WorldWideScience

Sample records for air-surface exchanges related

  1. Micrometeorological Measurements of Air-Surface Exchange Rates of PBTs in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, D. E.; Perlinger, J. A.; Morrow, P.

    2002-12-01

    The fate of persistent bioaccumulative toxic chemicals (PBTs) in the environment is controlled by their exchange with various aquatic and terrestrial surfaces. Many of the PBTs are semivolatile and present in the atmosphere almost entirely in the vapor phase. The rate of exchange of these vapor phase chemicals can be predicted from physicochemical properties of the chemical and the surface and the meteorological conditions during the exchange. However, field studies of the uptake of the PBTs are extremely limited or nonexistent making it difficult to evaluate the modeled transfer velocities. This presentation describes a novel method to directly measure air-surface exchange rates of PBTs above aquatic and terrestrial surfaces by the micrometeorological technique known as the modified Bowen ratio approach. Simultaneous measurements of the air temperature, water vapor content, windspeed, and the chemical species concentration at two heights above the surface are required to derive the transfer velocity of the chemical. Advanced techniques that minimize the number of sample preparation steps are required to make the two concentration measurements with adequate relative accuracy. To accomplish this task, ambient air is sampled with a multicapillary column and the analytes are directly desorbed into a high-resolution gas chromatograph for quantitation. This presentation will summarize preliminary measurements made in the near-shore region of Upper Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula on Lake Superior during the summer of 2001 and 2002.

  2. Processes of Ammonia Air-Surface Exchange in a Fertilized Zea Mays Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this advancement represents a sig...

  3. Air-surface exchange measurements of gaseous elemental mercury over naturally enriched and background terrestrial landscapes in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Edwards

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first gaseous elemental mercury (GEM air-surface exchange measurements obtained over naturally enriched and background (< 0.1 μg g−1 Hg terrestrial landscapes in Australia. Two pilot field studies were carried out during the Australian autumn and winter periods at a copper-gold-cobalt-arsenic-mercury mineral field near Pulganbar, NSW. GEM fluxes using a dynamic flux chamber approach were measured, along with controlling environmental parameters over three naturally enriched and three background substrates. The enriched sites results showed net emission to the atmosphere and a strong correlation between flux and substrate Hg concentration, with average fluxes ranging from 14 ± 1 ng m−2 h−1 to 113 ± 6 ng m−2 h−1. Measurements at background sites showed both emission and deposition. The average Hg flux from all background sites showed an overall net emission of 0.36 ± 0.06 ng m−2 h−1. Fluxes show strong relationships with temperature, radiation, and substrate parameters. A compensation point of 2.48, representative of bare soils was determined. Comparison of the Australian data to North American data confirmed the need for Australian specific mercury air-surface exchange data representative of Australia's unique climatic conditions, vegetation types, land use patterns, and soils.

  4. Measurement and scaling of air-surface mercury exchange from substrates in the vicinity of two Nevada gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S; Eckley, Chris S

    2011-09-01

    The state of Nevada has extensive mineral resources, and is the largest producer of gold in the USA as well as fourth in world gold production. Mercury (Hg) is often present in the hydrothermal systems that produce gold deposits, and can be found in elevated concentrations in gold ore. As a result, mining of gold ore in Nevada has been shown to release Hg to the atmosphere from point and non-point sources. This project focused on measurement of air-soil Hg exchange associated with undisturbed soils and bedrock outcrops in the vicinity of two large gold mines. Field and laboratory data collected were used to identify the important variables controlling Hg flux from these surfaces, and to estimate a net flux from the areas adjacent to the active mines as well as that occurring from the mined area pre-disturbance. Mean daily flux by substrate type ranged from 9 ng m(-2) day(-1) to 140 ng m(-2) day(-1). Periods of net deposition of elemental Hg were observed when air masses originating from a mine site moved over sampling locations. Based on these observations and measured soil Hg concentrations we suggest that emissions from point and non-point sources at the mines are a source of Hg to the surrounding substrates with the amount deposited not being of an environmental concern but of interest mainly with respect to the cycling of atmospheric elemental Hg. Observations indicate that while some component of the deposited Hg is sequestered in the soil, this Hg is gradually released back to the atmosphere over time. Estimated pre-disturbance emissions from the current mine footprints based on field data were 0.1 and 1.7 kg yr(-1), compared to that estimated for the current non-point mining sources of 19 and 109 kg yr(-1), respectively.

  5. Air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury over permafrost soil: an investigation at a high-altitude (4700 m a.s.l.) and remote site in the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Peng, Fei; Xue, Xian; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2016-11-01

    The pattern of air-surface gaseous mercury (mainly Hg(0)) exchange in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) may be unique because this region is characterized by low temperature, great temperature variation, intensive solar radiation, and pronounced freeze-thaw process of permafrost soils. However, the air-surface Hg(0) flux in the QTP is poorly investigated. In this study, we performed field measurements and controlled field experiments with dynamic flux chambers technique to examine the flux, temporal variation and influencing factors of air-surface Hg(0) exchange at a high-altitude (4700 m a.s.l.) and remote site in the central QTP. The results of field measurements showed that surface soils were the net emission source of Hg(0) in the entire study (2.86 ng m-2 h-1 or 25.05 µg m-2 yr-1). Hg(0) flux showed remarkable seasonality with net high emission in the warm campaigns (June 2014: 4.95 ng m-2 h-1; September 2014: 5.16 ng m-2 h-1; and May-June 2015: 1.95 ng m-2 h-1) and net low deposition in the winter campaign (December 2014: -0.62 ng m-2 h-1) and also showed a diurnal pattern with emission in the daytime and deposition in nighttime, especially on days without precipitation. Rainfall events on the dry soils induced a large and immediate increase in Hg(0) emission. Snowfall events did not induce the pulse of Hg(0) emission, but snowmelt resulted in the immediate increase in Hg(0) emission. Daily Hg(0) fluxes on rainy or snowy days were higher than those of days without precipitation. Controlled field experiments suggested that water addition to dry soils significantly increased Hg(0) emission both on short (minutes) and relatively long (hours) timescales, and they also showed that UV radiation was primarily attributed to Hg(0) emission in the daytime. Our findings imply that a warm climate and environmental change could facilitate Hg release from the permafrost terrestrial ecosystem in the QTP.

  6. Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, James G.

    2006-07-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and. 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces.

  7. Investigation of the kinetic of air-surface exchange of mercury by means of elected enviromental variables; Aufklaerung der Kinetik des Boden-Luft-Transfers von Hg anhand ausgewaehlter Umweltparameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahlmann, E.

    2004-10-12

    The overall objective of this study was to elucidate the kinetics of mercury soil-atmosphere exchange and to clarify the effect of major environmental variables on the emission of mercury from soils. For this study a laboratory flux chamber system was developed, which allows for simulation and precise control of soil temperature, soil moisture light radiation and atmospheric turbulence which are known to have an overall strong effect on mercury emissions from soils. The emission of mercury from soils is controlled both by thermal and a photochemical mechanism. The results of this work reinforce the hypothesis that the thermal controlled emission of mercury is driven by the interfacial equilibrium of Hg between the soil matrix and the soil gas phase. The effect of soil temperature, soil texture and total mercury concentration in the soils can be expressed in terms of the Arrhenius equation, which is in agreement with the underlying assumptions of the Freundlich Isotherm. Soil moisture has an overall strong effect on the emission of mercury from soils, which is explained in terms of the soil moisture tension. This provides the first well founded hypothesis for the observed decrease of mercury emission fluxes over dry soils. The light induced emission of mercury from soils shows a strong spectral response in the UV-B and is independent of the soil temperature. This reveal clear evidence for photolytical reduction of divalent mercury species at the soil surface. The most probable mechanism includes the reduction of humic bound mercury species. The results of this work have been incorporated into a one-dimensional simulation model, which may provide a cornerstone in up scaling fluxes derived from field measurements and thus in improving estimations of emissions from naturally surfaces on local, global and regional scales. (orig.)

  8. Exchange Relation in sl3 WZNW model in Semiclassical Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Deguchi, Sho

    2014-01-01

    We consider the exchange relations of screened vertex operators in the sl3 Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten(WZNW) model in the semiclassical limit (where level k tends to infinity). We demonstrate that the coefficients of the exchange relations of the screened vertex operators coincide with the ones of the spider diagrams. The spider diagrams are composed of 3-point vertices, and differ from ordinary string diagrams.

  9. Categorization of exchange fluxes explains the four relational models

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Maroussia

    2013-01-01

    The theory of Relational Models (RMs) posits four elementary models of relationships governing all human interactions, singly or in combination: Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing. By considering two agents that can act in one out of three ways towards one another: give resource A, give resource B, or give nothing, we find four discrete categories of exchange fluxes that map unequivocally to the four RMs. This categorization shows that the RMs form an exhaustive set of all possible elementary exchanges. Hence, the fluxes categorization answers why there are just four RMs and explains their discreteness. By considering the costs associated with extracting resources, storing them and implementing each flux category, we are able to propose conditions under which each RM should evolve. We also logically deduce the singular nature of the Authority Ranking model. Our propositions are compatible with anthropological, ethnological and historical observations and can be tested a...

  10. Capacitively coupled nano conductors. Ratchet currents and exchange fluctuation relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Robert; Kohler, Sigmund [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We investigate electron transport in two quantum circuits with mutual Coulomb interaction. The first circuit is a double quantum dot connected to two electron reservoirs, while the second one is a quantum point contact in the weak tunneling limit. The coupling is such that an electron in the first circuit enhances the barrier of the point contact and, thus, reduces its conductivity. While such setups are frequently used as charge monitors, we focus on two different aspects. First, we derive transport coefficients which have recently been employed for testing generalized equilibrium conditions known as exchange fluctuation relations. These formally exact relations allow us to test the consistency of our master equation approach. Second, a biased point contact entails noise on the DQD and induces non-equilibrium phenomena such as a ratchet current. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. 77 FR 477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded...., permitting electronic submission of responses. Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded... solicits comments on rules related to risk disclosure concerning exchange traded commodity options....

  12. EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, J.C. (ed.)

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  13. Status Inequalities in Business Exchange Relations in Luxury Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pocock (Miriam)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis we examine purchase exchanges between high status buyers and suppliers of lower status in luxury markets. While extant literature has treated status inequalities as an objective distinction in status rank, Study 1 on boat builders presents a novel approach towards conc

  14. 77 FR 5778 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded... extension of the collection. The collection covers rules related to risk disclosure concerning exchange... INFORMATION: In the notice of Extension of an Existing Collection, FR Doc. 2011-33841, on page 477 in...

  15. Compassion and Grace: Spiritual Gifts and Relations of Exchange in Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    This paper is about gift-giving and relations of exchange in Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda. It focuses in particular on the moral discourses of providing assistance and help, of giving, and sharing that accompany these relations of exchange. The paper is based on a research project that l...

  16. The relations of exchange between Northeast Africa and Levant (ca.3400 - 3000 a.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Quintana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the connections among different communities has generated diverse theoretical models and interpretations that were developed to examine the relations of exchange among ancient populations. In general, one may differentiate between theoretical approaches that concentrate specifically on the relations of exchange among distinct communities and areas, and those that analyze the effects of such exchange relationships within the communities. In this study, we focus on the first theoretical approach in order to explore existing exchange relationships from Upper Nubia to Levant, extending through Lower Nubia, Upper Egypt, and Lower Egypt during 3400-3000 B.C., deploying World-Systems Theory and World-Systems Analysis

  17. Carbonyl-Olefin Exchange Reaction and Related Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossifov, Christo; Kalinova, Radostina

    A new carbon—carbon double bond forming reaction (carbonyl olefin exchange reaction) mediated by transition metal catalytic systems has been discovered. The catalytic systems used (transition metal halides or oxohalides alone or in combination with Lewis acids) are active only in the case when the two reacting groups are in one molecules and are conjugated. In addition these systems accelerate other reactions which run simultaneously with the carbonyl olefin metathesis rendering a detailed investigation of the process very complicated.

  18. Chengdu-Daegu Makers’ Exchange Helps Upgrade Cities’ Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengdu; Municipal; Foreign; and; Overseas; Chinese; Affairs; Office

    2016-01-01

    In a friendly atmosphere on April 4,the 2016 International Sister City(Daegu) Makers’Exchange Seminar,co-hosted by the Chengdu People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and the Daegu Center for Creative Economy and Innovation,was held in Daegu,Republic of Korea.Chengdu’s rural tourism design was presented,along with a spare parts

  19. Triangleland. I. Classical dynamics with exchange of relative angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2008-01-01

    In Euclidean relational particle mechanics, only relative times, relative angles and relative separations are meaningful. Barbour-Bertotti (1982) theory is of this form and constitutes a recovery of a portion of Newtonian mechanics from relational premises. This is of interest in the absolute versus relative motion debate and also shares a number of features with the geometrodynamical formulation of general relativity, making it suitable for some modelling of the problem of time in quantum gravity. I also study similarity relational particle mechanics (`dynamics of pure shape'), in which only relative times, relative angles and ratios of relative separations are meaningful. This I consider firstly as it is simpler, particularly in 1 and 2 d, for which the configuration space geometry turns out to be well-known, e.g. S^2 for the `triangleland' (3-particle) case considered in detail. Secondly, the similarity model occurs as a submodel within the Euclidean model: that admits a shape-scale split. For harmonic osc...

  20. Regional trends in soil acidification and exchangeable metal concentrations in relation to acid deposition rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Carly J; Dise, Nancy B; Gowing, David J

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of high levels of reactive nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S), or the legacy of that deposition, remain among the world's most important environmental problems. Although regional impacts of acid deposition in aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, quantitative evidence of wide-scale impacts on terrestrial ecosystems is not common. In this study we analysed surface and subsoil chemistry of 68 acid grassland sites across the UK along a gradient of acid deposition, and statistically related the concentrations of exchangeable soil metals (1 M KCl extraction) to a range of potential drivers. The deposition of N, S or acid deposition was the primary correlate for 8 of 13 exchangeable metals measured in the topsoil and 5 of 14 exchangeable metals in the subsoil. In particular, exchangeable aluminium and lead both show increased levels above a soil pH threshold of about 4.5, strongly related to the deposition flux of acid compounds.

  1. Colombia and India: Trade Relations, Investment and Exchange Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio de Miranda Parrondo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study purpose is to characterize trade and investment relations between Colombia and India in the last ten years (2005-2015. Both trends and trade structure between these countries helped to reveal the exportable products which has the potential strengthen the bilateral relationship. In addition, the behavior of India's investment in Colombia is analysed, both in terms of trends and sectoral structure, as well as the number of jobs generated in this South American country and this is contrasted with the investment of other Asian countries. For the analysis of trade relations, three official statistical sources were used: Trade Statistics for International Business Development (Trademap, National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia (Dane and the Commodity Trade Statistics (Comtrade of the United Nations. fDI Markets was used for the analysis of foreign direct investment. The Bela Balassa Revealed Comparative Advantage Index was used in order to identify the revealed comparative advantages of each country. Revealed comparative advantage index and import intensity index identified 15 Colombian products with expansion opportunities in Indian market, a significant contrast with the indexes showing 155 Indian products with expansion opportunities in Colombia.

  2. Evolution of exchangeable copper and relative exchangeable copper through the course of Wilson's disease in the Long Evans Cinnamon rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Schmitt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wilson's disease (WD is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism leading to liver failure and/or neurological impairment. Its diagnosis often remains difficult even with genetic testing. Relative exchangeable copper (REC has recently been described as a reliable serum diagnostic marker for WD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to validate the use of REC in the Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC rat, an animal model for WD, and to study its relevance under different conditions in comparison with conventional markers. Two groups of LEC rats and one group of Long-Evans (LE rats were clinically and biologically monitored from 6 to 28 weeks of age. One group of LEC rats was given copper-free food. The other groups had normal food. Blood samples were collected each month and different serum markers for WD (namely ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, exchangeable copper (CuEXC, total serum copper and REC and acute liver failure (serum transaminases and bilirubinemia were tested. Every LEC rat under normal food developed acute liver failure (ALF, with 40% global mortality. Serum transaminases and bilirubinemia along with total serum copper and exchangeable copper levels increased with the onset of acute liver failure. A correlation was observed between CuEXC values and the severity of ALF. Cut-off values were different between young and adult rats and evolved because of age and/or liver failure. Only REC, with values >19%, was able to discriminate LEC groups from the LE control group at every time point in the study. REC sensitivity and specificity reached 100% in adults rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: REC appears to be independent of demographic or clinical data in LEC rats. It is a very simple and reliable blood test for the diagnosis of copper toxicosis owing to a lack of ATP7B function. CuEXC can be used as an accurate biomarker of copper overload.

  3. 31 CFR 585.212 - Prohibited transactions related to scientific and technical cooperation, cultural exchanges, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited transactions related to scientific and technical cooperation, cultural exchanges, and other official visits. 585.212 Section 585.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. Relation Matrix of Water Exchange for Sea Bays and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; TAO Jian-hua

    2006-01-01

    Water exchange is an important hydrodynamic character of sea bays, and it is the basis for the study of the environmental capacity of sea bays. In this paper, a relation matrix is set up to describe the interaction among different areas of a sea bay, and to predict the water quality of those areas. The relation matrix is calculated based on the numerical results from a water quality model. This method is applied to the study of water exchange and the prediction of water quality of the Bohai Sea. The Bohai Sea is divided into five areas, and the effect of seasonal wind is taken into consideration. The results show a) the relation matrix can be used to study the water exchange among different areas and predict water quality of different areas at the respective characteristic time, b) the reduction of pollutant is dependent on both water exchange and initial distribution of the pollutant, and c) the half-life time of the pollutant is longer than the half-exchange time of the sea water.

  5. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  6. eXchanging Course-Related Information: a UK service-oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbs, Mark; Wilson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Stubbs, M. & Wilson, S. (2006). eXchanging Course-Related Information: a UK service-oriented approach. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENComp

  7. Magnon dispersion relation and exchange interactions in MnF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikotin, O.; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Dietrich, O. W.

    1969-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relation for MnF2 at 4·2 °K has been measured by means of the triple-axis neutron scattering technique along the symmetry lines in the (010) plane of the Brillouin zone. Using an exact dipole model, the three nearest-neighbour exchange constants were found to be J1 = 0·028 ±...

  8. Relation between stabilization energy, crystal field coefficient and themagnetic exchange interaction for Tb3+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiangmu; MA Wenjuan; CUI Shuwen; WANG Lihua

    2006-01-01

    Based on a single ion model, Hamiltonian of the simplest form about magnetocrystalline anisotropy for Tb3+ ion was solved by using the numerical method. The relation between the stabilization energy, crystal field coefficient B20 and the magnetic exchange interaction was studied as temperature approaches to 0K. The results show that the stabilization energy contributed by Tb3+ is linear with crystal field coefficient B20 approximately, but it is insensitive to the change of magnetic exchange interaction for the strong magnetic substancessuch as TbCo5, Tb2Co17 and Tb2Fe14B compounds.

  9. Gendered contexts: Psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-05-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of sex exchange (i.e., trading sex for necessities). Study 1 included 171 community-dwelling women offenders, and Study 2 included 319 participants (42.3% women) with histories of drug use and/or violence. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, prostitution was measured as self-report and/or public record data across studies, and sex exchange in Study 2 was assessed using a questionnaire based on prior research on sexual risk-taking. Findings across both studies demonstrated that although psychopathic traits, particularly impulsive-antisocial features, were associated with prostitution in women above the use of drugs, drug dependence did not moderate the relationship between psychopathic traits and prostitution in women. Analyses of Study 2 data revealed that impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with sex exchange at low, but not high, levels of interpersonal-affective traits across participants. As well, interpersonal-affective traits were significantly positively related to sex exchange in men and not significantly (and negatively) related in women. In sum, impulsive-antisocial traits related to prostitution among women, suggesting that women may manifest these traits within intimate contexts. Moreover, findings indicated gender differences in the manifestation of interpersonal-affective traits within sexual exchange contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. The gods sell when they give: the meanings of money in candomblé exchange relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Carvalho Baptista

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the meaning of exchange relations involving the use of money among followers of candomblé. These relations, which unfold within the space of a saint family, activate symbolic dimensions that derive from a connection with the sacred. Here I study the border zone where an economy of the gift or grace continually merges with the world of interests, just as the latter sometimes mobilizes aspects linked to divine grace. Examining these relations mediated by money, I try to expose not only the imprecise limits between gift and interest, but the vast field in which the exchanges between social agents are processed. Adopting a wider perspective on the questions raised here, the text aims to comprehend the social meaning of money in the relations that constitute religious experience and practice.

  11. Relaciones Culturales de Mexico: Convenios de Intercambio Cultural y Asistencia Tecnica (Mexican Cultural Relations: Cultural Exchange and Technical Assistance Agreements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    n10 p43-83, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) describing briefly Mexico's cultural relations with 23 nations with which she has cultural exchange agreements. The reasons for cultural exchange are stated, such as the belief that cultural relations promote good relations among nations. The agreements concluded between…

  12. Role of sea ice in air-sea exchange and its relation to sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 包澄澜; 姜德中; 邹斌

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous stereoscopic sea-ice-air comprehensive observation was conducted during the First China Arctic Expedition in summer of 1999. Based on these data, the role of sea ice in sea-air exchange was studied. The study shows that the kinds, distribution and thickness of sea ice and their variation significantly influence the air-sea heat exchange. In floating ice area, the heat momentum transferred from ocean to atmosphere is in form of latent heat; latent heat flux is closely related to floating ice concentration; if floating ice is less, the heat flux would be larger. Latent heat flux is about 21 23.6 W*m-2, which is greater than sensible heat flux. On ice field or giant floating ice, heat momentum transferred from atmosphere to sea ice or snow surface is in form of sensible heat. In the floating ice area or polynya, sea-air exchange is the most active, and also the most sensible for climate. Also this area is the most important condition for the creation of Arctic vapor fog. The heat exchange of a large-scale vapor fog process of about 500000 km2 on Aug. 21 22,1999 was calculated; the heat momentum transferred from ocean to air was about 14.8×109 kW. There are various kinds of sea fog, radiation fog, vapor fog and advection fog, forming in the Arctic Ocean in summer. One important cause is the existence of sea ice and its resultant complexity of both underlying surface and sea-air exchange.

  13. Scaling relations of three-dimensional random-exchange quantum antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Deng-Ruei; Jiang, Fu-Jiun

    2015-11-01

    The thermal and ground state properties of a class of three-dimensional (3D) random-exchange spin-1/2 antiferromagnets are studied using first principles quantum Monte Carlo method. Our motivation is to examine whether the newly discovered universal scaling properties, which connect the Néel temperature and the staggered magnetization density, for the clean 3D quantum dimerized Heisenberg models remain valid for the random-exchange models considered here. Remarkably, similar to the clean systems, our Monte Carlo results indicate that these scaling relations also emerge for the considered models with the introduced antiferromagnetic randomness. The scope of the validity of these scaling properties for the 3D quantum antiferromagnets is investigated as well.

  14. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m3) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m3). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass...

  15. Exchange Relations for the q-Vertex Operators of $U_q(\\widehat{sl2})$

    CERN Document Server

    Awata, H

    1993-01-01

    We consider the q-deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation for the two point function of q-deformed vertex operators of $U_q(sl_2^)$. We give explicitly the fundamental solutions, the connection matrices and the exchange relations for the q-vertex operators of spin 1/2 and $j \\in {1\\over 2}{\\bf Z}_{\\geq 0}$. Consequently, we confirm that the connection matrices are equivalent to the elliptic Boltzman weights of IRF type obtained by the fusion procedure from ABF models.

  16. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Premkumar B.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE) particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE’s using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE’s are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (10) are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE’s against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed. PMID:27111667

  17. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliedonna Cacao

    Full Text Available The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE's using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE's are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (10 are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE's against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed.

  18. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors.

  19. Investigating the Existence of Chaos in Inflation Data in relation to Chaotic Foreign Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign exchange (ForEx rates are amongst the most important economic indices in the international monetary markets. ForEx rate represents the value of one currency in another and it fluctuates over time. It is related to indicators like inflation, interest rate, gross domestic product, and so forth. In a series of works, we investigated and confirmed the chaotic property of ForEx rates by finding positive largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE. As inflation influences ForEx, in this work we would like to address the specific question, Is inflation data also chaotic? We collected data for time period of 2000 to 2013 and tested for nonlinearity in data by surrogate method. Calculating LLE, we find existence of chaos in inflation data for some countries.

  20. Rapid exchange of metal between Zn(7)-metallothionein-3 and amyloid-β peptide promotes amyloid-related structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jeppe T; Hureau, Christelle; Hemmingsen, Lars; Heegaard, Niels H H; Østergaard, Jesper; Vašák, Milan; Faller, Peter

    2012-02-28

    Metal ions, especially Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), are implemented in the neuropathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by modulating the aggregation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Also, Cu(2+) may promote AD neurotoxicity through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Impaired metal ion homeostasis is most likely the underlying cause of aberrant metal-Aβ interaction. Thus, focusing on the body's natural protective mechanisms is an attractive therapeutic strategy for AD. The metalloprotein metallothionein-3 (MT-3) prevents Cu-Aβ-mediated cytotoxicity by a Zn-Cu exchange that terminates ROS production. Key questions about the metal exchange mechanisms remain unanswered, e.g., whether an Aβ-metal-MT-3 complex is formed. We studied the exchange of metal between Aβ and Zn(7)-MT-3 by a combination of spectroscopy (absorption, fluorescence, thioflavin T assay, and nuclear magnetic resonance) and transmission electron microscopy. We found that the metal exchange occurs via free Cu(2+) and that an Aβ-metal-MT-3 complex is not formed. This means that the metal exchange does not require specific recognition between Aβ and Zn(7)-MT-3. Also, we found that the metal exchange caused amyloid-related structural and morphological changes in the resulting Zn-Aβ aggregates. A detailed model of the metal exchange mechanism is presented. This model could potentially be important in developing therapeutics with metal-protein attenuating properties in AD.

  1. Stabilisation of liquid-air surfaces by particles of low surface energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Rocher, Anaïs

    2010-08-28

    We describe the stabilisation of liquid-air surfaces by microparticles of a low surface energy solid. By varying the surface tension of the liquid, various particle-stabilised materials from oil dispersions to air-in-oil foams to dry water can be prepared.

  2. CONVECTIVE HEAT EXCHANGE ON THE LATERAL SURFACE OF A RELATIVELY LONG CYCLONE CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Saburov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available . The high-turbulent swirling flows of heat carrier that are created by a cyclone chamber are used in industry. They make it possible to intensify processes of heat and mass exchange. The results of an experimental study of convective heat transfer on the lateral surface of the active volume of a relatively long cyclone chamber considerably exceeding the length of the chambers that were used in previously performed studies are presented and analyzed in the article. Air supply in the swirler of the chamber was performed tangentially from diametrically opposite sides of the two input channels. The gas outlet was implemented from the opposite end. The heat transfer by convection to the swirling air flow was studied by the method of changing the state of aggregation of a heating agent – condensation of slightly superheated steam. Collecting condensate from the working section was made through a water seal for maintaining a constant pressure calorimeter. The amount of heat transferred during experiment was determined by weight of the collected condensate. The specific features of influence of geometrical characteristics of cyclone chamber on intensity of heat exchange are considered. In the experiments we varied the relative diameter of the outlet port of the chamber dвых and the relative area of the input channels fвх. Segmental construction of the chamber made it possible to move a calorimeter on its length. The local heat transfer coefficient was determined for various values of the dimensionless longitudinal coordinate z coinciding with the axis of the chamber, and counted from the back end of the swirler. The estimated equations of heat transfer obtained during the research are presented and recommended for use in practice of engineering. The considered problem is of an interest from the point of view of further research of aerodynamics and of convective heat transfer in a highly swirling flow cyclone devices, in order to improve the

  3. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  4. Separation of Ofloxacin and Its Six Related Substances Enantiomers by Chiral Ligand-Exchange Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinlei; Zhao, Longshan; Deng, Miaoduo; Liu, Lijie; Ma, Yongfu; Guo, Xingjie

    2015-11-01

    A chiral ligand-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the enantioseparation of ofloxacin and its six related substances termed impurities A, B, C, D, E, and F. The separation was performed on a conventional C18 column. Different organic modifiers, copper salts, amino acids, the ratio of Cu(2+) to amino acid, pH of aqueous phase, and column temperature were optimized. The optimal mobile phase conditions were methanol-water systems consisting of 5 mmol/L copper sulfate and 10 mmol/L L-isoleucine (L-Ile). Under such conditions, good enantioseparation of ofloxacin and impurities A, C, E, and F could be observed with resolutions (RS ) of 3.54, 1.97, 3.21, 3.50, and 2.12, respectively. On the relationship between the thermodynamic parameters and structures of analytes, the mechanism of chiral recognition was investigated. It was concluded that ofloxacin and impurities A, C, E, and F were all enthalpically driven enantioseparation and that low column temperature was beneficial to enantioseparation. Furthermore, the structure-separation relationship of these analytes is also discussed.

  5. Multidimensional separations of ubiquitin conformers in the gas phase: relating ion cross sections to H/D exchange measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Errol W; Williams, Evan R

    2005-09-01

    Investigating gas-phase structures of protein ions can lead to an improved understanding of intramolecular forces that play an important role in protein folding. Both hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange and ion mobility spectrometry provide insight into the structures and stabilities of different gas-phase conformers, but how best to relate the results from these two methods has been hotly debated. Here, high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is combined with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT/ICR MS) and is used to directly relate ubiquitin ion cross sections and H/D exchange extents. Multiple conformers can be identified using both methods. For the 9+ charge state of ubiquitin, two conformers (or unresolved populations of conformers) that have cross sections differing by 10% are resolved by FAIMS, but only one conformer is apparent using H/D exchange at short times. For the 12+ charge state, two conformers (or conformer populations) have cross sections differing by ion collisional cross sections and H/D exchange distributions are not strongly correlated and that factors other than surface accessibility appear to play a significant role in determining rates and extents of H/D exchange. Conformers that are not resolved by one method could be resolved by the other, indicating that these two methods are highly complementary and that more conformations can be resolved with this combination of methods than by either method alone.

  6. Lake-Atmosphere Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Relation to Atmospheric Forcing and Water Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, J. J.; Ojala, A.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.

    2015-12-01

    Even though lakes cover only 2 % of the world's land surface, it has been estimated that lakes release about 10 % of the carbon fixed annually by the terrestrial ecosystems back to the atmosphere. A critical parameter in the gas exchange estimates is the gas transfer velocity (k), which is governed by turbulence. The aim of our study was to assess the current global CO2 evasion estimates from lakes to the atmosphere by comparing parameterizations for kand the significance of wind and heat flux to the gas transfer in small lakes. To improve future predictions of gas evasion from lakes, we focused on the changes in water clarity and how they affect water column physics and processes in the air-water interface. We studied a small boreal lake and used the eddy covariance (EC) method for the high precision data needed, and therefore also aimed to improve the EC methodology on lakes. The air-water gas transfer was related to both wind and heat loss during times of seasonal stratification, but only to wind during autumn overturn. When wind-induced thermocline tilting and resulting spatial variability in surface water CO2 concentrations was accounted for, average k derived from the measurements dropped from 6.0 cm h-1 to 5.2 cm h-1. This was still over twice the estimate (2.2 cm h-1) calculated with a widely used model for kin lakes suggesting that the global estimates of gas evasion from lakes might be underestimations. Water clarity was a significant parameter defining the thermal stratification of the lake: a change from clear to dark water would lead to shorter stratification period and lower water column temperatures in small lakes and therefore have significant impact on the lake-atmosphere exchange processes. Figure 1. The isotherms of Lake Kuivajärvi throughout the open-water period 2013. The top left are the measured temperatures and the others are modeled with LAKE model using fixed light extinction coefficient, Kd. The horizontal dashed black line represents

  7. Are group consensus in Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and shared work values related to organizational outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    Leader-member exchange (LMX) refers to the relationship quality between leader and follower. Mostly, LMX is rated individually and related to outcomes. In this study, the focus is on consensus of LMX within a team. However, a high consensus in followers’ perception of their leader does not necessari

  8. Where do intra-organizational advice relations come from? The role of informal status and social capital in social exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, Filip; Wittek, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Social status and social capital frameworks are used to derive competing hypotheses about the emergence and structure of advice relations in organizations. Although both approaches build on a social exchange framework, they differ in their behavioral micro-foundations. From a status perspective, adv

  9. Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara-Arauza, J.C.; Yahia, E.M.; Cedeno, L.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate

  10. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Elements of management information related to OSI transport layer standards; Amendment 1: NCMS Management; Technical Corrigendum 1

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Elements of management information related to OSI transport layer standards; Amendment 1: NCMS Management; Technical Corrigendum 1

  11. Exchangeable lead from prediction models relates to vetiver lead uptake in different soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Saminathan, Sumathi K M; Datta, Rupali

    2011-12-01

    Prediction models for exchangeable soil lead, published earlier in this journal (Andra et al. 2010a), were developed using a suite of native lead (Pb) paint-contaminated residential soils from two US cities heavily populated with homes constructed prior to Pb ban in paints. In this study, we tested the feasibility and practical applications of these prediction models for developing a phytoremediation design using vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), a Pb-tolerant plant. The models were used to estimate the exchangeable fraction of Pb available for vetiver uptake in four lead-spiked soil types, both acidic and alkaline, with varying physico-chemical properties and that are different from those used to build the prediction models. Results indicate a strong correlation for predictable exchangeable Pb with the observed fraction and as well with total Pb accumulated by vetiver grass grown in these soils. The correlation coefficient for the predicted vs. observed exchangeable Pb with p vetiver grass with p < 0.001 was 0.948, 0.983, 0.929, and 0.969 for each soil type, respectively. This study suggests that the success of a phytoremediation design could be assessed upfront by predicting the exchangeable Pb fraction in a given soil type based on its properties. This helps in modifying the soil conditions to enhance phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soils.

