafast radiographic imaging. Moving Taylor bubbles in 2-mm round and square capillaries were radiographically scanned with an ultrahigh frame rate of up to 36,000 fps and 5.6-µm pixel separation. Consecutive images were properly processed to yield 2D transmission radiographs of high contrast-to-noise ratio. Application of 3D tomographic image reconstruction disclosed the 3D bubble shape. The results provide a reference data base for development of sophisticated interface resolving CFD computations.
Experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of confined bubble plumes in water and viscous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brahma N Reddy Vanga; Martin A Lopez de Bertodano; Alexandr Zaruba; Eckhard Krepper; Horst-Michael Prasser
2005-01-01
Wire-mesh tomography measurements of void fraction and bubble size distribution in a rectangular bubble column 10 cm wide and 2 cm deep have been conducted. Experiments were performed in an air-water and ethylene glycol system with the column operating in the dispersed bubbly flow regime.Experiments were conducted for plumes with different aspect ratios between 2.2 to 13. The experiments also serve the purpose of studying the performance of wire-mesh sensors in batch flows. The behaviour of the long plumes (larger aspect ratio) was found to be significantly different than that of the short plumes (aspect ratios 2 to 4). The oscillating nature of the bubble plume is preserved over the entire height of the water column for the short plumes. The longer plumes are characterized by two distinct regions, the near injector oscillating region and a further downstream region where the bubbles rise in a string like motion. The void fraction distribution in the oscillating region of the plume exhibits a center-peak profile. A 'wall peak' has been observed in the measured void fraction profiles (for higher gas flow rates) in the downstream string-like region. The effect of column height and superficial gas velocity on the void distribution has been investigated. This paper presents the measurement principle and the experimental results for short and long plumes in an air-water system and for short plumes rising in viscous media. The results of the visualization experiment characterizing the structure of the bubble plume and the oscillation frequency of the bubble plumes are reported. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao; Ishii, Mamoru; Serizawa, Akimi
1994-01-01
Interfacial area concentration measurement is quite important in gas-liquid two-phase flow. To determine the accuracy of measurement of the interfacial area using electrical resistivity probes, numerical simulations of a passing bubble through sensors are carried out. The two-sensors method, the four-sensors method and the correlative method are tested and the effects of sensor spacing, bubble diameter and hitting angle of the bubbles on the accuracy of each measurement method are investigated. The results indicated that the two-sensors method is insensitive to the ratio between sensor spacing and bubble diameter, and hitting angle. It overestimates the interfacial area for small hitting angles while it gives a reasonable accuracy for smaller bubbles and large hitting angles. The four-sensors method gives accurate interfacial area measurements particularly for the larger bubble diameters and smaller hitting angles, while for smaller bubbles and larger hitting angles, the escape probability of bubbles through the sensors becomes large and the accuracy becomes worse. The correlative method gives an overall accuracy for interfacial area measurement. Particularly, it gives accurate measurements for large bubbles and larger hitting angles while for smaller hitting angles, the spatial dependence of the correlation functions affects the accuracy. (orig.)
Dynamics of a two-phase flow through a minichannel: Transition from churn to slug flow
Górski, Grzegorz; Litak, Grzegorz; Mosdorf, Romuald; Rysak, Andrzej
2016-04-01
The churn-to-slug flow bifurcations of two-phase (air-water) flow patterns in a 2mm diameter minichannel were investigated. With increasing a water flow rate, we observed the transition of slugs to bubbles of different sizes. The process was recorded by a digital camera. The sequences of light transmission time series were recorded by a laser-phototransistor sensor, and then analyzed using the recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). Due to volume dependence of bubbles velocities, we observed the formation of periodic modulations in the laser signal.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Yoon, Han Young [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Byoung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-01-15
Two-fluid equations are widely used to obtain averaged behaviors of two-phase flows. This study addresses a problem that may arise when the two-fluid equations are used for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. If steady drag is the only accounted force for the interfacial momentum transfer, the disperse-phase velocity would be the same as the continuous-phase velocity when the flow is fully developed without gravity. However, existing momentum equations may show unphysical results in estimating the relative velocity of the disperse phase against the continuous-phase. First, we examine two types of existing momentum equations. One is the standard two-fluid momentum equation in which the disperse-phase is treated as a continuum. The other is the averaged momentum equation derived from a solid/ fluid particle motion. We show that the existing equations are not proper for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. To resolve the problem mentioned above, we modify the form of the Reynolds stress terms in the averaged momentum equation based on the solid/fluid particle motion. The proposed equation shows physically correct results for both multi-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal
2010-09-01
The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The
Rybkin, K. A.; Bratukhin, Yu. K.; Lyubimova, T. P.; Fatallov, O.; Filippov, L. O.
2017-07-01
The acoustic flows and the phenomena associated with them arising under the action of ultrasound of different power on distilled water and aqueous solutions of a mixture of NaCl and KCl salts of various concentrations are studied experimentally. It is found that in the distilled water, under the action of ultrasound, the appearance of inertial and non-inertial cavitation bubbles takes place, then the formation of stable clusters, the distance between which depends on the power of the ultrasound source is observed. Experiments show that an increase in the mass concentration of salts in water leads to the decrease in the average diameter of the arising inertial cavitation bubbles and to the gradual decrease in their number, up to an almost complete disappearance at nearly 13% of the concentration of the salt mixture in the water.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, N.; Mara, N.A.; Wang, Y.Q.; Nastasi, M.; Misra, A.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Firstly micro-pillar compression technique has been used to measure the implanted metal films. → The magnitude of radiation hardening decreased with decreasing layer thickness. → When thickness decreases to 2.5 nm, no hardening and no loss in deformability after implantation. -- Focused-ion-beam machined compression specimens were used to investigate the effect of nanometer-scale helium bubbles on the strength and deformability of sputter-deposited Cu and Cu/Nb multilayers with different layer thickness. The flow strength of Cu films increased by more than a factor of 2 due to helium bubbles but in multilayers, the magnitude of radiation hardening decreased with decreasing layer thickness. When the layer thickness decreases to 2.5 nm, insignificant hardening and no measurable loss in deformability is observed after implantation.
Modelling of bubble-mediated gas transfer: Fundamental principles and a laboratory test
Woolf, D.K.; Leifer, I.S.; Nightingale, P.D.; Rhee, T.S.; Bowyer, P.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de; Larsen, S.E.; Liddicoat, M.; Baker, J.; Andreae, M.O.
2007-01-01
The air-water exchange of gases can be substantially enhanced by wave breaking and specifically by bubble-mediated transfer. A feature of bubble-mediated transfer is the additional pressure on bubbles resulting from the hydrostatic forces on a submerged bubble and from surface tension and curvature.
Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-ping Chen
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Teayang; Kim, Eunho; Park, Hyun Sun; Moriyama, Kiyofumi [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The previous research works demonstrated the debris bed formation on the flooded cavity floor in experiments. Even in the cases the core melt is once solidified, the debris bed can be re-melted due to the decay heat. If the debris bed is not cooled enough by the coolant, the re-melted debris bed will react with the concrete base mat. This situation is called the molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) which threatens the integrity of the containment by generated gases which pressurize the containment. Therefore securing the long term coolability of the debris bed in the cavity is crucial. According to the previous research works, the natural convection driven by the rising bubbles affects the coolability and the formation of the debris bed. Therefore, clarification of the natural convection characteristics in and around the debris bed is important for evaluation of the coolability of the debris bed. In this study, two-phase flow around the debris bed in a 2D slice geometry is visualized by PIV method to obtain the velocity map of the flow. The DAVINCI-PIV was developed to investigate the flow around the debris bed. In order to simulate the boiling phenomena induced by the decay heat of the debris bed, the air was injected separately by the air chamber system which consists of the 14 air-flowmeters. The circulation flow developed by the rising bubbles was visualized by PIV method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M.; Krepper, E.; Lucas, D. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)
2002-01-01
The wire-mesh sensor developed by the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf produces sequences of instantaneous gas fraction distributions in a cross section with a time resolution of 1200 frames per second and a spatial resolution of about 2-3 mm. At moderate flow velocities (up to 1-2 m.s{sup -1}), bubble size distributions can be obtained, since each individual bubble is mapped in several successive distributions. The method was used to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution in a vertical two-phase flow. For this purpose, the sensor was placed downstream of an air injector, the distance between air injection and sensor was varied. The bubble identification algorithm allows to select bubbles of a given range of the effective diameter and to calculate partial gas fraction profiles for this diameter range. In this way, the different behaviour of small and large bubbles in respect to the action of the lift force was observed in a mixture of small and large bubbles. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veteau, J.-M.; Charlot, Roland.
1981-02-01
In order to measure specific area by a light attenuation technique in bubbly stationnary flows, the main features of an optical design are given. This method, valid for bubble sizes between 0,5 and several millimeters, is compared with a photographic technique. The latter gives values systematically higher (15 to 25%) than the former. The measured specific areas range from 0.5 to 2 cm -1 . The multiple sources of error inherent in the photographic method are discussed [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Concepción Paz
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This work introduces the use of machine vision in the massive bubble recognition process, which supports the validation of boiling models involving bubble dynamics, as well as nucleation frequency, active site density and size of the bubbles. The two algorithms presented are meant to be run employing quite standard images of the bubbling process, recorded in general-purpose boiling facilities. The recognition routines are easily adaptable to other facilities if a minimum number of precautions are taken in the setup and in the treatment of the information. Both the side and front projections of subcooled flow-boiling phenomenon over a plain plate are covered. Once all of the intended bubbles have been located in space and time, the proper post-process of the recorded data become capable of tracking each of the recognized bubbles, sketching their trajectories and size evolution, locating the nucleation sites, computing their diameters, and so on. After validating the algorithm’s output against the human eye and data from other researchers, machine vision systems have been demonstrated to be a very valuable option to successfully perform the recognition process, even though the optical analysis of bubbles has not been set as the main goal of the experimental facility.