  12. Differential virial theorem in relation to a sum rule for the exchange-correlation force in density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holas, A; March, N H; Rubio, Angel

    2005-11-15

    Holas and March [Phys. Rev. A. 51, 2040 (1995)] gave a formally exact theory for the exchange-correlation (xc) force F(xc)(r)= -inverted Deltaupsilon(xc)(r) associated with the xc potential upsilon(xc)(r) of the density-functional theory in terms of low-order density matrices. This is shown in the present study to lead, rather directly, to the determination of a sum rule nF(xc)=0 relating the xc force with the ground-state density n(r). Some connection is also made with an earlier result relating to the external potential by Levy and Perdew [Phys. Rev. A. 32, 2010 (1985)] and with the quite recent study of Joubert [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1916 (2003)] relating to the separation of the exchange and correlation contributions.

  13. "Actually, I Wanted to Learn": Study-Related Knowledge Exchange on Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwammlein, Eva; Moskaliuk, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Social media open up multiple options to add a new dimension to learning and knowledge processes. Particularly, social networking sites allow students to connect formal and informal learning settings. Students can find like-minded people and organize informal knowledge exchange for educational purposes. However, little is known about in which way…

  14. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Related Proteins with Divergent Sequences: A Comparative Study of HIV-1 Nef Allelic Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Thomas E.; Poe, Jerrod A.; Emert-Sedlak, Lori; Morgan, Christopher R.; Smithgall, Thomas E.; Engen, John R.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry can be used to compare the conformation and dynamics of proteins that are similar in tertiary structure. If relative deuterium levels are measured, differences in sequence, deuterium forward- and back-exchange, peptide retention time, and protease digestion patterns all complicate the data analysis. We illustrate what can be learned from such data sets by analyzing five variants (Consensus G2E, SF2, NL4-3, ELI, and LTNP4) of the HIV-1 Nef protein, both alone and when bound to the human Hck SH3 domain. Regions with similar sequence could be compared between variants. Although much of the hydrogen exchange features were preserved across the five proteins, the kinetics of Nef binding to Hck SH3 were not the same. These observations may be related to biological function, particularly for ELI Nef where we also observed an impaired ability to downregulate CD4 surface presentation. The data illustrate some of the caveats that must be considered for comparison experiments and provide a framework for investigations of other protein relatives, families, and superfamilies with HX MS.

  15. Ion-exchange chromatography used to isolate a spermadhesin-related protein from domestic goat (Capra hircus) seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Dárcio Italo Alves; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Bloch, Carlos; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Freitas, Vicente José de Figueirêdo

    2006-03-31

    Mammalian seminal plasma contains among others, proteins called spermadhesins, which are the major proteins of boar and stallion seminal plasma. These proteins appear to be involved in capacitation and sperm-egg interaction. Previously, we reported the presence of a protein related to spermadhesins in goat seminal plasma. In the present study, we have further characterized this protein, and we propose ion-exchange chromatography to isolate this seminal protein. Semen was obtained from four adult Saanen bucks. Seminal plasma was pooled, dialyzed against distilled water and freeze-dried. Lyophilized proteins were loaded onto an ion-exchange chromatography column. Dialyzed-lyophilized proteins from the main peak of DEAE-Sephacel were applied to a C2/C18 column coupled to an RP-HPLC system, and the eluted proteins were lyophilized for electrophoresis. The N-terminal was sequenced and amino acid sequence similarity was determined using CLUSTAL W. Additionally, proteins from DEAE-Sephacel chromatography step were dialyzed and submitted to a heparin-Sepharose high-performance liquid chromatography. Goat seminal plasma after ion-exchange chromatography yielded 6.47 +/- 0.63 mg (mean +/- SEM) of the major retained fraction. The protein was designated BSFP (buck seminal fluid protein). BSFP exhibited N-terminal sequence homology to boar, stallion and bull spermadhesins. BSFP showed no heparin-binding capabilities. These results together with our previous data indicate that goat seminal plasma contains a protein that is structurally related to proteins of the spermadhesin family. Finally, this protein can be efficiently isolated by ion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography.

  16. Oxygen ionization rates at Mars and Venus - Relative contributions of impact ionization and charge exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M. H. G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Nagy, A. F.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    Oxygen ion production rates above the ionopauses of Venus and Mars are calculated for photoionization, charge exchange, and solar wind electron impact ionization processes. The latter two require the use of the Spreiter and Stahara (1980) gas dynamic model to estimate magnetosheath velocities, densities, and temperatures. The results indicate that impact ionization is the dominant mechanism for the production of O(+) ions at both Venus and Mars. This finding might explain both the high ion escape rates measured by Phobos 2 and the greater mass loading rate inferred for Venus from the bow shock positions.

  17. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  18. Exchangeable sodium induced changes in yield, water relation and cation composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, V K; Singh, P K; Pushpangadan, P

    2005-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with the objectives to assess the adaptation potential of fennel crop grown at 10, 20, 25, 35 and 40 ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) levels. Results showed that the rate of seed germination, plant growth including branching pattern, umbels per plant and 1000 test seed weight were adversely affected by sodic soils. Assuming that fifty percent reduction in seed yield and Na+/K+ ratio in leaf tissue as an index of alkali tolerance revealed that fennel was tolerant up to 25 ESP. The cell sap pH and EC reflected optimum osmoticum maintenance to withstand sodicity stress at this level and beyond this leaf water potential decreased (negatively) more to impede water uptake.

  19. Live wires: direct extracellular electron exchange for bioenergy and the bioremediation of energy-related contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, DR

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms that can form direct electrical connections with insoluble minerals, electrodes, or other microorganisms can play an important role in some traditional as well as novel bioenergy strategies and can be helpful in the remediation of environmental contamination resulting from the use of more traditional energy sources. The surprising discovery that microorganisms in the genus Geobacter are capable of forming highly conductive networks of filaments that transfer electrons along their length with organic metallic-like conductivity, rather than traditional molecule to molecule electron exchange, provides an explanation for the ability of Geobacter species to grow in subsurface environments with insoluble Fe(III) oxides as the electron acceptor, and effectively remediate groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbon fuels or uranium and similar contaminants associated with the mining and processing of nuclear fuel. A similar organic metallic-like conductivity may be an important mechanism for microorganisms to exchange electrons in syntrophic associations, such as those responsible for the conversion of organic wastes to methane in anaerobic digesters, a proven bioenergy technology. Biofilms with conductivities rivaling those of synthetic polymers help Geobacter species generate the high current densities in microbial fuel cells producing electric current from organic compounds. Electron transfer in the reverse direction, i.e. from electrodes to microbes, is the basis for microbial electrosynthesis, in which microorganisms reduce carbon dioxide to fuels and other useful organic compounds with solar energy in a form of artificial photosynthesis that is more efficient and avoids many of the environmental sustainability concerns associated with biomass-based bioenergy strategies. The ability of Geobacter species to produce highly conductive electronic networks that function in water opens new possibilities in the emerging field of bioelectronics.

  20. Efficient Determination of Relative Entropy Using Combined Temperature and Hamiltonian Replica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sunhwan; Chipot, Christophe; Roux, Benoît

    2015-05-12

    The performance and accuracy of different simulation schemes for estimating the entropy inferred from free energy calculations are tested. The results obtained from replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations based on a simplified toy model are compared to exact numerically derived ones to assess accuracy and convergence. It is observed that the error in entropy estimation decreases by at least an order of magnitude and the quantities of interest converge much faster when the simulations are coupled via a temperature REMD algorithm and the trajectories from different temperatures are combined. Simulations with the infinite-swapping method and its variants show some improvement over the traditional nearest-neighbor REMD algorithms, but they are more computationally expensive. To test the methodologies further, the free energy profile for the reversible association of two methane molecules in explicit water was calculated and decomposed into its entropic and enthalpic contributions. Finally, a strategy based on umbrella sampling computations carried out via simultaneous temperature and Hamiltonian REMD simulations is shown to yield the most accurate entropy estimation. The entropy profile between the two methane molecules displays the characteristic signature of a hydrophobic interaction.

  1. Problems related to the foreign exchange earnings of Surinam's shrimp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier, D.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp grounds of Surinam are actually fully exploited by some 136 trawlers of the Florida type, ranging from 100 to 130 GRT. Through export and import levies and fishing licence fees the country was able to obtain a small piece of the foreign currency cake. The Republic of Surinam has been looking for means to increase the benefits from its shrimp business. The alleged huge profits made by foreign vessels inspired the country to invest in a national shrimp fleet and man it with national crew (SUGAM. For reasons explained in the text Sugam has difficultes to operate with a gain. This paper will review Sugam's attempt to earn hard currency. An analysis is made of the foreign exchange earnings of Sugam and is compared with the results of a Korean company. The main conclusions are as follows : shrimp exploitation in a fully exploited Exclusive Economic Zone can only be brought to success by fishermen of proven ability. Each vessel should make trips lasting from 45 to 60 days and be some 280 days at sea per year. Surinam should also reconsider its present policy of shrimp purchasing.

  2. Empirical analysis of the solar contribution to global mean air surface temperature change

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The solar contribution to global mean air surface temperature change is analyzed by using an empirical bi-scale climate model characterized by both fast and slow characteristic time responses to solar forcing: $\\tau_1 =0.4 \\pm 0.1$ yr, and $\\tau_2= 8 \\pm 2$ yr or $\\tau_2=12 \\pm 3$ yr. Since 1980 the solar contribution to climate change is uncertain because of the severe uncertainty of the total solar irradiance satellite composites. The sun may have caused from a slight cooling, if PMOD TSI composite is used, to a significant warming (up to 65% of the total observed warming) if ACRIM, or other TSI composites are used. The model is calibrated only on the empirical 11-year solar cycle signature on the instrumental global surface temperature since 1980. The model reconstructs the major temperature patterns covering 400 years of solar induced temperature changes, as shown in recent paleoclimate global temperature records.

  3. Automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling for therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuki, T

    2013-01-01

    An automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling was developed for therapeutic hypothermia, which is increasingly recommended for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest and neonatal asphyxia in several guidelines pertinent to resuscitation. Currently, water-surface cooling is the most widespread cooling method in therapeutic hypothermia. However, it requires large electric power for precise control and also needs water-cooling blankets which have potential for compression of patients by its own weight and for water leakage in ICU. Air-surface cooling does not have such problems and is more suitable for clinical use than water-surface cooling, because air has lower specific heat and density as well as the impossibility of the contamination in ICU by its leakage. In the present system, brain temperature of patients is automatically controlled by suitable adjustment of the temperature of the air blowing into the cooling blankets. This adjustment is carried out by the regulation of mixing cool and warm air using proportional control valves. The computer in the developed control apparatus suitably calculates the air temperature and rotation angle of the valves every sampling time on the basis of the optimal-adaptive control algorithm. Thus, the proposed system actualizes automatic control of brain temperature by the inputting only the clinically desired temperature of brain. The control performance of the suggested system was verified by the examination using the mannequin in substitution for an adult patient. In the result, the control error of the head temperature of the mannequin was 0.12 °C on average in spite of the lack of the production capacity of warm air after the re-warming period. Thus, this system serves as a model for the clinically applied system.

  4. Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola H. Perry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic, and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER, Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance.

  5. Peach water relations, gas exchange, growth and shoot mortality under water deficit in semi-arid weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves--may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality.

  6. Inkjet patterned superhydrophobic paper for open-air surface microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Mohamed; Schutzius, Thomas M; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-03-21

    We present a facile approach for the fabrication of low-cost surface biomicrofluidic devices on superhydrophobic paper created by drop-casting a fluoroacrylic copolymer onto microtextured paper. Wettability patterning is performed with a common household printer, which produces regions of varying wettability by simply controlling the intensity of ink deposited over prespecified domains. The procedure produces surfaces that are capable of selective droplet sliding and adhesion, when inclined. Using this methodology, we demonstrate the ability to tune the sliding angles of 10 μL water droplets in the range from 13° to 40° by printing lines of constant ink intensity and varied width from 0.1 mm to 2 mm. We also formulate a simple model to predict the onset of droplet sliding on printed lines of known width and wettability. Experiments demonstrate open-air surface microfluidic devices that are capable of pumpless transport, mixing and rapid droplet sampling (~0.6 μL at 50 Hz). Lastly, post treatment of printed areas with pH indicator solutions exemplifies the utility of these substrates in point-of-care diagnostics, which are needed at geographical locations where access to sophisticated testing equipment is limited or non-existent.

  7. Regression analysis in modeling of air surface temperature and factors affecting its value in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2012-10-01

    This study encompasses air surface temperature (AST) modeling in the lower atmosphere. Data of four atmosphere pollutant gases (CO, O3, CH4, and H2O) dataset, retrieved from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), from 2003 to 2008 was employed to develop a model to predict AST value in the Malaysian peninsula using the multiple regression method. For the entire period, the pollutants were highly correlated (R=0.821) with predicted AST. Comparisons among five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the southwest monsoon (SWM) season, within 1.3 K, and for in situ data, within 1 to 2 K. The validation results of AST with AST from AIRS showed high correlation coefficient (R=0.845 to 0.918), indicating the model's efficiency and accuracy. Statistical analysis in terms of β showed that H2O (0.565 to 1.746) tended to contribute significantly to high AST values during the northeast monsoon season. Generally, these results clearly indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis study to investigate the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases on AST over the Malaysian peninsula. A model was developed that is capable of retrieving the Malaysian peninsulan AST in all weather conditions, with total uncertainties ranging between 1 and 2 K.

  8. Minimizing the Error Associated With Measurements of Migration-Related Sediment Exchange on Meandering Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J. W.; Parker, G.

    2005-05-01

    The floodplains of meandering rivers represent reservoirs that both store and release sediment. Bed material is generally released from cut banks and replaced in nearby point bars wherever migration occurs. Measuring the associated bed material flux is important for tracing the movement of contaminants that may be mixed with the bed material. Approximations of this flux can be made using a representative channel depth and sequences of aerial photography to estimate average absolute migration rates (or reworked areas) between photographs. Error in the aerial photographs leads to a positive bias in computed release rates. A method for removing this bias is introduced that uses the apparent offset of fixed linear features such as roads (along smaller rivers) or abandoned channel courses (along larger rivers). Measuring the rate of release of fine sediment is important both for predicting the long term morphodynamic evolution of the channel/floodplain system and for tracing the movement of contaminants that may be adsorbed to the fine sediment. While fine sediment can be mixed throughout the depth of the floodplain, it is most concentrated in the upper portion of older parts of the floodplain where it has had time to accumulate through overbank deposition. Its release rate can be estimated using migration rates computed from aerial photography in combination with local measurements of bank topography, both of which are highly variable even within a given reach. Where detailed bank topography is available for an entire reach, estimating the release of fine sediment is relatively straightforward. However, detailed topography is often unavailable along the banks of large lowland rivers, forcing estimates of the fine material flux to be made using a relatively small number of physically surveyed cross-sections. It is not immediately clear how many cross sections are required for a good estimate. This study performs Monte Carlo simulations on a detailed topographic dataset

  9. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  10. Water relations and gas exchange of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to microhabitats in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Chen, Xi; Li, Su; Lu, Hua-Zheng; Wu, Chuan-Sheng; Tan, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Wen-Yao; Shi, Xian-Meng

    2015-07-01

    Fan life forms are bryophytes with shoots rising from vertical substratum that branch repeatedly in the horizontal plane to form flattened photosynthetic surfaces, which are well suited for intercepting water from moving air. However, detailed water relations, gas exchange characteristics of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to particular microhabitats remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured and analyzed microclimatic data, as well as water release curves, pressure-volume relationships and photosynthetic water and light response curves for three common fan bryophytes in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest (SMCF). Results demonstrate high relative humidity but low light levels and temperatures in the understory, and a strong effect of fog on water availability for bryophytes in the SMCF. The facts that fan bryophytes in dry air lose most of their free water within 1 h, and a strong dependence of net photosynthesis rates on water content, imply that the transition from a hydrated, photosynthetically active state to a dry, inactive state is rapid. In addition, fan bryophytes developed relatively high cell wall elasticity and the osmoregulatory capacity to tolerate desiccation. These fan bryophytes had low light saturation and compensation point of photosynthesis, indicating shade tolerance. It is likely that fan bryophytes can flourish on tree trunks in the SMCF because of substantial annual precipitation, average relative humidity, and frequent and persistent fog, which can provide continual water sources for them to intercept. Nevertheless, the low water retention capacity and strong dependence of net photosynthesis on water content of fan bryophytes indicate a high risk of unbalanced carbon budget if the frequency and severity of drought increase in the future as predicted.

  11. Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

  12. Factors Related to Initiating Interpersonal Contacts on Internet Dating Sites: A View From the Social Exchange Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Shtatfeld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence dating-site users to initiate contact with potential romantic partners. The study was carried out by observing online behaviors and analyzing the profiles and authentic messages of these users (N = 106 over seven months. Contacts made by and with the research participants were analyzed in terms of the relationships between initiators‘ and receivers‘ demographic variables (marital status, age, level of education, income, writing skills, and stated physical appearance. In addition, the relationship between contacting partners and site accessibility was examined. The findings revealed that dating-site users initiated contact primarily with those having a similar marital status or slightly better characteristics (income, education, writing skills. In regard to writing skills, it was found that skilled writers attracted more contacts than did less skilled writers. However, the factor that was found to be most significantly related to initiating contact was the length of time that elapsed from last connection to the site, which implies the perceived accessibility of potential romantic partners. The findings were explained in terms of the Social Exchange Theory: people are attracted to those who grant them rewards.

  13. Relative contributions of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+/HCO3- cotransport to ischemic Na-i(+) overload in isolated rat hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Hove, M; Nederhoff, MGJ; Van Echteld, CJA

    2005-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) and/or the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) were blocked during ischemia in isolated rat hearts. Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+](i)), intracellular pH (pH(i)), and energy-related phosphates were measured by using simultaneous Na-23 and P-31 NMR spectroscopy. Hearts wer

  14. Mycorrhizal stimulation of leaf gas exchange in relation to root colonization, shoot size, leaf phosphorus and nitrogen: a quantitative analysis of the literature using meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Augé

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration rate (E has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen: phosphorus ratio and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of gs and E (28% and 26%, respectively. Carbon exchange rate has been over twice as sensitive as gs and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for gs and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations.

  15. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values.

  16. Surveying the relationship between financial performance, free cash flow, capital structure as well as related or unrelated diversification in Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    NEMATİ, Zahra; NONAHAL NAHR, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study, investigate the relationship between financial performances, free cash flow, capital structure and related and unrelated diversification. Test research hypotheses on 90 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during the period 1386 to 1391 using the panel data show that diversification on firm performance by the index Q Tobin measure is effective and positive relationship between these two variables is significant and there are so related and unrelated diversification ...

  17. Material Studies Related to the Use of NaK Heat Exchangers Coupled to Stirling Heater Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Geng, Steven M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the Moon, Mars, or an asteroid. Technology development efforts have included fabrication and evaluation of components used in a Stirling engine power conversion system. Destructive material evaluation was performed on a NaK shell heat exchanger that was developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and integrated with a commercial 1 kWe Stirling convertor from Sunpower Incorporated. The NaK Stirling test demonstrated Stirling convertor electrical power generation using a pumped liquid metal heat source under thermal conditions that represent the heat exchanger liquid metal loop in a Fission Power Systems (FPS) reactor. The convertors were operated for a total test time of 66 hr at a maximum temperature of 823 K. After the test was completed and NaK removed, the heat exchanger assembly was sectioned to evaluate any material interactions with the flowing liquid metal. Several dissimilar-metal braze joint options, crucial for the heat exchanger transfer path, were also investigated. A comprehensive investigation was completed and lessons learned for future heat exchanger development efforts are discussed.

  18. An analysis of exchange rate risk exposure related to the public debt portfolio of Tunisia: Beyond VaR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omrane Samia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the exchange rate risk associated with the Tunisian public debt portfolio through Value-at-Risk (VaR methodology. We use daily spot exchange rates of the Tunisian dinar against the three main debt currencies, the dollar, the euro and the yen. Our period of interest is from 02/01/2004 to 31/12/2008. Thetas and Marginal VaR analysis reveal that Japanese yen is the most risky currency constituting the Tunisian public debt portfolio. American dollar appears as a source of risk for the Tunisian external debt but remains less risky than the yen, while, the euro constitutes a hedge currency for exchange risk management associated with the Tunisian public debt portfolio.

  19. An Analysis of Exchange Rate Risk Exposure Related to the Public Debt Portfolio of Tunisia: Beyond VaR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Omrane Samia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the exchange rate risk associated with the Tunisian public debt portfolio through Value-at-Risk (VaR) methodology. We use daily spot exchange rates of the Tunisian dinar against the three main debt currencies, the dollar, the euro and the yen. Our period of interest is from 02/01/2004 to 31/12/2008. Thetas and Marginal VaR analysis reveal that Japanese yen is the most risky currency constituting the Tunisian public debt portfolio. American dollar appea...

  20. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...

  1. Study of thermal effectiveness and its relation with NTU in shell and helically coiled tube heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Alimoradi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of operational and geometrical parameters on the thermal effectiveness of shell and helically coiled tube heat exchangers was investigated. Analysis was performed for the steady state. The working fluid of both sides is water, that its viscosity and thermal conductivity were assumed to be dependent on temperature. Based on the results, two correlations have been developed to predict the thermal effectiveness, for wide ranges of mass flow rates ratio, dimensionless geometrical parameters and product of Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, it was found for same values of NTU and Cr, the effectiveness is averagely 12.6% less than the effectiveness of parallel flow heat exchangers and this difference is approximately constant.

  2. Understanding the relational impact of the health care marketing exchange: a review of the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B C

    1987-09-01

    Though the benefits derived from verbal communication between practitioner and patient often are beyond the control of most health care marketers, this encounter includes nearly all of the personality and social appeals that are critical to the development of a successful and long-lasting marketing exchange. To enable marketers of health care to understand more fully the communication context in which practitioners operate, the author reviews the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.

  3. The (safety-related) heat exchangers aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants, and developments since 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US nuclear power plant utilities, is preparing a series of aging management guidelines (AMGs) for commodity types of components (e.g., heat exchangers, electrical cable and terminations, pumps). Commodities are included in this series based on their importance to continued nuclear plant operation and license renewal. The AMGs contain a detailed summary of operating history, stressors, aging mechanisms, and various types of maintenance and surveillance practices that can be combined to create an effective aging management program. Each AMG is intended for use by the systems engineers and plant maintenance staff (i.e., an AMG is intended to be a hands-on technical document rather than a licensing document). The heat exchangers AMG, published in June 1994, includes the following information of interest to nondestructive examination (NDE) personnel: aging mechanisms determined to be non-significant for all applications; aging mechanisms determined to be significant for some applications; effective conventional programs for managing aging; and effective unconventional programs for managing aging. Since the AMG on heat exchangers was published four years ago, a brief review has been conducted to identify emerging regulatory issues, if any. The results of this review and lessons learned from the collective set of AMGs are presented.

  4. Suitability of the methylene blue test for determination of cation exchange capacity of clay minerals related to ammonium acetate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Maja; Logar, Mihovil; Dojčinović, Biljana; Erić, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) represents one of the most important parameters of clay minerals which reflects their ability to exchange cations with liquid phases in near contact. Measurement of CEC is used for characterizing sample plasticity, adsorbing and swelling properties which later define their usage in industrial purposes. Several methods have been developed over the years for determination of layer charge, charge density, charge distribution, etc. and have been published in numerous papers (Czimerova et al., 2006; Yukselen and Kaya, 2008). The main goal of present study is comparison of suitability of more recent method - methylene blue test in regard to older method - ammonium acetate for determination of CEC. For this study, we selected one montmorillonite clay (Bogovina, Serbia) and two mainly kaolinite clays (Miličinica, Serbia). Chemicals used for CEC determinations were solution of methylene blue (MB)(14*10-6M/ml) and ammonium acetate (AA) solution (1M). The obtained results are showing generally lower values in case of MB method. The main difference is due to molecular aggregation of MB on the clay surface. AA method is highly sensitive to the presence of CaO. Release of Ca ion from the sample into the solution can limit the saturation of exchange sites by the ammonium ion. This is clearly visible in case of montmorillonite clay. Fe2+ and Mg ions are difficult to move by the ammonium ion because of their ion radius, but in case of MB molecule there is no such restriction in removing them from the exchange sites. MB solution, even in a low concentration (2*10-6M/ml), is showing preferable results in moving the ions from their positions which is already visible after adding a small quantity of solution (25cm3). Both MB-titration and MB-spot test yield similar results and are much simpler methods than AA and they also give other information such as specific surface area (external and internal) whereas AA method only provides information about

  5. Significance of Ligand Exchange Relating to Sulfate in Retarding Acidification of Variable Charge Soils Caused by Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJINGHUA; YUTIANREN

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the role of ligand exchange of sulfate ions in retarding the rate of acidification of variable charge soils,the changes in pH after the addition of different amounts of HNO3 or H2SO4 to representative soils of China were measured .A difference between pH changes caused by the two kinds of acids was observed only for variable charge soils and kaolinite,but not for constant charge soils and bentonite,The larger the proportion of H2SO4 in the HNO3-H2SO4 mixture,the lower the calculated H+ ion activities remained in the suspension.The difference in H+ ion activities between H2SO4 systems and HNO3 systems was larger for soils with a low base-saturation(BS) percentage than those with a high BS percentage.The removal of free iron oxides from the soil led to a decrease in the difference,while the coating of Fe2O3 on a bentonite resulted in a remarkable appearance of the difference.The effect of ligand exchange on the acidity status of the soil varied with the soil type.Surface soils with a high organic matter content showed a less pronounced effect of ligand exchange than subsoils did.It was estimated that when acid rain chiefly containing H2SO4 was deposited on variable charge soils the acidification rate might be slower by 20%-40% than that when the acid rain chiefly contained HNO3 for soils with a high organic matter content,and that the rate might be half of that caused by HNO3 for soils with a low organic matter content,especially for latosols.

  6. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J; Chevone, Boris I

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation.

  7. Exchange of Sex for Drugs or Money in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors, HIV-Related Risk, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Greenberg, Lauren; Chutuape, Kate; Walker, Bendu; Monte, Dina; Kirk, Jennifer; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations. Participants (1818, 95.5 % of those screened eligible) were, on average, aged 21.0 years; 42.2 % were males, and 4.6 % were transgender. Almost one-third (32.1 %) identified as gay or lesbian, 18.1 % identified as bisexual; 66.2 % were Black and 21.0 % were Hispanic; 1.3 % was 'living on the street'. A sizeable proportion reported HIV-related risk: 16.3 % exchanged sex, 12.6 % had sex with someone they knew to be HIV-infected, 7.8 % had sex with someone who injected drugs, and 1.3 % injected drugs. Multivariate comparisons identified a number of variables (e.g., being male or transgender, homelessness, sex with a partner who has HIV, STI history, unemployment, job training access, housing instability, crime victimization, perceived community norms) that were significantly associated with exchange of sex (p young adults, particularly as it relates to community context. Longitudinal studies to describe the trajectory of social, health, and physical risks and consequences are needed for development of effective evidence-based prevention strategies.

  8. 1H and 15N NMR Analyses on Heparin, Heparan Sulfates and Related Monosaccharides Concerning the Chemical Exchange Regime of the N-Sulfo-Glucosamine Sulfamate Proton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heparin and heparan sulfate are structurally related glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Both GAGs present, although in different concentrations, N-sulfo-glucosamine (GlcNS as one of their various composing units. The conditional fast exchange property of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in these GAGs has been pointed as the main barrier to its signal detection via NMR experiments, especially 1H-15N HSQC. Here, a series of NMR spectra is collected on heparin, heparan sulfate and related monosaccharides. The N-acetyl glucosamine-linked uronic acid types of these GAGs were properly assigned in the 1H-15N HSQC spectra. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP was employed in order to facilitate 1D spectral acquisition of the sulfamate 15N signal of free GlcNS. Analyses on the multiplet pattern of scalar couplings of GlcNS 15N has helped to understand the chemical properties of the sulfamate proton in solution. The singlet peak observed for GlcNS happens due to fast chemical exchange of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in solution. Analyses on kinetics of alpha-beta anomeric mutarotation via 1H NMR spectra have been performed in GlcNS as well as other glucose-based monosaccharides. 1D 1H and 2D 1H-15N HSQC spectra recorded at low temperature for free GlcNS dissolved in a proton-rich solution showed signals from all exchangeable protons, including those belonging to the sulfamate group. This work suits well to the current grand celebration of one-century-anniversary of the discovery of heparin.

  9. ¹H and (15)N NMR Analyses on Heparin, Heparan Sulfates and Related Monosaccharides Concerning the Chemical Exchange Regime of the N-Sulfo-Glucosamine Sulfamate Proton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2016-09-07

    Heparin and heparan sulfate are structurally related glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Both GAGs present, although in different concentrations, N-sulfo-glucosamine (GlcNS) as one of their various composing units. The conditional fast exchange property of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in these GAGs has been pointed as the main barrier to its signal detection via NMR experiments, especially ¹H-(15)N HSQC. Here, a series of NMR spectra is collected on heparin, heparan sulfate and related monosaccharides. The N-acetyl glucosamine-linked uronic acid types of these GAGs were properly assigned in the ¹H-(15)N HSQC spectra. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) was employed in order to facilitate 1D spectral acquisition of the sulfamate (15)N signal of free GlcNS. Analyses on the multiplet pattern of scalar couplings of GlcNS (15)N has helped to understand the chemical properties of the sulfamate proton in solution. The singlet peak observed for GlcNS happens due to fast chemical exchange of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in solution. Analyses on kinetics of alpha-beta anomeric mutarotation via ¹H NMR spectra have been performed in GlcNS as well as other glucose-based monosaccharides. 1D ¹H and 2D ¹H-(15)N HSQC spectra recorded at low temperature for free GlcNS dissolved in a proton-rich solution showed signals from all exchangeable protons, including those belonging to the sulfamate group. This work suits well to the current grand celebration of one-century-anniversary of the discovery of heparin.

  10. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergweiler, Chris [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bergweiler@nre.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chevone, Boris I. [Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America.

  11. The stability of exchange networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; Buskens, V.W.

    2009-01-01

    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what happe

  12. Particles at Oil-Air Surfaces: Powdered Oil, Liquid Oil Marbles, and Oil Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Johnston, Shaun K; Sekine, Tomoko; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2015-07-08

    The type of material stabilized by four kinds of fluorinated particles (sericite and bentonite platelet clays and spherical zinc oxide) in air-oil mixtures has been investigated. It depends on the particle wettability and the degree of shear. Upon vigorous agitation, oil dispersions are formed in all the oils containing relatively large bentonite particles and in oils of relatively low surface tension (γla cyclomethicone containing the other fluorinated particles. Particle-stabilized oil foams were obtained in oils having γla > 26 mN m(-1) where the advancing air-oil-solid contact angle θ lies between ca. 90° and 120°. Gentle shaking, however, gives oil-in-air liquid marbles with all the oil-particle systems except for cases where θ is 24 mN m(-1) with omniphobic zinc oxide and sericite particles for which advancing θ ≥ 90°, dry oil powders consisting of oil drops in air which do not leak oil could be made upon gentle agitation up to a critical oil:particle ratio (COPR). Above the COPR, catastrophic phase inversion of the dry oil powders to air-in-oil foams was observed. When sheared on a substrate, the dry oil powders containing at least 60 wt % of oil release the encapsulated oil, making these materials attractive formulations in the cosmetic and food industries.

  13. Customer service providers' attitudes relating to customer service and customer satisfaction in the customer-server exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Alex M; Kacmar, K Michele; Borchgrevink, Carl P

    2003-02-01

    The authors proposed and tested a model describing the relationship between customer service providers' perceptions and attitudes toward their service-related duties and their customers' perceptions of satisfaction with their service experiences. Results indicated that the perception of having standards for service delivery in an organization is strongly related to line-level employees' perceptions of support from coworkers and supervisors. Perceived support from coworkers was significantly related to service providers' customer orientation, whereas perceived support from supervisors showed a weaker relationship to a customer orientation. Ultimately, service providers' customer orientation was strongly related to customers' satisfaction with service. Finally, a set of post hoc analyses indicated that coworker and supervisory support explained a greater proportion of incremental variance in the model than did perceived organizational support alone.

  14. Measurement of air-surface exchange of speciated nitrogen and sulfur compounds using a modified MARGA 2S: ? Concentrations and fluxes above a grass field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved measurement methods are needed to characterize dry deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds to assess ecosystem exposure to nutrients and acidifying compounds and to develop atmospheric deposition budgets in support of critical loads assessments. The purpose of this s...

  15. Natural and anthropogenic mercury sources and their impact on the air-surface exchange of mercury on regional and global scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinghaus, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Lindberg, S.E.

    1998-12-31

    Mercury is outstanding among the global environmental pollutants of continuing concern. Especially in the last decade of the 20th century, environmental scientists, legislators, politicians and the public have become aware of mercury pollution in the global environment. It has often been suggested that anthropogenic emissions are leading to a general increase in mercury on local, regional, and global scales (Lindqvist et al. 1991; Expert Panel 1994). Mercury is emitted into the atmosphere from a number of natural as well as anthropogenic sources. In contrast with most of the other heavy metals, mercury and many of its compounds behave exceptionally in the environment due to their volatility and capability for methylation. Long-range atmospheric transport of mercury, its transformation to more toxic methylmercury compounds, and their bioaccumulation in the aquatic foodchain have motivated intensive research on mercury as a pollutant of global concern. Mercury takes part in a number of complex environmental cycles, and special interest is focused on the aquatic-biological and the atmospheric cycles. (orig./SR)

  16. Within-canopy and ozone fumigation effects on delta13C and Delta18O in adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees: relation to meteorological and gas exchange parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Arthur; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Schumacher, Johannes; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bahnweg, Günther; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effects of different light intensities either in direct sunlight or in the shade crown of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees on delta13C and Delta18O were determined under ambient (1 x O3) and twice-ambient (2 x O3) atmospheric ozone concentrations during two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). We analysed the isotopic composition in leaf bulk, leaf cellulose, phloem and xylem material and related the results to (a) meteorological data (air temperature, T and relative humidity, RH), (b) leaf gas exchange measurements (stomatal conductance, g(s); transpiration rate, E; and maximum photosynthetic activity, A(max)) and (c) the outcome of a steady-state evaporative enrichment model. Delta13C was significantly lower in the shade than in the sun crown in all plant materials, whilst Delta18O was increased significantly in the shade than in the sun crown in bulk material and cellulose. Elevated ozone had no effect on delta13C, although Delta18O was influenced by ozone to varied degrees during single months. We observed significant seasonal changes for both parameters, especially in 2004, and also significant differences between the study years. Relating the findings to meteorological data and gas exchange parameters, we conclude that the differences in Delta18O between the sun and the shade crown were predominantly caused by the Péclet effect. This assumption was supported by the modelled Delta18O values for leaf cellulose. It was demonstrated that independent of RH, light-dependent reduction of stomatal conductance (and thus transpiration) and of A(max) can drive the pattern of Delta18O increase with the concomitant decrease of delta13C in the shade crown. The effect of doubling ozone levels on time-integrated stomatal conductance and transpiration as indicated by the combined analysis of Delta18O and delta13C was much lower than the influence caused by the light exposure.

  17. Exchange flux of total gaseous mercury between air and natural water surfaces in summer season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The exchanges of mercury between surface and air are of significance in the biogeochemical cycling of Hg in the environment, but there are still few reliable data on air/surface exchange in aquatic systems. Field measurement campaigns over seawater surface at Kristineberg Marine Research Station (KMRS) and over Hovg?rds?n River surface at Knobesholm in southwestern Sweden were conducted to measure mercury flux using a dynamic flux chamber technique coupled with automatic mercury vapor-phase analyzers. Both sites show net emissions during summer time. Mercury fluxes measured over both river and seawater surfaces exhibit a consistently diurnal pattern with maximum fluxes during the daytime period and minimum fluxes during the nighttime period. At freshwater site, mercury flux is strongly correlated with the intensity of net solar radiation, and negatively correlated with relative humidity. A typical exponential relationship between mercury flux and water temperature was observed at freshwater measurement site. At seawater site, a strong correlation between mercury flux and intensity of solar radiation was obtained. The driving force of mercury emission from water surface to air is the super-saturation of dissolved gaseous mercury in aqueous phase.

  18. Relative contribution of combined kinetic and exchange energy terms vs the electronic component of molecular electrostatic potential in hardness potential derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Rituparna; Roy, Ram Kinkar

    2013-11-14

    The relative contribution of the sum of kinetic [(10/9)CFρ(r)2/3] and exchange energy [(4/9)CXρ(r)1/3] terms to that of the electronic part of the molecular electrostatic potential [Vel(r)] in the variants of hardness potential is investigated to assess the proposed definition of Δ+h(k) = −[VelN+1(k) – VelN(k)] and Δ–h(k) = −[VelN(k) – VelN–1(k)] (Saha; et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 662). Some substituted benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (undergoing electrophilic aromatic substitution), carboxylic acids, and their derivatives are chosen to carry out the theoretical investigation as stated above. Intra- and intermolecular reactivity trends generated by Δ+h(k) and Δ–h(k) are found to be satisfactory and are correlated reasonably well with experimental results.

  19. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values.

  20. Term structure of interest rate, relative factors and exchange rate prediction%利率期限结构、相对因子与汇率预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 吴亮

    2016-01-01

    由于利率期限结构中包含未来经济运行的信息,利用2006年4月到2014年12月中美两国利率期限结构的月度数据,通过动态Nelson-Siegel模型抽取两国利率期限结构的相对水平,斜率和凸度三因子,基于三个相对因子检验其对人民币/美元汇率的预测能力。实证研究表明:(1)相对因子模型对汇率在1到12月期具有可预测性,相对水平因子或相对斜率因子增加1%分别导致人民币升值1%和2%而相对凸度因子增加1%会导致人民币贬值1%;(2)基于CW检验统计量的滚动窗预测表明:在所考虑的各个滚动窗下,相对因子模型预测能力优于随机游走和非抛补利率平价模型。%Since the term structure of interest rates embodies information about future economic activity, this paper uses dy-namic Nelson-Siegel model to extract relative level, slope and curvature based on monthly data of interest rate of term structure of China and United States from April in 2006 to December in 2014 and analyses forecasting ability of relative factors on Ren-minbi/Dollar exchange rate. The empirical study shows that (1) Relative factors model can predict exchange rate changes 1 to 12 months ahead, and 1 percentage point increase in relative level or slope predicts 1%and 2%annualized appreciation of the Ren-minbi respectively, 1 percentage point increase in relative curvature predicts 1% annualized depreciation of the Renminbi; (2) Rolling window forecasting based on Clark-West statistics shows that relative factors model outperforms random walk and un-covered interest parity model.

  1. Trust, confidentiality, and the acceptability of sharing HIV-related patient data: lessons learned from a mixed methods study about Health Information Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorana Andre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the confidentiality of personal health information have been identified as a potential obstacle to implementation of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs. Considering the stigma and confidentiality issues historically associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease, we examine how trust—in technology, processes, and people—influenced the acceptability of data sharing among stakeholders prior to implementation of six HIEs intended to improve HIV care in parts of the United States. Our analyses identify the kinds of concerns expressed by stakeholders about electronic data sharing and focus on the factors that ultimately facilitated acceptability of the new exchanges. Methods We conducted 549 surveys with patients and 66 semi-structured interviews with providers and other stakeholders prior to implementation of the HIEs to assess concerns about confidentiality in the electronic sharing of patient data. The patient quantitative data were analyzed using SAS 9.2 to yield sample descriptive statistics. The analysis of the qualitative interviews with providers and other stakeholders followed an open-coding process, and convergent and divergent perspectives emerging from those data were examined within and across the HIEs. Results We found widespread acceptability for electronic sharing of HIV-related patient data through HIEs. This acceptability appeared to be driven by growing comfort with information technologies, confidence in the security protocols utilized to protect data, trust in the providers and institutions who use the technologies, belief in the benefits to the patients, and awareness that electronic exchange represents an enhancement of data sharing already taking place by other means. HIE acceptability depended both on preexisting trust among patients, providers, and institutions and on building consensus and trust in the HIEs as part of preparation for implementation. The process of HIE

  2. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Immunology and Graduate Program in Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn [Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University at Salaya Campus, Nakorn Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  3. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, L.B.; Farma, A.J.

    1987-01-06

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger as used in a space heater, of the type in which hot exhaust gases transfer heat to water or the like flowing through a helical heat exchange coil. A significant improvement to the efficiency of the heat exchange occurring between the air and water is achieved by using a conduit for the water having external helical fluting such that the hot gases circulate along two paths, rather than only one. A preferred embodiment of such a heat exchanger includes a porous combustion element for producing radiant heat from a combustible gas, surrounded by a helical coil for effectively transferring the heat in the exhaust gas, flowing radially from the combustion element, to the water flowing through the coil. 4 figs.

  4. Influence of high temperatures and relative humidity on heat exchange of miners subjected to measured physical load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapik, Z.; Lyubchin' ska-Koval' ska, V.; Kozerovski, Ch.; Yuzva, V.; Tsader, Ya.; Ponerevka, E.; Paradovski, L.; Stolyarska, B.

    1987-12-01

    Investigates influence of microclimate of mines (temperature and humidity) on health of miners. Two groups of healthy men (18 to 45 and 46 to 58 years of age) performed controlled amounts of physical work on a bicycle ergometer under conditions of microclimate of mines at temperatures of 28 to 34 C and relative humidity of 100%. Increase in body heat of miners was measured by a thermocouple in the external auditory meatus 1 to 2 mm from the eardrum. Results showed a significant increase in internal temperature of body and that internal temperature of body rises with increases in external temperatures from 28 to 34 C. Conditions of test in which healthy men carry out controlled work loads significantly decrease removal of endogenous heat from body. Humidity of 100% eliminates removal of body heat by evaporation, radiation and convection. Overheating of body produces exhaustion, loss of concentration, limits diuresis and thickens urine. Miners over 45 years of age overheat more than younger men under the same conditions and work loads; men of greater body weight exhibit the same response. Tables determining approximate energy demands at the time of carrying out controlled physical work loads must take into consideration size of body, temperature of work place and relative humidity of air. 6 refs.

  5. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...

  6. Triangular exchange interaction patterns in K3Fe6F19: an iron potassium fluoride with a complex tungsten bronze related structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzadri, Francesco; Calestani, Gianluca; Righi, Lara; Pernechele, Chiara; Solzi, Massimo; Ritter, Clemens

    2013-11-04

    The synthesis and structural and magnetic characterizations of K3Fe6F19, a new iron potassium fluoride with a complex tungsten bronze related structure, are presented. This phase was found during the investigation of relatively low-temperature (600 °C) synthesis conditions of classical tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) fluorides and can be considered an intermediate that forms at this temperature owing to faster crystallization kinetics. The K3Fe6F19 compound has an orthorhombic structure (space group Cmcm (63), a = 7.6975(3) Å, b = 18.2843(7) Å, c = 22.0603(9) Å) related to the TTB one, where the perovskite cage is substituted by a large S-shaped channel simultaneously occupied by two potassium atoms. The magnetic structure, characterized by magnetization measurements on an oriented single crystal and powder neutron diffraction, is dominated by the presence of interconnected double stripes of antiferromagnetic triangular exchange interaction patterns alternately rotated in clock- and anticlockwise fashion. The magnetic order takes place in a wide temperature range, by increasing progressively the interaction dimensionality.

  7. Frequent cytoplasmic exchanges between oak species that are not closely related: Quercus suber and Q. ilex in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahbib, N; Pemonge, M H; Ouassou, A; Sbay, H; Kremer, A; Petit, R J

    2001-08-01

    Chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation were studied in 97 populations of cork oak (Quercus suber) in Morocco; in 31 of these populations, holm oak (Quercus ilex), a clearly distinct species, also occurred and was compared with Q. suber. Three cpDNA and one mtDNA primer pairs were used in the survey, each in combination with one restriction enzyme. Six haplotypes belonging to two very divergent lineages were detected; one lineage predominates in each species, and is probably ancestral, as inferred from comparisons with other oak species. In the mixed-species populations, cytoplasmic genomes were frequently shared across species, as indicated by an introgression ratio of 0.63. This index is a new measure of the propensity of species to share locally genetic markers, varying from zero (complete differentiation) to one (no differentiation). By contrast, more closely related deciduous oak species (Q. robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) have introgression ratios varying from 0.82 to 0.97. The introgression events appear to have been more frequent in the direction Q. ilex (female) x Q. suber (male), a finding which seems attributable to the flowering phenology of these two species. This asymmetry may have favoured immigration of Q. suber beyond its main range, in regions already colonized by Q. ilex. There, rare hybridization and further introgression through long distance pollen flow have established populations that are morphologically indistinguishable from Q. suber but that have cytoplasmic genomes originating from the local Q. ilex populations.

  8. Removal of infused water predominantly during insertion (water exchange) is consistently associated with an increase in adenoma detection rate - review of data in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of water-related methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Fw; Harker, Jo; Leung, Jw; Siao-Salera, Rm; Mann, Sk; Ramirez, Fc; Friedland, S; Amato, A; Radaelli, F; Paggi, S; Terruzzi, V; Hsieh, Yh

    2011-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Variation in outcomes in RcTs comparing water-related methods and air insufflation raises challenging questions regarding the new approach. This report reviews impact of water exchange - simultaneous infusion and removal of infused water during insertion on adenoma detection rate (ADR) defined as proportion of patients with a least one adenoma of any size. METHODS: Medline (2008-2011) searches, abstract of 2011 Digestive Disease Week (DDW) meeting and personal communications were considered to identify RcTs that compared water-related methods and air insufflation to aid insertion of colonoscope. RESULTS: Since 2008, eleven reports of RcTs (6 published, 1 submitted and 4 abstracts, n=1728) described ADR in patients randomized to be examined by air and water-related methods. The water-related methods differed in timing of removal of the infused water -predominantly during insertion (water exchange) (n=825) or predominantly during withdrawal (water immersion) (n=903). Water immersion was associated with both increases and decreases in ADR compared to respective air method patients and the net overall change (-7%) was significant. On the other hand water exchange was associated with increases in ADR consistently and the net changes (overall, 8%; proximal overall, 11%; and proximal Comparative data generated the hypothesis that significantly larger increases in overall and proximal colon ADRs were associated with water exchange than water immersion or air insufflation during insertion. The hypothesis should be evaluated by RCTs to elucidate the mechanism of water exchange on adenoma detection.

  9. Real exchange rate fluctuations, endogenous tradability and exchange rate regime

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda Naknoi

    2005-01-01

    This paper, empirically and theoretically, studies variance decomposition of real exchange rate. We find that deviations from the law of one price for traded goods drive most real exchange rates. However, the relative price of nontraded goods is also important for some countries maintaining stable exchange rate. We propose an explanation based on dynamics of comparative advantage. Our model predicts that comovement of terms of trade and productivity differentials of the nontraded and the expo...

  10. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On April 1st,2014,CPAPD Deputy Secretary General Ms.Chen Huaifan met with Mr.Djudjuk Juyoto Suntani,President of the World Peace Committee,Indonesia,who headed the delegation,in the CPAPD office.The two sides exchanged views on issues of common concern including cooperation between the two organizations and the inheritance of Chinese culture.

  11. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  12. Exchange Rates, Innovations and Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Christian C

    1987-01-01

    In this paper an ex-post forecasting experiment is performed on the basis of a version of the "news" model of exchange rate determination. A general finding is that the "news" formulation of monetary exchange rate models leads to relatively accurate ex post exchange rate forecasts. Often the results compare favourably with those obtained from the naive random walk forecasting rule. Thus, the evidence presented in this paper supports the argument that the 1983 finding by Meese and Rogoff (that...

  13. Discussion on Hospital Crisis public relations and Media Exchange Model%医院危机公关与媒体交流模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔轶

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着医院危机事件发生频率不断增加,危机管理逐渐受到了医院高度重视,且在现代信息社会环境下,危机管理水平高低是医院综合竞争力的重要体现。而如何与公共媒体接触和交流是医院危机公关管理的重要内容,直接影响到医院危机应对效果和整体形象。对此,该文将探讨医院危机公关与媒体交流模式的构建,为医院开展危机公关和管理提供有益理论指导。%In recent years, with the frequency of hospital crisis growing hospital crisis management has been attached great importance in the modern information society and environment, the level of crisis management is an important manifestation of the comprehensive competitiveness of the hospital. And how contacts and exchanges with the public media is an impor-tant part of the hospital's public relations crisis management, direct impact on the hospital crisis response effectiveness and overall image. Therefore, this paper will explore the build hospital public relations and media crisis communication model to provide a useful theoretical guidance for hospitals to carry out public relations and crisis management.

  14. A study on Relation Between Profit and Loss Items with Predictive Ability of Accrual Models for Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani Mahvar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediction is an important element in decision making process. As it reflects what is going to happen in future. Financial prediction is of great importance for economic decision making. Necessity for cash flow prediction is undeniable for different economic decision making, as it is a basis for Dividend, interest, liability payment, etc. The present study is aimed to survey the relation between profit and loss items and predictive ability of accrual models. Statistic society is comprised of companies in Tehran Stock Exchange between 2002-2009. Using Cochran formula and presumptions for choosing the participating companies in the study, 88 companies were adopted randomly. First, correlation of models’ errors was calculated using Durbin-Watson test, afterward correlation coefficient and test ‘F’ were applied. In doing so, effects of volatility of the rate of inventory at the end of period to next year sale, along with sale and operation profit volatility were surveyed as an index of changes in business environment on predictive ability of accrual model. Results showed that volatility of the rate of inventory at the end of period to next year sale, sales and operation profits are effective on predictive ability of models and The more volatility, less predictive power.

  15. Effects of chronic elevated ozone exposure on gas exchange responses of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) as related to the within-canopy light gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi [Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Sapporo 062-8516 (Japan)], E-mail: kitao@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Loew, Markus [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Heerdt, Christian [Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    The effects of elevated O{sub 3} on photosynthetic properties in adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) were investigated in relation to leaf mass per area as a measure of the gradually changing, within-canopy light availability. Leaves under elevated O{sub 3} showed decreased stomatal conductance at unchanged carboxylation capacity of Rubisco, which was consistent with enhanced {delta}{sup 13}C of leaf organic matter, regardless of the light environment during growth. In parallel, increased energy demand for O{sub 3} detoxification and repair was suggested under elevated O{sub 3} owing to enhanced dark respiration. Only in shade-grown leaves, light-limited photosynthesis was reduced under elevated O{sub 3}, this effect being accompanied by lowered F{sub v}/F{sub m}. These results suggest that chronic O{sub 3} exposure primarily caused stomatal closure to adult beech trees in the field regardless of the within-canopy light gradient. However, light limitation apparently raised the O{sub 3} sensitivity of photosynthesis and accelerated senescence in shade leaves. - Across leaf differentiation in adult beech crowns, elevated ozone acted through stomatal closure on gas exchange although enhancing photosynthetic sensitivity of shaded leaves.

  16. Projecting Ammonia Dry Deposition Using Passive Samplers and a Bi-Directional Exchange Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Walker, J. T.; Austin, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Animal agriculture within the United States is known to be a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Dry deposition of NH3 to terrestrial ecosystems immediately surrounding large local sources of NH3 emissions (e.g. animal feeding operations) is difficult to measure, and is best estimated via models. Presented here are results for a semi-empirical modeling approach for estimating air-surface exchange fluxes of NH3 downwind of a large poultry facility (~ 3.5 million layers) using a bi-directional air-surface exchange model. The modeling domain is the western section of the Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge in Tyrrell, Washington, and Hyde Counties of eastern North Carolina in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic region. Vegetation within the modeling domain is primarily pocosin wetlands, characterized by acid (pH 3.6) peat soils and a thick canopy of shrub vegetation (leatherwood (Cyrilla racemiflora), inkberry (Ilex glabra), wax myrtle (Morella cerifera)). Land surrounding the refuge is primarily used for crop production: ~ 28%, 24%, and 45% agricultural in Tyrell, Hyde, and Washington counties, respectively. Ammonia air-surface exchange (flux) was calculated using a two-layer canopy compensation point model developed by Nemitz et al. (2001. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 127, 815 - 833.) as implemented by Walker et al. (2008. Atmos. Environ., 42, 3407 - 3418.), in which the competing processes of emission and deposition within the foliage-soil system were taken into account by relating the net canopy-scale NH3 flux to the net emission potential of the canopy (i.e., foliage and soil). Ammonia air concentrations were measured using ALPHA passive samplers (Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh) along transects to the north and northeast of the poultry facility at distances of 800, 2000 and 3200 m, respectively. Samplers were deployed in duplicate at each location at a height of 5.8 m from July 2008 to July 2010 weekly during warm months and bi-weekly curing

  17. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  18. The UNESCO-IHP Working Group on Land Subsidence: Four Decades of International Contributions to Hydrogeological Related Subsidence Research and Knowledge Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, D. L.; Carreon-Freyre, D.; Teatini, P.; Ye, S.

    2015-12-01

    Subsidence is globally prevalent and because much of it is related to hydrological processes affected by human development of local land and water resources, "Land Subsidence" was included in the UNESCO programme of the International Hydrological Decade (IHD), 1965-1974 and an ad hoc working group on land subsidence was formed. In 1975 subsidence was retained under the framework of the UNESCO IHP (subproject 8.4: "Investigation of Land Subsidence due to Groundwater Exploitation"), and UNESCO IHP formerly codified the Working Group on Land Subsidence (WGLS). In 1984 the WGLS produced a comprehensive guidebook to serve scientists and engineers, confronting land subsidence problems, particularly in developing countries (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/$other/unesdoc/pdf/065167eo.pdf). During the IHD, UNESCO IHP convened the 1st International Symposium on Land Subsidence in 1969 in Tokyo, Japan. In collaboration with UNESCO IHP, IAHS, and other scientific organizations, the WGLS has convened eight more International Symposia on Land Subsidence in different countries in Asia, Europe and North America. The 9 published symposia proceedings constitute an important source of global subsidence research and case studies during the past 45 years, covering both anthropogenic and natural subsidence processes. Currently, the WGLS comprising 20 subsidence experts from 9 countries promotes and facilitates the international exchange of information regarding the design, implementation and evaluation of risk assessments and mitigation measures, the definition of water and land resource-management strategies that support sustainable development in areas vulnerable to subsidence (http://landsubsidence-unesco.org), and the assessment of related geological risks such as earth fissuring and fault activation (www.igcp641.org). The WGLS has become an important global leader in promoting subsidence awareness, scientific research and its application to subsidence monitoring, analysis and management.

  19. Plasma exchange-centered artiifcial liver support system in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure:a nationwide prospective multicenter study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jia Chen; Jian-He Gan; Zhi-Liang Gao; Yu-Ming Wang; Shu-Mei Lin; Qing Xie; Chen Pan; Lan-Juan Li; Jian-Rong Huang; Qian Yang; Xiao-Wei Xu; Xiao-Li Liu; Shao-Rui Hao; Hui-Fen Wang; Tao Han; Jing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma exchange (PE)-centered artiifcial liver support system reduced the high mortality rate of hepa-titis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). But the data were diverse in different medical centers. The present prospective nationwide study was to evaluate the effects of PE on patients with HBV-ACLF at different stages. METHODS: From December 2009 to December 2011, we eval-uated 250 patients at different stages of HBV-ACLF from 10 major medical centers in China. All the laboratory parameters were collected at admission, before and after PE. RESULTS: Among the 250 patients who underwent 661 rounds of PE, one-month survival rate was 61.6%; 141 (56.4%) showed improvement after PE. Variables such as age (P=0.000), levels of total bilirubin (TB,P=0.000), direct bilirubin (P=0.000), total triglycerides (P=0.000), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.022), Na+ (P=0.014), Cl– (P=0.038), creatinine (Cr,P=0.007), ifbrinogen (P=0.000), prothrombin time (PT,P=0.000), white blood cell (P=0.000), platelet (P=0.003) and MELD (P=0.000) were signiifcantly related to prognosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, disease stage, TB, Cr and PT levels were independent risk factors of mortality among HBV-ACLF patients. CONCLUSIONS: PE can improve the clinical outcome of pa-tients with HBV-ACLF. Levels of TB, Cr and PT, age and disease stage help to predict prognosis.

  20. Plasma exchange-centered artiifcial liver support system in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure:a nationwide prospective multicenter study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jia Chen; Jian-He Gan; Zhi-Liang Gao; Yu-Ming Wang; Shu-Mei Lin; Qing Xie; Chen Pan; Lan-Juan Li; Jian-Rong Huang; Qian Yang; Xiao-Wei Xu; Xiao-Li Liu; Shao-Rui Hao; Hui-Fen Wang; Tao Han; Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma exchange (PE)-centered artiifcial liver support system reduced the high mortality rate of hepa-titis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). But the data were diverse in different medical centers. The present prospective nationwide study was to evaluate the effects of PE on patients with HBV-ACLF at different stages. METHODS: From December 2009 to December 2011, we eval-uated 250 patients at different stages of HBV-ACLF from 10 major medical centers in China. All the laboratory parameters were collected at admission, before and after PE. RESULTS: Among the 250 patients who underwent 661 rounds of PE, one-month survival rate was 61.6%; 141 (56.4%) showed improvement after PE. Variables such as age (P=0.000), levels of total bilirubin (TB,P=0.000), direct bilirubin (P=0.000), total triglycerides (P=0.000), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.022), Na+ (P=0.014), Cl– (P=0.038), creatinine (Cr,P=0.007), ifbrinogen (P=0.000), prothrombin time (PT,P=0.000), white blood cell (P=0.000), platelet (P=0.003) and MELD (P=0.000) were signiifcantly related to prognosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, disease stage, TB, Cr and PT levels were independent risk factors of mortality among HBV-ACLF patients. CONCLUSIONS: PE can improve the clinical outcome of pa-tients with HBV-ACLF. Levels of TB, Cr and PT, age and disease stage help to predict prognosis.

  1. Spatiotemporally‐Resolved Air Exchange Rate as a Modifier of Acute Air Pollution‐Related Morbidity in AtlantaMorbidity in Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies frequently use central site concentrations as surrogates of exposure to air pollutants. Variability in air pollutant infiltration due to differential air exchange rates (AERs) is potentially a major factor affecting the relationship between central site c...

  2. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On October 12,2015,Mr.Zhu Rui,CPAPD Secretary General,chaired informal discussions with U.S.young experts and scholars on arms control and non-proliferation.The two sides exchanged views on international arms control,disarmament,non-proliferation and nuclear security,etc.During October 12 to 16,2015,at the invitation of the CPAPD,a four-member delegation from the Vietnam Peace Committee headed by its Vice-President Ms.Nguyen Thi Hoang Van

  3. Identifiability, exchangeability and confounding revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Greenland, Sander; Robins, James Matthew

    2009-01-01

    In 1986 the International Journal of Epidemiology published "Identifiability, Exchangeability and Epidemiological Confounding". We review the article from the perspective of a quarter century after it was first drafted and relate it to subsequent developments on confounding, ignorability, and collapsibility.

  4. A Brisk Year in Chinese Cultural Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CULTURAL Exchange has learned from the Bureaufor Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries ofthe Ministry of Culture that in 1992 China’scultural exchanges made great progress under the policyof reform and opening to the outside world.Some 1,200exchange projects were examined and approved by theMinistry of Culture(800 delegations sent abroad,more

  5. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process intensification

  6. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  7. 77 FR 58198 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees Applicable to the Exchange's Competitive Liquidity Provider... Exchange as Competitive Liquidity Providers (``CLPs'') to enhance liquidity on the Exchange in Exchange- listed securities (``Competitive Liquidity Provider Program'' or ``CLP Program'').\\6\\ The...

  8. Foreign Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Under the initiative of Bangladesh Embassy in China, China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR) and Bangladesh Embassy co-hosted a roundtable seminar "the role of SAARC in promoting China-South Asia relations" on December 14, 2006.

  9. Impacts of the tensor couplings of ω and ρ mesons and Coulomb-exchange terms on superheavy nuclei and their relation to the symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliani, N.; Nugraha, A. M.; Diningrum, J. P.; Sulaksono, A.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied the effects of tensor coupling of ω and ρ meson terms, the Coulomb exchange term in local density approximation, and various isoscalar-isovector coupling terms of relativistic mean-field model on the properties of nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and superheavy nuclei. We found that for the same fixed value of symmetry energy J or its slope L the presence of tensor coupling of ω and ρ meson terms and the Coulomb exchange term yields thicker neutron skin thickness of 208Pb. We also found that the roles of tensor coupling of ω and ρ meson terms, the Coulomb-exchange term in local density approximation, and various isoscalar-isovector coupling terms on the bulk properties of finite nuclei vary depending on the corresponding nucleus mass. However, on average, tensor coupling terms play a significant role in predicting the bulk properties of finite nuclei in a quite wide mass range, especially in binding energies. We also observed that for some particular nuclei, the corresponding experimental data of binding energies are rather less compatible with the presence of the Coulomb-exchange term in local density approximation and they tend to disfavor the presence of isoscalar-isovector coupling term with too-high Λ value. Furthermore, we have found that these terms influence the detail properties of 292120 superheavy nucleus such as binding energies, the magnitude of two-nucleon gaps, single-particle spectra, neutron densities, neutron skin thicknesses, and mean-square charge radii. However, the shell-closure predictions of 208Pb and 292120 nuclei are not affected by the presence of these terms.

  10. Impacts of the tensor couplings of $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ mesons and Coulomb exchange terms on super-heavy nuclei and their relation to symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Liliani, N; Diningrum, J P; Sulaksono, A

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the effects of tensor coupling of $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ meson terms, Coulomb exchange term in local density approximation and various isoscalar-isovector coupling terms of relativistic mean field model on the properties of nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and super-heavy nuclei. We found that for the same fixed value of symmetry energy $J$ or its slope $L$ the presence of tensor coupling of $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ meson terms and Coulomb exchange term yields thicker neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb. We also found that the roles of tensor coupling of $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ meson terms, Coulomb exchange term in local density approximation and various isoscalar-isovector coupling terms on the bulk properties of finite nuclei varies depending on the corresponding nucleus mass. However, on average, tensor coupling terms play a significant role in predicting the bulk properties of finite nuclei in a quite wide mass range especially in binding energies. We also observed that for some particular nuclei, the ...

  11. Data Exchange Management Information System (DEMIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEMIS combines a database (Operational Data Store - ODS) of data exchange-related Management Information (MI) with the agency's querying and reporting utility, the...

  12. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  13. Loss of the AE3 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in mice affects rate-dependent inotropy and stress-related AKT signaling in heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram ePrasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cl-/HCO3- exchangers are expressed abundantly in cardiac muscle, suggesting that HCO3- extrusion serves an important function in heart. Mice lacking Anion Exchanger Isoform 3 (AE3, a major cardiac Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, appear healthy, but loss of AE3 causes decompensation in a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM model. Using intra-ventricular pressure analysis, in vivo pacing, and molecular studies we identified physiological and biochemical changes caused by loss of AE3 that may contribute to decompensation in HCM. AE3-null mice had normal cardiac contractility under basal conditions and after -adrenergic stimulation, but pacing of hearts revealed that frequency-dependent inotropy was blunted, suggesting that AE3-mediated HCO3- extrusion is required for a robust force-frequency response (FFR during acute biomechanical stress in vivo. Modest changes in expression of proteins that affect Ca2+-handling were observed, but Ca2+-transient analysis of AE3-null myocytes showed normal twitch-amplitude and Ca2+-clearance. Phosphorylation and expression of several proteins implicated in HCM and FFR, including phospholamban, myosin binding protein C, and troponin I were not altered in hearts of paced AE3-null mice; however, phosphorylation of Akt, which plays a central role in mechanosensory signaling, was significantly higher in paced AE3-null hearts than in wild-type controls and phosphorylation of AMPK, which is affected by Akt and is involved in energy metabolism and some cases of HCM, was reduced. These data show loss of AE3 leads to impaired rate-dependent inotropy, appears to affect mechanical stress-responsive signaling, and reduces activation of AMPK, which may contribute to decompensation in heart failure.

  14. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  15. Solid state exchange reactions and thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, G.; Archundia, C.; Maddock, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A further study of exchange of the cobalt atoms in solid Co(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6/(Co EDTA)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O has been made. The exchange is more easily measured when the compound has been ..gamma.. irradiated before heating. Without irradiation the exchange is complicated by substantial concurrent thermal decomposition. Vacuum dehydration to the tetrahydrate can be effected at 366 K without appreciable exchange. A relation between exchange, annealing of radiolytic decomposition and thermal decomposition in such compounds is suggested.

  16. Exchange frequency in replica exchange molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhikara, Daniel; Meng, Yilin; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the exchange-attempt frequency on sampling efficiency is studied in replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We show that sampling efficiency increases with increasing exchange-attempt frequency. This conclusion is contrary to a commonly expressed view in REMD. Five peptides (1-21 residues long) are studied with a spectrum of exchange-attempt rates. Convergence rates are gauged by comparing ensemble properties between fixed length test REMD simulations and longer reference simulations. To show the fundamental correlation between exchange frequency and convergence time, a simple model is designed and studied, displaying the same basic behavior of much more complex systems.

  17. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  18. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  19. 31 CFR 100.10 - Exchange of uncurrent coins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of uncurrent coins. 100.10 Section 100.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.10 Exchange of uncurrent coins. (a) Definition. Uncurrent...

  20. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  1. 国外汇率制度与宏观经济绩效研究述评%A Review of Foreign Research on the Relation between Exchange Rate Regime and Macroeconomic Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏华山

    2012-01-01

    Macroeconomic performance is one of the important standards for exchange rate regime evaluation and choice. With the transition of exchange rate regime classification method from de jure to de facto, the conclusion of the relation between exchange rate regime and macroeconomic performance drawn from de jure method should be reexamined. In recent years, the effect of exchange rate regime on inflation, growth and financial stability are researched by de facto method or de jure/facto hy- brid method. The conclusions based on different classification method or samples of different type countries are usually not con- sistent. The results of these literatures provide reference to policy makers, and the methods used in these papers are useful for future research.%宏观经济绩效是衡量与选择汇率制度的重要依据,随着汇率制度分类方法由法定分类向各种事实分类转变,需要重新审视汇率制度对宏观经济绩效影响的结论。近年来,一些文献单独使用各种事实分类法,或者混合使用事实和法定分类法,研究汇率制度对于通货膨胀、经济增长和金融稳定性的影响。其结论可供政策制定者参考,分析方法可供进一步研究借鉴。

  2. Global evaluation of ammonia bi-directional exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Henze, D.; Bash, J.; Jeong, G.-R.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Shephard, M.; Luo, M.; Paulot, F.; Capps, S.