Theoretical derivation of the interaction effects with expansion effects to bubbly two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Cazarez-Candia, Octavio; Vazquez, Alejandro
2004-01-01
This paper was concerned with a theoretical closure relationships derivation to describe the hydrodynamic interaction in a dilute dispersion of gas bubbles in a continuos liquid phase with bubble radius variation due to expansion effects. The starting point in the present study was the three-dimensional transient averaged transport equations. The closure relationships were formulated as an associated problem for the deviation around averaging values of the local variables. The derivations were based on the concentric cell approach and taking in account compressibility of the gas phase. The closure relationships for the dyad product of velocity spatial deviations, virtual mass and the difference between the intrinsic and interface averages of the pressure on the continuous phase side were developed. In this work a new term, which is a function of the squared radial velocity, into the closure for the dyad product of velocity spatial deviation was founded
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morel, Ch.
1997-01-01
The aim of this thesis is the 3-D modeling and numerical simulation of liquid/gas (water/vapor or water/air) two-phase flows in cooling circuits of nuclear power plants during normal and accidental situations. The development of a multidimensional dual-fluid model encounters two problems: the statistical effects of turbulence and the interface mass, momentum and energy transfers. The models developed in this study were introduced in the 3-D module of the CATHARE code developed by the CEA and the results were compared to experimental results available in the literature. The first chapter describes the equations of the local dual-fluid model for the 3-D description of two-phase flows. Closing relations adapted to dispersed flows with isothermal bubbles and without phase transformation are proposed and focus on the momentum transfer at the interfaces. The theoretical study of turbulence in the liquid phase of a bubble flow is modelled in chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with the voluminal interface area used in the interface mass, momentum and energy transfers, and chapters 4 and 5 concern the application of the developed models to concrete situations. Chapter 4 describes in details the 3-D module of the CATHARE code while chapter 5 gives a comparison of numerical results obtained using the CATHARE code with other experimental results obtained at EdF. (J.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Juh Yung; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The onset of flow instability (OFI) is the one of important boiling phenomena since it may induce the premature critical heat flux (CHF) at the lowest heat flux level due to sudden flow excursion in a single channel of multichannel configuration. Especially prediction of OFI for narrow rectangular channel is very crucial in relevant to thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis of open pool-type research reactors (RRs) using plate-type fuels. Based on high speed video (HSV) technique, the authors observed and determined that OFI and the minimum premature CHF in a narrow rectangular channel are induced by abrupt pressure drop fluctuation due to the mergence of facing bubble boundary layers (BLs) on opposite boiling surfaces. In this study, new mechanistic OFI model for narrow rectangular channel heated on both sides has been derived, which satisfies with the real triggering phenomena. Force balance approach was used for modeling of the maximum BLT since the quantity is comparable to the bubble departure diameter. From the validation with OFI database, it was shown that the new model fairly well predicts OFI heat flux for wide range of conditions.
Measurement Accuracy of a Mono-fiber Optical Probe in a Bubbly Flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vejražka, Jiří; Večeř, M.; Orvalho, Sandra; Sechet, Ph.; Růžička, Marek; Cartellier, A.
2010-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 7 (2010), s. 533-548 ISSN 0301-9322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA ČR GP104/06/P287; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200720801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : optical probe * bubble-fiber interaction * void fraction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2010
Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles
Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin
2016-11-01
Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cincibusová, Petra; Němec, L.
2015-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 52-62 ISSN 1753-3546 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt * mathematical modelling * controlled flow * space utilization * temperature gradients Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.362, year: 2015 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/sgt/gta/2015/00000056/00000002/art00003
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akagawa, Koji; Fujii, Terushige; Ito, Yutaka; Hiraki, Sei
1982-04-01
The research carried out so far was related to the case in which the mean void ratio in a pipe distributed almost invariably in axial direction. However, in actual piping system, the distribution of void ratio sometimes changes in axial direction such as evaporating tubes. In this study, in order to clarify the basic characteristics of shock phenomena in a piping system in which the density of two-phase flow changes in axial direction, experiment was carried out on air and water two-component bubbly flow, in which single phase was in upstream, and two-phase flow with constant void ratio in axial direction was in downstream. Also, the theoretical study on the phenomena was performed. The experimental setup and experimental method, the result of the waveform of pressure response, the behavior of pressure waves at the interface of two-phase flow and single phase flow, the qualitative analysis of the waveform of pressure response, and the analysis of pressure rise are reported. By the sudden closure of a valve, the pressure in two-phase flow rose by the initial potential surge, thereafter stepped pressure rise was observed. This phenomenon can be explained by the reflection of pressure waves at the interface of two-phase flow and single phase flow.
Hydrodynamics of gas-liquid slug flow along vertical pipes in turbulent regime-An experimental study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayor, T.S.; Ferreira, V.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Campos, J.B.L.M. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: jmc@fe.up.pt
2008-08-15
An experimental study on free-bubbling gas-liquid (air-water) vertical slug flow was developed using a non-intrusive image analysis technique. The flow pattern in the near-wake of the bubbles and in the main liquid between bubbles was turbulent. A single correlation for the bubble-to-bubble interaction is proposed, relating the trailing bubble velocity to the length of the liquid slug ahead of the bubble. The proposed correlation is shown to be independent of column diameter, column vertical coordinate, superficial liquid and gas velocities and the velocity and length of the leading bubble. Frequency distribution curves, averages, modes and standard deviations are reported, for distributions of bubble velocity, bubble length and liquid slug length, for each experimental condition studied. Good agreement was found between theoretical predictions and experimental results regarding the upward velocity of undisturbed bubbles, in a 0.032 m internal diameter column. A considerable discrepancy was found, though, for a 0.052 m internal diameter column. The acquired experimental data are crucial for the development and validation of a robust slug flow simulator.
Hydrodynamics of gas-liquid slug flow along vertical pipes in turbulent regime-An experimental study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayor, T.S.; Ferreira, V.; Pinto, A.M.F.R.; Campos, J.B.L.M.
2008-01-01
An experimental study on free-bubbling gas-liquid (air-water) vertical slug flow was developed using a non-intrusive image analysis technique. The flow pattern in the near-wake of the bubbles and in the main liquid between bubbles was turbulent. A single correlation for the bubble-to-bubble interaction is proposed, relating the trailing bubble velocity to the length of the liquid slug ahead of the bubble. The proposed correlation is shown to be independent of column diameter, column vertical coordinate, superficial liquid and gas velocities and the velocity and length of the leading bubble. Frequency distribution curves, averages, modes and standard deviations are reported, for distributions of bubble velocity, bubble length and liquid slug length, for each experimental condition studied. Good agreement was found between theoretical predictions and experimental results regarding the upward velocity of undisturbed bubbles, in a 0.032 m internal diameter column. A considerable discrepancy was found, though, for a 0.052 m internal diameter column. The acquired experimental data are crucial for the development and validation of a robust slug flow simulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Kishor
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, bubble dynamics and frictional pressure drop associated with gas liquid two-phase slug flow regime in adiabatic T-junction square microchannel has been investigated using CFD. A comprehensive study on the mechanism of bubble formation via squeezing and shearing regime is performed. The randomness and recirculation profiles observed in the squeezing regime are significantly higher as compared to the shearing regime during formation of the slug. Further, effects of increasing gas velocity on bubble length are obtained at fixed liquid velocities and simulated data displayed good agreement with available correlations in literature. The frictional pressure drop for slug flow regime from simulations are also obtained and evaluated against existing separated flow models. A regression correlation has also been developed by modifying C-parameter using separated flow model, which improves the prediction of two-phase frictional pressure drop data within slug flow region, with mean absolute error of 10 %. The influences of fluid properties such as liquid viscosity and surface tension on the two-phase frictional pressure drop are also investigated and compared with developed correlation. The higher liquid viscosity and lower surface tension value resulted in bubble formation via shearing regime.
Tirunehe, Gossaye; Norddahl, B
2016-04-01
Gas sparging performances of a flat sheet and tubular polymeric membranes were investigated in 3.1 m bubble column bioreactor operated in a semi batch mode. Air-water and air-CMC (Carboxymethyl cellulose) solutions of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 % w/w were used as interacting gas-liquid mediums. CMC solutions were employed in the study to simulate rheological properties of bioreactor broth. Gas holdup, bubble size distribution, interfacial area and gas-liquid mass transfer were studied in the homogeneous bubbly flow hydrodynamic regime with superficial gas velocity (U(G)) range of 0.0004-0.0025 m/s. The study indicated that the tubular membrane sparger produced the highest gas holdup and densely populated fine bubbles with narrow size distribution. An increase in liquid viscosity promoted a shift in bubble size distribution to large stable bubbles and smaller specific interfacial area. The tubular membrane sparger achieved greater interfacial area and an enhanced overall mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) by a factor of 1.2-1.9 compared to the flat sheet membrane.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez, Leonor; Julia, J.E.; Paranjape, Sidharth; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru
2010-01-01
In this work, the use of the area-averaged void fraction and bubble chord length entropies is introduced as flow regime indicators in two-phase flow systems. The entropy provides quantitative information about the disorder in the area-averaged void fraction or bubble chord length distributions. The CPDF (cumulative probability distribution function) of void fractions and bubble chord lengths obtained by means of impedance meters and conductivity probes are used to calculate both entropies. Entropy values for 242 flow conditions in upward two-phase flows in 25.4 and 50.8-mm pipes have been calculated. The measured conditions cover ranges from 0.13 to 5 m/s in the superficial liquid velocity j f and ranges from 0.01 to 25 m/s in the superficial gas velocity j g . The physical meaning of both entropies has been interpreted using the visual flow regime map information. The area-averaged void fraction and bubble chord length entropies capability as flow regime indicators have been checked with other statistical parameters and also with different input signals durations. The area-averaged void fraction and the bubble chord length entropies provide better or at least similar results than those obtained with other indicators that include more than one parameter. The entropy is capable to reduce the relevant information of the flow regimes in only one significant and useful parameter. In addition, the entropy computation time is shorter than the majority of the other indicators. The use of one parameter as input also represents faster predictions. (orig.)