    2015-02-01

    Bi-directional air-surface exchange of ammonia (NH3) has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bi-directional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3 livestock emissions and evaluate the recently developed MASAGE_NH3 bottom up inventory. While updated diurnal variability improves comparison of modeled-to-hourly in situ measurements in the Southeastern US, NH3 concentrations decrease throughout the globe, up to 17 ppb in India and Southeastern China, with corresponding decreases in aerosol nitrate by up to 7 μg m-3. The ammonium (NH4+) soil pool in the bi-directional exchange model largely extends the NH3 lifetime in the atmosphere. Including bi-directional exchange generally increases NH3 gross emissions (7.1%) and surface concentrations (up to 3.9 ppb) throughout the globe in July, except in India and Southeastern China. In April and October, it decreases NH3 gross emissions in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., 43.6% in April in China) and increases NH3 gross emissions in the Southern Hemisphere. Bi-directional exchange does not largely impact NH4+ wet deposition overall. While bi-directional exchange is fundamentally a better representation of NH3 emissions from fertilizers, emissions from primary sources are still underestimated and thus significant model biases remain when compared to in situ measurements in the US. The adjoint of bi-directional exchange has also been developed for the GEOS-Chem model and is used to investigate the sensitivity of NH3 concentrations with respect to soil pH and fertilizer application rate. This study thus lays the groundwork for future inverse modeling studies to more directly constrain these physical processes rather than tuning bulk uni-directional NH3 emissions.

  3. Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bi-directional NH3 exchange coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Pleim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 is the primary atmospheric base and an important precursor for inorganic particulate matter and when deposited NH3 contributes to surface water eutrophication, soil acidification and decline in species biodiversity. Flux measurements indicate that the air-surface exchange of NH3 is bi-directional. However, the effects of bi-directional exchange, soil biogeochemistry and human activity are not parameterized in air quality models. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA's Community Multiscale Air-Quality (CMAQ model with bi-directional NH3 exchange has been coupled with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA's Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC agro-ecosystem model's nitrogen geochemistry algorithms. CMAQ with bi-directional NH3 exchange coupled to EPIC connects agricultural cropping management practices to emissions and atmospheric concentrations of reduced nitrogen and models the biogeochemical feedback on NH3 air-surface exchange. This coupled modeling system reduced the biases and error in NHx (NH3 + NH4+ wet deposition and in ambient aerosol concentrations in an annual 2002 Continental US (CONUS domain simulation when compared to a 2002 annual simulation of CMAQ without bi-directional exchange. Fertilizer emissions estimated in CMAQ 5.0 with bi-directional exchange exhibits markedly different seasonal dynamics than the US EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI, with lower emissions in the spring and fall and higher emissions in July.

  4. Kaynak Bağımlılığı Teorisi’nin Kritik Bir Unsuru Olarak Kaynak Belirsizliği ve Müşteri -Tedarikçi Arasındaki İlişkisel Değişime Etkisi(Resource Dependence Theory: Impact of Resource Uncertainty on Relational Exchange between Customer and Supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan UYSAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of resource uncertainty and relational exchange between customer and supplier. Resource uncertainty involves factors as resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness. The necessary data has been collected from 134 companies in Marmara Region through a questionnaire. This study, therefore, adopts factor, correlation and regression analyses to test impact of resource uncertainty on relational exchange. Data analysis reveals that resource concentration and resource availability uncertainty do not have an impact on relational exchange between customer and supplier and resource interconnectedness influences relational exchange. Furthermore, One-way Anova tests demonstrate that resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness do not significantly differentiate on control variables such as industry, foundation year, revenues and number of employees.

  5. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C. [CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France)

    2014-05-07

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (T{sub B}) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate T{sub B} are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a T{sub B} larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the T{sub B} distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  6. Oxide acid-base reaction relating to the inhibition of vandium attack on REY zeolite catalysts. [Rare earth-exchanged yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Certain materials, especially Sn, passivate the rare earth-exchanged Y zeolite (REY) used in petrochemical fluid-cracking catalysts against vanadium degradation caused by V impurities in the feed oil. The mechanism of passivation was investigated here from the standpoint of high-temperature oxide acid-base reaction; i.e., where the controlling factors were considered to be Lewis acid-base reactions between V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the RE oxides, SnO{sub 2}, etc. Molten salt tests at 680{degree}C showed SnO{sub 2}, presumably because of its acidic nature, to be essentially nonreactive with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Na{sub 2}O-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds. A hypothesis was developed to explain how the passivation effect by Sn might result from the unique resistivity of SnO{sub 2} to reaction with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  7. Model Uncertainty and Exchange Rate Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Kouwenberg, Roy; Markiewicz, Agnieszka; Verhoeks, Ralph; Zwinkels, Remco

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a theoretical framework of exchange rate behavior where investors focus on a subset of economic fundamentals. We find that any adjustment in the set of predictors used by investors leads to changes in the relation between the exchange rate and fundamentals. We test the validity of this framework via a backward elimination rule which captures the current set of fundamentals that best predicts the exchange rate. Out-of-sample forecasting tests show that the backward elimi...

  8. Cardio-protection by Ginkgo biloba extract 50 in rats with acute myocardial infarction is related to Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Hua; Bao, Yi-Min; Wang, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for medical purposes for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) is a new standardized GBE product that matches the standardized German product as EGb761. This paper is aimed at studying the cardio-protection effects of GBE50 Salvia miltiorrhiza on myocardial function, area at risk, myocardial ultra-structure, and expression of calcium handling proteins in rat ischemic myocardium. Myocardium ischemia was induced by the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion and myocardial function was recorded by a transducer advanced into the left ventricle on a computer system. In vitro myocardial infarction was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Evans blue staining of heart sections. Morphological change was evaluated by electric microscopy and Western blotting was used for protein expression. Hemodynamic experiments in vivo showed that postischemic cardiac contractile function was reduced in ischemic rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (7.5 g/kg/d×7) and Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) (100 mg/kg/d×7) improved post-schemic cardiac diastolic dysfunction while not affecting the systolic function. In hearts of GBE50 group and Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) group, the area at risk was significantly reduced and myocardial structure was better-preserved. Moreover, Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger (NCX) expression increase and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase 2 (SERCA2), LTCC, and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) expression decreases were smaller than those in ischemia group. There was a significant difference between the GBE50 and ischemia group in NCX expression. GBE50 could improve recovery in contractile function and prevent myocardium from ischemia damage, which may be caused by attenuating the abnormal expression of NCX.

  9. Variability of Cation-Exchange Capacity (CEC of Fen Peats in Vertical Profiles from Eastern and Central Poland in Relation to Function of Peatlands as Natural Geological Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelek Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of cation-exchange capacity(CEC variability of peats is presented in vertical pro files from eastern and central Po land. CEC values were com pared with ash con tent (Ac, pH and CaCO3 content. Eight peatlands were selected for re search in the fol lowingareas: War saw Plateau (2 objects, Siedlce Plateau (2 objects, Lubartów Plateau (2 objects, Nałęczów Table land (1 object and Dobrohusk Depression (1 object. The peatlands represented a fen peat type of similar botanic compositions of sediments, but they differed in the area, peat thickness and drain age conditions. Characteristic regular i ties in CEC variability were noted in the peatlands and there were three types of CEC variability in vertical pro files. Carbonate peats (types 1 and 2 had the high est pH and definitely the high est values of CEC. In vertical pro files, there was also a zonation, but the regularities similar to non-carbonate peats were not observed. Different distribution of phys i cal and chem i cal parameters were establishedin vertical pro files in partly drained peatlands (with a muck layer on top with non-carbonate peats (type 3 and there were three distinct zones in vertical pro files, with different Ac and CEC. Determination of the vertical CEC variability and other phys i cal and chem i cal parameters in peatlands made it possible to distinguish zones with potentially most beneficial isolation conditions.

  10. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  11. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...... and nonowners of quota, as a form of monopoly rent....

  12. 22 CFR 23.4 - Representative value in exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representative value in exchange. 23.4 Section 23.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.4 Representative value in exchange. Representative value in exchange for the collection of a fee means...

  13. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they’re traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to these companies.

  14. Global observations and modeling of atmosphere-surface exchange of elemental mercury: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Lin, Che-Jen; Wang, Xun; Sommar, Jonas; Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Reliable quantification of air-surface fluxes of elemental Hg vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding mercury (Hg) global biogeochemical cycles. There have been extensive measurements and modeling efforts devoted to estimating the exchange fluxes between the atmosphere and various surfaces (e.g., soil, canopies, water, snow, etc.) in the past three decades. However, large uncertainties remain due to the complexity of Hg0 bidirectional exchange, limitations of flux quantification techniques and challenges in model parameterization. In this study, we provide a critical review on the state of science in the atmosphere-surface exchange of Hg0. Specifically, the advancement of flux quantification techniques, mechanisms in driving the air-surface Hg exchange and modeling efforts are presented. Due to the semi-volatile nature of Hg0 and redox transformation of Hg in environmental media, Hg deposition and evasion are influenced by multiple environmental variables including seasonality, vegetative coverage and its life cycle, temperature, light, moisture, atmospheric turbulence and the presence of reactants (e.g., O3, radicals, etc.). However, the effects of these processes on flux have not been fundamentally and quantitatively determined, which limits the accuracy of flux modeling. We compile an up-to-date global observational flux database and discuss the implication of flux data on the global Hg budget. Mean Hg0 fluxes obtained by micrometeorological measurements do not appear to be significantly greater than the fluxes measured by dynamic flux chamber methods over unpolluted surfaces (p = 0.16, one-tailed, Mann-Whitney U test). The spatiotemporal coverage of existing Hg0 flux measurements is highly heterogeneous with large data gaps existing in multiple continents (Africa, South Asia, Middle East, South America and Australia). The magnitude of the evasion flux is strongly enhanced by human activities, particularly at contaminated sites. Hg0 flux observations in East

  15. Model Uncertainty and Exchange Rate Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); A. Markiewicz (Agnieszka); R. Verhoeks (Ralph); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a theoretical framework of exchange rate behavior where investors focus on a subset of economic fundamentals. We find that any adjustment in the set of predictors used by investors leads to changes in the relation between the exchange rate and fundamentals. We test the validit

  16. Entrepreneurs' Social Relation Networks, Resource Exchange and Firm Economic Performance%企业家社会关系网络、资源交换与企业经济业绩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    智勇; 倪得兵; 曾勇

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to answer two major questions from the source exchange and reproduction process theories: How do entrepreneurs obtain preferred resources from social networks? How do the actions of obtaining resources can affect a company's profit?In order to address these questions, we propose a resource exchange model that can better explain an entrepreneur's preference to resources and the resource reproduction process. The model incorporates the horizontal economic and vertically hierarchical resources in social relation networks. This model can help analyze the effects of social relation networks, status quo resources, and an entrepreneur's individual characteristics on firm's economic performance. Understanding these effects allows us to discuss the relationship between an entrepreneur's individual characteristics and the direction of profit growth.First, this model represents an entrepreneur's social relation network as a two-dimensional vector (i. e. horizontal economic and vertical relations ). Second, this model defines an entrepreneur's preference to resources to be allocated, and represents an entrepreneur's individual characteristics as a two-dimensional vector ( i. e. the ability of economic resource reproduction and the ability of hierarchical resource reproduction ). Lastly, this model describes an entrepreneur's behavior as exchanging economic and/or hierarchical resources in the social relation network, reproducing the resources resulting from resource exchanges, and then influencing firm's economic performance. Based on these characterizations, this model builds a three-stage model as follows: At Stage 0, the entrepreneur collects information in his social relation network. At Stage 1, an entrepreneur makes resource exchange decision according to the Edgeworth-box framework. At Stage 3, an entrepreneur reproduces the resources after resource exchange.There are three main findings in this study. First, information cost (an entrepreneur

  17. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 62 - Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application B Appendix B to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY... information on program. IF TRAINING PROGRAM, identify appropriate fields: 01—Arts & Culture;...

  18. Hartree potential dependent exchange functional

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, L A; Della Sala, F

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel non-local ingredient for the construction of exchange density functionals: the reduced Hartree parameter, which is invariant under the uniform scaling of the density and represents the exact exchange enhancement factor for one- and two-electron systems. The reduced Hartree parameter is used together with the conventional meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) semilocal ingredients (i.e. the electron density, its gradient and the kinetic energy density) to construct a new generation exchange functional, termed u-meta-GGA. This u-meta-GGA functional is exact for {the exchange of} any one- and two-electron systems, is size-consistent and non-empirical, satisfies the uniform density scaling relation, and recovers the modified gradient expansion derived from the semiclassical atom theory. For atoms, ions, jellium spheres, and molecules, it shows a good accuracy, being often better than meta-GGA exchange functionals. Our construction validates the use of the reduced Hartree ingredie...

  19. Maya-Yucatecan homegardens: Supporting social networks through exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    D.G. Lope-Alzina

    2008-01-01

    This presentation, submitted at the XI International Conference of Ethnobiology, examines the importance and role of homegardens in social networks within the context of an indigenous community located in Yucatan State, Mexico. Specifically, exchange relations and genealogy (kinship) networks are analyzed. Preliminary findings suggest that household exchanges are common, homegardens provide most of the material for exchanges, and women are the main agents of exchange relations thereby support...

  20. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  1. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

  2. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and temperature on the water relations and gas exchange of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) stands grown in controlled environment glasshouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, S.C. [Horticulture Research International, Warwick (United Kingdom); Stronach, I.M. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, West Hamilton, ON (Canada); Black, C.R.; Azam-Ali, S.N.; Crout, N.M.J. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Biological Sciences, Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Singleton-Jones, P.R. [Orchard Farm, Dow AgroSciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Stands of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea. L. cv. Kadiri-3) were grown in controlled environment glasshouses at mean atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 375 or 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} and daily mean air temperatures of 28 or 32 deg. C on irrigated or drying soil profiles. Leaf water ({psi}{sub 1}) and solute potential ({psi}{sub s}), relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance (g{sub 1}) and net photosynthesis (P{sub n}) were measured at midday for the youngest mature leaf throughout the growing season. Elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature had no detectable effect on the water relations of irrigated plants, but higher values of RWC, {psi}{sub 1} and {psi}{sub s} were maintained for longer under elevated CO{sub 2} during progressive drought. Turgor potential ({psi}{sub P}) resched zero when {psi}{sub 1} declined to - 1.6 to - 1.8 MPa in all treatments; turgor was lost sooner when droughted plants were grown under ambient CO{sub 2}. A 4 deg. C increase in mean air temperature had no effect on {psi}{sub s} in droughted plants, but elicited a small increase in {psi}{sub 1}; midday g{sub 1} values were lower under elevated than under ambient CO{sub 2}, and {psi}{sub 1} and g{sub 1} declined below - 1.5 MPa and 0,25 cm s{sup -1}, respectively, as the soil dried. Despite the low g{sub 1} values recorded for droughted plants late in the season, P{sub n} was maintained under elevated CO{sub 2}, but declined to zero 3 weeks before final harvest under ambient CO{sub 2}. Concurrent reductions in g{sub 1} and increases in water use efficiency under elevated CO{sub 2} prolonged photosynthetic activity during drought and increased pod yields relative to plants grown under ambient CO{sub 2}. The implications of future increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} for the productivity of indeterminate C{sub 3} crops grown in rainfed subsistence agricultural systems in the semi-arid tropics are discussed. (au)

  3. Effects of chronic elevated ozone exposure on gas exchange responses of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) as related to the within-canopy light gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; Grams, Thorsten E E; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    The effects of elevated O3 on photosynthetic properties in adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) were investigated in relation to leaf mass per area as a measure of the gradually changing, within-canopy light availability. Leaves under elevated O3 showed decreased stomatal conductance at unchanged carboxylation capacity of Rubisco, which was consistent with enhanced delta 13C of leaf organic matter, regardless of the light environment during growth. In parallel, increased energy demand for O3 detoxification and repair was suggested under elevated O3 owing to enhanced dark respiration. Only in shade-grown leaves,light-limited photosynthesis was reduced under elevated O3, this effect being accompanied by lowered F(v)/F(m). These results suggest that chronic O3 exposure primarily caused stomatal closure to adult beech trees in the field regardless of the within-canopy light gradient. However, light limitation apparently raised the O3 sensitivity of photosynthesis and accelerated senescence in shade leaves.

  4. WAYS OF REFLECTING THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS MADE BY THE CURRENCY EXCHANGE OFFICES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As in the practice of the currency exchange offices in Romania I found the lack of a consistent method for reflecting foreign exchange transactions, in this paper I will present a comparison aiming to shed light on the correct method to be used by such entities. In this respect, I will compare the daily determination method with the monthly method (for both revenues related to the turnover and for foreign exchange differences.

  5. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  6. LA OPULENCIA EN LA ESCASEZ. INTERCAMBIOS DE OBJETOS, RELACIONES SOCIALES Y AMBIGÜEDADES EN INSTITUTOS CORRECCIONALES DE CÓRDOBA / Opulence on scarcity. Exchange of objects, social relations and ambiguities in correctional institutes of Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela María Tedesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone reflexionar sobre las relaciones sociales que se entrelazan durante el proceso de dar, recibir, intercambiar distintos objetos en institutos correccionales de la ciudad de Córdoba. A través del análisis de situaciones como “la visita”, “el arreglo de las habitaciones”, “el fumar y compartir en el sector”; se analizan formas de tejer vínculos con el afuera, actualizar recuerdos sobre la calle, y de producir intercambios y reforzar ciertos valores dentro del grupo que convive en el instituto. La descripción de estas situaciones implica asimismo, indagar los mecanismos y circuitos a través de los cuales se incorporan distintos sentidos a los objetos, así como también, el modo en que éstos configuran la subjetividad de las personas. De esta manera, el artículo busca mostrar la dinámica que lleva a que, en contextos institucionales marcados por privación y escasez, los jóvenes generen diversos intercambios y utilicen la ambigüedad como un medio para un construir abundancia y poder.Palabras clave: jóvenes, institutos correccionales, relaciones sociales, objetosAbstractThis article proposes to reflect on the social relations that are intertwined in the process of giving, receiving, exchanging various objects in correctional institutes in the city of Córdoba. Across the analysis of situations as “the visit”, “the arrangement of the bedroom”, “to smoke and share in the sector”; discusses ways to weave ties to the outside, upgrade memory on the street and produce exchanges and strengthen certain values within the group that lives in institute. The description of these situations also means, investigate the mechanisms and circuits through which incorporate different meanings to objects, and also, they shape the subjectivity of people. Thus, the article shows the dynamics means that, in institutional contexts marked by deprivation and scarcity, young men exchanges and use the ambiguity, as a

  7. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential (ψ) suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  8. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHerrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during eight years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthetic rate (PN during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential ( suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  9. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  10. Statistical Analysis Regarding the Evolutions of the Euro Exchange Rate and the Dollar Exchange Rate, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects a the statistical modeling of the values concerning the annual averages of the euro exchange rate, respectively the dollar exchange rate in Romania, through by means of the „Least Squares Method”. The exchange rate represents the price regardinga monetary unit from the currency which belongs to a country, expressed in the monetary unit of the another country. Also, the exchange rate takes into consideration the type of quotation which linking the two currencies involved at the exchange ratio. The exchange rates have been more volatile over time, then relative price levels and rates of inflation.

  11. On the Viability of Gift Exchange in a Market Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Klundert, T.C.M.J.; van de Ven, J.

    1999-01-01

    Is gift-exchange inevitably to be crowded out by impersonal market exchange? The presence of a thick-market externality indicates that this is indeed likely to be the case. But reciprocity or gift-exchange induces social relations. The utility function is extended in order to take account of social

  12. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  13. Usable optimistic fair exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Küpçü, Alptekin; Lysyanskaya, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fairly exchanging digital content is an everyday problem. It has been shown that fair exchange cannot be achieved without a trusted third party (called the Arbiter). Yet, even with a trusted party, it is still non-trivial to come up with an efficient solution, especially one that can be used in a p2p file sharing system with a high volume of data exchanged. We provide an efficient optimistic fair exchange mechanism for bartering digital files, where receiving a payment in return for a file (b...

  14. Stock prices, exchange rates and causality in Malaysia: a note

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on stock prices and exchange rates in Malaysia. It examines causal relations using a new Granger non-causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (Journal of Econometrics, 66, 225-50, 1995). Among the findings of interest, there is a feedback interaction between exchange rates and stock prices for the pre-crisis period. The results also reveal that exchange rates lead stock prices for the crisis period. In a financially liberalized environment, exchange ...

  15. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  16. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  17. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  18. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  19. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  20. Exchange-based Power Relation and Its Regulation in Modern Society%现代权力关系的交换属性及其超越方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张康之

    2014-01-01

    In an agricultural society, power relation was based on its caste-based social identity sys-tem. But in an industrial society, this social foundation for power relations disappeared due to various social enlightenments. In the organization of society, a new type of power relations has been estab-lished in and through social organizations. The power relation in a modern organization differs from those in an agricultural society in that it has acquired a property of exchange rather than complete dom-inance. Crozier and Friedberg are the first to have discovered this exchange element in power relation. Their discovery provides a new approach to the regulation of power relations. However, their scientific findings are significant only under the condition that the form and nature of the existing organizations are stable. As a matter of fact, when human society is beginning to enter the post-industrial era, a new type of organization, i. e. cooperative organization, is emerging. To a cooperative organization, the key issue is how to separate power from the will to power. If a path to the separation between power and the will to power is available, new dimensions of the function of power can be recognized and it will be easier to solve the problem of how to put power under effective control.%等级身份制是农业社会权力关系得以生成的根源,但在进入工业社会后,由于启蒙思想的设定而使权力关系的社会基础消失了。然而在社会的组织化过程中,权力关系又在组织中并通过组织而被建构起来。现代组织中的权力关系不同于农业社会中的权力关系,它不是一种纯粹的支配关系,而是获得了交换关系的属性。克罗齐耶和费埃德伯格发现了权力关系中的交换属性,这使权力制约方案的建构出现了新的契机。可是,这项科学发现仅仅是在既有组织形式和性质不变的条件下才有意义。事实上,在人类后工业化的进程

  1. Employment and Social Exchange in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González de la Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on enigh 2008, 2010, and 2012 data, this article examines the relation between employment and people’s trust in their ability to access support networks in times of need. The results reveal that stable and protected employment is linked to higher levels of trust while precarious work is associated with a lower degree of belief in one’s ability to access social support and exchange networks. Money and time, according to this analysis, are key resources to participate in two distinct exchange circuits: monetary favour exchange and that involving care giving. 

  2. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  3. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan

    2013-01-01

    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  4. Exchange Rate in Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China announced the reform of its decade-old RMB exchange rate regime last July, linking the RMB to a basket of currencies rather than the U.S. dollar alone, and allowing the RMB to appreciate 2 percent against the U.S. currency. Since then, different viewpoints on the new regime have been voiced. The People's Bank of China, the central bank, said in a statement in late March that it would further improve the system, broadening the foreign exchange market, increasing the flexibility of the RMB exchange r...

  5. The Influence Of The Hydraulic Exchange Relations In The Evolution Of Ice Jam Phenomena On Bistriţa River In The Area Between Dorna Arini (Suceava County And Borca (Neamţ County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Gaman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence on Bistriţa River, in identical climatic conditions, of sectors with well-developed ice formations in the immediate vicinity of river sectors lacking or with weakly developed such formations demonstrates the existence of other factors beside the meteorological and hydrological ones that may influence the evolution of freezing processes and implicitly of ice jams. A special role is held by the hydraulic exchange relations established between the river and the aquifers (Ciaglic, 1965; Ciaglic and Vornicu, 1973, the mentioned phenomena having a characteristic evolution, sometimes manifested through the total lack of ice due to underground input (Gaman, 2014. River alimentation from underground waters takes place in two situations: a nearby well-developed alluvial fans close to floodplain or terraces; b in areas where the river suddenly changes direction from flowing along one of the banks to an almost perpendicular position towards the valley, or where it meanders in the floodplain. The sectors of the river with areas of free water are those generating ice crystals and river-bottom ice and finally frazil slush. In the areas where the river loses water through infiltration in the floodplain, ice formations are much stronger according to the volume of water losses, and total freezing can be recorded. Field observations and measurements conducted in the winters of 2011-2012, 2012-2013, regarding the evolution of freeze phenomena, respectively ice jam formation, on Bistriţa River confirm the mentioned theory.

  6. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Seery, David; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2008-01-01

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contribution to the scalar trispectrum of the order of the tensor to scalar ratio r. This contribution is numerically one order of magnitude larger than the one previously calculated on the basis of scalar perturbations interacting at a point and satisfies a simple relation in the limit where the momentum of the graviton which is exchanged becomes much smaller than the external momenta. We conclude that the total non-linearity parameter generated by single-field models of slow-roll inflation is at maximum tauNL ~ r.

  7. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, David [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Sloth, Martin S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Vernizzi, Filippo, E-mail: djs61@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: sloth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [CEA, IPhT, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France CNRS, URA-2306, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2009-03-15

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contribution to the scalar trispectrum of the order of the tensor to scalar ratio r. This contribution is numerically one order of magnitude larger than the one previously calculated on the basis of scalar perturbations interacting at a point and satisfies a simple relation in the limit where the momentum of the graviton which is exchanged becomes much smaller than the external momenta. We conclude that the total non-linearity parameter generated by single-field models of slow-roll inflation is at maximum |{tau}{sub NL}| {approx} r.

  8. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  9. Emittance exchange results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller, R.P., III; /Brookhaven; Koeth, T.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2009-09-01

    The promise of next-generation light sources depends on the availability of ultra-low emittance electron sources. One method of producing low transverse emittance beams is to generate a low longitudinal emittance beam and exchange it with a large transverse emittance. Experiments are underway at Fermilab's A0 Photoinjector and ANL's Argonne Wakefield Accelerator using the exchange scheme of Kim and Sessler. The experiment at the A0 Photoinjector exchanges a large longitudinal emittance with a small transverse emittance. AWA expects to exchange a large transverse emittance with a small longitudinal emittance. In this paper we discuss recent results at A0 and AWA and future plans for these experiments.

  10. Emittance Exchange Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller III,R.; Koeth, T.

    2009-05-04

    The promise of next-generation light sources depends on the availability of ultra-low emittance electron sources. One method of producing low transverse emittance beams is to generate a low longitudinal emittance beam and exchange it with a large transverse emittance. Experiments are underway at Fermilab's A0 Photoinjector and ANL's Argonne Wakefield Accelerator using the exchange scheme of Kim and Sessler. The experiment at the A0 Photoinjector exchanges a large longitudinal emittance with a small transverse emittance. AWA expects to exchange a large transverse emittance with a small longitudinal emittance. In this paper we discuss recent results at A0 and AWA and future plans for these experiments.

  11. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  12. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  13. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  14. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  15. Microplate Heat Exchanger Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  16. Compact, super heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, A.; Kazaroff, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat exchanger uses porous media to enhance heat transfer through walls of cooling channels, thereby lowering wall temperature. Porous media within cooling channel increases internal surface area from which heat can be transferred to coolant. Comparison data shows wall has lower temperature and coolant has higher temperature when porous medium is used within heat exchanger. Media can be sintered powedered metal, metal fibers, woven wire layers, or any porous metal having desired permeability and porosity.

  17. 22nd September 2010 - Korean Minister of Education, Science and Technology J.-H. Lee signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting ALICE exhibition with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Schukraft; accompanied throughout by Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Teams : M. Brice ; JC Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    22nd September 2010 - Korean Minister of Education, Science and Technology J.-H. Lee signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting ALICE exhibition with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Schukraft; accompanied throughout by Adviser R. Voss.

  18. 31 Jannuary 2012 - Pakistan COMSATS Executive Director I. E. Qureshi visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2 with ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino and International Relations Adviser R. Voss; Exchange of gifts and signature of the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    31 Jannuary 2012 - Pakistan COMSATS Executive Director I. E. Qureshi visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2 with ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino and International Relations Adviser R. Voss; Exchange of gifts and signature of the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  19. Memorandum of understanding between the Government of the Kingdom of Norway and the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of safety related information concerning the operation and management of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-18

    This Agreement was concluded in implementation of the IAEA 1986 Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident. Both Governments undertake to notify each other forthwith of any abnormal radiation levels in their respective countries. They will exchange safety related information on nuclear facilities and inform each other of measures to protect the population and the environment. (NEA).

  20. The Relation of Foreign Exchange Reserve and Currency Supplies---Based on Cointegration and Error Correction Model%我国外汇储备与货币供应量的关系--基于协整和误差修正模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿志民; 王尚忠

    2014-01-01

    双顺差使外汇储备持续增加,人民币升值压力增大。为了维持人民币汇率的稳定,央行不得不加大货币供给量来买入外汇市场上过多的外汇。本文深入研究了外汇储备和货币供给量(M1,M2)的关系,采用协整和误差修正模型,得出了外汇储备和货币供给量长期均衡关系和短期波动关系,并对比了对M1, M2影响的差异。最后提出了减弱外汇储备对货币供给影响的建议,以增强央行的货币政策的独立性。%The double favorable balance has urged the foreign exchange accumulate rapidly and the pressure of revaluation of RMB increased .In order to maintain the stability of exchange rate , the central bank had to increase the money supply to buy foreign exchange in the foreign exchange market .This paper studies foreign exchange re-serves and money supply of ( M1, M2) relations, using cointegration and error correction model , we find the a-mount of foreign exchange reserves and money supply exist long-run equilibrium relationship and short-term fluctua-tions compare the effects of difference .Finally, the proposal of weakening the impact of foreign exchange reserves is put forward to strengthen the independence of the central bank's monetary policy .

  1. 31 CFR 100.12 - Exchange of fused and mixed coins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of fused and mixed coins. 100.12 Section 100.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.12 Exchange of fused and mixed coins....

  2. 31 CFR 100.11 - Exchange of bent and partial coins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of bent and partial coins. 100.11 Section 100.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.11 Exchange of bent and partial coins....

  3. 77 FR 2108 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Exchange also proposes minor grammatical changes to conform various sections of the Exchange's Options... of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 9, 2012. Pursuant to... with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described...

  4. 78 FR 68485 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... national equity exchanges have similar core business hours.\\4\\ With this proposal, the Exchange is... of Proposed Rule Change Relating To Exchange Trading Days and Hours of Business and Trading Halts... Exchange rules to clarify Rule 700, ``Days and Hours of Business,'' and Rule 702, ``Trading Halts.''...

  5. 78 FR 37644 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 17, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 4, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  6. 77 FR 58195 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 13, 2012. Pursuant... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 31, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  7. 78 FR 51235 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 7, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  8. 78 FR 62804 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 11, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  9. 75 FR 66170 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 21, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 14, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or the ``Exchange'')...

  10. 77 FR 35735 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 8, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on May 31, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  11. 78 FR 16306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 8, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  12. 78 FR 51261 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  13. 77 FR 23307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 12, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on April 2, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  14. 76 FR 50803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 10, 2011. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on July 29, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  15. 78 FR 76355 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 11, 2013. Pursuant... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 2, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  16. 75 FR 20418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 9, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 31, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  17. 75 FR 27847 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 11, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 4, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  18. 78 FR 56955 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 10, 2013. Pursuant... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 30, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  19. 77 FR 31059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 18, 2012. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 11, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  20. 75 FR 11951 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... equity options on the Exchange. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61419 (January 26, 2010), 75 FR... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 4, 2010. Pursuant...

  1. 78 FR 51257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 2, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  2. 76 FR 20414 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 6, 2011. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that, on April 1, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  3. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As rep

  4. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-02-28

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein.

  5. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  6. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  7. Tuning Exchange Anisotropy of Exchange-Biased System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yan; HU Jing-Guo; R.L.Stamps

    2008-01-01

    Exchange anisotropy in FM/AFM bilayers has given a lot of static magnetization properties such as enhanced coercivity and magnetization loop shifts.These phenomena are primarily from the effective anisotropies intro-duced into a ferromagnet by exchange coupling with a strongly anisotropic antiferromagnet.These effective anisotropies can also be used to explain the dynamic consequences of exchange-biased bilayers.In this article,the dynamic con-sequences such as exchange-induced susceptibility,exchange-induced permeability,and the corresponding domain wall characteristics in the exchange-biased structures of ferromagnet/antiferromagnetl/antiferromagnet2 are studied.The results show that the second antiferromagnetic layer can largely affect the dynamic consequences of exchange-biased bilayers.Especially in the ease of critical temperature,the effects become more obvious.Practically,the exchange anisotropy of biased bilayer system can be tuned by exchange coupling with the second antiferromagnetic layer.

  8. Investigation of magnetic exchange via non-bonding halides and aromatic polyamines (1,2,4-triazine, 1,2,4,5-tetrazine and the related derivatives as ligands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin

    Low dimensional antiferromagnetic materials have received considerable attention from both chemists and physicists because of their potential application as functional materials, such as superconductors. Magnetic moments can propagate via multiple pathways such as via two-halide superexchange interactions in A2MX4 systems (where A is an organic cation and X is halides), or through bonding conjugated systems. One route for generating two-halide A2MX4 systems is via crystal packing of transition metal anions and organic cations. Following this method, we have prepared a series compounds in the (5-SAP)2CuX 4 family (where 5-SAP is a 5-substituted-2-aminopyridinium cation) and the A2CuX4 family. Eleven compounds have been prepared. They include bis(2-amino-5-fluoropyridinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II) (5-FAP) 2CuCl4 (1), bis(2-amino-5-fluoropyridinium) tetrabromocuprate(II) (5-FAP)2CuBr4 (2), bis(2-amino-5-iodopyridine) dibromocopper(II) (5-iap)2CuBr 2 dimer (3) and chain (4) forms, bis(2-amino-5-iodopyridine) dichlorocopper(II) hydrate (5-iap)2CuCl2·1.7H 2O (5), 2-amino-5-ammoniumpyridinium trichlorocuprate(II) chloride (DAP)(CuCl3)Cl (6), bis(2-amino-3-chloro-5-trifluoromethylpyridinium) tetrabromocuprate(II) (TMCAP)2CuBr4 (7) and its tetrachlorocuprate(II) analog (TMCAP)2CuCl4 (8), bis(4-aminopyridinium) tetrabromocuprate(II) monohydrate (4-AP) 2CuBr4-H2O (9), bis(3-methylpyridinium) tetrabromocuprate(II) (3-MP)2CuBr4 (10) and bis[methyl(2-phenylethyl)ammonium] tetrabromocuprate(II) (NMPH)2 CuBr4 (11). The structures and magnetic properties have been studied. Experimental data and theoretical calculations show that the strength of magnetic exchange is related to the geometric parameters of the non-bonding two-halide contacts, rather than direct contact between the copper(II) ions. The self-assembly technique can also be used to prepare magnetic networks. A variety of coordination polymers with magnetic properties have been synthesized based on different N

  9. Reliability analysis on a shell and tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingeswara, S.; Omar, R.; Mohd Ghazi, T. I.

    2016-06-01

    A shell and tube heat exchanger reliability was done in this study using past history data from a carbon black manufacturing plant. The heat exchanger reliability study is vital in all related industries as inappropriate maintenance and operation of the heat exchanger will lead to major Process Safety Events (PSE) and loss of production. The overall heat exchanger coefficient/effectiveness (Uo) and Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) were analyzed and calculated. The Aspen and down time data was taken from a typical carbon black shell and tube heat exchanger manufacturing plant. As a result of the Uo calculated and analyzed, it was observed that the Uo declined over a period caused by severe fouling and heat exchanger limitation. This limitation also requires further burn out period which leads to loss of production. The MTBF calculated is 649.35 hours which is very low compared to the standard 6000 hours for the good operation of shell and tube heat exchanger. The guidelines on heat exchanger repair, preventive and predictive maintenance was identified and highlighted for better heat exchanger inspection and repair in the future. The fouling of heat exchanger and the production loss will be continuous if proper heat exchanger operation and repair using standard operating procedure is not followed.

  10. FOREIGN EXCHANGE INTERVENTION AND THE POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    By combining expansionary open market operations with sales of foreign exchange, the central bank can expand the monetary base without depreciating the exchange rate. Thus, if there is a monetary political business cycle, sales of foreign exchange are especially likely before elections. Our panel data analysis for up to 158 countries in 1975-2001 supports this hypothesis. Foreign exchange reserves relative to trend GDP depend negatively on the pre-election index regardless of the exchange rat...

  11. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  12. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  13. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  14. Exchangeable lower previsions

    CERN Document Server

    de Cooman, Gert; Miranda, Enrique; 10.3150/09-BEJ182

    2009-01-01

    We extend de Finetti's [Ann. Inst. H. Poincar\\'{e} 7 (1937) 1--68] notion of exchangeability to finite and countable sequences of variables, when a subject's beliefs about them are modelled using coherent lower previsions rather than (linear) previsions. We derive representation theorems in both the finite and countable cases, in terms of sampling without and with replacement, respectively.

  15. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-04-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchangers. The team has begun a heat exchanger stress analysis; however, they have been concentrating the bulk of their analytical energies on a computational fluid dynmaics (CFD) model to determine the location and magnitude of shell-side flow maldistribution which decreases heat exchanger effectiveness. DSI received 120 fineblanked tubestrips from Southern Fineblanking (SFB) for manufacturing process development. Both SFB and NIST provided inspection reports of the tubestrips. DSI completed the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips on the array. Pressing the tubestrips on tube arrays showed design deficiencies both in the tubestrip design and the tooling design. DSI has a number of revisions in process to correct these deficiencies. The research effort has identified a more economical fusible alloy for encapsulating the tube array, and determined the parameters required to successfully encapsulate the tube array with the new alloy. A more compact MTS heat exchanger bank was designed.

  16. Currency Exchange Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual…

  17. Node Exchange Network and its Statistical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Toyota, N

    2005-01-01

    In considering a social network, there are cases where people is transferred to another place. Then the physical (direct) relations among nodes are lost by the movement. In terms of a network theory, some nodes break the present connections with neighboring nodes, move and there build new connections of nodes. For simplicity we here consider only that two nodes exchange the place each other on a network. Such exchange is assumed to be constantly carried out. We study this dynamic network (node exchange network NEN) and uncover some new features which usual networks do not contain. We mainly consider average path length and the diameter. Lastly we consider a propagation of one virus on the network by a computer simulation. They are compared to other networks investigated hitherto. The relation to a scale free network is also discussed.

  18. Reggeon exchange from AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Janik, R A

    2002-01-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence in a confining backgroundand the worldline formalism of gauge field theories,we compute scattering amplitudes with an exchange of quark andantiquark in the $t$-channel corresponding to Reggeon exchange. Itrequires going beyond the eikonal approximation, which was used when studying Pomeron exchange. The wordline path integral is evaluated through the determination of minimal surfaces and their boundaries by the saddle-point method at large gauge coupling g^2N_c. We find a Regge behaviour with linear Regge trajectories. The slope is related to the $q\\bar q$ static potential and is four times the Pomeronslope obtained in the same framework. A contribution to the intercept, related to the L\\"uscher term, comes from the fluctuations around the minimal surface.

  19. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  20. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  1. Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bidirectional NH3 exchange coupled to an agroecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Dennis, R. L.; Walker, J. T.; Pleim, J. E.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is the primary atmospheric base and an important precursor for inorganic particulate matter and when deposited NH3 contributes to surface water eutrophication, soil acidification and decline in species biodiversity. Flux measurements indicate that the air-surface exchange of NH3 is bidirectional. However, the effects of bidirectional exchange, soil biogeochemistry and human activity are not parameterized in air quality models. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air-Quality (CMAQ) model with bidirectional NH3 exchange has been coupled with the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) agroecosystem model. The coupled CMAQ-EPIC model relies on EPIC fertilization timing, rate and composition while CMAQ models the soil ammonium (NH4+) pool by conserving the ammonium mass due to fertilization, evasion, deposition, and nitrification processes. This mechanistically coupled modeling system reduced the biases and error in NHx (NH3 + NH4+) wet deposition and in ambient aerosol concentrations in an annual 2002 Continental US (CONUS) domain simulation when compared to a 2002 annual simulation of CMAQ without bidirectional exchange. Fertilizer emissions estimated in CMAQ 5.0 with bidirectional exchange exhibits markedly different seasonal dynamics than the US EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI), with lower emissions in the spring and fall and higher emissions in July.

  2. EXCHANGE RATE - REGIMES AND POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Lučić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate of one currency is the price of the currency expressed in units of other currency. It is formed by the interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market. Given that the exchange rate has a direct impact on the competitiveness of a country in terms of features of its exports and imports, in its balance of payments, and indirectly the overall economic and social development, in addition to acting in market principles - supply and demand in the formation of the equilibrium exchange rate, exchange rate is subject to different, stronger or weaker, more or less, forms of intervention. In the search for the optimal exchange rate policy of the national currency, the monetary authorities are positioned between the two extremes - the complete abandonment of the exchange rate to the market laws of supply and demand, or fixing the exchange rate for any of the selected anchor currency.

  3. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  4. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... assisters in assisting consumers with obtaining Exchange coverage; provides for the handling consumer cases... Related to the Risk Corridors Program C. Part 155--Exchange Establishment Standards and Other Related... believe it is important that all issuers offering coverage within a State, both through the Exchanges...

  5. The Exchange Rate Forecasting Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Vitek

    2005-01-01

    We survey and update the empirical literature concerning the predictability of nominal exchange rates using structural macroeconomic models over the recent floating exchange rate period. In particular, we consider both flexible and sticky price versions of the monetary model of nominal exchange rate determination. In agreement with the existing empirical literature, we find that nominal exchange rate movements are difficult to forecast, with a random walk generally dominating the monetary mod...

  6. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  7. Geology Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because geology professors cannot bring ore deposits from around the globe into their classrooms, the next best thing is to take their students to the deposits, according to David Norman, an associate professor of geochemistry at New Mexico Tech and Angus Moore of the Royal School of Mines. They organized a new exchange program between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, N.M., and the Royal School of Mines in London, England. In May, 14 students from England toured deposits in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado; in the photograph, Norman (on the right) describes a rock from a New Mexico ore deposit to some of the visitors from England. In early June a contingency from New Mexico Tech began studying deposits in England, Spain, and Portugal. Norman and Moore say that the exchange program may be expanded next year.

  8. Shell-and-double concentric-tube heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougriou, Chérif; Baadache, Khireddine

    2010-03-01

    This study concerns a new type of heat exchangers, which is that of shell-and-double concentric-tube heat exchangers. These heat exchangers can be used in many specific applications such as air conditioning, waste heat recovery, chemical processing, pharmaceutical industries, power production, transport, distillation, food processing, cryogenics, etc. The case studies include both design calculations and performance calculations. It is demonstrated that the relative diameter sizes of the two tubes with respect to each other are the most important parameters that influence the heat exchanger size.

  9. Data Content and Exchange in General Practice: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalankesh, Leila R; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Rahimi, Niloofar

    2014-01-01

    Background: efficient communication of data is inevitable requirement for general practice. Any issue in data content and its exchange among GP and other related entities hinders continuity of patient care. Methods: literature search for this review was conducted on three electronic databases including Medline, Scopus and Science Direct. Results: through reviewing papers, we extracted information on the GP data content, use cases of GP information exchange, its participants, tools and methods, incentives and barriers. Conclusion: considering importance of data content and exchange for GP systems, it seems that more research is needed to be conducted toward providing a comprehensive framework for data content and exchange in GP systems. PMID:25648317

  10. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  11. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data.

  12. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  13. Exchange Rate Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Yablonskyy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the foreign exchange currency forecasting techniques. Moreover the central idea behind the topic is to develop the strategy of forecasting by choosing indicators and techniques to make own forecast on currency pair EUR/USD. This thesis work is a mixture of theory and practice analyses. The goal during the work on this project was to study different types of forecasting techniques and make own forecast, practice forecasting and trading on Forex platform, ba...

  14. Heat exchange apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  15. Integrated foreign exchange risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of impor...

  16. On Exchange QB∞-Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyin Chen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of rings, the QB∞-rings. We investigate necessary and sufficient conditions under which an exchange ring is a QB∞-ring. The modules over an exchange QB∞-ring are studied. Also, we prove that every regular square matrix over an exchange QB∞-ring admits a diagonal reduction by pseudo-invertible matrices.

  17. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  18. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  19. 78 FR 17733 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ..., including exercise style. Accordingly, the Exchange noted in its Mini Options filing that Exchange rules... rule change that are filed with the Commission, and all written ] communications relating to...

  20. Management of exchange rate regimes in emerging Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkishen S. Rajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the issue of exchange rate regimes in emerging Asia over the decade 1999–2009. It finds that while Asia is home to a wide array of exchange rate regimes, there are signs of gradual movement toward somewhat greater exchange rate flexibility in many of the regional countries. There appears to be evidence of an apparent “fear of appreciation” which is manifested in asymmetric exchange rate intervention—i.e., a willingness to allow depreciations but reluctance to allow appreciations. This policy of effective exchange rate undervaluation is rather unorthodox from a neoclassical sense, but is consistent with a development policy centered on suppressing the price of non-tradable goods relative to tradables (i.e., real exchange rate undervaluation.

  1. Demonstrating DREAM: A Digital Resource Exchange about Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is an online tool for exchanging information about digital learning tools for music education. DREAM was designed by our team to encourage music teachers to learn about digital resources related to learning to play a musical instrument, both in classroom and independent music studio settings. In…

  2. 31 CFR 515.535 - Exchange of certain securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of certain securities. 515.535 Section 515.535 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... accounts: (1) Exchange of certificates necessitated by reason of changes in corporate name, par value...

  3. Properties of Foreign Exchange Risk Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure...... of interest rates and exchange rates. Estimating affine (multi-currency) term structure models reveals a noticeable tradeoff between matching depreciation rates and accuracy in pricing bonds. Risk premiums implied by our global affine model generate unbiased predictions for currency excess returns...

  4. Spatio-Temporal Data Exchange Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2003-01-01

    We believe that research that concerns aspects of spatio-temporal data management may benefit from taking into account the various standards for spatio-temporal data formats. For example, this may contribute to rendering prototype software “open” and more readily useful. This paper thus identifies...... and briefly surveys standardization in relation to primarily the exchange and integration of spatio-temporal data. An overview of several data exchange languages is offered, along with reviews their potential for facilitating the collection of test data and the leveraging of prototypes. The standards, most...

  5. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors.

  6. Experimental study on heat exchange of several types of exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志华; 赵振华; 于洋

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the ground-coupled source heat pump that possesses the shortcomings of occupying larger land,this article studies the heat exchanged of heat exchanger in piling,and compares it with common heat exchangers buried directly. The result indicates that the heat exchanger makes the best use of structure of building,saves land,reduces the construction cost,and the heat exchanged is obviously more than exchangers buried directly. In winter condition,when W-shape pipe heat exchanger in pile foundation is 50 m deep and diameter is 800 mm,it transfers 1.2-1.3 times as large as the one of single U-shape buried directly at the flow rate of 0.6 m/s,whose borehole diameter is 300 mm. And in summer condition it does about 2.0-2.3 times as that of U-shape one.

  7. Exchange bias for ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers with the uniaxial anisotropy being misaligned with the exchange anisotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI YuHao; YUN GuoHong

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of minimal energy and S-W model, the exchange bias for ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers has been investigated when the uniaxial anisotropy is misaligned with the exchange anisotropy. According to the relation between the energy of the bilayer and the orientation of ferromagnetic magnetization, it is found that the bilayer will be in the monostable state or bistable state when the external field is absent in the initial magnetization state. The monostable state or bistable state of the bilayer, which determines the angular dependence of exchange bias directly, is controlled by the competition between the exchange anisotropy and uniaxial anisotropy. When the applied field is parallel to the intrinsic easy axes and intrinsic hard axes, one of the switching fields of the hysteresis loop shows an abrupt change, while the other keep continuous by analyzing the magnetization reversal processes. Consequently, the exchange bias field and the coercivity will show a jump phenomenon.The numerical calculations indicate that both the magnitude and direction of the exchange anisotropy will significantly affect the angular dependence of exchange bias. The jump phenomenon of exchange bias is an intrinsic property of the bilayer, which is dependent on the interracial exchange-coupling constant, the orientation of the exchange anisotropy, the thickness and uniaxial anisotropy constant of the ferromagnetic layer.

  8. Exchange bias for ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers with the uniaxial anisotropy being misaligned with the exchange anisotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of minimal energy and S-W model,the exchange bias for ferromagnetic/antiferro-magnetic bilayers has been investigated when the uniaxial anisotropy is misaligned with the exchange anisotropy. According to the relation between the energy of the bilayer and the orientation of ferro-magnetic magnetization,it is found that the bilayer will be in the monostable state or bistable state when the external field is absent in the initial magnetization state. The monostable state or bistable state of the bilayer,which determines the angular dependence of exchange bias directly,is controlled by the competition between the exchange anisotropy and uniaxial anisotropy. When the applied field is parallel to the intrinsic easy axes and intrinsic hard axes,one of the switching fields of the hysteresis loop shows an abrupt change,while the other keep continuous by analyzing the magnetization reversal processes. Consequently,the exchange bias field and the coercivity will show a jump phenomenon. The numerical calculations indicate that both the magnitude and direction of the exchange anisotropy will significantly affect the angular dependence of exchange bias. The jump phenomenon of exchange bias is an intrinsic property of the bilayer,which is dependent on the interfacial exchange-coupling constant,the orientation of the exchange anisotropy,the thickness and uniaxial anisotropy constant of the ferromagnetic layer.

  9. Exchange rate exposure of firms and the demand for foreign exchange derivatives in Brazil: did hedge or speculatiom matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nascimento de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines empirically how the demand of foreign exchange derivatives by Brazilian corporations is related to their exchange rate exposure. With the help of an original database of 74,567 contracts written from 1999 to 2002 between corporations and financial institutions, we were able to identify the corporations that speculated and the ones that hedged with foreign exchange derivatives during this period. Our results show that the exchange rate exposure is positively related to the foreign operational exposures for firms that speculated and negatively related for firms that hedged in 2002. For the other years of the sample period, speculation or hedge did not affect the relationship between the exchange rate exposure and the foreign operational exposure of firms.

  10. The Area Between Exchange Curves as a Measure of Conformational Differences in Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sharlyn J.; Weber, Daniel P.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) provides information about protein conformational mobility under native conditions. The area between exchange curves, A bec , a functional data analysis concept, was adapted to the interpretation of HDX-MS data and provides a useful measure of exchange curve dissimilarity for tests of significance. Importantly, for most globular proteins under native conditions, A bec values provide an estimate of the log ratio of exchange-competent fractions in the two states, and thus are related to differences in the free energy of microdomain unfolding.

  11. Exotic resonances due to η exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2016-10-01

    The meson X (3872) and several related states appear to be in large part hadronic molecules in which a heavy flavored meson (e.g., D0) is bound to another heavy meson (e.g., D bar * 0). Although not the only contribution to the binding, pion exchange seems to play a crucial role in generating the longest-range force between constituents. Mesons without u and d light quarks (such as Ds) cannot exchange pions, but under suitable conditions can bind as a result of η exchange. Channels in which this mechanism is possible are identified, and suggestions are made for searches for the corresponding molecular states, including a manifestly exotic baryonic Λc Dbar s* resonance decaying into J / ψ Λ.

  12. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  13. Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl Lizondo

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Thh paper examines the implications of some nominal exchange rate policies aimed or attaining a given real exchange rate target. A policy rule that sets the rate of nominal depreciation as a function of the departures of the real exchange rate from its target level is unable to achieve the target. In contrast, a policv rule that sets the change in the rate of depreciation as a function of those departures may lead the economy to the target, under certain conditions. However, this policy could also lead the economy to a process of accelerating inflation.

  14. Relações hídricas e trocas gasosas em vinhedo sob cobertura plástica Water relations and leaf gas exchange in vineyard with plastic overhead cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, determinaram-se as influências da cobertura plástica impermeável (CP sobre a demanda evaporativa atmosférica e o potencial da água no solo, bem como as conseqüências destas sobre as trocas gasosas foliares (fotossíntese, condutância estomática e transpiração e o potencial da água na folha da videira. As avaliações foram realizadas nos ciclos 2005/06 e 2006/07, em um vinhedo da cv. Moscato Giallo, conduzido em "Y", com cobertura plástica impermeável tipo ráfia (160 mm, em 12 fileiras com 35 m, deixando-se cinco fileiras sem cobertura (controle. Em ambas as áreas, avaliou-se o microclima quanto à temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento, próximos ao dossel vegetativo. A CP aumentou a disponibilidade hídrica no solo nas entrelinhas e restringiu-a nas linhas, sobretudo em profundidades mais superficiais (0-10 cm. A CP também diminuiu a demanda evaporativa atmosférica, principalmente pela redução da velocidade do vento (-90%, aumentando o potencial da água na folha e a condutância estomática. De modo geral, a CP pode favorecer a condição hídrica e elevar a capacidade de assimilação de carbono em videiras.This study evaluated the plastic overhead cover (POC effect on evaporative demand of atmosphere and soil water content, as well as their consequences on gas exchange (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration and leaf water potential in grapevine. The experiment was carried out during the 2005/06 and 2006/07 seasons, in a vineyard of 'Moscato Giallo', trained in "Y" and covered with an impermeable plastic cloth (2.65 m x 160 mm, in 12 rows with 35 m, with five rows left uncovered (control. In both areas, the microclimate was evaluated, in terms of air temperature, air relative humidity, radiation photosynthetically active and wind speed above the canopy. The POC increased the soil water content between rows and restricted it

  15. Emission-dominated gas exchange of elemental mercury vapor over natural surfaces in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Yuan, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Zhu, Wei; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission from natural surfaces plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global natural emission has large uncertainty and remains unverified against field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed for estimating the emission of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) from natural surfaces in China. The development implements recent advancements in the understanding of air-soil and air-foliage exchange of Hg0 and redox chemistry in soil and on surfaces, incorporates the effects of soil characteristics and land use changes by agricultural activities, and is examined through a systematic set of sensitivity simulations. Using the model, the net exchange of Hg0 between the atmosphere and natural surfaces of mainland China is estimated to be 465.1 Mg yr-1, including 565.5 Mg yr-1 from soil surfaces, 9.0 Mg yr-1 from water bodies, and -100.4 Mg yr-1 from vegetation. The air-surface exchange is strongly dependent on the land use and meteorology, with 9 % of net emission from forest ecosystems; 50 % from shrubland, savanna, and grassland; 33 % from cropland; and 8 % from other land uses. Given the large agricultural land area in China, farming activities play an important role on the air-surface exchange over farmland. Particularly, rice field shift from a net sink (3.3 Mg uptake) during April-October (rice planting) to a net source when the farmland is not flooded (November-March). Summing up the emission from each land use, more than half of the total emission occurs in summer (51 %), followed by spring (28 %), autumn (13 %), and winter (8 %). Model verification is accomplished using observational data of air-soil/air-water fluxes and Hg deposition through litterfall for forest ecosystems in China and Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to the earlier estimate by Shetty et al. (2008) that reported large emission from vegetative surfaces using an evapotranspiration approach, the estimate in

  16. State Health Facts - State Decisions on Exchanges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State Decisions For Creating Health Insurance Exchanges, including Exchange Decision, Federal Approval Status, Structure of Exchange, and Type of Exchange.

  17. Small particle heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.J.

    1978-06-01

    A dispersion of small absorbing particles forms an ideal system to collect radiant energy, transform it to heat, and efficiently transfer the heat to a surrounding fluid. If the heated fluid is a pressurized gas, it can be passed through an expansion turbine to create useful mechanical energy. The most obvious application of this technique is its use in a solar collection system. In this case, the incoming sunlight is used to heat a compressed gas in an engine utilizing a Brayton cycle. The solar collection system may utilize high concentration as provided by a central receiver or parabolic dish, medium concentration from a linear collector, or possibly no concentration using a flat plate collector, if precautions were taken to reduce the heat losses. The same concept may be applied generally to non-solar heat exchangers. These may be of the type used to heat a gas from a combustion source, or in general as a gas to gas heat exchanger. The latter application may be limited to rather high temperature. Each of the above applications is discussed. First, a description of the concept is applied to a solar central-tower system. The general principles are described, including the optical and physical characteristics of the particles, the confinement of the gas-particle mixture, and the system considerations; the latter include the amount and type of particles, the receiver efficiency and the generation of the particles. The same considerations are reviewed for applications to linear trough and flat plate receivers. Finally, the use of small particles in non-solar heat exchangers is considered.

  18. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A

    1997-01-01

    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  19. On the Relations between the Adjustment of RMB Exchanging Rate and the Global Financial Governance%人民币汇率调整的外部性与全球金融治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘程

    2012-01-01

    The responses of the various polices for the current round global financial crisis are less desirable. It shows that the international monetary and financial systems are needed to be reconstructed in global imbalance by recalling the policies of RMB exchanging rate in recent two crises and the impact of the crisis on the Chinese exchanging system. The basic fac- tors caused the pattern of global imbalances couldnt be simply changed by adjusting the exchanging rate. The change of China~ exchanging rate regime has its externality with the similar historical experience of major economies which requires a broader global perspective to understand and implement. The driving force of the reformation process depends not only on domestic and international economic situation and environment, but also on the economic and political cooperation of China with the world' majosr economies.%针对本轮全球性金融危机所启动的各项政策应对措施的效果差强人意。回顾最近两次危机过程中的人民币汇率政策行为,藉由贸易渠道所产生的实际产出影响,以及危机对中国汇率制度调整的反向影响,表明全球失衡需要货币与金融体系的全球性治理制度构建。造成全球失衡格局的本质因素远非通过简单的汇率调整可以改变。与各主要经济体的历史经验相似,中国的汇率体制变革亦有其外部性,需从更为广泛的全球角度加以认知与实施。其进程的推动力量不仅取决于国内外经济形势与环境,更需要包括中国在内的世界主要经济体在广泛领域内的经济与政治合作。

  20. Grain Exchange Probabilities Within a Gravel Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the vertical exchange of sediments during floods. These exchanges regulate the virtual velocity of sediment and bed material texture. This study describes general tendencies in the vertical exchange of gravels within the substrate that result from multiple floods. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. These tracers have been recovered 10 times over 12 flood seasons to quantify their vertical position in the streambed. For analysis, the bed is divided into layers based on armor layer thickness. Once tracers are well mixed within the streambed, grains in the surface layer are most likely to be mixed into the subsurface, while subsurface grains are most likely to persist within the subsurface. Fractional exchange probabilities approach size independence when the most active depth of the substrate is considered. Overall these results highlight vertical mixing as an important process in the dispersion of gravels.

  1. Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Network Considering Multipass Exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍军; 姚平经

    2001-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for synthesis of heat exchanger networks in recent years, most of which consider single pass exchangers. In this study some evolutionary rules have been proposed for synthesis of multipass exchanger networks. The method is based on the heuristic that optimal networks should feature maximum energy recovery and have the minimum number of shells. The effectiveness of the developed evolutionary rules is demonstrated through some literature examples.

  2. Capital Flows, Exchange Rate Flexibility, and the Real Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Louis Combes; Patrick Plane; Tidiane Kinda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of capital inflows and exchange rate flexibility on the real exchange rate in developing countries based on panel cointegration techniques. The results show that public and private flows are associated with a real exchange rate appreciation. Among private flows, portfolio investment has the highest appreciation effect-almost seven times that of foreign direct investment or bank loans-and private transfers have the lowest effect. Using a de facto measure of excha...

  3. Interfacing heat exchanger network synthesis and detailed heat exchanger design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polley, G.T.; Panjeh Shahi, M.H. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology)

    1991-11-01

    Current heat exchanger network synthesis targeting and design procedures involve the use of assumed stream heat transfer coefficients. However, during detailed heat exchanger design, allowable pressure drops are often the most critical factors. The result can be big differences between the exchanger sizes and costs anticipated by the network designer and those realised by the exchanger designer. This in turn prejudices any optimisation attempted at the network design stage. In this paper it is shown how allowable pressure drop can be used as a basis of network design and consistency between expectation and realisation achieved. (author).

  4. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Every international business is affected by the ever-changing value of the currencies implied in contracts. While many of us consider this unpredictability a nuisance, the volatility of currencies around the world can mean the difference between success and failure for many exporters/importers. Exchange rates between one currency and another can change dramatically in a short period of time, leaving the unprepared business exposed to potentially crippling losses. The efficient management of this risk is essential for the survival of a company and any business that is exposed to such a risk should ensure that it is fully prepared to manage it. Old standbys and recent breakthroughs in the area of financial risk management can remove much of the risk from currency rate movements. The range of such products is huge, with increasingly sophisticated techniques constantly being added. Among the most modern methods for managing exchange risk there are four major classes of derivative products like: forwards, futures, options, and swaps. Beyond the four main types of risk management instruments, there are a number of other products including "swaptions" (options on swaps; avenging options; yield curve swaps; futures on spreads; and options on portfolios. Sophisticated mathematical tools and high-speed computers are needed to calculate the price of these instruments and to determine their overall effect on the company. In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they're traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to

  5. Self-immolation and the exchange of self and others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    On the recent self-immolations as a form of Tibetan protest, the Dalai Lama's statement on it, and its relation to some doctrinal aspects such as karma and the bodhisattvas' ability to exchange of Self and other.......On the recent self-immolations as a form of Tibetan protest, the Dalai Lama's statement on it, and its relation to some doctrinal aspects such as karma and the bodhisattvas' ability to exchange of Self and other....

  6. Fixed Exchange Rates and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Jay C. Shambaugh

    2004-01-01

    A classic argument for a fixed exchange rate is its promotion of trade. Empirical support for this, however, is mixed. While one branch of research consistently shows a small negative effect of exchange rate volatility on trade, another, more recent, branch presents evidence of a large positive impact of currency unions on trade. This paper helps resolve this disconnect. Our results, which use a new data-based classification of fixed exchange rate regimes, show a large, significant effect of ...

  7. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  8. Analytical and Numerical Study on the Uniformity of Temperature Difference Field in Heat Exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-XinLi; Da-XiXiong; 等

    1995-01-01

    The relations of the uniformity factor of temperature difference field with the effctiveness of heat exchangers were studied analytically and numerically.The results for eleven kinds of heat exchangers show that the more uniform the temperature difference field,the higher the effctiveness of heat exchanger for a given Ntu and Cr.

  9. 78 FR 12655 - Federal-State Unemployment Insurance (UI) Program; Data Exchange Standardization as Required by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...) Program; Data Exchange Standardization as Required by Section 2104 of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job... received that relate to the proposed data exchange standardization on http://www.regulations.gov without... Insurance (UI) \\1\\ program. Before enactment of this requirement for data exchange standardization,...

  10. 76 FR 18816 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; CBOE Futures Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; CBOE Futures Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend Certain Rules Relating to Listing and Trading Security Futures... is hereby given that on March 18, 2011, CBOE Futures Exchange, LLC. (``CFE'' or ``Exchange'')...

  11. 77 FR 35443 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ..., as well as to make other non-material grammatical changes. \\4\\ See Security and Exchange Act Release... of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Amendments to the EDGA Exchange, Inc. Fee Schedule June 7, 2012... ``EDGA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change...

  12. 78 FR 28911 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... national equity exchanges all have the same core business hours (e.g., New York Stock Exchange Rule 51(a... Proposed Rule Change Relating to Exchange Trading Days and Hours of Business and Trading Halts May 10, 2013... rule change to amend Rules 6.1 (Days and Hours of Business) and 6.3 (Trading Halts). The proposed...

  13. 78 FR 19348 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... core business hours.\\3\\ With this proposal, the Exchange is attempting to clarify in its rules that it... Proposed Rule Change Relating to Exchange Trading Days and Hours of Business and Trading Halts March 25... Exchange rules to clarify Rules 6.1, ``Days and Hours of Business,'' and 6.3, ``Trading Halts.'' The...

  14. 78 FR 8617 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules Related to Price Sliding Functionality January 31, 2013... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on January 25, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  15. 76 FR 77576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... and executed at C2. \\6\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65668 (November 2, 2011), 76 FR 69313... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 7, 2011....

  16. 77 FR 5588 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... forth below. \\6\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65619 (October 25, 2011), 76 FR 67238 (October... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 30, 2012. Pursuant...

  17. Data Exchange in Grid Workflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hongwei; MIAO Huaikou

    2006-01-01

    In existing web services-based workflow, data exchanging across the web services is centralized, the workflow engine intermediates at each step of the application sequence.However, many grid applications, especially data intensive scientific applications, require exchanging large amount of data across the grid services.Having a central workfiow engine relay the data between the services would results in a bottleneck in these cases.This paper proposes a data exchange model for individual grid workflow and multiworkflows composition respectively.The model enables direct communication for large amounts of data between two grid services.To enable data to exchange among multiple workflows, the bridge data service is used.

  18. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  19. Theoretical investigation of exchange bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhi-Jie; Wang Huai-Yu; Ding Ze-Jun

    2007-01-01

    The exchange bias of bilayer magnetic films consisting of ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in an uncompensated case is studied by use of the many-body Green's function method of quantum statistical theory.The effects of the layer thickness and temperature and the interfacial coupling strength on the exchange bias HE are investigated. The dependence of the exchange bias HE on the FM layer thickness and temperature is qualitatively in agreement with experimental results. When temperature varies, both the coercivity HC and HE decrease with the temperature increasing. For each FM thickness, there exists a least AFM thickness in which the exchange bias occurs,which is called pinning thickness.

  20. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  1. Asymmetric exchange in flocks

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhichi, Lokrshi Prawar; Maitra, Ananyo; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    As the constituents of a flock are polar, one expects a fore-aft asymmetry in their interactions. We show here that the resulting antisymmetric part of the "exchange coupling" between a bird and its neighbours, if large enough, destabilizes the flock through spontaneous turning of the birds. The same asymmetry also yields a natural mechanism for a difference between the speed of advection of information along the flock and the speed of the flock itself. We show that the absence of detailed balance, and not merely the breaking of Galilean invariance, is responsible for this difference. We delineate the conditions on parameters and wavenumber for the existence of the turning instability. Lastly we present an alternative perspective based on flow-alignment effects in an active liquid crystal with turning inertia in contact with a momentum sink.