Bailes, Stephanie A; Firestone, Kimberly S; Dunn, Diane K; McNinch, Neil L; Brown, Miraides F; Volsko, Teresa A
2016-03-01
Bubble CPAP, used for spontaneously breathing infants to avoid intubation or postextubation support, can be delivered with different interface types. This study compared the effect that interfaces had on CPAP delivery. We hypothesized that there would be no difference between set and measured levels between interface types. A validated preterm infant nasal airway model was attached to the ASL 5000 breathing simulator. The simulator was programmed to deliver active breathing of a surfactant-deficient premature infant with breathing frequency at 70 breaths/min inspiratory time of 0.30 s, resistance of 150 cm H2O/L/s, compliance of 0.5 mL/cm H2O, tidal volume of 5 mL, and esophageal pressure of -10 cm H2O. Nasal CPAP prongs, size 4030, newborn and infant RAM cannulas were connected to a nasal airway model and a bubble CPAP system. CPAP levels were set at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 cm H2O with flows of 6, 8, and 10 L/min each. Measurements were recorded after 1 min of stabilization. The analysis was performed using SAS 9.4. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test assessed normality of the data. The Friedman test was used to compare non-normally distributed repeated measures. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to conduct post hoc analysis. All tests were 2-sided, and P values of CPAP levels, 4-6 cm H2O, measured CPAP dropped precipitously with the nasal prongs with the highest flow setting. At higher CPAP levels, 7-9 cm H2O measured CPAP concomitantly increased as the flow setting increased. Statistically significant differences in set and measured CPAP occurred for all devices across all CPAP levels, with the measured CPAP less than set for all conditions, P CPAP. The concomitant drop in measured pressure with high and low flows could be attributed to increased resistance to spontaneous breathing or insufficient flow to meet inspiratory demand. Clinicians should be aware of the effect that the interface and flow have on CPAP delivery. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz
2013-01-01
Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....
Wit, PJ; vanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ
1997-01-01
By allowing an air-bubble to pass through a parallel plate flow chamber with negatively charged, colloidal polystyrene particles adhering to the bottom collector plate of the chamber, the detachment of adhering particles stimulated by surface tension forces induced by the passage of a liquid-air
Study of dynamics of two-phase flow through a minichannel by means of recurrences
Litak, Grzegorz; Górski, Grzegorz; Mosdorf, Romuald; Rysak, Andrzej
2017-05-01
By changing air and water flow rates in the two-phase (air-water) flow through a minichannel, we observed the evolution of air bubbles and slugs patterns. This spatiotemporal behaviour was identified qualitatively by using a digital camera. Simultaneously, we provided a detailed analysis of these phenomena by using the corresponding sequences of light transmission time series recorded with a laser-phototransistor sensor. To distinguish particular patterns, we used recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. Finally, we showed that the maxima of various recurrence quantificators obtained from the laser time series could follow the bubble and slugs patterns in studied ranges of air and water flows.
Recurrence network analysis of experimental signals from bubbly oil-in-water flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Xin-Wang; Du, Meng [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Jin, Ning-De, E-mail: ndjin@tju.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2013-02-04
Based on the signals from oil–water two-phase flow experiment, we construct and analyze recurrence networks to characterize the dynamic behavior of different flow patterns. We first take a chaotic time series as an example to demonstrate that the local property of recurrence network allows characterizing chaotic dynamics. Then we construct recurrence networks for different oil-in-water flow patterns and investigate the local property of each constructed network, respectively. The results indicate that the local topological statistic of recurrence network is very sensitive to the transitions of flow patterns and allows uncovering the dynamic flow behavior associated with chaotic unstable periodic orbits.
Recurrence network analysis of experimental signals from bubbly oil-in-water flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Xin-Wang; Du, Meng; Jin, Ning-De
2013-01-01
Based on the signals from oil–water two-phase flow experiment, we construct and analyze recurrence networks to characterize the dynamic behavior of different flow patterns. We first take a chaotic time series as an example to demonstrate that the local property of recurrence network allows characterizing chaotic dynamics. Then we construct recurrence networks for different oil-in-water flow patterns and investigate the local property of each constructed network, respectively. The results indicate that the local topological statistic of recurrence network is very sensitive to the transitions of flow patterns and allows uncovering the dynamic flow behavior associated with chaotic unstable periodic orbits.
Baake, E.; Fehling, T.; Musaeva, D.; Steinberg, T.
2017-07-01
The paper describes the results of two experimental investigations aimed to extend the abilities of a neutron radiography to visualize two-phase processes in the electromagnetically (EM) driven melt flow. In the first experiment the Argon bubbly flow in the molten Gallium - a simulation of the CO2 free production of Hydrogen process - was investigated and visualized. Abilities of EM stirring for control on the bubbles residence time in the melt were tested. The second experiment was directed to visualization of a solidification front formation under the influence of EM field. On the basis of the neutron shadow pictures the form of growing ingot, influenced by turbulent flows, was considered. In the both cases rotating permanent magnets were agitating the melt flow. The experimental results have shown that the neutron radiography can be successfully employed for obtaining the visual information about the described processes.
Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves
2013-01-01
This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa, M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz), shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...
Development and validation of models for bubble coalescence and breakup. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Y.; Lucas, D.
2013-02-01
A new generalized model for bubble coalescence and breakup has been developed. It is based on physical considerations and takes into account various mechanisms that can lead to bubble coalescence and breakup. First, in a detailed literature review, the available models were compiled and analyzed. It turned out that many of them show a contradictory behaviour. None of these models allows the prediction of the evolution of bubble size distributions along a pipe flow for a wide range of combinations of flow rates of the gas and the liquid phase. The new model has been extensively studied in a simplified Test-Solver. Although this does not cover all details of a developing flow along the pipe, it allows - in contrast to a CFD code - to conduct a large number of variational calculations to investigate the influence of individual sizes and models. Coalescence and breakup cannot be considered separately from other phenomena and models that reflect these phenomena. There are close interactions with the turbulence of the liquid phase and the momentum exchange between phases. Since the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy is a direct input parameter for the new model, the turbulence modelling has been studied very carefully. To validate the model, a special experimental series for air-water flows was used, conducted at the TOPFLOW facility in an 8-meter long DN200 pipe. The data are characterized by high quality and were produced within the TOPFLOW-II project. The test series aims to provide a basis for the work presented here. Predicting the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the pipe could be improved significantly in comparison to the previous standard models for bubble coalescence and breakup implemented in CFX. However some quantitative discrepancies remain. The full model equations as well as an implementation as ''User-FORTRAN'' in CFX are available and can be used for further work on the simulation of poly-disperse bubbly flows.
Multiphase flow analysis using population balance modeling bubbles, drops and particles
Yeoh, Guan Heng; Tu, Jiyuan
2013-01-01
Written by leading multiphase flow and CFD experts, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the use of PBM and CFD frameworks. Population balance approaches can now be used in conjunction with CFD, effectively driving more efficient and effective multiphase flow processes. Engineers familiar with standard CFD software, including ANSYS-CFX and ANSYS-Fluent, will be able to use the tools and approaches presented in this book in the effective research, modeling and control of multiphase flow problems. Builds a complete understanding of the theory behind the
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-01-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-07-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-09-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Vertical downward subcooled bubbly flow modelling with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 gamma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ristevski, R.; Parzer, I.; Markov, Z.
2000-01-01
The presented paper will consider the correlation for void fraction distribution in the subcooled boiling flow regime of downward liquid flow at low velocities. More specifically, it will focus on the choice of the most appropriate heat and mass transfer correlation. The experimental findings and theoretical consideration of these processes and phenomena will be compared with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 Gamma predictions. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental
2013-07-01
The The present work aims at identifying flow patterns and measuring interfacial parameters in two-phase natural circulation by using visualization technique with high-speed digital camera. The experiments were conducted in the Natural Circulation Circuit (CCN), installed at Nuclear Engineering Institute/CNEN. The thermo-hydraulic circuit comprises heater, heat exchanger, expansion tank, the pressure relief valve and pipes to interconnect the components. A glass tube is installed at the midpoint of the riser connected to the heater outlet. The natural circulation circuit is complemented by acquisition system of values of temperatures, flow and graphic interface. The instrumentation has thermocouples, volumetric flow meter, rotameter and high-speed digital camera. The experimental study is performed through analysis of information from measurements of temperatures at strategic points along the hydraulic circuit, besides natural circulation flow rates. The comparisons between analytical and experimental values are validated by viewing, recording and processing of the images for the flows patterns. Variables involved in the process of identification of flow regimes, dimensionless parameters, the phase velocity of the flow, initial boiling point, the phenomenon of 'flashing' pre-slug flow type were obtained experimentally. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian; Faccini, Jose L.H.
2013-01-01
The The present work aims at identifying flow patterns and measuring interfacial parameters in two-phase natural circulation by using visualization technique with high-speed digital camera. The experiments were conducted in the Natural Circulation Circuit (CCN), installed at Nuclear Engineering Institute/CNEN. The thermo-hydraulic circuit comprises heater, heat exchanger, expansion tank, the pressure relief valve and pipes to interconnect the components. A glass tube is installed at the midpoint of the riser connected to the heater outlet. The natural circulation circuit is complemented by acquisition system of values of temperatures, flow and graphic interface. The instrumentation has thermocouples, volumetric flow meter, rotameter and high-speed digital camera. The experimental study is performed through analysis of information from measurements of temperatures at strategic points along the hydraulic circuit, besides natural circulation flow rates. The comparisons between analytical and experimental values are validated by viewing, recording and processing of the images for the flows patterns. Variables involved in the process of identification of flow regimes, dimensionless parameters, the phase velocity of the flow, initial boiling point, the phenomenon of 'flashing' pre-slug flow type were obtained experimentally. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tournaire, Agnes
1987-01-01
The objective of this research thesis is to study the behaviour of waves at the vicinity of the bubble-slug transition, and to compare it with the one predicted by models. The author also addresses the bubbly regime, and particularly the evolution of wave amplitude whereas studies had been until then limited to the study of wave speed. The first part of the thesis reports the development of a system of vacuum rate measurements in cylindrical duct. The second part proposes the description of the experimental installation, and the third part reports experimental results and discusses them. Finally, the author compares these results with those predicted by using a kinematic modelling [fr
On the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize vertical two-phase bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemonnier, H.; Jullien, P.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We provide a complete theory of the PGSE measurement in single and two-phase flow. → Friction velocity can be directly determinated from measured velocity distributions. → Fast determination of moments shorten PGSE process with small loss of accuracy. → Turbulent diffusion measurements agree well with known trends and existing models. → We think NMR can be a tool to benchmark thermal anemometry in two-phase flow. - Abstract: Since the pioneering work of who showed that NMR can be used to measure accurately the mean liquid velocity and void fraction in two-phase pipe flow, it has been shown that NMR signal can also characterize the turbulent eddy diffusivity and velocity fluctuations. In this paper we provide an in depth validation of these statements together with a clarification of the nature of the mean velocity that is actually measured by NMR PFGSE sequence. The analysis shows that the velocity gradient at the wall is finely space-resolved and allows the determination of the friction velocity in single-phase flows. Next turbulent diffusion measurements in two-phase flows are presented, analyzed and compared to existing data and models. It is believed that NMR velocity measurement is sufficiently understood that it can be utilized to benchmark thermal anemometry in two-phase flows. Theoretical results presented in this paper also show how this can be undertaken.
Bubble Dynamics, Two-Phase Flow, and Boiling Heat Transfer in Microgravity
Chung, Jacob N.
1998-01-01
This report contains two independent sections. Part one is titled "Terrestrial and Microgravity Pool Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical heat flux phenomenon in an acoustic standing wave." Terrestrial and microgravity pool boiling heat transfer experiments were performed in the presence of a standing acoustic wave from a platinum wire resistance heater using degassed FC-72 Fluorinert liquid. The sound wave was created by driving a half wavelength resonator at a frequency of 10.15 kHz. Microgravity conditions were created using the 2.1 second drop tower on the campus of Washington State University. Burnout of the heater wire, often encountered with heat flux controlled systems, was avoided by using a constant temperature controller to regulate the heater wire temperature. The amplitude of the acoustic standing wave was increased from 28 kPa to over 70 kPa and these pressure measurements were made using a hydrophone fabricated with a small piezoelectric ceramic. Cavitation incurred during experiments at higher acoustic amplitudes contributed to the vapor bubble dynamics and heat transfer. The heater wire was positioned at three different locations within the acoustic field: the acoustic node, antinode, and halfway between these locations. Complete boiling curves are presented to show how the applied acoustic field enhanced boiling heat transfer and increased critical heat flux in microgravity and terrestrial environments. Video images provide information on the interaction between the vapor bubbles and the acoustic field. Part two is titled, "Design and qualification of a microscale heater array for use in boiling heat transfer." This part is summarized herein. Boiling heat transfer is an efficient means of heat transfer because a large amount of heat can be removed from a surface using a relatively small temperature difference between the surface and the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms that govern boiling heat transfer are not well understood. Measurements of
Antoniuk, O.; Bos, van der A.; Driessen, T.W.; Es, van B.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Michler, D.; Reinten, H.; Schenker, M.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Srivastava, S.; Toschi, F.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.
2011-01-01
We discuss the physical forces that are required to remove an air bubble immersed in a liquid from a corner. This is relevant for inkjet printing technology, as the presence of air bubbles in the channels of a printhead perturbs the jetting of droplets. A simple strategy to remove the bubble is to
Conjugate heat transfer effects on wall bubble nucleation in subcooled flashing flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, P.F.; Hijikata, K.
1990-01-01
A variety of models have been proposed to explain observations that large liquid superheat is required to initiate nucleation in flashing flows of subcooled liquids in nozzles, cracks and pipes. In such flows an abrupt change in the fluid temperature occurs downstream of the nucleating cavities. This paper examines the subcooling of the nucleating cavities due to conjugate heat transfer to the cold downstream fluid. This examination suggests a mechanism limiting the maximum active cavity size. Simple analysis shows that, of the total superheat required to initiate flashing, a substantial portion results from conjugate wall subcooling, which decreases the cavity vapor pressure. The specific case of flashing critical nozzle flow is examined in detail. Here boundary-layer laminarization due to the strong favorable pressure gradient aids the analysis of conjugate heat transfer
Kingett, Christian; Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan
2017-11-01
The two-stage freezing process of a liquid droplet on a substrate is well known; however, how bubbles freeze has not yet been studied. We first deposited bubbles on a silicon substrate that was chilled at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, while the air was at room temperature. We observed that the freeze front moved very slowly up the bubble, and in some cases, even came to a complete halt at a critical height. This slow freezing front propagation can be explained by the low thermal conductivity of the thin soap film, and can be observed more clearly when the bubble size or the surface temperature is increased. This delayed freezing allows the frozen portion of the bubble to cool the air within the bubble while the top part is still liquid, which induces a vapor pressure mismatch that either collapses the top or causes the top to pop. In cases where the freeze front reaches the top of the bubble, a portion of the top may melt and slowly refreeze; this can happen more than just once for a single bubble. We also investigated freezing bubbles inside of a freezer where the air was held at -20 °C. In this case, the bubbles freeze quickly and the ice grows radially from nucleation sites instead of perpendicular to the surface, which provides a clear contrast with the conduction limited room temperature bubbles.
Measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow in bubble columns using ensemble correlation PIV
Delnoij, E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Westerweel, J.
2000-01-01
This paper highlights the development of a new ensemble correlation, multiphase flow PIV technique. The particular approach discussed in this paper is a straightforward extension of single-phase PIV and one of the major advantages of the technique is that it employs a single CCD camera. This
A comparative study of turbulence models for dissolved air flotation flow analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Min A; Lee, Kyun Ho; Chung, Jae Dong; Seo, Seung Ho
2015-01-01
The dissolved air flotation (DAF) system is a water treatment process that removes contaminants by attaching micro bubbles to them, causing them to float to the water surface. In the present study, two-phase flow of air-water mixture is simulated to investigate changes in the internal flow analysis of DAF systems caused by using different turbulence models. Internal micro bubble distribution, velocity, and computation time are compared between several turbulence models for a given DAF geometry and condition. As a result, it is observed that the standard κ-ε model, which has been frequently used in previous research, predicts somewhat different behavior than other turbulence models
The hydrodynamics of bubble rise and impact with solid surfaces.
Manica, Rogerio; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y C
2016-09-01
A bubble smaller than 1mm in radius rises along a straight path in water and attains a constant speed due to the balance between buoyancy and drag force. Depending on the purity of the system, within the two extreme limits of tangentially immobile or mobile boundary conditions at the air-water interface considerably different terminal speeds are possible. When such a bubble impacts on a horizontal solid surface and bounces, interesting physics can be observed. We study this physical phenomenon in terms of forces, which can be of colloidal, inertial, elastic, surface tension and viscous origins. Recent advances in high-speed photography allow for the observation of phenomena on the millisecond scale. Simultaneous use of such cameras to visualize both rise/deformation and the dynamics of the thin film drainage through interferometry are now possible. These experiments confirm that the drainage process obeys lubrication theory for the spectrum of micrometre to millimetre-sized bubbles that are covered in this review. We aim to bridge the colloidal perspective at low Reynolds numbers where surface forces are important to high Reynolds number fluid dynamics where the effect of the surrounding flow becomes important. A model that combines a force balance with lubrication theory allows for the quantitative comparison with experimental data under different conditions without any fitting parameter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Laborie, B.; Rouyer, F.; Angelescu, D. E.; Lorenceau, E.