  2. Harnessing Private-Sector Innovation to Improve Health Insurance Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Hoch, Emily; Eibner, Christine; Rudin, Robert S; Mattke, Soeren

    2016-05-09

    Overhauling the individual health insurance market-including through the creation of health insurance exchanges-was a key component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's multidimensional approach to addressing the long-standing problem of the uninsured in the United States. Despite succeeding in enrolling millions of Americans, the exchanges still face several challenges, including poor consumer experience, high operational and development costs, and incomplete market penetration. In light of these challenges, analysts considered a different model for the exchanges-privately facilitated exchanges-which could address these challenges and deepen the Affordable Care Act's impact. In this model, the government retains control over sovereign exchange functions but allows the private sector to assume responsibility for more-peripheral exchange functions, such as developing and sustaining exchange websites. Although private-sector entities have already undertaken exchange-related functions on a limited basis, privately facilitated exchanges could conceivably relieve the government of its responsibility for front-end website operations and consumer decision-support functions entirely. A shift to privately facilitated exchanges could improve the consumer experience, increase enrollment, and lower costs for state and federal governments. A move to such a model requires, nonetheless, managing its risks, such as reduced consumer protection, increased consumer confusion, and the possible lack of a viable revenue base for privately facilitated exchanges, especially in less populous states. On net, the benefits are large enough and the risks sufficiently manageable to seriously consider such a shift. This paper provides background information and more detail on the analysts' assessment.

  3. Protect the Secrecy in Password-Based Key Exchange Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILi; SUNHaibo; XUERui; ZHANGHuanguo

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model called term-node graph, which is a formal method based on Dolev-Yao model[15], to analyze this problem. In this framework, each node is a term of message exchang ingin the protocol and each edge denotes a relation between terms. Essentially, properties of security protocols are all relative to secrets. Based on this thought, term-node graph model emphasizes the relation between terms and then secrecy can come down to the problem of reachability of terms through some reachable paths. We conclude a generic form of three party password-only key exchange protocols. Applying this model to analyze the secrecy of the generic protoco4 a general necessary condition is deduced on the security of the three party password-only key exchange protocols: To resist the guessing attack on pass-words, the number of message-exchange steps among the three parties should be more than five.

  4. Exergo-ecological evaluation of heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic optimization of thermal devices requires information about the influence of operational and structural parameters on its behaviour. The interconnections among parameters can be estimated by tools such as CFD, experimental statistic of the deviceetc. Despite precise and comprehensive results obtained by CFD, the time of computations is relatively long. This disadvantage often cannot be accepted in case of optimization as well as online control of thermal devices. As opposed to CFD the neural network or regression is characterized by short computational time, but does not take into account any physical phenomena occurring in the considered process. The CFD model of heat exchanger was built using commercial package Fluent/Ansys. The empirical model of heat exchanger has been assessed by regression and neural networks based on the set of pseudo-measurements generated by the exact CFD model. In the paper, the usage of the developed empirical model of heat exchanger for the minimisation of TEC is presented. The optimisationconcerns operational parameters of heat exchanger. The TEC expresses the cumulative exergy consumption of non-renewable resources. The minimization of the TEC is based on the objective function formulated by Szargut. However, the authors extended the classical TEC by the introduction of the exergy bonus theory proposed by Valero. The TEC objective function fulfils the rules of life cycle analysis because it contains the investment expenditures (measured by the cumulative exergy consumption of non-renewable natural resources, the operation of devices and the final effects of decommissioning the installation.

  5. Molecular Exchange in Ordered Diblock Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lodge, Timothy; Bates, Frank

    2011-03-01

    Previously, molecular exchange between spherical micelles in dilute solution (1 vol% polymer) was investigated using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). As the concentration of spherical micelles formed by the diblock copolymers increases, the micelles begin to overlap and eventually pack onto body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice. In this study, concentrated, ordered micelles (15 vol% polymers) prepared by dispersing isotopically labeled poly(styrene- b -ethylene-alt-propylene) in an isotopic squalane mixture was investigated to understand the micellar concentration dependence of the molecular exchange. Perfectly random mixing of isotopically labeled micelles on the BCC lattice was confirmed by SANS patterns where the interparticle contribution vanishes, resulting in an intensity that directly relates to the exchange kinetics. The measured molecular exchange process for the concentrated, ordered system is qualitatively consistent with the previous observations, but the rate is more than an order of magnitude slower than that for the dilute, disordered system. Infineum(IPrime), MRSEC(NSF), NIST.

  6. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-02-15

    Concerning the european community, two meetings occurred during october 2008, the group on the nuclear safety and the waste management at Brussels and the meeting of W.E.N.R.A. (Western european nuclear regulator association). At the international level, the commission on safety standards took place in september 2008 at Vienna, a general conference of IAEA and the senor regulator meeting in september at Vienna. The worldwide conference of radiation protection (International radiation protection association -I.R.P.A.) took place under IAEA aegis at Buenos Aires in october 2008. Bilateral relations between France and South Africa, Germany, China, United States and Japan took place in october 2008 and were about information exchanges. (N.C.)

  7. Macroreticular chelating ion-exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R F; E Gancher, R; Russo, F R

    1970-06-01

    Two macroreticular chelating ion-exchangers have been prepared and characterized. One contains the iminodiacetate group and the second contains the arsonate group as the ion-exchanging site. The macroreticular resins show selectivities among metal ions similar to those of the commercially available naicroreticular chelating resins. Chromatographie separations on the new resins are rapid and sharp.

  8. Exchange Rates and Old People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Extends earlier work on aging as a process of exchange by focusing on the issue of exchange rates and how they are negotiated. Access to power resources declines with age, placing the old person in the position of negotiating from weakness. (Author)

  9. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS...... transformed) plasma insulin: beta=0.6 (95% CI: 0.1-1.1); R=0.22; P

  10. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  11. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  12. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well as s...

  13. EXCHANGE. Volume 9-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, J.C. [ed.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  14. Summertime elemental mercury exchange of temperate grasslands on an ecosystem-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fritsche

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the air-surface mercury exchange of grasslands in temperate climate regions, fluxes of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were measured at two sites in Switzerland and one in Austria during summer 2006. Two classic micrometeorological methods (aerodynamic and modified Bowen ratio have been applied to estimate net GEM exchange rates and to determine the response of the GEM flux to changes in environmental conditions (e.g. heavy rain, summer ozone on an ecosystem-scale. Both methods proved to be appropriate to estimate fluxes on time scales of a few hours and longer. Average dry deposition rates up to 4.3 ng m−2 h−1 and mean deposition velocities up to 0.10 cm s−1 were measured, which indicates that during the active vegetation period temperate grasslands are a small net sink for atmospheric mercury. With increasing ozone concentrations depletion of GEM was observed, but could not be quantified from the flux signal. Night-time deposition fluxes of GEM were measured and seem to be the result of mercury co-deposition with condensing water. Effects of grass cuts could also be observed, but were of minor magnitude.

  15. Ion exchange properties of humus acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, V. N.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    Ion exchange equilibriums in a complex of brown humic acids (HAs) and related fulvic acids (FAs) with cations (H+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, and Al3+) have been studied, and the activity coefficients of the acid monoionic forms have been determined. The composition of the stoichiometric cell in the system of black and brown HAs and related FAs in a leached chernozem of the Ob' region has been calculated with consideration for the earlier studies of the ion exchange properties of black HAs and related FAs. It has been shown that hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and iron are the major components in the exchange complex of humus acids in the leached chernozem with the other cations being of subordinate importance. In spite of some differences between the analytical and calculated compositions of the humus acids, the results of the calculations can be considered satisfactory. They indicate that calculations are feasible for such complex objects as soils, and their accuracy will improve with the expansion of the experimental studies. The physicochemical simulation of the transformation of the humus acid composition under different acid-base conditions shows that the contents of most cations decrease under alkalization, and hydroxides or carbonates become the most stable forms of these cations. Under the acidification of solutions, the binding of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements by humus acids decreases and the adsorption of iron and aluminum by humus acids increases.

  16. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  17. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  18. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  19. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  20. Preparation of a Cation Exchanger from Cork Waste: Thermodynamic Study of the Ion Exchange Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An ion exchanger was prepared by sulfonation of cork-waste chars. The exchange properties of the resultant materialwere characterized using Na+, Ca2+ or Fe3+ aqueous solutions, The content of metal ions in the solutions weredetermined by atomic absorption spectrometry. On the basis of the results obtained, the chemical equilibrium andits thermodynamic aspects related to the ion exchange process were studied. It was found that equilibrium constantK varies by the order: Na+<Ca2+<Fe3+, its value increasing with increasing temperature, and that △H°>0 and△S°>0, with -△G° following the sequence: Ca2+>Na+>Fe3+,

  1. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  2. Energy-Exchange Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

  3. Optimization of Transient Heat Exchanger Performance for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Wirz, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Heat exchangers are used in a multitude of applications within systems for energy generation, energy conversion, or energy storage. Many of these systems (e.g. solar power plants) function under transient conditions, but the design of the heat exchangers is typically optimized assuming steady state conditions. There is a potential for significant energy savings if the transient behavior of the heat exchanger is taken into account in designing the heat exchanger by optimizing its operating conditions in relation to the transient behavior of the overall system. The physics of the transient behavior of a heat exchanger needs to be understood to provide design parameters for transient heat exchangers to deliver energy savings. A numerical model was used to determine the optimized mass flow rates thermal properties for a thermal energy storage system. The transient behavior is strongly linked to the dimensionless parameters relating fluid properties, the mass flow rates, and the temperature of the fluids at the inlet of each stream. Smart metals, or advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction will be used to meet the three goals mentioned before: 1) energy and cost reduction, 2) size reduction, and 3) optimal performance for all modes of operation.

  4. Resonant indirect exchange via spatially separated two-dimensional channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhansky, I. V., E-mail: rozhansky@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lappeenranta University of Technology, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S. [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Aronzon, B. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute,” 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Davydov, A. B. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kugel, K. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tripathi, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2015-06-22

    We apply the resonant indirect exchange interaction theory to explain the ferromagnetic properties of the hybrid heterostructure consisting of a InGaAs-based quantum well (QW) sandwiched between GaAs barriers with spatially separated Mn δ-layer. The experimentally obtained dependence of the Curie temperature on the QW depth exhibits a peak related to the region of resonant indirect exchange. We suggest the theoretical explanation and a fit to this dependence as a result of the two contributions to ferromagnetism—the intralayer contribution and the resonant exchange contribution provided by the QW.

  5. Noninvasive detection of gas exchange rate by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guodong; Mao, Zongzhen; Wang, Bangde

    2008-12-01

    In order to study the relationship among the oxygen concentration in skeletal muscle tissues and the heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during incremental running exercises on a treadmill, a near-infrared spectroscopy muscle oxygen monitor system is employed to measure the relative change in muscle oxygenation, with the heart rate, oxygen uptake, production of carbon dioxide (VCO2) and respiratory exchange ratio are recorded synchronously. The results indicate parameters mentioned above present regular changes during the incremental exercise. High correlations are discovered between relative change of oxy-hemoglobin concentration and heart rate, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio at the significance level (P=0.01). This research might introduce a new measurement technology and/or a novel biological monitoring parameter to the evaluation of physical function status, control the training intensity, estimation of the effectiveness of exercise. Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; muscle oxygen concentration; heart rate; oxygen uptake; respiratory exchange ratio.

  6. Simulating Replica Exchange: Markov State Models, Proposal Schemes, and the Infinite Swapping Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin W; Dai, Wei; Gallicchio, Emilio; He, Peng; Xia, Junchao; Tan, Zhiqiang; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-08-25

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is a multicanonical simulation technique commonly used to enhance the sampling of solvated biomolecules on rugged free energy landscapes. While replica exchange is relatively easy to implement, there are many unanswered questions about how to use this technique most efficiently, especially because it is frequently the case in practice that replica exchange simulations are not fully converged. A replica exchange cycle consists of a series of molecular dynamics steps of a set of replicas moving under different Hamiltonians or at different thermodynamic states followed by one or more replica exchange attempts to swap replicas among the different states. How the replica exchange cycle is constructed affects how rapidly the system equilibrates. We have constructed a Markov state model of replica exchange (MSMRE) using long molecular dynamics simulations of a host-guest binding system as an example, in order to study how different implementations of the replica exchange cycle can affect the sampling efficiency. We analyze how the number of replica exchange attempts per cycle, the number of MD steps per cycle, and the interaction between the two parameters affects the largest implied time scale of the MSMRE simulation. The infinite swapping limit is an important concept in replica exchange. We show how to estimate the infinite swapping limit from the diagonal elements of the exchange transition matrix constructed from MSMRE "simulations of simulations" as well as from relatively short runs of the actual replica exchange simulations.

  7. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  8. Effect of polyamine reagents on exchange capacity in ion exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T. I.; Dyachenko, F. V.; Bogatyreva, Yu. V.; Borodastov, A. K.; Ershova, I. S.

    2016-05-01

    Effect of compounds involved in complex reagents is described using Helamin 906H reagent as an example. The working exchange capacity of KU-2-8chs cation exchanger in hydrogen form and Amberlite IRA 900Cl anion exchanger in OH form remained almost unchanged when they were used repeatedly to purify water that contained Helamin 906H reagent; in addition, this capacity was the same upon filtration of water that did not contain this reagent. Leakage of total organic carbon was observed earlier than that of calcium ions upon filtration of the solution through the cation exchanger layer. The test results obtained in industrial conditions indicated that using H-OH filters to purify turbine condensate enables the decrease of the concentration of organic and other impurities therein.

  9. ECONOMETRIC MODELS FOR DETERMING THE EXCHANGE RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela BRATU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The simple econometric models for the exchange rate, according to recent researches, generates the forecasts with the highest degree of accuracy. This type of models (Simultaneous Equations Model, MA(1 Procedure, Model with lagged variables is used to describe the evolution of the average exchange rate in Romanian in January 1991-March 2012 and to predict it on short run. The best forecasts, in terms of accuracy, on the forecasting horizon April-May 2012 were those based on a Simultaneous Equations Model that takes into account the Granger causality. An almost high degree of accuracy was gotten by combining the predictions based on MA(1 model with those based on the simultaneous equations model, when INV weighting scheme was applied (the forecasts are inversely weighted to their relative mean squared forecast error. The lagged variables Model provided the highest prediction errors. The importance of knowing the best exchange rate forecasts is related to the improvement of decision-making and the building of the monetary policy.

  10. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  11. Exchange Rates and Commodity Prices : Measuring Causality at Multiple Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Jun ZHANG; Dufour, Jean-Marie; Galbraith, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and measuring the relative roles of different causal channels between commodity prices and exchange rates has important implications in financial decision making, especially for market participants with short horizons. From a macroeconomic perspective, this can also be useful for interpreting exchange rate movements, financial market monitoring and monetary policy. Basic economic reasoning on currency demand suggests that the currencies of countries whose exports depend heavily ...

  12. Exchange Rate Uncertainty in Money-Based Stabilization Programs

    OpenAIRE

    R. Armando Morales

    1998-01-01

    Complementing the explanation provided by Calvo and Vegh (1994) for money-based stabilization programs, exchange rate uncertainty introduced to a particular version of the portfolio approach with imperfect competition in the banking system leads to a bias toward appreciation that is directly related to the divergence of expectations and that dampens the interaction between portfolio movements and the real exchange rate. Based on Frankel-Froot, uncertainty exists when the fundamental equilibri...

  13. Exchange of experience with like-minded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    in question are debated openly and unbiased - without handing out completed results. The themes have until now been related to project management and product development; formulation of a good product development strategy; idea generation; objective management control and use of consumer data in product...... development. For the companies, the product development forum is mostly about exchange of experience but also about building a close professional and personal network. MAPP benefits from the forum too. A close relationship between food companies and researchers can be useful in connection with future research......As an industry-oriented research center MAPP wishes to contribute to dialogue and exchange of experience in the food industry. The product development forum, a network consisting of product developers from a number of food companies is an important initiative in that direction. Demanding consumers...

  14. Exchange bias in nano-ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, D. A.; Krasikov, A. A.; Dubrovskiy, A. A.; Popkov, S. I.; Stolyar, S. V.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Ladygina, V. P.; Yaroslavtsev, R. N.

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of investigations of the effect of cooling in an external magnetic field starting from the temperature over superparamagnetic blocking temperature TB on the shift of magnetic hysteresis loops in systems of ferrihydrite nanoparticles from ˜2.5 to ˜5 nm in size with different TB values. In virtue of high anisotropy fields of ferrihydrite nanoparticles and open hysteresis loops in the range of experimentally attainable magnetic fields, the shape of hysteresis loops of such objects in the field-cooling mode is influenced by the minor hysteresis loop effect. A technique is proposed for distinguishing the exchange bias effect among the effects related to the minor hysteresis loops caused by high anisotropy fields of ferrihydrite particles. The exchange bias in ferrihydrite is stably observed for particles not less than 3 nm in size or with TB over 40 K, and its characteristic value increases with the particle size.

  15. Exchange effects in composite-particle interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchuvil’sky Yu. M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algebraic version of the orthogonality conditions model is developed by analogy with the algebraic version of the resonating group model. It is shown that all exchange terms excluding ones originated by the exchange kernel of the potential energy can be easily taken into account in the frame of the formalism of the version. The potential term as a whole is modelled phenomenologically. Both direct algebraic approach and the method basing on the solution of the integro-differential Schrödinger equation containing nonlocal terms related to the forbidden and the semi-forbidden states are proposed. This equation turns out to be preferable in studies of narrow resonances. It is demonstrated that decay width of a system into two-heavy-fragment channel is strongly affected by the nonlocal terms.

  16. VENTILATION SYSTEM WITH GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  17. NASA Image Exchange (NIX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) provides access to aerospace-related citations, full-text online documents, and images and videos. The types of information...

  18. VLER Health Exchange by Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  19. Exchange couplings in magnetic films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Liu Xiong-Hua; Cui Wei-Bin; Gong Wen-Jie; Zhang Zhi-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of exchange couplings in magnetic films are introduced.To provide a comprehensive understanding of exchange coupling,we have designed different bilayers,trilayers and multilayers,such as anisotropic hard/soft-magnetic multilayer films,ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayers,[Pt/Co]/NiFe/NiO heterostructures,Co/NiO and Co/NiO/Fe trilayers on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template.The exchange-coupling interaction between soft-and hard-magnetic phases,interlayer and interfacial exchange couplings and magnetic and magnetotransport properties in these magnetic films have been investigated in detail by adjusting the magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic layers and by changing the thickness of the spacer layer,ferromagnetic layer,and antiferromagnetic layer.Some particular physical phenomena have been observed and explained.

  20. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  1. Quantum Exchangeable Sequences of Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    We extend the notion of quantum exchangeability, introduced by K\\"ostler and Speicher in arXiv:0807.0677, to sequences (\\rho_1,\\rho_2,...c) of homomorphisms from an algebra C into a noncommutative probability space (A,\\phi), and prove a free de Finetti theorem: an infinite quantum exchangeable sequence (\\rho_1,\\rho_2,...c) is freely independent and identically distributed with respect to a conditional expectation. As a corollary we obtain a free analogue of the Hewitt Savage zero-one law. As in the classical case, the theorem fails for finite sequences. We give a characterization of finite quantum exchangeable sequences, which can be viewed as a noncommutative analogue of sampling without replacement. We then give an approximation to how far a finite quantum exchangeable sequence is from being freely independent with amalgamation.

  2. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  3. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat...

  4. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  5. Universality in the stock exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Rui

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the constituents stocks of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the Standard & Poor's 100 index of the NYSE stock exchange market. Surprisingly, we discovered that the distribution of the fluctuations of the cubic root of the squared daily return are close to the universal non-parametric Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton (BHP) distribution. Since the BHP probability density function appears in several other dissimilar phenomena, our result reveals an universal feature of the stock exchange market.

  6. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  7. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  8. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Egor Nikolaevich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia. The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely: 1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools. 2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth. 3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector. 4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.

  9. Effect of size sprinkled heat exchange surface on developing boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kracík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research of sprinkled heat exchangers. This type of research has become rather topical in relation to sea water desalination. This process uses sprinkling of exchangers which rapidly separates vapour phase from a liquid phase. Applications help better utilize low-potential heat which is commonly wasted in utility systems. Low-potential heat may increase utilization of primary materials. Our ambition is to analyse and describe the whole sprinkled exchanger. Two heat exchangers were tested with a similar tube pitch: heat exchanger no. 1 had a four-tube bundle and heat exchanger no. 2 had eight-tube bundle. Efforts were made to maintain similar physical characteristics. They were tested at two flow rates (ca 0.07 and 0.11 kg s−1 m−1 and progress of boiling on the bundle was observed. Initial pressure was ca 10 kPa (abs at which no liquid was boiling at any part of the exchanger; the pressure was then lowered. Other input parameters were roughly similar for both flow rates. Temperature of heating water was ca 50°C at a constant flow rate of ca 7.2 L min−1. Results of our experiments provide optimum parameters for the given conditions for both tube bundles.

  10. 团队凝聚力、工作-家庭促进与员工在职行为关系研究%An Empirical Study on Relations between Group Cohesion, Work-Family Facilitation and On-Job-Behaviors: Mediating Effect of Leader Member Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伶; 聂婷

    2013-01-01

    With a sample of 1795 employees in 19 regions and provinces, we use statistical analysis and find out that perceived task cohesion and interpersonal cohesion influence positive behavior and withdrawal behavior of employees in the workplace through the mediating effect of work-family facilitation. We also confirm the moderating effect of leader member exchange on relations between team cohesion and positive behavior of employees, but the moderating effect of leader member exchange does not exist between team cohesion and withdrawal behavior of employees.%通过对中国大陆19个省市自治区的1 795名在职员工的问卷调查发现,员工感知到的团队凝聚力能够通过工作-家庭促进的中介效应影响员工在职行为(积极行为与退缩行为);伴随着领导-成员交换关系的密切,团队凝聚力对员工积极行为的影响也更为显著;而在团队凝聚力与退缩行为的关系中,并没有发现领导-成员交换关系的显著调节作用.

  11. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  12. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  13. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.I. [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies

    1999-08-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of {sup u}se scarcity{sup .} The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  14. Molecular Exchange Dynamics in Block Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Frank; Lu, Jie; Choi, Soohyung; Lodge, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Poly(styrene-b-ethylene propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers were mixed with squalane (C30H62) at 1% by weight resulting in the formation of spherical micelles. The structure and dynamics of molecular exchange were characterized by synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and time resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS), respectively, between 100 C and 160 C. TR-SANS measurements were performed with solutions initially containing deuterium labeled micelle cores and normal cores dispersed in a contrast matched squalane. Monitoring the reduction in scattering intensity as a function of time at various temperatures revealed molecular exchange dynamics highly sensitive to the core molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Time-temperature superposition of data acquired at different temperatures produced a single master curve for all the mixtures. Experiments conducted with isotopically labeled micelle cores, each formed from two different but relatively mondisperse PS blocks, confirmed a simple dynamical model based on first order kinetics and core Rouse single chain relaxation. These findings demonstrate a dramatic transition to nonergodicity with increasing micelle core molecular weight and confirm the origins of the logarithmic exchange kinetics in such systems.

  15. How amide hydrogens exchange in native proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Filip; Halle, Bertil

    2015-08-18

    Amide hydrogen exchange (HX) is widely used in protein biophysics even though our ignorance about the HX mechanism makes data interpretation imprecise. Notably, the open exchange-competent conformational state has not been identified. Based on analysis of an ultralong molecular dynamics trajectory of the protein BPTI, we propose that the open (O) states for amides that exchange by subglobal fluctuations are locally distorted conformations with two water molecules directly coordinated to the N-H group. The HX protection factors computed from the relative O-state populations agree well with experiment. The O states of different amides show little or no temporal correlation, even if adjacent residues unfold cooperatively. The mean residence time of the O state is ∼100 ps for all examined amides, so the large variation in measured HX rate must be attributed to the opening frequency. A few amides gain solvent access via tunnels or pores penetrated by water chains including native internal water molecules, but most amides access solvent by more local structural distortions. In either case, we argue that an overcoordinated N-H group is necessary for efficient proton transfer by Grotthuss-type structural diffusion.

  16. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  17. Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe2+ and magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Christopher A; Handler, Robert M; Beard, Brian L; Pasakarnis, Timothy; Johnson, Clark M; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-11-20

    The reaction between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) has been extensively studied due to its role in contaminant reduction, trace-metal sequestration, and microbial respiration. Previous work has demonstrated that the reaction of Fe(2+) with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) results in the structural incorporation of Fe(2+) and an increase in the bulk Fe(2+) content of magnetite. It is unclear, however, whether significant Fe atom exchange occurs between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+), as has been observed for other Fe oxides. Here, we measured the extent of Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe(2+) and magnetite by reacting isotopically "normal" magnetite with (57)Fe-enriched aqueous Fe(2+). The extent of Fe atom exchange between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) was significant (54-71%), and went well beyond the amount of Fe atoms found at the near surface. Mössbauer spectroscopy of magnetite reacted with (56)Fe(2+) indicate that no preferential exchange of octahedral or tetrahedral sites occurred. Exchange experiments conducted with Co-ferrite (Co(2+)Fe(2)(3+)O(4)) showed little impact of Co substitution on the rate or extent of atom exchange. Bulk electron conduction, as previously invoked to explain Fe atom exchange in goethite, is a possible mechanism, but if it is occurring, conduction does not appear to be the rate-limiting step. The lack of significant impact of Co substitution on the kinetics of Fe atom exchange, and the relatively high diffusion coefficients reported for magnetite suggest that for magnetite, unlike goethite, Fe atom diffusion is a plausible mechanism to explain the rapid rates of Fe atom exchange in magnetite.

  18. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  19. Islamic Cultural Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU XIAOYAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The China-Indonesia Islamic Culture Expo and Art Show 2010 was held in Indonesia on July 23-25. With the theme of Peace, Friendship, Cooperation and Progress, the event also commemorated the 60th anniversary of the establishing of diplomatic relations between China and Indonesia.

  20. Corporate foreign exchange speculation and integrated risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Hansen, Marianna Andryeyeva; Pantzalis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    (Denmark) to investigate the extent of foreign exchange speculation and how it is related to the degree of non-finance departmental involvement in the management of exchange rate risks. We employ binary and ordered probit regression analysis. Findings – We find a positive link between 1) the extent...... indicate that the trend towards a more integrated risk management approach in which the finance department is not the only department responsible for risk management may have the (unforeseen) consequence that foreign exchange speculation increases. Originality/value – The findings are important because...... the link between the extent of foreign exchange speculation and a more integrated risk management approach has not been addressed previously....

  1. DNA strand exchange and RecA homologs in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Scott; Bishop, Douglas K

    2014-12-04

    Homology search and DNA strand-exchange reactions are central to homologous recombination in meiosis. During meiosis, these processes are regulated such that the probability of choosing a homolog chromatid as recombination partner is enhanced relative to that of choosing a sister chromatid. This regulatory process occurs as homologous chromosomes pair in preparation for assembly of the synaptonemal complex. Two strand-exchange proteins, Rad51 and Dmc1, cooperate in regulated homology search and strand exchange in most organisms. Here, we summarize studies on the properties of these two proteins and their accessory factors. In addition, we review current models for the assembly of meiotic strand-exchange complexes and the possible mechanisms through which the interhomolog bias of recombination partner choice is achieved.

  2. Conditions on exchange mechanisms for polarization effects in inclusive reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Salin, P

    1974-01-01

    In the framework of Mueller-Regge phenomenology the conditions under which one could expect to observe polarization effects in the fragmentation region for inclusive relations are investigated. On the basis of kinematical considerations and parity relations only, it is found that this requires exchange of states with mixed naturalities. (9 refs).

  3. Nominal exchange rate flexibility and real exchange rate adjustment : evidence from dual exchange rates in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; Lai, Kon-Sun

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether exchange rate flexibility aids real exchange rate adjustment based on intra-period data on dual exchange rates from developing countries. Specifically, it analyzes whether the flexible parallel market rate produces faster or slower real exchange rate adjustment than the much less flexible official rate does. Half-life estimates of adjustment speeds are obtained using fractional time series analysis. We find no systematic evidence that greater exchange rate flex...

  4. Scaling Foreign Exchange Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Batten; Craig Ellis

    2001-01-01

    When asset returns are normally distributed the risk of an asset over a long return interval may be estimated by scaling the risk from shorter return intervals. While it is well known that asset returns are not normally distributed a key empirical question concerns the effect that scaling the volatility of dependent processes will have on the pricing of related financial assets. This study provides an insight into this issue by investigating the return properties of the most important currenc...

  5. Exchange Rate Exposures and Strategies of Industrial Companies: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates empirically the potential and actual exchange rate exposure strategies of industrial companies in relation to identifying and quantifying the neutral financial positions in an optimal hedging strategy.......This article investigates empirically the potential and actual exchange rate exposure strategies of industrial companies in relation to identifying and quantifying the neutral financial positions in an optimal hedging strategy....

  6. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  7. Multichannel Exchange-Scattering Spin Polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fuhao; Shi, Tan; Ye, Mao; Wan, Weishi; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Jiajia; Xu, Tao; Qiao, Shan

    2016-04-29

    Electron spin plays important roles in determining the physical and chemical properties of matter. However, measurements of electron spin are of poor quality, impeding the development of material sciences, because the spin polarimeter has a low efficiency. Here, we show an imaging-type exchange-scattering spin polarimeter with 6786 channels and an 8.5×10^{-3} single channel efficiency. As a demonstration, the fine spin structure of the electronic states in bismuth (111) is investigated, for which strong Rashba-type spin splitting behavior is seen in both the bulk and surface states. This improvement paves the way to study novel spin related phenomena with unprecedented accuracy.

  8. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering. PMID:26696989

  9. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib......We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields...... where the momentum of the graviton which is exchanged becomes much smaller than the external momenta. We conclude that the total non-linearity parameter generated by single-field models of slow-roll inflation is at maximum tauNL ~ r....

  10. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research into the feasibility of exchange of studies for the development and promotion of global environment-related industrial technologies; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The above was conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE). Worldwide collaboration is mandatory for the settlement of environmental problems for the earth, and RITE is positively promoting its interaction with research institutes abroad. In fiscal 1998, it sent research teams to government organizations and research institutes in Europe and America for studies there. A study in Europe involved the preparation of chemicals from CO2 by virtue of novel biotic reactions, and RITE's microbial molecular function laboratory plans to start a leading study in fiscal 1999. In relation with environmental impact reducing technologies using sunlight-aided photocatalysts, visits were paid to three research institutes in America. RITE itself has developed a powdered semiconductor catalyst and is engaged in the study of producing hydrogen by decomposition of water using solar energy. Concerning the production of saccharides out of farm wastes remaining unused, researches were made into the feasibility of joint studies with some advanced research institutes in America. Discussions were made about the performance- and stability-related improvement of enzymes usable for the decomposition of biomass, the analysis of biological environmental circumstances that substance yielding microbes find themselves in under anaerobic conditions, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Eventos adversos associados à exsanguíneotransfusão na doença hemolítica perinatal: experiência de dez anos Adverse events related to exchange transfusion in newborn infants with hemolytic disease: ten years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Amaral M. Sá

    2009-06-01

    events. METHODS: All infants admitted to treat hemolytic disease secondary to Rhesus Alloimunoization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, neonates admitted solely for asymptomatic hyperbilirubinemia before the exchange transfusion; Group 2, neonates with other medical conditions besides the hemolytic jaundice. Incidence of adverse events was determined, as well as the relative risk of each adverse event. RESULTS: 300 newborn infants with Rh hemolytic jaundice were studied. A total of 143 patients underwent 207 exchange transfusions. The rate of increase in the serum bilirubin levels (>0,5mg/dL/hour was the main indication for exchange transfusion. Adverse events occurred in 22.7% of the cases and the mortality rate was 0.7%. The majority of adverse events were asymptomatic, and low platelet count was the most frequent one. The incidence of serious adverse events (bradycardia or heart arrhythmias and thrombocytopenia was 2.1 times higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (RR: 2.1; CI: 95% 1.3-3.4. There was one death during the study period associated to the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Although exchange transfusion is a frequent procedure for treating severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, the incidence of adverse events is high, especially if patients' clinical condition is unstable before the procedure.

  12. Beyond the exchange--the future of B2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R; Morrison, D

    2000-01-01

    Using the Internet to facilitate business-to-business commerce promises many benefits, such as dramatic cost reductions and greater access to buyers and sellers. Yet little is known about how B2B e-commerce will evolve. The authors argue that changes in the financial services industry over the past two decades provide important clues. Exchanges, they say, are not the primary source of value in information-intensive markets; value tends to accumulate among a diverse group of specialists that focus on such tasks as packaging, standard setting, arbitrage, and information management. Because scale and liquidity are vitally important to efficient trading, today's exchanges will consolidate into a relatively small set of mega-exchanges. Originators will handle the origination and aggregation of complex transactions before sending them on to mega-exchanges for execution. E-speculators, seeking to capitalize on an abundance of market information, will tend to concentrate where relatively standardized products can be transferred easily among a large group of buyers. In many markets, a handful of independent solution providers with well-known brand names and solid reputations will thrive alongside mega-exchanges. Sell-side asset exchanges will create the networks and provide the tools to allow suppliers to trade orders among themselves, sometimes after initial transactions with customers are made on the mega-exchanges. For many companies, traditional skills in such areas as product development, manufacturing, and marketing may become relatively less important, while the ability to understand and capitalize on market dynamics may become considerably more important.