2016-06-01
We investigate experimentally the stability of bubble production in yield-stress fluids (YSF) and highly viscous silicone oil, using flow-focusing and T-junction devices. When the exit channel is initially pre-filled with the fluid and the gas is pressure-driven, the production is highly unstable, despite a regular frequency of bubble production in the junction. As observed for pressure-driven bubble trains in Newtonian fluids, we report that two mechanisms can explain these observations: (i) drastic reduction of the hydrodynamic pressure drop along the channel during the transient bubble production, which induces a rapid increase of the gas flow rate and (ii) thin film deposition resulting in a cascade of plug break-up and bubble coalescence. While the drastic reduction of the pressure drop is inevitable in such two-phase flows, we show that modifying the surfaces of the channel can help to stabilize the system when the continuous phase is a YSF. To do so, we measure the thickness of the film deposited on the channel wall for rough and smooth channels. Our results are rationalized by introducing the inverse of the Bingham number Bi-1 comparing the viscous stress to the yield stress. For Bi-1 ≥ 1, a fast fluidization process associated to efficient deposition of YSF on the channel wall leads to a rapid destabilization of bubble production. However, for Bi-1 < 1, the deposition driven by capillarity can be hindered by the wall-slip induced by the existence of the yield stress: the thickness of the deposited film is very thin and corresponds to the equivalent roughness of the channels. It is typically 40 μm thick for rough surfaces and below the limit of resolution of our set-up for smooth surfaces. In this regime of Bi-1 and for smooth surfaces, the length of the plugs barely vanishes, thus the start-up flow is less prone to destabilization. These results therefore potentially open routes to steady production of aerated YSF on smooth channels in the regime of
Bubble transport in bifurcations
Bull, Joseph; Qamar, Adnan
2017-11-01
Motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment, we examine the transport of bubbles entrained in liquid. In gas embolotherapy, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that originate from acoustic vaporization of vascular droplets. In the case of non-functionalized droplets with the objective of vessel occlusion, the bubbles are transported by flow through vessel bifurcations, where they may split prior to eventually reach vessels small enough that they become lodged. This splitting behavior affects the distribution of bubbles and the efficacy of flow occlusion and the treatment. In these studies, we investigated bubble transport in bifurcations using computational and theoretical modeling. The model reproduces the variety of experimentally observed splitting behaviors. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The initial bubble length was found to affect the splitting behavior in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.
Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Fumio
1980-01-01
This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasser, H. M.; Beyer, M.; Boettger, A.; Carl, H.; Lucas, D.; Schaffrath, A.; Schutz, P.; Weiss, F. P.; Zschau, J.
2003-01-01
Two-phase flow tests in a 194.1 mm diameter vertical pipe (DN200) with an air-water mixture are reported. Close to the upper end of a 9 m tall test section a wire-mesh sensor is installed that delivers instantaneous void fraction distributions over the entire cross section with time resolution of 2500 frames per second. The sensor disposes of 64 x 64 measuring points, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 mm. Beside an fast flow visualisations, void-fraction profiles and bubble size distributions were obtained. Earlier, similar experiments were carried out in a pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter (DN50). A comparison of the data from the two different facilities allows to study the scaling effects on void fraction profiles, bubbles size distributions and the flow patterns. In the small pipe, the increase of the air flow rate leads to a transition from bubbly via slug to churn turbulent flow. The transition to slug flow is accompanied by the appearance of a second peak in the bubble size distribution that corresponds to the class of large Taylor bubbles. A similar qualitative behaviour was found in the large pipe, though the large bubble fraction has a significantly bigger mean diameter at identical superficial velocities, the peak is less tall but wider. Bubbles move more freely than in the small pipe, since the confining action of the pipe walls to the flow is less pronounced, while the large Taylor bubbles occupy almost the entire cross section in case of the small pipe. Furthermore, the bubbles show much more deformations in the large pipe. Shapes of such large bubbles were characterised in three dimensions for the first time. They can rather be complicated and far from the shape of ideal Taylor bubbles. Also the small bubble fraction tends to bigger sizes in the large pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benkenida, Adlene
1999-01-01
This work is devoted to the development and the use of a numerical code aimed to compute complex two-phase flows in which the topology of the interfaces evolves in time. The solution strategy makes use of a fixed grid on which interfaces evolve freely. The governing equations of the model (one-fluid model) are obtained by adding the local, instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations of each phase after a spatial filtering. The use of an Eulerian approach yields difficulties in estimating several of the two-phase quantities, especially the viscous stress tensor. This problem is overcome by deriving and validating an expression of the stress tensor valid for any Eulerian treatment and whatever the orientation of the interfaces with respect to the grid. To simplify the governing equations of the model, it is assumed that no phase change occurs, that no local slip exists between both phases, and that no small-scale turbulence is present. The possibility to remove some of these hypotheses is discussed, especially with the future aim of developing a large-eddy simulation approach of two-phase flows in which the motion and the effects of small-scale two-phase structures could be taken into account. Interface transport is performed by using a FCT front capturing method without any interface reconstruction procedure. It is shown through several tests that the version of Zalesak's (1979) algorithm in which each direction is treated independently yields the best results, even though a tendency for interfacial regions to thicken artificially is observed in regions with high stretching rates.The code is validated by performing simulations on some simple two-phase flows and by comparing numerical results with available analytical solutions, experiments, or previous computations. Among the results of these tests, those concerning the bouncing of a bubble on a rigid wall are the most original and shed new light on this phenomenon, especially by revealing the time evolution of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemonnier, H.; Nakach, R.; Favreau, C.; Selmer-Olsen, S.
1989-01-01
Impedance void meters are frequently used to measure area-averaged void fraction in pipes. This is primarily due to two reasons: first, this method is non-intrusive since the measurement can be done from electrodes flush mounted in the walls, and second, the signal processing equipment is simple. Impedance probes may be calibrated by using a pressure drop measurement or quick closing valves system and low attention is generally paid to void distribution effects. It can be proved that in annular flow, the departure from radial symmetry has a strong influence on the measured mean film thickness. This can be easily demonstrated by solving the Laplace equation for the electrical potential by simple analytical methods. When some spatial symmetry conditions are encountered, it is possible to calculate directly the conductance of the two-phase medium without calculating completely the potential. A solution of this problem by using the separation of variable technique is also presented. There, the main difficulty is due to the mixity of the boundary conditions: the boundary condition is both Neumann and Dirichlet type on the same coordinate curve. This formulation leads to a non-separable problem which is solved by truncating an infinite algebraic set of linear equations. (orig.)
Development and validation of models for bubble coalescence and breakup
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Yiaxiang
2013-10-08
A generalized model for bubble coalescence and breakup has been developed, which is based on a comprehensive survey of existing theories and models. One important feature of the model is that all important mechanisms leading to bubble coalescence and breakup in a turbulent gas-liquid flow are considered. The new model is tested extensively in a 1D Test Solver and a 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX for the case of vertical gas-liquid pipe flow under adiabatic conditions, respectively. Two kinds of extensions of the standard multi-fluid model, i.e. the discrete population model and the inhomogeneous MUSIG (multiple-size group) model, are available in the two solvers, respectively. These extensions with suitable closure models such as those for coalescence and breakup are able to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution in dispersed flows and to overcome the mono-dispersed flow limitation of the standard multi-fluid model. For the validation of the model the high quality database of the TOPFLOW L12 experiments for air-water flow in a vertical pipe was employed. A wide range of test points, which cover the bubbly flow, turbulent-churn flow as well as the transition regime, is involved in the simulations. The comparison between the simulated results such as bubble size distribution, gas velocity and volume fraction and the measured ones indicates a generally good agreement for all selected test points. As the superficial gas velocity increases, bubble size distribution evolves via coalescence dominant regimes first, then breakup-dominant regimes and finally turns into a bimodal distribution. The tendency of the evolution is well reproduced by the model. However, the tendency is almost always overestimated, i.e. too much coalescence in the coalescence dominant case while too much breakup in breakup dominant ones. The reason of this problem is discussed by studying the contribution of each coalescence and breakup mechanism at different test points. The redistribution of the
Development and validation of models for bubble coalescence and breakup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Yiaxiang
2013-01-01
A generalized model for bubble coalescence and breakup has been developed, which is based on a comprehensive survey of existing theories and models. One important feature of the model is that all important mechanisms leading to bubble coalescence and breakup in a turbulent gas-liquid flow are considered. The new model is tested extensively in a 1D Test Solver and a 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX for the case of vertical gas-liquid pipe flow under adiabatic conditions, respectively. Two kinds of extensions of the standard multi-fluid model, i.e. the discrete population model and the inhomogeneous MUSIG (multiple-size group) model, are available in the two solvers, respectively. These extensions with suitable closure models such as those for coalescence and breakup are able to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution in dispersed flows and to overcome the mono-dispersed flow limitation of the standard multi-fluid model. For the validation of the model the high quality database of the TOPFLOW L12 experiments for air-water flow in a vertical pipe was employed. A wide range of test points, which cover the bubbly flow, turbulent-churn flow as well as the transition regime, is involved in the simulations. The comparison between the simulated results such as bubble size distribution, gas velocity and volume fraction and the measured ones indicates a generally good agreement for all selected test points. As the superficial gas velocity increases, bubble size distribution evolves via coalescence dominant regimes first, then breakup-dominant regimes and finally turns into a bimodal distribution. The tendency of the evolution is well reproduced by the model. However, the tendency is almost always overestimated, i.e. too much coalescence in the coalescence dominant case while too much breakup in breakup dominant ones. The reason of this problem is discussed by studying the contribution of each coalescence and breakup mechanism at different test points. The redistribution of the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Højbjerre Larsen, Signe
, a new concept called ‘Bubbles & Squat’, where fitness training is combined with Champagne and a live DJ. One of the invitations for this event describes how “we spice up your friday training with live DJ and lots of refreshing bubbles, to make sure that you are ready for the weekend (...).” Before New...
Zhan, Shuiqing; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Zhentao; Yang, Jianhong
2018-02-01
The effects of different cell design and operating parameters on the gas-liquid two-phase flows and bubble distribution characteristics under the anode bottom regions in aluminum electrolysis cells were analyzed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-population balance model. These parameters include inter-anode channel width, anode-cathode distance (ACD), anode width and length, current density, and electrolyte depth. The simulations results show that the inter-anode channel width has no significant effect on the gas volume fraction, electrolyte velocity, and bubble size. With increasing ACD, the above values decrease and more uniform bubbles can be obtained. Different effects of the anode width and length can be concluded in different cell regions. With increasing current density, the gas volume fraction and electrolyte velocity increase, but the bubble size keeps nearly the same. Increasing electrolyte depth decreased the gas volume fraction and bubble size in particular areas and the electrolyte velocity increased.
Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew B. Wardlaw
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muñoz-Cobo, José L.; Chiva, Sergio; Essa, Mohamed Ali Abd El Aziz; Mendes, Santos
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We have simulated bubbly flow in vertical pipes by coupling a Lagrangian model to an Eulerian one, and to a 3D random walk model. ► A set of experiments in a vertical column with isothermal co-current two phase flow have been performed and used to validate the previous model. ► We have investigated the influence of the turbulence induced by the bubbles on the results. ► Comparison of experimental and computed results has been performed for different boundary conditions. - Abstract: A set of two phase flow experiments for different conditions ranging from bubbly flow to cap/slug flow have been performed under isothermal concurrent upward air–water flow conditions in a vertical column of 3 m height. Special attention in these experiments was devoted to the transition from bubbly to cap/slug flow. The interfacial velocity of the bubbles and the void fraction distribution was obtained using 2 and 4 sensors conductivity probes. Numerical simulations of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions were performed by coupling a Lagrangian code with an Eulerian one. The first one tracks the 3D motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates (r, φ, z) inside the fluid field under the action of the following forces: buoyancy, drag, lift, wall lubrication. Also we have incorporated a 3D stochastic differential equation model to account for the random motion of the individual bubbles in the turbulent velocity field of the carrier liquid. Also we have considered the deformations undergone by the bubbles when they touch the walls of the pipe and are compressed until they rebound. The velocity and turbulence fields of the liquid phase were computed by solving the time dependent conservation equations in its Reynolds Averaged Transport Equation form (RANS). The turbulent kinetic energy k, and the dissipation rate ε transport equations were simultaneously solved using the k, epsilon model in a (r, z) grid by the finite volume method and the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimura, Koki; Minato, Daiju; Sato, Yohei; Hishida, Koichi
2004-01-01
The objective of the present study is to obtain detailed information on the effects of bubbles on modification of turbulent structure by time-series measurements using a high speed time-resolved PIV. The experiments were carried out in a fully-developed vertical pipe with upflow of water at the Reynolds number of 9700 and the void fraction of 0.5%. It is observed that turbulence production was decreased and the dissipation rate was enhanced in the whole domain. We analyzed the effects of bubbles on modification of the energy cascade process from power spectra of velocity fluctuation of the continuous phase. (author)
Experimental study on flow pattern transitions for inclined two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Nam Yee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
In this paper, experimental data on flow pattern transition of inclination angles from 0-90 are presented. A test section is constructed 2 mm long and I.D 1inch using transparent material. The test section is supported by aluminum frame that can be placed with any arbitrary inclined angles. The air-water two-phase flow is observed at room temperature and atmospheric condition using both high speed camera and void impedance meter. The signal is sampled with sampling rate 1kHz and is analyzed under fully-developed condition. Based on experimental data, flow pattern maps are made for various inclination angles. As increasing the inclination angels from 0 to 90, the flow pattern transitions on the plane jg-jf are changed, such as stratified flow to plug flow or slug flow or plug flow to bubbly flow. The transition lines between pattern regimes are moved or sometimes disappeared due to its inclined angle.
Assessment of theoretical flow pattern maps for vertical upward two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khare, Rajesh; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Venkat Raj, V.
1997-04-01
Taitel-Dukler (1980), Mishima-Ishii (1984) and Solbrig (1986) flow pattern maps have been assessed against an experimental data bank compiled from different sources. The data bank consisted of a total of 1411 data points with 368 bubbly, 474 slug/churn and 545 annular flow points, the rest being transition points. The data bank consisted of mainly steam water data; some amount of air-water data are included as there were no steam-water data at low pressure ( gs - U ls plane. (author)
Herbst, Daniel P
2017-03-01
Conventional arterial-line filters commonly use a large volume circular shaped housing, a wetted micropore screen, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove gas bubbles from extracorporeal blood flow. Focusing on the bubble trapping function, this work attempts to explore how the filter housing shape and its resulting blood flow path affect the clinical application of arterial-line filters in terms of gross air handling. A video camera was used in a wet-lab setting to record observations made during gross air-bolus injections in three different radially designed filters using a 30-70% glycerol-saline mixture flowing at 4.5 L/min. Two of the filters both had inlet ports attached near the filter-housing top with bottom oriented outlet ports at the bottom, whereas the third filter had its inlet and outlet ports both located at the bottom of the filter housing. The two filters with top-in bottom-out fluid paths were shown to direct the incoming flow downward as it passed through the filter, placing the forces of buoyancy and viscous drag in opposition to each other. This contrasted with the third filter's bottom-in bottom-out fluid path, which was shown to direct the incoming flow upward so that the forces of buoyancy and viscous drag work together. The direction of the blood flow path through a filter may be important to the application of arterial-line filter technology as it helps determine how the forces of buoyancy and flow are aligned with one another.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pellacani, F.; Macian, R.; Chiva, S.; Pena, C.
2011-01-01
In this paper upward, isothermal and turbulent bubbly flow in tubes is numerically modeled by using ANSYS CFX 12.1 with the aim of creating a basis for the reliable simulation of the flow along a vertical channel in a nuclear reactor as long term goal. Two approaches based on the mono-dispersed model and on the one-group Interfacial Area Transport Equation (IATE) model are used in order to maintain the computational effort as low as possible. This work represents the necessary step to implement a two-group interfacial area transport equation that will be able to dynamically represent the changes in interfacial structure in the transition region from bubbly to slug flow. The drag coefficient is calculated using the Grace model and the interfacial non-drag forces are also included. The Antal model is used for the calculation of the wall lubrication force coefficient. The lift force coefficient is obtained from the Tomiyama model. The turbulent dispersion force is taken into account and is modeled using the FAD (Favre averaged drag) approach, while the turbulence transfer is simulated with the Sato's model. The liquid velocity is in the range between 0.5 and 2 m/s and the average void fraction varies between 5 and 15%.The source and sink terms for break-up and coalescence needed for the calculation of the implemented Interfacial Area Density are those proposed by Yao and Morel. The model has been checked using experimental results by Mendez. Radial profile distributions of void fraction, interfacial area density and bubble mean diameter are shown at the axial position equivalent to z/D=56. The results obtained by the simulations have a good agreement with the experimental data but show also the need of a better study of the coalescence and breakup phenomena to develop more accurate interaction models. (author)
Bhatti, A; Khan, J; Murki, S; Sundaram, V; Saini, S S; Kumar, P
2015-11-01
To compare the failure rates between Jet continuous positive airway pressure device (J-CPAP-variable flow) and Bubble continuous positive airway device (B-CPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress. Preterm newborns CPAP (a variable flow device) or B-CPAP (continuous flow device). A standardized protocol was followed for titration, weaning and removal of CPAP. Pressure was monitored close to the nares in both the devices every 6 hours and settings were adjusted to provide desired CPAP. The primary outcome was CPAP failure rate within 72 h of life. Secondary outcomes were CPAP failure within 7 days of life, need for surfactant post-randomization, time to CPAP failure, duration of CPAP and complications of prematurity. An intention to treat analysis was done. One-hundred seventy neonates were randomized, 80 to J-CPAP and 90 to B-CPAP. CPAP failure rates within 72 h were similar in infants who received J-CPAP and in those who received B-CPAP (29 versus 21%; relative risks 1.4 (0.8 to 2.3), P=0.25). Mean (95% confidence intervals) time to CPAP failure was 59 h (54 to 64) in the Jet CPAP group in comparison with 65 h (62 to 68) in the Bubble CPAP group (log rank P=0.19). All other secondary outcomes were similar between the two groups. In preterm infants with respiratory distress starting within 6 h of life, CPAP failure rates were similar with Jet CPAP and Bubble CPAP.
High-frame rate imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel using fast neutrons.
Zboray, R; Mor, I; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R
2014-08-01
We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 ms exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and mean bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1993-10-15
Bubble chambers may have almost vanished from the front line of physics research, but the vivid memory of their intricate and sometimes beautiful patterns of particle tracks lives on, and has greatly influenced the computer graphics of track reconstruction in today's big experiments. 'Seeing' an interaction makes it more understandable. Bubble chambers, with their big collaborations of physicists from many widely scattered research institutes, started another ball rolling. The groups formed are even now only surpassed in size by the big collaborations working on today's major detectors at colliding beam machines. From 14-16 July, about 130 physicists gathered at CERN to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the invention of the bubble chamber by Donald Glaser. The meeting, organized by Derek C. Colley from Birmingham, gave a comprehensive overview of bubble chamber contributions to physics, their challenging technology, and the usefulness of bubble chamber photographs in education, both for physics and the public at large. After opening remarks by CERN Director Carlo Rubbia, Donald Glaser began with a brief review of the work which led to his invention - there was much more to it than idly watching beer bubbles rise up the wall of the glass - before turning to his present line of research, biophysics, also very visually oriented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
Bubble chambers may have almost vanished from the front line of physics research, but the vivid memory of their intricate and sometimes beautiful patterns of particle tracks lives on, and has greatly influenced the computer graphics of track reconstruction in today's big experiments. 'Seeing' an interaction makes it more understandable. Bubble chambers, with their big collaborations of physicists from many widely scattered research institutes, started another ball rolling. The groups formed are even now only surpassed in size by the big collaborations working on today's major detectors at colliding beam machines. From 14-16 July, about 130 physicists gathered at CERN to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the invention of the bubble chamber by Donald Glaser. The meeting, organized by Derek C. Colley from Birmingham, gave a comprehensive overview of bubble chamber contributions to physics, their challenging technology, and the usefulness of bubble chamber photographs in education, both for physics and the public at large. After opening remarks by CERN Director Carlo Rubbia, Donald Glaser began with a brief review of the work which led to his invention - there was much more to it than idly watching beer bubbles rise up the wall of the glass - before turning to his present line of research, biophysics, also very visually oriented
Two-phase cross-flow-induced forces acting on a circular cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, F.