  13. Exchange Rate Instability and Sectoral Exports: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haseeb

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exports of a country is one of the main factors indicating economic health of a country and fluctuating exchange rates and relative price can significantly affect the level of exports and it is an alarming situation for a country when its exports are affected by exchange rate volatility. Impact of exchange rate volatility and relative price on trade has been a heated debate in the field of finance and most of work has been done on aggregate and bilateral trade. Few researches are found on product basis especially in the scenario of Pakistan. This research will provide an overview of the exports of 13 different products from Pakistan. Secondary data is used to analyze the impact of exchange rate instability on the exports of different products from Pakistan to all over the world. Significance of the study depends on the right choice of estimation method. We use auto regressive distributive lags (ARDL method to check the relationship of two main variables. Glass, meat and paper & board products show that relative price affects negatively to exports so Government should make policies to strengthen the exports of these three products. Government can provide subsidies on these products in order to boost up the exports and make these products competitive in international market. Under the shadow of our results we conclude that exchange rate volatility has significant negative relationship with the exports of food processing machinery, grapes, meat and petroleum products so government needs to be focused on it when exchange rate are highly instable. Iron & steel bars show short run negative impact of exchange rate however this impact is adjusted in the long run.

  14. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  15. Evaluating China's Exchange Rate Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie Xiao Feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1994 China established a de facto currency peg.1 The dollar-RMB exchange rate was fixed at 8.28.The People's Bank of China(PBC) allowed the rate a narrow band of around .01 to .02 percent in which it could shift daily.The exchange rate program did not become newsworthy until U.S.Treasury Secretary John Snow's visit in 2003.In fact as a study by Frankel and Wei (2007)showed, the RMB's forward was actually selling at a discount against the dollar prior to Secretary Snow's visit to China and his subsequent report, signaling that investors were anticipating RMB depreciation.

  16. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    CERN Document Server

    Sietsma, Floor

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to determine when a group of agents acquires common knowledge of the formula expressing that an email was sent. We also show that in our framework from the epistemic point of view the BCC feature of emails cannot be simulated using messages without BCC recipients. Finally, we clarify the notion of a causal relationship between emails using the concept of properly terminating email exchanges.

  17. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  18. Exchange Rate Exposure Management: "Speculation" in Non-Financial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    "Speculation" in non-financial companies in relation to exchange rate exposure management constitutes one of the contributing factors behind corporate (or more widespread) crises. Deviations from benchmark positions constitute speculation. An empirical study of Danish non-financial companies finds...... that the larger the company (ability) and the larger its relative sale on foreign markets (relevance), the more likely the company will be to benchmark its exchange rate exposures. However, at the same time the very same factors (size and foreign sale) lead to more extensive speculation. Financial solvency (value...

  19. Asset sales, asset exchanges, and shareholder wealth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiting Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a sample of 1376 corporate asset sales and 250 asset exchanges in China between 1998 and 2006. We find that corporate asset sales in China enhance firm value with a cumulative abnormal return (CAR of 0.46% for the pre-announcement five-day period, which is consistent with the evidence discovered in both U.K. and U.S. For companies that exchanged assets during the sample period, the pre-announcement five-day CAR of 1.32% is statistically significant. We also discover that gains from divesting assets are positively related to managerial performance measured by Tobin's q ratio and the relative size of the asset sold or exchanged. Well-managed (high-q companies are more likely to sell or exchange assets in a value-maximizing fashion than poorly managed (low-q companies. Furthermore, asset-seller gains are not related to enhancing corporate focus, but improving corporate focus by exchanging for core assets enhances firm value.

  20. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydell, Esteban J; van der Wielen, Luuk; Eppink, Michel; Ottens, Marcel

    2010-11-12

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process intensification, represented by the possibility of performing protein refolding, product purification and product concentration, in one unit operation. Besides its high degree of process intensification, IExR offers an additional set of key advantages including: spatial isolation of the bound protein molecules and the controllable change in chemical composition using gradients. Despite of the acknowledgement of the former advantages, the lack of mechanistic understanding on how they influence the process performance of the ion-exchange refolding reactor, limits the ability to exploit them in order to optimize the performance of the unit. This paper presents a quantitative analysis that assesses the effect that the spatial isolation and the urea gradient, have on the IExR performance, judged on the basis of the refolding yield (Y(N)) and the fractional mass recovery (f(Prot,Rec)). Additionally, this work discusses the effect of the protein load, the protein loading state (i.e., native, denatured, denatured and reduced (D&R)) and the adsorbent type on f(Prot,Rec). The presented work shows: (1) that the protein load has a direct effect on f(Prot,Rec), and the magnitude of this effect depends on the loading state of the protein solution and the adsorbent type; (2) that irrespectively of the type of adsorbent used, the saturation capacity of a denatured protein is less than the native protein and that this difference can be linked to differences in accessible binding surface area; (3) that there is a clear correlation between fractional surface coverage (θ) and f(Prot,Rec), indicating that the former could serve as a good descriptor to assess spatial isolation, and (4) that the urea

  1. Stakeholder engagement and knowledge exchange in environmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Jeremy; Lowe, Philip; Proctor, Amy; Ruto, Eric

    2012-03-01

    It is commonly put forward that effective uptake of research in policy or practice must be built upon a foundation of active knowledge exchange and stakeholder engagement during the research. However, what is often lacking is a systematic appreciation of the specific practices of knowledge exchange and their relative merits. The paper reports on a 2009 survey of 21 research projects within the UK Research Councils' Rural Economy and Land Use Programme regarding the involvement and perceived impact of over a thousand stakeholders in the research. The survey reveals that most stakeholders were involved as research subjects or as event participants. Large numbers were also engaged in the research process itself, including involvement in shaping the direction of research. Stakeholder engagement is perceived as bringing significant benefits to the process of knowledge production. A close relationship is found between mechanisms and approaches to knowledge exchange and the spread of benefits for researchers and stakeholders. Mutual benefits are gained from exchange of staff or where stakeholders are members of research advisory groups. Different stakeholder sectors are also associated with different patterns of engagement, which lead to contrasting impact patterns. Any efforts to alter knowledge exchange processes and outcomes must overcome these differing engagement tendencies. Overall, much greater attention should be given to early processes of knowledge exchange and stakeholder engagement within the lifetime of research projects.

  2. Principle of equipartition of entransy dissipation for heat exchanger design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the present work,a principle of equipartition of entransy dissipation(EoED) for heat exchanger design is established,which says that for a heat exchanger design with given heat duty and heat transfer area,the total entransy dissipation rate reaches the minimum when the local entransy dissipation rate is uniformly distributed along the heat exchanger.When the heat transfer coefficient is unfixed,the total entransy dissipation obtained by the EoED principle is less than that obtained by the principle of equipartition of temperature difference(EoTD).Furthermore,the exchanger effectiveness obtained by the EoED principle is larger than that obtained by the EoTD principle.When the heat transfer coefficient is fixed,the EoED principle is equivalent to the EoTD principle.We show that the equipartition of entropy production(EoEP) and EoED principles give rise to difference in entropy generation and entransy dissipation for a heat exchanger optimization design.The discrepancies are caused by distinct features of entropy production minimization and entransy dissipation minimization principles,the former is to optimize the design of heat exchanger by making the lost available work minimum,while the latter is not involved with heat-work conversion.It is found that the entropy generation number is not suitable for evaluating heat exchanger performance,since it directly depends on the inlet and outlet temperatures of working fluids.On the contrary,the entransy dissipation number is not directly related to the inlet and outlet temperatures of working fluids.Therefore,the entransy dissipation number is more suitable for serving as a criterion to evaluate heat exchanger performance.

  3. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. 后危机时代玉林市涉外经济运行情况跟踪调查与研究:外汇监管视角%Foreign-related Business of Yulin City:From the Perspective of Foreign Exchange Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守志

    2011-01-01

    Due to the extensive range,strong permeability and deep influence of the global financial crisis caused by the American Subprime Crisis,the development of our foreign-related business suffers setbacks.From the perspective of foreign exchange supervision,this article makes an exhaustive investigation into the performance of foreign-related business of Yulin City and actively explores new perspectives,new ways and new measures which could promote smooth development of foreign-related business.%美国次贷危机所引发的全球金融危机波及面广,渗透力强,影响度深,我国涉外经济发展受挫。本课题组从外汇监管角度出发,对后危机时代玉林市涉外经济运行情况进行全面的跟踪调查,认真调查分析研究后危机时代涉外经济运行出现的突出问题,积极探索促进涉外经济顺畅发展的新视角、新方法和新举措,努力构筑玉林市涉外经济发展新高地。

  5. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  6. Fragmentary model of exchange interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, V M

    2000-01-01

    This article makes attempt to refusal from using neutrino for explanation continuous distribution of beta particle energy by conversion to characteristic exchange interaction particles in nucleolus. It is taking formulation for nuclear position with many different fragments. It is computing half-value period of spontaneous fission of heavy nucleolus. (author)

  7. Milk fouling in heat exchangers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, Th.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the precipitation of cal

  8. "Bottle-Brush" Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tward, E.; Gatewood, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Heat exchanger consists of a metal tube with wires extending inward from wall. Conduction of heat along wires improves heat transfer to gas or other filling. Fluid is heated throughout the cross section of tube. Suggested applications are refrigerators, heat engines, thermal instrumentation, and heat switches.

  9. Calculations of Shipboard Heat Exchangers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-18

    Constrained moticn is created by the external exciting forces - pumps, compresors , fars, agitators. During the heat exchange distinguish the phenomena...cast tcttozs. (5). fcr fla*/plane covers/caps. FOOTNOTE 1. Is taken stall value. !NDFOCINOIE. Additional requirements fox the dished bcttcss. -w j DOC

  10. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines fishing quota as a commodity in both a conceptual perspective and through ethnographic examples. Inspired by Marx’s ideas of the commodity, use-value, exchange-value, and ground rent, the chapter combines a theoretical approach with ethnographic material. The different aspec...

  11. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  12. The Causal Relationship Between Exchange Rates and Inflation in Turkey:1984-2003

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigate empirically the causal relationship between nominal exchange rates and inflation by using high-frequency data of nominal exchange rates and inflation of Turkey. To determine the appropriate Granger causality relations, unit root and cointegtration models are used. With time-series techniques, this study provides evidence that a long-run relationship between nominal exchange rates and inflation exist. However, our results indicate that a causal relationship occurs...

  13. Exchange Rates: Predictable but not Explainable? Data Mining with Leading Indicators and Technical Trading Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Brandl, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a data mining approach to forecasting exchange rates. It is assumed that exchange rates are determined by both fundamental and technical factors. The balance of fundamental and technical factors varies for each exchange rate and frequency. It is difficult for forecasters to establish the relative relevance of different kinds of factors given this mixture; therefore the utilization of data mining algorithms is advantageous. The approach applied uses a genetic...

  14. Formal analysis and design of multi-party fair exchange protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the origin of message items and channel combination between transacting parties, and events and relations among events, this paper presents a concise, precise, and hierarchical model for general fair exchange protocols, formally specifies various security requirements which are able to reflect inherent requirements for fair exchange protocols more rigorously, and partition these security requirements with fine granularity. This work helps analyze, debug, and design multi-party fair exchange protocols more effectively and elaborately.

  15. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  16. GEC Plasma Data Exchange Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, L. C.

    2013-08-01

    In 2010 the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC), a major international conference for the low temperature plasma science (LTPS) community, initiated the Plasma Data Exchange Project (PDEP). The PDEP is an informal, community-based project that aims to address, at least in part, the well-recognized needs for the community to organize the means of collecting, evaluating and sharing data both for modelling and for interpretation of experiments. The emphasis to date in the PDEP has been on data related to the electron and ion components of these plasmas rather than on the plasma chemistry. At the heart of the PDEP is the open-access website, LXCat [1], developed by researchers at LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie, Toulouse, France). LXCat is a platform for archiving and manipulating collections of data related to electron scattering and transport in cold, neutral gases, organized in databases set-up by individual members or institutions of the LTPS community. At present, 15 databases of electron scattering data, contributed by groups around the world, can be accessed on LXCat. These databases include complete sets of electron cross sections, over an energy range from thermal to nominally 1 keV, for almost 40 ground-state neutral species and partial sets of data for about 30 other neutral, excited and ionized species. 'Complete' implies that all the major electron momentum and energy loss processes are well described in the dataset. Such 'complete' datasets can be used as input to a Boltzmann calculation of the electron energy distribution function (generally non-Maxwellian), and electron transport and rate coefficients can be obtained in pure gases or mixtures by averaging over the distribution function. Online tools enable importing and exporting data, plotting and comparing different sets of data. An online version of the Boltzmann equation solver BOLSIG+ [2] is also available on the LXCat site. Other members of the community have contributed their

  17. RMB Exchange Market Pressure and Central Bank Exchange Market Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Liu; Jing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The present paper uses the model-dependent and the model-independent approach to measure the RMB exchange market pressure (EMP) and the central bank's intervention using monthly data from January 1999 to June 2008. It is determined that the RMB has been under great appreciation pressure over the past decade. However, the pressure has been weakening since 2005. The two approaches provide significantly different results in terms of the estimated RMB EMP indices and the estimated central bank's interventions. The differences may lead to different predictions of potential currency crises. According to the estimation of the RMB EMP, and based on the model-independent approach, the paper shows that China has been under threat of an appreciation currency crisis since 2008. Therefore, China should adopt a more flexible exchange rate regime to prevent a potential crisis.

  18. 激素免疫抑制剂及其联合血浆置换治疗ANCA相关性血管炎的疗效比较%Clinical effect comparison of hormone immunosuppressive agents and its combination with plasma exchange in treatment of ANCA related vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review and study clinical effect of hormone immunosuppressive agents and its combination with plasma exchange in treatment of ANCA related vasculitis.Methods collect materials of 35 cases patients diagnosed by pathology as AAV in department of rheumatism and nephrology of Baotou city central hospital with clinical manifestations of with acute nephritis syndrome. 25 case of them received methylprednisolone (0.5 g, 0.8g, 0.8g), later with sufficient hormone and cyclophosphamide (0.6 measurement semimonthly), which is normal treatment group. The rest10 patients received combination with plasma exchange therapy on the basis of former therapy, which is combination treatment group. Compare two groups with clinical effect 6 months before and after treatment. Results (1) after treatment, ANCA in serum of two groups was significantly decreased (P0.05), and BUN difference of normal group showed statistical significance from that before treatment(P0.05).Conclusion hormone immunosuppressive agents only and its combination with plasma exchange shows remarkable effect in treatment of ANCA, and its combination with plasma exchange has better effect for improvement of renal function and ANCA clearance with good safety.%目的:回顾性研究激素免疫抑制剂及其联合血浆置换治疗ANCA相关性血管炎的疗效。方法收集包头市中心医院肾内风湿科经病理确诊为 AAV,且临床表现符合急进性肾小球肾炎综合征的患者资料共35例,其中25例予以甲泼尼龙冲击治疗(0.5 g、0.8g、0.8g),后减为足量激素+环磷酰胺(计量0.6半月一次)简称为普通治疗组;余10例患者除上述药物治疗,还联合血浆置换治疗,简称联合治疗组;比较2组患者治疗前、治疗后6个月的临床疗效。结果(1)治疗后两组患者血清 ANCA均较治疗前明显下降(P0.05),而普通组相对于治疗前差异则有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论单独激素免疫抑制

  19. A core alternative[Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.H. [Chart Heat Exchangers, Wisconsin (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The development of the efficient Core-in-kettle heat exchangers by Chart Heat Exchangers as an alternative to shell and tube exchangers is reported, and its use as condensers and reboilers in ethylene plants and refrigerant condensers and chillers in natural gas processing and liquid natural gas (LNG) plants are discussed. The novel technology is described with details given of the replacement of the tube bundle with a Chart brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchanger core, the operation of the exchanger, the savings achieved by installing these heat exchangers in new or existing plants, and Core-in-Kettle retrofits of existing shell and tube heat exchangers. The limitations of the use of Core-in-Kettle heat exchangers to clean fluids typical of hydrocarbon processing, and temperature and pressure limitations are noted.

  20. A simple nonlocal model for exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G

    2009-12-21

    This work presents a new nonlocal model for the exchange energy density. The model is obtained from the product of the Kohn-Sham one-particle density matrix used to construct exact [Hartree-Fock-like (HF)] exchange, and an approximate density matrix used to construct local spin-density approximation (LSDA) exchange. The proposed exchange energy density has useful formal properties, including correct spin and coordinate scaling and the correct uniform limit. It can readily be evaluated in finite basis sets, with a computational scaling intermediate between HF exchange and semilocal quantities such as the noninteracting kinetic energy density. Applications to representative systems indicate that its properties are typically intermediate between HF and LSDA exchange, and often similar to global hybrids of HF and LSDA exchange. The model is proposed as a novel "Rung 3.5" ingredient for constructing approximate exchange-correlation functionals.

  1. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...... of data generally takes place between the devices and farming systems, mostly installed at the premises of farmers, contractors, advisory services etc. In most cases, data exchange is based on farming data exchange standards and is bi-directional. Bi-directional data exchange allows different devices...... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  2. Leader-Member Exchange, Communication Frequency And Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mr Graham, L N; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2010-01-01

    In a field study of 128 middle-managers in similar roles but in different organizations within the UK public sector, we find that the quality of their leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship with their immediate supervisor is negatively related to the three dimensions of burnout. As hypothesized,

  3. 31 CFR 308.2 - Exchange for definitive securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange for definitive securities. 308.2 Section 308.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  4. 31 CFR 308.3 - Exchanges of denominations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchanges of denominations. 308.3 Section 308.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  5. 31 CFR 306.19 - Denominational exchanges of coupon securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Denominational exchanges of coupon securities. 306.19 Section 306.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL...

  6. 31 CFR 306.16 - Exchanges of registered securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchanges of registered securities. 306.16 Section 306.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  7. 22 CFR Appendix D to Part 62 - Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App. D... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services... ____ (b) PROGRAM EVALUATION On a separate sheet, please provide a brief narrative report on...

  8. Exchange Rate Volatility in BRICS Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper measures the impact of bilateral exchange rates, the world agricultural GDP and third-country exchange rate volatilities (Yen/USD and Euro/USD) on the BRICS agricultural exports using a vector autoregressive (VAR) model. Two measures of volatility are used: the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of the rates of change of the real exchange rates. We found that most variables are integrated of order two except the third-country exchange rate volatilities which are st...

  9. The RMB Exchange Rate Keeps Increasing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In July 2005, the People's Bank of China officially announced that it would adopt a manageable floating exchange rate, adjusted according to a basket of currencies based on market supply and demand. On that day, the exchange rate of the RMB to the U.S. Dollar increased by 21 percent, and since then the RMB exchange rate has gradually turned to a more flexible exchange rate convention, rather than focusing on the Dollar only.

  10. Wealth Distributions in Asset Exchange Models

    CERN Document Server

    Krapivsky, P L

    2010-01-01

    How do individuals accumulate wealth as they interact economically? We outline the consequences of a simple microscopic model in which repeated pairwise exchanges of assets between individuals build the wealth distribution of a population. This distribution is determined for generic exchange rules --- transactions that involve a fixed amount or a fixed fraction of individual wealth, as well as random or greedy exchanges. In greedy multiplicative exchange, a continuously evolving power law wealth distribution arises, a feature that qualitatively mimics empirical observations.

  11. Choice of optimal exchange rate system For the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Koški

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research whose results are presented in this article was to choose the optimal system of exchange rate for the Republic of Croatia, of course before its accession to EU. The analyzed exchange rate systems here range from free-floating exchange rate to system without domestic currency in circulation. Naturally, the classification of International Monetary Fond is included in it. After that, the comparison of basic economic advantages and disadvantages of the fixed exchange rate in relation to floating exchange rate were carried out. Although the question is about the extreme systems, disregarding the system without domestic currency in circulation, their comparison makes possible completely satisfactory basis for the right conclusions on the choice of optimal exchange rate system for the Republic of Croatia. Considering its economic particularities, the system of managed-floating exchange rate without proclaimed exchange direction in advance is certainly optimal for the Republic of Croatia. Namely, within the framework of this system the limited floating exchange rates decrease the foreign exchange risk allowing to monetary authorities, at least partly, the independent monetary policy

  12. Bistability in radiative heat exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakov, V. I.; Ovcharov, V. V.; Prigara, V. P.

    2008-08-01

    The possibility of a bistable regime in systems with radiative heat exchange is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. The transfer characteristics of a radiation-closed stationary system have been calculated, in which the radiator is a blackbody and the absorber is made of a material with the absorptivity sharply increasing in a certain temperature interval. The radiator and absorber are separated by a vacuum gap. The heat exchange between the system and the environment is controlled by varying the flow rate of a heat-transfer agent cooling the absorber. The output parameter of a bistable system is the absorber temperature, while the input parameter can be either the radiator temperature or the heat-transfer agent flow rate. Depending on the choice of the input parameter, the transfer characteristic of the system is either represented by a usual S-like curve or has an inverted shape.

  13. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  14. Energy exchanges in reconnection outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin V.; Newman, David L.; Markidis, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Reconnection outflows are highly energetic directed flows that interact with the ambient plasma or with flows from other reconnection regions. Under these conditions the flow becomes highly unstable and chaotic, as any flow jets interacting with a medium. We report here massively parallel simulations of the two cases of interaction between outflow jets and between a single outflow with an ambient plasma. We find in both case the development of a chaotic magnetic field, subject to secondary reconnection events that further complicate the topology of the field lines. The focus of the present analysis is on the energy balance. We compute each energy channel (electromagnetic, bulk, thermal, for each species) and find where the most energy is exchanged and in what form. The main finding is that the largest energy exchange is not at the reconnection site proper but in the regions where the outflowing jets are destabilized.

  15. Tailoring exchange bias through chemical order in epitaxial FePt3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerbeck, T.; Zhu, H.; Lott, D.; Lee, H.; LeClair, P. R.; Mankey, G. J.; Stampfl, A. P. J.; Klose, F.

    2013-07-01

    Intentional introduction of chemical disorder into mono-stoichiometric epitaxial FePt3 films allows to create a ferro-/antiferromagnetic two-phase system, which shows a pronounced and controllable exchange bias effect. In contrast to conventional exchange bias systems, granular magnetic interfaces are created within the same crystallographic structure by local variation of chemical order. The amount of the exchange bias can be controlled by the relative amount and size of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic volume fractions and the interface between them. The tailoring of the magnetic composition alone, without affecting the chemical and structural compositions, opens the way to study granular magnetic exchange bias concepts separated from structural artifacts.

  16. On Multiple Gluon Exchange Webs

    CERN Document Server

    Harley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    I present an overview of the study of infrared singularities through the eikonal approximation and the concept of webs. Our work reveals the interesting structure of an infinite subclass of webs, Multiple Gluon Exchange Webs. We find that they can be expressed as sums of products of functions depending upon only a single cusp angle, spanned by a simple basis of functions, and conjecture that this structure will hold to all orders.

  17. [Biofouling of heat exchange tubes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, F; Pintado, J L

    1994-01-01

    We compared the biofouling behavior of different materials (admiralty brass, stainless steel, and titanium) commonly used to construct heat exchangers in thermoelectric plants. The incidence of film formation on the loss of heat during transference was assessed, and analyzed in terms of plant efficiency and corrosion, both general and localized development. Our results showed that the resistance of titanium and stainless steel to corrosion was similar, and much better than that of admiralty brass. Biofouling, however, was higher in the first two materials.

  18. Electrically controlled cesium ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Several sites within the DOE complex (Savannah River, Idaho, Oak Ridge and Hanford) have underground storage tanks containing high-level waste resulting from nuclear engineering activities. To facilitate final disposal of the tank waste, it is advantageous to separate and concentrate the radionuclides for final immobilization in a vitrified glass matrix. This task proposes a new approach for radionuclide separation by combining ion exchange (IX) and electrochemistry to provide a selective and economic separation method.

  19. On forecasting Exchange Rate Volatility.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, Christian

    2003-01-01

    In an efficient market, foreign exchange rates have to guarantee absence of triangular arbitrage. This note shows that the no-arbitrage condition can be exploited for forecasting the volatility of a single rate by using the information contained in the other rates. Linearly transforming the volatility forecasts of a bivariate model is shown to be more efficient than using a univariate model for the cross-rate.

  20. Washi Painting Exchanges Promote Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan; You

    2014-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(SIFA),a washi painting exchange delegation headed by Umeko Iwai,President of Rainbow Society of Japan,a Hiroshima-based non-profit organization,visited Sichuan Province from November 3 to 5,2013.Rice paper was invented in China in ancient times.When the paper-making

  1. Acoustic streaming with heat exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, A. A.; Pyatkova, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Acoustic streaming in a cylindrical cavity with heat exchange is numerically investigated. The cavity is filled with air. The boundaries of the cavity are maintained at constant temperature. The features of acoustic streaming manifesting with the decrease in the frequency of vibration in comparison with the resonant frequency are determined. The influence of the nonlinearity of process on acoustic streaming is shown. The nonlinearity is caused by the increase of the vibration amplitude.

  2. Neighbourhood Book Exchanges: Localising Information Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Tenny; Gollner, Kathleen; Nathan, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Through this paper we report on an exploratory study into the design and use of neighbourhood book exchanges in North America. We identify dominant media framings of these book exchanges in North America, along with claims made concerning the influence of the exchanges. We compare the media claims with insights from interviews with…

  3. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  4. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, David

    2005-01-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  5. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  6. Perspectives of voltage control for magnetic exchange bias in multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Zhou, Z.; Sun, N. X.; Liu, M.

    2017-04-01

    Exchange bias, as an internal magnetic bias induced by a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, is extremely important in many magnetic applications such as memories, sensors and other devices. Voltage control of exchange bias in multiferroics provides an energy-efficient way to achieve a rapidly 180° deterministic switching of magnetization, which has been considered as a key challenge in realizing next generation of fast, compact and ultra-low power magnetoelectric memories and sensors. Additionally, exchange bias can enhance dynamic magnetoelectric coupling strength in an external-field-free manner. In this paper, we provide a perspective on voltage control of exchange bias in different multiferroic heterostructures. Brief mechanization and related experiments are discussed as well as future trend and challenges that can be overcome by electrically tuning of exchange bias in state-of-the-art magnetoelectric devices.

  7. Carbon dioxide exchange of the Arctic tundra in the northern part of European Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiepe, Isabell; Johansson, Paul Torbjörn; Friborg, Thomas

    Northern Russia has been subject to many speculations in relation to climatic change effects and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange but still little scientific evidence is available for this region. There is low abundance of continuous Arctic GHG exchange measurements deploying eddy covariance techniq...

  8. 77 FR 8304 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... foreign currencies as described below. A. Opening Trading in Existing Series The Exchange proposes to... Rule 24B.1(t). \\10\\ See Rule 24B.1(y)(1)-(6). C. Foreign Currency Provisions The Exchange also proposes... currencies. In addition, related index multiplier provisions for foreign currencies will also be...

  9. 78 FR 29805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...-members in order to encourage use of connectivity that provides redundant access to the Exchange by eliminating any potential fees for logical ports \\6\\ in ] connection with such redundant access. The Exchange proposes to modify its fee schedule related to logical ports for BATS Equities and to make...

  10. 78 FR 51240 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... of Proposed Rule Change To Eliminate Rules Related to CYCLE Routing August 14, 2013. Pursuant to... Change The Exchange filed a proposal to eliminate Rules 11.13(a)(3)(A) and 21.9(a)(2)(A), which are the.... Purpose The Exchange is proposing to eliminate Rules 11.13(a)(3)(A) and 21.9(a)(2)(A), which are...

  11. 75 FR 57097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router... new BATS Rule 2.12, entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' and to make other related... router in its capacity as a routing facility of the Exchange. The Exchange is proposing to adopt the...

  12. 78 FR 68497 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... core business hours.\\4\\ With this proposal, the Exchange is attempting to clarify in its rules that it... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Exchange Trading Days and Hours of Business and... proposes to amend its rules to clarify Rule 700, ``Days and Hours of Business,'' and Rule 702,...

  13. 77 FR 35719 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Rules Related to Risk Management Functionality for BATS Options June... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 1, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc....

  14. 78 FR 53814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... (July 30, 2013), 78 FR 47469 (Aug. 5, 2013) (SR-CBOE-2013-078); Securities Exchange Act Release No... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Registration and Continuing Education Fees for BATS...

  15. 76 FR 40758 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Complex Orders July 5, 2011. I. Introduction On May 23, 2011, the...

  16. The Role of Intraverbal Exchanges in Assessing Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.; Crossman, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the role of verbal exchanges between parent and child (intraverbal exchanges) in relation to two contemporary measurements of the parent-child relationship, mutual responsive orientation (MRO) and synchrony. Data were collected from 30 mother-preschool child dyads (19 girls, 11 boys) during a laboratory…

  17. Stochastic Model of Maturation and Vesicular Exchange in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical organization of membrane-bound organelles along intracellular transport pathways relies on vesicular exchange between organelles and on biochemical maturation of the organelle content by specific enzymes. The relative importance of each mechanism in controlling organelle dynamics remains controversial, in particular for transport through the Golgi apparatus. Using a stochastic model, we show that full maturation of membrane-bound compartments can be seen as the stochastic escape from a steady-state in which export is dominated by vesicular exchange. We show that full maturation can contribute a significant fraction of the total out-flux for small organelles such as endosomes and Golgi cisternae.

  18. On Effectiveness and Entropy Generatioin in Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiongDaxi; LiZhixin; 等

    1996-01-01

    Some conceptual problems were discussed in the present paper,Firstly,according to the physical meaning of effectiveness,a new expression of effectiveness was developed by using an ideal heat exchnager model and temperature histogram method,in which the non-uniform inlet temperature profile was considered.Secondly,the relation of entropy generation number to effectiveness was studied,it was pointed out that both of them could express the perfect degree of a heat exchanger to the second thermodynamic law.Finally,to describe both quantity and quality of heat transferred in a heat exchanger a criterion named as comperhensive thermal performance coefficient (CTPE) was presented.

  19. Security Analysis of Broadcaster Group Key Exchange Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Huanguo

    2006-01-01

    Group key exchange protocols are basic protocols to provide privacy and integrity in secure group communication. This paper discusses the security of one type of group key exchange protocols and defines the kind of protocols as broadcaster group protocols. It points out two attacks on this kind of protocols. The first attack can be avoided by using fresh values in each action during one session of the group protocol. The second attack should be related with concrete application. It also proposes a dynamic key agreement protocol as an example of solutions at the last part of the paper.

  20. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Employment in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.

  1. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia.The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely:1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools.2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth.3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector.4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-4

  2. Chain exchange in block copolymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymer micelles are aggregates formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic copolymers dispersed in a selective solvent, driven by unfavorable interactions between the solvent and the core-forming block. Due to the relatively long chains being subject to additional thermodynamic and dynamic constraints (e.g., entanglements, crystallinity, vitrification), block copolymer micelles exhibit significantly slower equilibration kinetics than small molecule surfactants. As a result, details of the mechanism(s) of equilibration in block copolymer micelles remain unclear. This present works focuses on the chain exchange kinetics of poly(styrene-b-ethylenepropylene) block copolymers in squalane (C30H62) using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). A mixture of h-squalane and d-squalane is chosen so that it contrast matches a mixed 50/50 h/d polystyrene micelle core. When the temperature is appropriate and isotopically labeled chains undergo mixing, the mean core contrast with respect to the solvent decreases, and the scattering intensity is therefore reduced. This strategy allows direct probing of chain exchange rate from the time dependent scattering intensity I(q, t).

  3. Foreign Currency Exchange Problems Relating to the Book Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael

    1973-01-01

    In the purchase of books from foreign countries, the basic problem with regard to currency is to decide which currency will be used in these transactions, and how to reach agreement with vendors on this point. (11 references) (Author)

  4. Controlled charge exchange between alkaline earth metals and their ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Côté, Robin

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the prospects of realizing controlled charge exchange via magnetic Feshbach resonances in cold and ultracold collisions of atoms and ions. In particular, we focus on near-resonant charge exchange in heteroisotopic combinations of alkaline earth metals, such as 9Be++10 Be9 Be+10Be+ , which exhibit favorable electronic and hyperfine structure. The quantum scattering calculations are performed for a range of initial states and experimentally attainable magnetic fields in standard coupled-channel Feshbach projection formalism, where higher-order corrections such as the mass-polarization term are explicitely included. In addition, we predict a number of magnetic Feshbach resonances for different heteronuclear isotopic combinations of the listed and related alkaline earth elements. Our results imply that near-resonant charge-exchange could be used to realize atom-ion quantum gates, as well as controlled charge transfer in optically trapped cold quantum gases. This work is partially supported by ARO.

  5. Asymptotic Correction Schemes for Semilocal Exchange-Correlation Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Chi-Ruei; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to remedy the incorrect asymptotic behavior of conventional semilocal exchange-correlation (XC) density functionals for finite systems, we propose an asymptotic correction scheme, wherein an exchange density functional whose functional derivative has the correct (-1/r) asymptote can be directly added to any semilocal density functional. In contrast to semilocal approximations, our resulting exchange kernel in reciprocal space exhibits the desirable singularity of the type O(-1/q^2) as q -> 0, which is a necessary feature for describing the excitonic effects in non-metallic solids. By applying this scheme to a popular semilocal density functional, PBE [J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996)], the predictions of the properties that are sensitive to the asymptote are significantly improved, while the predictions of the properties that are insensitive to the asymptote remain essentially the same as PBE. Relative to the popular model XC potential scheme, our scheme is sig...