1982-01-01
This paper clarifies the characteristics of unsteady flow-induced lift and drag forces acting on a circular cylinder immersed perpendicular to a two-phase bubbly air-water flow, in conjunction with Karman vortex shedding and pressure fluctuations. Experimental results presented show that Karman vortex shedding disappears over a certain value of air concentration in the two-phase flow. Related to this disappearance, flow-induced forces are rather small and periodical in low air concentration but become very large and random in higher air concentration. 7 refs
Microstreaming from Sessile Semicylindrical Bubbles
Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Guo, Lin; Wang, Cheng
2014-03-01
Powerful steady streaming flows result from the ultrasonic driving of microbubbles, in particular when these bubbles have semicylindrical cross section and are positioned in contact with a microfluidic channel wall. We have used this streaming in experiment to develop novel methods for trapping and sorting of microparticles by size, as well as for micromixing. Theoretically, we arrive at an analytical description of the streaming flow field through an asymptotic computation that, for the first time, reconciles the boundary layers around the bubble and along the substrate wall, and also takes into account the oscillation modes of the bubble. This approach gives insight into changes in the streaming pattern with bubble size and driving frequency, including a reversal of the flow direction at high frequencies with potentially useful applications. Present address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri S &T.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Hongtao; Liu, Bingbing; Yan, Yuying
2017-01-01
A bubble pump is proposed to replace the traditional mechanical solution pump in lithium bromide absorption chillers, for its advantageous feature that can be driven by industrial waste heat or solar energy or other low-grade energy. In two-stage bubble pump driven lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system, flow patterns in lifting pipe have significant effects on the performance of bubble pump. In this paper, the single bubble motion and the double bubbles coalescence in vertical ascending pipe are simulated by an improved free energy model of lattice Boltzmann method, in which the two-phase liquid to gas density ratio is 2778. The details of bubbles coalescence process are studied. Density and velocity of bubbles have been obtained. The computational results show that the initial radius of each bubble has a great influence on the coalescence time. The larger the initial bubble radius, the shorter the coalescence time. The pipe diameter has a little effect on the two bubbles coalescence time while it has a significant effect on the bubble velocity. As the pipe diameter increases, the bubble velocity increases. The obtained results are helpful for studying the transition mechanisms of two-phase flow patterns and useful for improving the bubble pump performance by controlling the flow patterns in lifting pipe.
Bubble dynamics equations in Newton fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, J
2008-01-01
For the high-speed flow of Newton fluid, bubble is produced and expanded when it moves toward the surface of fluid. Bubble dynamics is a very important research field to understand the intrinsic feature of bubble production and motion. This research formulates the bubble expansion by expansion-local rotation transformation, which can be calculated by the measured velocity field. Then, the related dynamic equations are established to describe the interaction between the fluid and the bubble. The research shows that the bubble production condition can be expressed by critical vortex value and fluid pressure; and the bubble expansion rate can be obtained by solving the non-linear dynamic equation of bubble motion. The results may help the related research as it shows a special kind of fluid motion in theoretic sense. As an application example, the nanofiber radium-voltage relation and threshold voltage-surface tension relation in electrospinning process are discussed
Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column
Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian
2016-11-01
While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Y.; Lucas, D.
2013-02-15
A new generalized model for bubble coalescence and breakup has been developed. It is based on physical considerations and takes into account various mechanisms that can lead to bubble coalescence and breakup. First, in a detailed literature review, the available models were compiled and analyzed. It turned out that many of them show a contradictory behaviour. None of these models allows the prediction of the evolution of bubble size distributions along a pipe flow for a wide range of combinations of flow rates of the gas and the liquid phase. The new model has been extensively studied in a simplified Test-Solver. Although this does not cover all details of a developing flow along the pipe, it allows - in contrast to a CFD code - to conduct a large number of variational calculations to investigate the influence of individual sizes and models. Coalescence and breakup cannot be considered separately from other phenomena and models that reflect these phenomena. There are close interactions with the turbulence of the liquid phase and the momentum exchange between phases. Since the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy is a direct input parameter for the new model, the turbulence modelling has been studied very carefully. To validate the model, a special experimental series for air-water flows was used, conducted at the TOPFLOW facility in an 8-meter long DN200 pipe. The data are characterized by high quality and were produced within the TOPFLOW-II project. The test series aims to provide a basis for the work presented here. Predicting the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the pipe could be improved significantly in comparison to the previous standard models for bubble coalescence and breakup implemented in CFX. However some quantitative discrepancies remain. The full model equations as well as an implementation as ''User-FORTRAN'' in CFX are available and can be used for further work on the simulation of poly-disperse bubbly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astefanesei, Dumitru; Mann, Robert B.; Stelea, Cristian
2006-01-01
We construct new explicit solutions of general relativity from double analytic continuations of Taub-NUT spacetimes. This generalizes previous studies of 4-dimensional nutty bubbles. One 5-dimensional locally asymptotically AdS solution in particular has a special conformal boundary structure of AdS 3 x S 1 . We compute its boundary stress tensor and relate it to the properties of the dual field theory. Interestingly enough, we also find consistent 6-dimensional bubble solutions that have only one timelike direction. The existence of such spacetimes with non-trivial topology is closely related to the existence of the Taub-NUT(-AdS) solutions with more than one NUT charge. Finally, we begin an investigation of generating new solutions from Taub-NUT spacetimes and nuttier bubbles. Using the so-called Hopf duality, we provide new explicit time-dependent backgrounds in six dimensions
Investigation of vertical slug flow with advanced two-phase flow instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mi, Y.; Ishii, M.; Tsoukalas, L.H.
2001-01-01
Extensive experiments of vertical slug flow were carried out with an electromagnetic flowmeter and an impedance void-meter in an air-water two-phase experimental loop. The basic principles of these instruments in vertical slug flow measurements are discussed. Time series of the liquid velocity and the impedance were separated into two parts corresponding to the Taylor bubble and the liquid slug. Characteristics of slug flow, such as the void fractions, probabilities and lengths of the Taylor bubble and liquid slug, slug unit velocity, area-averaged liquid velocity, and liquid film velocity of the Taylor bubble tail, etc., were obtained. For the first time, the area-averaged liquid velocity of slug flow was revealed by the electromagnetic flowmeter. It is realized that the void fraction of the liquid slug is determined by the turbulent intensity due to the relative liquid motion between the Taylor bubble tail region and its wake region. A correlation of the void fraction of the liquid slug is developed based on experimental results obtained from a test section with 50.8 mm i.d. The results of this study suggest a promising improvement in understanding of vertical slug flow
Fluid-elastic vibration in two-phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasakawa, T.; Serizawa, A.; Kawara, Z.
2003-01-01
The present work aims at clarifying the mechanisms of fluid elastic vibration of tube bundles in two-phase cross flow. The experiment is conducted using air-water two-phase flow under atmospheric pressure. The test section is a 1.03m long transparent acrylic square duct with 128 x 128 mm 2 cross section, which consists of 3 rod-rows with 5 rods in each row. The rods are 125mm long aluminum rods with 22 mm in diameter (p/D=1.45). The natural frequency of rod vibration is about 30Hz. The result indicated a diversion of observed trend in vibration behavior depending on two-phase flow patterns either bubbly flow or churn flow. Specifically, in churn flow, the fluid elastic vibration has been observed to occur when the frequency in void fraction fluctuation approached to the natural frequency of the rods, but this was not the case in fluid elastic vibration in bubbly flow. This fact suggests the existence of mechanisms closely coupled with two-phase flow structures depending on the flow patterns, that is, static two-phase character-controlled mechanism in bubbly flow and dynamic character- controlled in churn flow
Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier
2012-01-01
Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.
Development of two-group interfacial area transport equation for confined flow-2. Model evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Xiaodong; Kim, Seungjin; Ishii, Mamoru; Beus, Stephen G.
2003-01-01
The bubble interaction mechanisms have been analytically modeled in the first paper of this series to provide mechanistic constitutive relations for the two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE), which was proposed to dynamically solve the interfacial area concentration in the two-fluid model. This paper presents the evaluation approach and results of the two-group IATE based on available experimental data obtained in confined flow, namely, 11 data sets in or near bubbly flow and 13 sets in cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow. The two-group IATE is evaluated in steady state, one-dimensional form. Also, since the experiments were performed under adiabatic, air-water two-phase flow conditions, the phase change effect is omitted in the evaluation. To account for the inter-group bubble transport, the void fraction transport equation for Group-2 bubbles is also used to predict the void fraction for Group-2 bubbles. Agreement between the data and the model predictions is reasonably good and the average relative difference for the total interfacial area concentration between the 24 data sets and predictions is within 7%. The model evaluation demonstrates the capability of the two-group IATE focused on the current confined flow to predict the interfacial area concentration over a wide range of flow regimes. (author)
The Minnaert bubble: an acoustic approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devaud, Martin; Hocquet, Thierry; Bacri, Jean-Claude [Laboratoire Matiere et Systemes Complexes, Universite Paris Diderot and CNRS UMR 7057, 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, Universite Paris 7 and CNRS UMR 7587, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: martin.devaud@univ-paris-diderot.fr
2008-11-15
We propose an ab initio introduction to the well-known Minnaert pulsating bubble at graduate level. After a brief recall of the standard stuff, we begin with a detailed discussion of the radial movements of an air bubble in water. This discussion is managed from an acoustic point of view, and using the Lagrangian rather than the Eulerian variables. In unbounded water, the air-water system has a continuum of eigenmodes, some of them correspond to regular Fabry-Perot resonances. A singular resonance, the lowest one, is shown to coincide with that of Minnaert. In bounded water, the eigenmodes spectrum is discrete, with a finite fundamental frequency. A spectacular quasi-locking of the latter occurs if it happens to exceed the Minnaert frequency, which provides an unforeseen one-bubble alternative version of the famous 'hot chocolate effect'. In the (low) frequency domain in which sound propagation inside the bubble reduces to a simple 'breathing' (i.e. inflation/deflation), the light air bubble can be 'dressed' by the outer water pressure forces, and is turned into the heavy Minnaert bubble. Thanks to this unexpected renormalization process, we demonstrate that the Minnaert bubble definitely behaves like a true harmonic oscillator of the spring-bob type, but with a damping term and a forcing term in apparent disagreement with those commonly admitted in the literature. Finally, we underline the double role played by the water. In order to tell the water motion associated with water compressibility (i.e. the sound) from the simple incompressible accompaniment of the bubble breathing, we introduce a new picture analogous to the electromagnetic radiative picture in Coulomb gauge, which naturally leads us to split the water displacement in an instantaneous and a retarded part. The Minnaert renormalized mass of the dressed bubble is then automatically recovered.
A review on rising bubble dynamics in viscosity-stratified fluids
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kirti Chandra Sahu
Multiphase flow; non-Newtonian; immiscible fluids; bubbles; numerical simulations. 1. Introduction. The fluid dynamics of a gas bubble rising due to buoyancy in a surrounding .... Figure 2. Behaviour of a single bubble rising in quiescent liquid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Broučková Zuzana
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This study introduces two physical effects known from beverages: the effect of sinking bubbles and the hot chocolate sound effect. The paper presents two simple „kitchen” experiments. The first and second effects are indicated by means of a flow visualization and microphone measurement, respectively. To quantify the second (acoustic effect, sound records are analyzed using time-frequency signal processing, and the obtained power spectra and spectrograms are discussed.
Broučková, Zuzana; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Šafařík, Pavel
2014-03-01
This study introduces two physical effects known from beverages: the effect of sinking bubbles and the hot chocolate sound effect. The paper presents two simple "kitchen" experiments. The first and second effects are indicated by means of a flow visualization and microphone measurement, respectively. To quantify the second (acoustic) effect, sound records are analyzed using time-frequency signal processing, and the obtained power spectra and spectrograms are discussed.
Radionuclides in air, water, and biota
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.
1977-01-01
Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection
A comparison study of exploding a Cu wire in air, water, and solid powders
Han, Ruoyu; Wu, Jiawei; Ding, Weidong; Zhou, Haibin; Qiu, Aici; Wang, Yanan
2017-11-01
In this paper, an experimental study on exploding a copper wire in air, water, incombustible powders, and energetic materials is performed. We examined the effects of the surrounding media on the explosion process and its related phenomena. Experiments were first carried out with copper wire explosions driven by microsecond timescale pulsed currents in air, water, and the half-half case. Then, the copper wires were exploded in air, water, SiO2 powders, quartz sand, NaCl powders, and energetic-material cylinders, respectively. Our experimental results indicated that the explosion process was significantly influenced by the surrounding media, resulting in noticeable differences in energy deposition, optical emission, and shock waves. In particular, incombustible powders could throttle the current flow completely when a fine wire was adopted. We also found that an air or incombustible-powder layer could drastically attenuate the shock wave generated by a wire explosion. As for energetic-material loads, obvious discrepancies were found in voltage/current waveforms from vaporization when compared with a wire explosion in air/water, which meant the metal vapor/liquid drops play a significant role in the ignition process.
Simulation of Two-Phase Natural Circulation Loop for Core Cather Cooling Using Air Water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Revankar, S. T.; Huang, S. F.; Song, K. W.; Rhee, B. W.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.
2012-01-01
A closed loop natural circulation system employs thermally induced density gradients in single phase or two-phase liquid form to induce circulation of the working fluid thereby obviating the need for any mechanical moving parts such as pumps and pump controls. This increases the reliability and safety of the cooling system and reduces installation, operation and maintenance costs. That is the reason natural circulation cooling has been considered in advanced reactor core cooling and in engineered safety systems. Natural circulation cooling has been proposed to remove reactor decay heat by external vessel cooling for in-vessel core retention during sever accident scenario. Recently in APR1400 reactor core catcher design natural circulation cooling is proposed to stabilize and cool the corium ejected from the reactor vessel following core melt and breach of reactor vessel. The natural circulation flow is similar to external vessel cooling where water flows through an inclined narrow gap below hot surface and is heated to produce boiling. The two-phase natural circulation enables cooling of the corium pool collected on core catcher. Due to importance of this problem this paper focuses simulation of the two-phase natural circulation through inclined gap using air-water system. Scaling criteria for air-water loop are derived that enable simulation of the flow regimes and natural circulation flow rates in such systems using air-water system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yassin Hassan
2001-01-01
Develop a state-of-the-art non-intrusive diagnostic tool to perform simultaneous measurements of both the temporal and three-dimensional spatial velocity of the two phases of a bubbly flow. These measurements are required to provide a foundation for studying the constitutive closure relations needed in computational fluid dynamics and best-estimate thermal hydraulic codes employed in nuclear reactor safety analysis and severe accident simulation. Such kinds of full-field measurements are not achievable through the commonly used point-measurement techniques, such as hot wire, conductance probe, laser Doppler anemometry, etc. The results can also be used in several other applications, such as the dynamic transport of pollutants in water or studies of the dispersion of hazardous waste
Heat transfer and pressure drop for air-water mixtures in an isoflux vertical annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, M.; El-Sallak, M.; Morcos, S.M.; Salama, A.
1996-01-01
Heat transfer and pressure drop in flows of air-water mixtures have been investigated experimentally in an isoflux vertical annulus. The superficial liquid Reynolds number, as a reference parameter, varied from 4500 to 30 000, at different values of gas-to-liquid superficial velocity ratios up to 20 and surface heat fluxes from 50 to 240 kW/m 2 . Enhancement of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient is pronounced particularly at low liquid superficial velocities. The results are correlated and compared with some models of two-phase, two-component flows for air-water mixtures within their range of validity. Satisfactory agreement is obtained from the trend of the experimental data. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pellacani, Filippo
2012-01-01
A local mechanistic model for bubble coalescence and breakup for the one-group interfacial area transport equation has been developed, in agreement and within the limits of the current understanding, based on an exhaustive survey of the theory and of the state of the art models for bubble dynamics simulation. The new model has been tested using the commercial 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX. Upward adiabatic turbulent air-water bubbly flow has been simulated and the results have been compared with the data obtained in the experimental facility PUMA. The range of the experimental data available spans between 0.5 to 2 m/s liquid velocity and 5 to 15 % volume fraction. For the implementation of the models, both the monodispersed and the interfacial area transport equation approaches have been used. The first one to perform a detailed analysis of the forces and models to reproduce the dynamic of the dispersed phase adequately and to be used in the next phases of the work. Also two different bubble induced turbulence models have been tested to consider the effect of the presence of the gas phase on the turbulence of the liquid phase. The interfacial area transport equation has been successfully implemented into the CFD code and the state of the art breakup and coalescence models have been used for simulation. The limitations of the actual theory have been shown and a new bubble interactions model has been developed. The simulations showed that a considerable improvement is achieved if compared to the state of the art closure models. Limits in the implementation derive from the actual understanding and formulation of the bubbly dynamics. A strong dependency on the interfacial non-drag force models and coefficients have been shown. More experimental and theory work needs to be done in this field to increase the prediction capability of the simulation tools regarding the distribution of the phases along the pipe radius.
Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?
Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin
2015-11-01
As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.
Analysis of gas-liquid metal two-phase flows using a reactor safety analysis code SIMMER-III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Kondo, Satoru; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro
2003-01-01
SIMMER-III, a safety analysis code for liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), includes a momentum exchange model based on conventional correlations for ordinary gas-liquid flows, such as an air-water system. From the viewpoint of safety evaluation of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) in LMFRs, we need to confirm that the code can predict the two-phase flow behaviors with high liquid-to-gas density ratios formed during a CDA. In the present study, the momentum exchange model of SIMMER-III was assessed and improved using experimental data of two-phase flows containing liquid metal, on which fundamental information, such as bubble shapes, void fractions and velocity fields, has been lacking. It was found that the original SIMMER-III can suitably represent high liquid-to-gas density ratio flows including ellipsoidal bubbles as seen in lower gas fluxes. In addition, the employment of Kataoka-Ishii's correlation has improved the accuracy of SIMMER-III for gas-liquid metal flows with cap-shape bubbles as identified in higher gas fluxes. Moreover, a new procedure, in which an appropriate drag coefficient can be automatically selected according to bubble shape, was developed. Through this work, the reliability and the precision of SIMMER-III have been much raised with regard to bubbly flows for various liquid-to-gas density ratios
The on-line graph processing study on phase separation of two-phase flow in T-tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian Yong; Xu Jijun; Yang Zhilin; Chen Yifen
1997-01-01
The on-line graph processing measure system is equipped with and experimental study of phase separation of air-water bubbly flow in the horizontal T-junction is carried out. For the first time, the author have found and defined the new type of complete phase separation, by the visual experiment, which shows that under certain conditions, the air flow entering the T junction will flow into the run outlet completely, which had never been reported in the literature Also, the pressure wave feed back effect and the branch bubble flow reorganization effect were found and analyzed. The complexity of this phase separation phenomenon in the T junction has been further revealed via the on-line graph processing technology. Meanwhile the influences of the inlet mass flow rate W1, the inlet mass quality X1, and the mass extraction rate G3/G1 on phase separation were analyzed