  6. Tailoring the magnetization reversal of elliptical dots using exchange bias.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sort, J.; Buchanan, K. S.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Menendez, E.; Salazar-Alvarez, G.; Baro, M. D.; Miron, M.; Rodamcq, B.; Dieny, B.; ICREA; Univ. Autonoma of Barcelona; Insti. Catala de Nanotecnologia; SPINTEC

    2008-01-01

    Exchange bias effects have been studied in elliptical dots composed of ferromagnetic Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}-antiferromagnetic Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} bilayers. The magnetization reversal mechanisms and magnetic configurations have been investigated by magneto-optic Kerr effect and magnetic force microscopy. Although the obtained bias fields in these dots are relatively small, the magnetization reversal is found to be influenced by the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic coupling. Namely, for some off-axis angles of measurement, the magnetization reversal mechanism of the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}-Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} ellipses depends on whether exchange bias is induced along the minor or major axis of the ellipses. Hence, exchange bias is shown to be an effective means for tailoring the magnetization reversal of elliptical dots after sample fabrication.

  7. EVALUASI KINERJA HEAT EXCHANGER DENGAN METODE FOULING F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setyoko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of heat exchangers usually deteriorates with time as a result of accumulation of depositson heat transfer surfaces. The layer of deposits represents additional resistance to heat transfer and causesthe rate of heat transfer in a heat exchanger to decrease. The net effect of these accumulations on heattransfer is represented by a fouling factor Rf , which is a measure of the thermal resistance introduced byfouling.In this case, the type of fouling is the precipitation of solid deposits in a fluid on the heat transfer surface.The mineral deposits forming on the inner and the outer surfaces of fine tubes in the heat exchanger. Thefouling factor is increases with time as the solid deposits build up on the heat exchanger surface. Foulingincreases with increasing temperature and decreasing velocity.In this research, we obtain the coefisien clean overal 5,93 BTU/h.ft2.oF, Dirt factor 0,004 BTU/h.ft2 0F,Pressure drope in tube 2,84 . 10-3 Psi and pressure drope in shell 4,93 . 10-4 Psi.This result are less thanthe standard of parameter. Its means this Heat exchanger still clean relativity and can operate continousslywithout cleaning.

  8. Exchange anisotropy pinning of a standing spin-wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaraggia, R.; Kennewell, K.; Kostylev, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Ali, M.; Greig, D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Standing spin waves in a thin film are used as sensitive probes of interface pinning induced by an antiferromagnet through exchange anisotropy. Using coplanar waveguide ferromagnetic resonance, pinning of the lowest energy spin-wave thickness mode in Ni80Fe20/Ir25Mn75 exchange-biased bilayers was studied for a range of Ir25Mn75 thicknesses. We show that pinning of the standing mode can be used to amplify, relative to the fundamental resonance, frequency shifts associated with exchange bias. The shifts provide a unique “fingerprint” of the exchange bias and can be interpreted in terms of an effective ferromagnetic film thickness and ferromagnet-antiferromagnet interface anisotropy. Thermal effects are studied for ultrathin antiferromagnetic Ir25Mn75 thicknesses, and the onset of bias is correlated with changes in the pinning fields. The pinning strength magnitude is found to grow with cooling of the sample, while the effective ferromagnetic film thickness simultaneously decreases. These results suggest that exchange bias involves some deformation of magnetic order in the interface region.

  9. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-18

    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  10. MULTI—ITEM FAIR EXCHANGE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengDong; ChenKefei

    2002-01-01

    As more ubsiness is conduced over the Internet,the fair exchange problem assumes increasing importance,However,the problem of multi-party fair exchange has not been studied as widely as the more fundamental problem of 2-party fair exchange,Recently,Franklin and Tsudik proposed two protocols for n-parth multi-item exchange on FC'98,SUCEX-1 and SUCES-2,This paper first gives an attack on the proposed protocol SUCEX-1,then presents two protocols for multi-item exchange,one is an improoved protocol of SUCEX-1,another is the extension of protocol SUCEX-2.

  11. Optimal counter-current exchange networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farr, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    We construct a general analysis for exchange devices linking their efficiency to the (potentially fractal) geometry of the exchange surface and supply network. For certain parameter ranges, we show that the optimal exchanger consists of densely packed pipes which span a thin sheet of large area, which may be crumpled into a fractal surface and supplied with a fractal network of pipes. We present the efficiencies of such fractal exchangers, showing factor gains compared to regular exchangers, using parameters relevant for systems such as pigeon lungs and salmon gills.

  12. MULTI-ITEM FAIR EXCHANGE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Dong; Chen Kefei

    2002-01-01

    As more business is conduced over the Internet, the fair exchange problem assumes increasing importance. However, the problem of multi-party fair exchange has not been studied as widely as the more fundamental problem of 2-party fair exchange. Recently, Franklin and Tsudik proposed two protocols for n-party multi-item exchange on FC'98, SUCEX-1 and SUCES-2. This paper first gives an attack on the proposed protocol SUCEX-1, then presents two protocols for multi-item exchange, one is an improved protocol of SUCEX-1, another is the extension of protocol SUCEX-2.

  13. SAFE gas turbine cycle primary heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert S.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center are jointly developing two modular heat pipe heat exchangers, collectively named FIGMENT (Fission Inert Gas Metal Exchanger for Non-nuclear Testing). The FIGMENT heat exchangers are designed to transfer power from the SAFE nuclear reactor cores to gas turbine energy converters. A stainless steel prototype heat exchanger will be built during 2002 in preparation for the construction of a larger refractory metal version. Two promising FIGMENT stainless steel heat exchanger concepts are reviewed here. .

  14. Finned Small Diameter Tube Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chaobin; Daiguji, Hirofumi; Hihara, Eiji; Tokunaga, Masahide

    The performance of fined small tube heat exchangers was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Inner diameters of tubes were 1.0mm, 2.1mm and 4.0mm. Exchanged heat and pressure drop obtained from numerical simulation agreed well with the experimental ones. Calculation results show that the volume of a 2.0mm tube heat exchanger can be reduced to 33% of that of a 4mm tube heat exchanger with the same capacity. In addition the distribution of two-phase flow in a branching unit was investigated by measuring downstream temperature distribution. The flow distribution in a branching unit strongly affects the exchanged heat.

  15. Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Affect the Long Run Properties of Real Exchange Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Christian; Girardin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether the behaviour of the real exchange rate is associated with a particular regime for the nominal exchange rate, like fixed and flexible exchange rate arrangements. The analysis is based on 16 annual real exchange rates and covers a long time span, 1870-2006. Four subperiods are distinguished and linked to exchange rate regimes: the Gold Standard, the interwar float, the Bretton Woods system and the managed float thereafter. Panel integration techniques are applied to...

  16. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  17. A survey on the effects of the exchange rate changes and financial flexibility on the usage of financial leverage in accepted companies of Tehran stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mahmoodabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we try to examine the exchange rate changes and  financial flexibility as the economic stable indexes on the financial leverage  use in the companies so the main issue in this study is to define the financial leverage relation with  exchange rate changes and financial flexibility. That is why 88 companies of the companies listed in Tehran stock exchange in 2005–2011. The study type is descriptive–correlative and the multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the data. The findings from the hypotheses test state there is a significant relation between financial leverage and financial flexibility while there isn't relation between financial leverage and exchange rate changes.

  18. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses.

  19. Exchange and cohesion in dyads and triads: A test of Simmel's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeongkoo; Thye, Shane R; Lawler, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses social exchange theory to address a classic question posed by Simmel (1964) regarding dyads and triads. The question is whether exchanges in a triad will generate more cohesion at the group level than exchanges in an isolated dyad. The main hypotheses, integrating several ideas from Simmel and social exchange theories, are as follows. First, triads generate less variability of behavior than dyads; that is, there is more uniformity or convergence in triads. Second, in the context of repeated exchange, we predict higher levels of cohesion in triads than in dyads. Third, positive emotion or affect has a stronger impact on cohesion in dyads than in triads, whereas uncertainty reduction has a stronger impact on cohesion in triads. To test these hypotheses, an experiment compared isolated dyads to dyads nested in a triadic exchange network. Subjects engaged in exchanges across a series of distinct episodes, using standard experimental procedures from research on relational cohesion (Lawler and Yoon, 1996) and exchange networks (Molm and Cook, 1995; Willer, 1999). Consistent with the hypotheses, the results reveal more convergence of behavior and higher cohesion in triads than in dyads; moreover, uncertainty reduction is the primary basis for cohesion in the triad, whereas positive affect was the primary basis for cohesion in the dyad. These results are discussed in relation to Simmelian dyad-triad dynamics and the theory of relational cohesion.

  20. Firm-Specific Foreign Exchange Exposure Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Brodin, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    of market index. Aggregate numbers have been shown to be (marginally) sensitive to the methodology employed. However, a corporate manager, an investor, or a stock analyst following a specific firm is not interested in the sensitivity on an aggregated level but on a firm-specific level. If the results......Previous studies have used the stock market approach to find the aggregate number of (firms with) foreign exchange exposures in a given country, region, or industry. Methodologies have differed in many aspects but two of the most basic differences relate to observation frequency and the choice...... for a specific firm are robust across methodologies, the corporate manager, the investor, or the stock analyst will rely on such results to a larger extent that if the results are highly sensitive to e.g. a change in observation frequency. We apply firm-specific sensitivity analysis to Scandinavian non...

  1. On the cultural legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US educational exchange (1949-1990)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990.During those years,preparation for educational exchanges,personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges.However,even though the relationship had developed very fast,it was by no means smooth sailing.These exchanges served as a political barometer and also acted as a conduit between the two when diplomatic relations were non-existent.It eased the tension when the relationship between the two countries had problems.The 40 years of exchanges were a win-win situation for both sides and one of the valuable cultural legacies that came out of the Cold War era.

  2. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  3. International Scientific Exchanges in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) signed 4 agreements 、 memorandums and 10 technical contracts with some institutes and companies of Russia, Cambodia, Korea and Belgium. CIAE sent 277 scientists, engineers and technical visitors jointed academic exchanges. Among of them, there were 91 person-times attended international conferences and symposiums, 28 person-times went abroad on the studied tour, 158 person-times worked or were trained through collaboration as well as contract implementations, etc.In 2001, CIAE held 5 international conferences and training courses in Beijing. CIAE received 497 foreign visitors from more than 30 counties and regions, they gave more than 400

  4. 团队中的情感承诺:相对领导/成员交换关系的多层次影响%Affective Commitment to the Work Team:The Multilevel Impact from Relative Leader-Member Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉霞; 徐济超

    2013-01-01

    Leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation has become a hot topic in this research area in recent years .However ,the research on relative LMX based on social comparison is far from surfficient .The literature focused only on the comparison of LMX within teams ignors the existence of the social comparison between teams .In this paper ,the concept of relative LMX is expanded to the team level ,and its effects on affective commitment to the work team from relative LMX at two levels with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM ) are analyzed .The results of HLM reveal that relative LMXs both at the individual and team levels have direct positive effects on affective commitment to the work team , while the cross-level interaction of relative LMX at the team level is not distinct .%领导-成员交换关系的差异成为近几年该研究领域的关注热点,但基于社会比较提出的相对领导-成员交换关系研究还很不充分。已有文献聚焦于团队内部个体对上下级关系的比较,但却忽略了团队之间社会比较的存在。文中研究把相对领导-成员交换关系的概念拓展到团队层面,采用HLM 软件进行多层次线性模型分析,探讨了个体和团队两个层面的相对关系对成员情感承诺的综合作用。多层次分析研究结果表明,两个层次的相对领导-成员交换关系都对情感承诺有直接的正向影响;而团队层相对交换关系的跨层次调节作用在研究中并不显著。

  5. Selection of Rational Heat Transfer Intensifiers in the Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the applicability of different types of heat transfer intensifiers in the heat exchange equipment. A review of the experimental and numerical works devoted to the intensification of the dimpled surface, surfaces with pins and internally ribbed surface were presented and data on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of these surfaces were given. We obtained variation of thermal-hydraulic efficiency criteria for 4 different objective functions and 15 options for the intensification of heat transfer. This makes it possible to evaluate the advantages of the various heat transfer intensifiers. These equations show influence of thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the heat transfer intensifiers (the values of the relative heat transfer and drag coefficients on the basic parameters of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger: the number and length of the tubes, the volume of the heat exchanger matrix, the coolant velocity in the heat exchanger matrix, coolant flow rate, power to pump coolant (or pressure drop, the amount of heat transferred, as well as the average logarithmic temperature difference. The paper gives an example to compare two promising heat transfer intensifiers in the tubes and shows that choosing the required efficiency criterion to search for optimal heat exchanger geometry is of importance. Analysis is performed to show that a dimpled surface will improve the effectiveness of the heat exchanger despite the relatively small value of the heat transfer intensification, while a significant increase in drag of other heat transfer enhancers negatively affects their thermalhydraulic efficiency. For example, when comparing the target functions of reducing the heat exchanger volume, the data suggest that application of dimpled surfaces in various fields of technology is possible. But there are also certain surfaces that can reduce the parameters of a heat exchanger. It is shown that further work development should be aimed at

  6. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  7. Assessing the Sodium Exchange Capacity in Rainfed and Irrigated Soils in the Mediterranean Basin Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Loures

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil exchange complex consists of colloidal materials on which ion exchange phenomena occur allowing it to attract, retain, and exchange elements that have opposite electric charges. Since their mineral constituents (clay and organic components (humus are mainly of a negative nature retained or exchanged ion are predominantly cations. Historically, failing to monitor parameters like the exchange sodium percentage (ESP has led to the permanent deterioration of soils which have become completely unproductive, largely reducing the sustainability of the agricultural systems. This study assesses how the sodium exchange capacity in irrigated soils differs from the rainfed ones through a sample survey that was carried out in the 15,031 ha of the Caia Irrigation Perimeter and adjacent areas, located in the municipalities of Elvas and Campo Maior, Portalegre District, Portugal where 14,280 georeferenced samples were collected from the top soil layer (0–20 cm, which were mixed 10 at a time so that each composite sample representing 11.1 ha. Then the samples were analyzed regarding the most relevant parameters for characterizing the soil exchange complex including the concentrations of exchanged bases and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC. The results were arranged in a georeferenced grid with 1451 entries. Using classical statistical analysis and Geographic Information Systems (GIS software, it was possible to relate the individual soil samples analyzed with the cultural system practiced (irrigated or rainfed and the present soil group which permitted us to analyze the influence of the cultural system in the soil exchange complex. The distribution chart of the exchange sodium and CEC were created. The obtained results confirm a general decrease of CEC values and an increase of the exchangeable sodium content of irrigated explored soils when compared to the rainfed ones, putting forward noteworthy ideas not only regarding the necessary changes towards

  8. Usage of Option Contracts for Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Today in Romania, in the context of the liberalization of the capital account and under a floating exchange rate (official is a managed floating currency regime established by National Bank of Romania the foreign exchange rate is very volatile. In consequence the financial institutions, corporations and, especially, the importers and exporters have to deal with a big exposition of currency risk related with their activities. Financial institutions and corporations today must adopt new roles in order to compete successfully in the explosively evolving foreign exchange markets. The methods, instruments and techniques used to manage foreign exchange risk are more complex than ever before. The objective of our paper is to provide the techniques and insights needed to pinpoint opportunities and control risks. We will present the most modern practical methods for managing the currency risk: option strategies (spread, strangle, straddle, etc. Also we will present the advantage, the disadvantage and our opinions related with the use of currency derivatives instruments (especially currency strategies options, making a comparative analysis.

  9. Exchange of astronomy teaching experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Working Group of the European Association for Astronomy Education responsible for Teacher Training organises an annual Summer School for teachers under expert guidance. For a week the teachers participating can exchange experiences, increase their knowledge and discuss different ideas and perspectives. In general, the instructors are professional astronomers, professors and teachers from different countries. The papers presented offer very practical activities, paying special attention to didactic aspects, and take the form of general lectures to all 40 participants and workshops to reduced groups of 20 participants. There are also day and night observations, without expensive equipment or complicated procedures, that are easy to set up and based on topics that it is possible to use in the classroom. The Summer Schools promote a scientific astronomical education at all levels of astronomy teaching, reinforce the link between professional astronomers and teachers with experience of teaching astronomy, allow debates among the participants on their pedagogical activities already carried out in their own classroom and help them to organise activities outside it. Astronomy teachers need special training, access to specific research, to new educational materials and methods and the opportunity to exchange experiences. All these things are provided by the Summer School.

  10. 77 FR 31411 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... for Certain Foreign Currency Options Traded on the Exchange and To Make a Technical Change to the... terminate a pilot program related to an incentive plan for certain Foreign Currency (``FX'') options...

  11. 78 FR 19059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... ETF options, including exercise style. Accordingly, the Exchange noted in its original mini-option... change that are filed with the Commission, and all written communications relating to the proposed...

  12. 78 FR 70987 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... pricing for the ``Cabinet Proximity Option'' available to users of co-location facilities of The NASDAQ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the New York Stock Exchange Price List Related to Co-Location... Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend its Price List related to co- location services...

  13. 76 FR 46860 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... does not intend to eliminate controls in Exchange rules related to potential conflicts of interest... example, Rule 21 seeks to eliminate conflicts of interests associated with reviewing decisions related to... retained in proposed Rule 304.\\8\\ \\8\\ The Exchange proposes to eliminate the text in current Rule...

  14. Ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions affecting selectivity for neutral and charged solutes on three structurally similar agglomerated ion-exchange and mixed-mode stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Taylor, Mark R; Haddad, Paul R; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2013-11-25

    The nature and extent of mixed-mode retention mechanisms evident for three structurally related, agglomerated, particle-based stationary phases were evaluated. These three agglomerated phases were Thermo Fisher ScientificIon PacAS11-HC - strong anion exchange, Thermo Fisher Scientific IonPac CS10--strong cation-exchange PS-DVB, and the Thermo Fisher Scientific Acclaim Trinity P1silica-based substrate, which is commercially marketed as a mixed-mode stationary phase. All studied phases can exhibit zwitterionic and hydrophobic properties, which contribute to the retention of charged organic analytes. A systematic approach was devised to investigate the relative ion-exchange capacities and hydrophobicities for each of the three phases, together with the effect of eluent pH upon selectivity, using a specifically selected range of anionic, cationic and neutral aromatic compounds. Investigation of the strong anion-exchange column and the Trinity P1 mixed-mode substrate, in relation to ion-exchange capacity and pH effects, demonstrated similar retention behaviour for both the anionic and ampholytic solutes, as expected from the structurally related phases. Further evaluation revealed that the ion-exchange selectivity of the mixed-mode phase exhibited properties similar to that of the strong anion-exchange column, with secondary cation-exchange selectivity, albeit with medium to high anion-exchange and cation-exchange capacities, allowing selective retention for each of the anionic, cationic and ampholytic solutes. Observed mixed-mode retention upon the examined phases was found to be a sum of anion- and cation-exchange interactions, secondary ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions, with possible additional hydrogen bonding. Hydrophobic evaluation of the three phases revealed logP values of 0.38-0.48, suggesting low to medium hydrophobicity. These stationary phases were also benchmarked against traditional reversed-phase substrates namely, octadecylsilica YMC-Pac Pro C18

  15. Comparison of a Conventional Heat Exchangers with a New Designed Heat Exchanger Experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Koyun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the air-water heat exchanger designed have been experimentally compared to conventional heat exchangers with and without fin. The same parameters for the three heat exchangers (pump flow, heating power, etc... have been used. In the experiments, speed-flow adjustment has been made to supply heat transfer at an optimum. As a result, during the circulation of water in pipe of the air-water heat exchanger, the corrosion fouling factor has not been formed. In addition, the efficiency of the new designed heat exchanger has been found between fin and finless heat exchanger efficiencies. The results have been shown in the diagrams.

  16. ERDA Interlaboratory Working Group for Data Exchange (IWGDE). Annual report for fiscal year 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.; Austin, D. (eds.)

    1976-09-01

    The activities of the ERDA IWGDE (Interlaboratory Working Group for Data Exchange) during fiscal year 1976 are discussed. The IWGDE was created in response to an evident need for increased sharing of resources among ERDA installations. During fiscal year 1976 it was supported through funds allocated to the Energy Analysis and Assessment programs of seven multipurpose ERDA national laboratories. Principal accomplishments included the interlaboratory exchange of socio-economic, environmental, demographic, and energy-related data bases, liaison development through interlaboratory meetings, creation of a national index of energy-related models and data bases, and definition and partial implementation of a computer-independent standard for exchange of data via magnetic tape.

  17. Mathematical simulation of heat exchanger working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavlas, Stanislav; Ďurčanský, Peter; Lenhard, Richard; Jandačka, Jozef

    2015-05-01

    One of the When designing a new heat exchanger it is necessary to consider all the conditions imposed on the exchanger and its desired properties. Most often the investigation of heat transfer is to find heat surface. When applying exchanger for proposed hot air engine, it will be a counter-flow heat exchanger of gas - gas type. Gas, which transfers the heat will be exhaust gas from the combustion of biomass. An important step in the design and verification is to analyze exchanger designed using numerical methods, the verification of the correctness of design and verification of boundary conditions which include temperatures, flow rates and pressure drops. Due to the fact that the heat transfer in the heat exchanger is a three-dimensional plot and timeindependent, the system is described by partial differential equations that need to be solved by numerical methods.

  18. Listening to agent agendas in student exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Gertrud

    2003-01-01

    The paper is based upon a research study of short-term student exchanges. The study took place from 1996-2000, and comprises seven classes of students from six Danish business schools. Short-term student exchanges in terms of EU funded exchanges and local school exchanges are means to develop...... the students’ understanding of their own cultural background and of foreign cultures. The research study is an attempt to look at internationalisation and student exchanges from a student perspective. Thus the structural aim and the structural framework are considered given elements. The study is based upon...... institutional scepticism and placed within the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. The methodology applied is qualitative, grounded theory, and the data originate from diaries, semi-structured interviews and semi-open questionnaires. The findings show that the students have their own exchange...

  19. Exchange rate exposure of firms and the demand for foreign exchange derivatives in Brazil: did hedge or speculatiom matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nascimento de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines empirically how the demand of foreign exchange derivatives by Brazilian corporations is related to their exchange rate exposure. With the help of an original database of 74,567 contracts written from 1999 to 2002 between corporations and financial institutions, we were able to identify the corporations that speculated and the ones that hedged with foreign exchange derivatives during this period. Our results show that the exchange rate exposure is positively related to the foreign operational exposures for firms that speculated and negatively related for firms that hedged in 2002. For the other years of the sample period, speculation or hedge did not affect the relationship between the exchange rate exposure and the foreign operational exposure of firms.Este artigo analisa empiricamente como a demanda de derivativos de câmbio por firmas brasileiras está relacionada as suas exposições cambiais. Coma ajuda de umbanco de dados original de 74.567 contratos entre firmas e instituições financeiras de 1999 a 2002, somos capazes de identificar que empresas especularam e que empresas fizeram hedge durante o período. Nossos resultados mostram que a exposição operacional cambial das firmas está positivamente relacionada com a exposição cambial das firmas que especularam e negativamente relacionada com as firmas que fizeram hedge em 2002. Para os outros anos do período amostral, a especulação ou hedge não afetaram a relação entre a exposição operacional cambial e a exposição operacional das firmas brasileiras.

  20. Foreign Exchange Risk Premium; Does Fiscal Policy Matter? Evidence From Italian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Giorgianni

    1997-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional view that foreign exchange risk premiums are small, not volatile, and unrelated to macroeconomic variables. For the Italian lira (1987-94), unconditional risk premiums—constructed using survey data to measure exchange rate expectations—are found to be sizable (relative to the dimension of the forward premium), highly volatile (relative to the variability of the forward bias), and predictable. Estimation of structural models of the risk premium suggests t...

  1. Exchange rates and individual good's price misalignment: Some preliminary evidence of long-horizon predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wei; Nam, Deokwoo

    2011-01-01

    When prices are sticky, movements in the nominal exchange rate have a direct impact on international relative prices. A relative price misalignment would trigger an adjustment in consumption and employment, and may help to predict future movements in the exchange rate. Although purchasing-power-parity fundamentals, in general, have only weak predictability, currency misalignment may be indicated by price differentials for some goods, which could then have predictive power for subsequent re-ev...

  2. Market Sentiment and Exchange Rate Directional Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilios Plakandaras; Theophilos Papadimitriou; Periklis Gogas; Konstantinos Diamantaras

    2014-01-01

    The microstructural approach to the exchange rate market claims that order flows on a currency can accurately reflect the short-run dynamics its exchange rate. In this paper, instead of focusing on order flows analysis we employ an alternative microstructural approach: we focus on investors' sentiment on a given exchange rate as a possible predictor of its future evolution. As a proxy of investors' sentiment we use StockTwits posts, a message board dedicated to finance. Within StockTwits inve...

  3. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  4. Exchange effects in a cold plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ekman, Robin; Brodin, Gert

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the exchange corrections to linear electrostatic wave propagation in a plasma using a quantum kinetic formalism. Specifically we have considered the zero temperature limit. In order to simplify the calculations we have focused on the long wavelength limit, i.e. wavelengths much longer than the de Broglie wavelength. For the case of ion-acoustic waves we have calculated the exchange correction both to the damping rate and the real part of the frequency. For Langmuir waves the frequency shift due to exchange effects is found. Our results are compared with the frequency shifts deduced from commonly used exchange potentials which are computed from density functional theory.

  5. Exchangeability and sets of desirable gambles

    CERN Document Server

    de Cooman, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Sets of desirable gambles constitute a quite general type of uncertainty model with an interesting geometrical interpretation. We give a general discussion of such models and their rationality criteria. We study exchangeability assessments for them, and prove counterparts of de Finetti's finite and infinite representation theorems. We show that the finite representation in terms of count vectors has a very nice geometrical interpretation, and that the representation in terms of frequency vectors is tied up with multivariate Bernstein (basis) polynomials. We also lay bare the relationships between the representations of updated exchangeable models, and discuss conservative inference (natural extension) under exchangeability and the extension of exchangeable sequences.

  6. Entropy exchange for infinite-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhoubo; Hou, Jinchuan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the entropy exchange for channels and states in infinite-dimensional systems are defined and studied. It is shown that, this entropy exchange depends only on the given channel and the state. An explicit expression of the entropy exchange in terms of the state and the channel is proposed. The generalized Klein’s inequality, the subadditivity and the triangle inequality about the entropy including infinite entropy for the infinite-dimensional systems are established, and then, applied to compare the entropy exchange with the entropy change. PMID:28164995

  7. Apparent exchange rate mapping with diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Water exchange through the cell membranes is an important feature of cells and tissues. The rate of exchange is determined by factors such as membrane lipid composition and organization, as well as the type and activity of aquaporins. A method for noninvasively estimating the rate of water exchange would be useful for characterizing pathological conditions, e.g., tumors, multiple sclerosis, and ischemic stroke, expected to be associated with a change of the membrane barrier properties. This study describes the filter exchange imaging method for determining the rate of water exchange between sites having different apparent diffusion coefficients. The method is based on the filter-exchange pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy experiment, which is here modified to be compatible with the constraints of clinical MR scanners. The data is analyzed using a model-free approach yielding maps of the apparent exchange rate, here being introduced in analogy with the concept of the apparent diffusion coefficient. Proof-of-principle experiments are performed on microimaging and whole-body clinical scanners using yeast suspension phantoms. The limitations and appropriate experimental conditions are examined. The results demonstrate that filter exchange imaging is a fast and reliable method for characterizing exchange, and that it has the potential to become a powerful diagnostic tool.

  8. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  9. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  10. Micro tube heat exchangers for Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mezzo fabricates micro tube heat exchangers for a variety of applications, including aerospace, automotive racing, Department of Defense ground vehicles, economizers...

  11. Evaluating benchmarks for Norwegian exchange rate forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Adrik, Samir

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we compare the out-of-sample forecasting abilities of three fundamental exchange rate models (EqCM) against the random walk (without drift), RW. The objective of the thesis is to see how well the RW model preforms against fundamental exchange rate models that in the literature have proven to be better at forecasting the Norwegian exchange rate. These models were tested on an out-of-sample period (2009:1-2015:4) that include two characteristic exchange rate regimes. The models ...

  12. Quantum Statistical Calculation of Exchange Bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huai-Yu; DAI Zhen-Hong

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of exchange bias of ferromagnetic (FM) films, which are coupled with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) film, is studied by Heisenberg model by use of the many-body Green's function method of quantum statistical theory for the uncompensated case. Exchange bias HE and coercivity Hc are calculated as functions of the FM film thickness L, temperature, the strength of the exchange interaction across the interface between FM and AFM and the anisotropy of the FM. Hc decreases with increasing L when the FM film is beyond some thickness. The dependence of the exchange bias HE on the FM film thickness and on temperature is also qualitatively in agreement with experiments.

  13. Creation of an antiferromagnetic exchange spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, A.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Ohldag, H.; Stohr, J.

    2004-04-06

    We present evidence for the creation of an exchange spring in an antiferromagnet due to exchange coupling to a ferromagnet. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism spectroscopy on single crystal Co/NiO(001) shows that a partial domain wall is wound up at the surface of the antiferromagnet when the adjacent ferromagnet is rotated by a magnetic field. We determine the interface exchange stiffness and the antiferromagnetic domain wall energy from the field dependence of the direction of the antiferromagnetic axis, the antiferromagnetic pendant to a ferromagnetic hysteresis loop. The existence of a planar antiferromagnetic domain wall, proven by our measurement, is a key assumption of most exchange bias models.

  14. Exchange Rate Policy and Endogenous Price Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    A fixed exchange rate limits the ability of the real exchange rate to adjust to shocks, and tends to raise the volatility of real GDP. But adjustment may be enhanced if internal prices are more flexible under a fixed exchange rate. This Paper develops a model in which price setters incur a cost to retain the option of ex-post price flexibility. The benefit of flexibility is increasing in the variance of demand facing price-setters. We ask whether fixing the exchange rate is likely to increase...

  15. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  16. Educational Exchanges Across the Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. J.; Walker, C. E.; Smith, M.; Pompea, S. M.; Orellana, D.

    2003-12-01

    What is color? What is light? How can we use a spectrometer to help students understand the answers to these questions? Even half a world apart and between people of different languages and cultures, how to teach these ideas to students can be a lively subject for discussion. And it is! Aided by Internet 2-based videoconferencing, NOAO North and South have sponsored three teacher professional development videoconference workshops, dubbed ASTRO-Chile, linking teachers in Tucson, AZ, and La Serena, Chile. The teachers exchange methods and ideas about how to explain and demonstrate physical concepts, important to the study of astronomy, to students of various ages. The workshops are conducted in Spanish with four bilingual science teachers from the Tucson area discussing pedagogical approaches with their teaching counterparts in Chile. Demonstrations and project presentations, from both sites, are included as part of each workshop. This work is supported, in part, through funding from the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  17. The Kuroshio exchange with the South and East China Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsuno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kuroshio flows along the edges of the marginal East Asian seas such as the South China Sea (SCS and East China Sea (ECS. Exchanges of materials and energy between the Kuroshio and the marginal seas partly control the environments of the marginal seas. In particular, saline water from the Kuroshio maintains certain salinity in the shelf water in the ECS. Nutrients from the subsurface of the Kuroshio may influence primary production on the shelf. We summarize how the Kuroshio comes into contact with the shelf water or marginal seas, describing phenomena related to the exchange between the Kuroshio and the ECS along with the SCS, using reports in the literature along with original data. The Kuroshio tends to intrude into the SCS through the Luzon Strait in various manners such as direct intrusion, associated with eddies and as a loop current. The Kuroshio intrusion into the shelf region of the ECS has distinct seasonal variation and the Taiwan Warm Current plays a significant role in the determination of water properties in the outer shelf associated with the Kuroshio intrusion. We then examine physical processes related to the interaction between the Kuroshio and shelf water. Interaction between the Kuroshio and the bottom topography is an important process in the control of the exchange around the shelf break. Vertical mixing and frontal eddies are also important factors that control the water exchange and formation of water masses in the outer shelf. Wind stress plays a significant role in the exchange with a rather event-like manner. To determine the source of the water masses, chemical tracers could be powerful tools and it is suggested that a significant part of the shelf water consists of Kuroshio intermediate water.

  18. 对男男性行为者中"买"性者艾滋病高危行为状况调查%Study on the AIDS-related high risk behaviors of men who have sex with men under the experience of exchanging money for the same sex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史同新; 于增照; 李秀芳; 徐敬星; 王燕飞; 张北川

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the AIDS-related high risk behaviors of men who havesex with men (MSM) who ever exchanged money for the same sex. Methods Target sampling forcross-sectional study and valid anonymous questionnaires were adopted to compare the differences ofAIDS-related high risk behaviors between MSM with the experience of exchanging money for thesame sex and those without that experience. 1959 rstadied samples were recruited in nine cities. SPSS13.0 was used and t, x 2 and Mann-Whitney tests were taken for statistical analysis. ResultsCompared to corresponding ones without "buying" the same sex experience, MSM who ever engagedin "buying" sex had the characteristics of being prone to in marriage and living in larger cities witholder age and higher income (P<0.01). They also had a significant larger number in the followingevents: total sexual panners, anal sex and oral sex episodes with same sex, number of sexualpartners, anal sex and oral sex in the previous six months, with the figure of median 50.0, 20.0,20.0, 5.0,4.0,5.0 respectively. 31.5% had ever participated in 'group sex', 48.0% had sex with malepartners away from his own region in the previous year, 70.5% had sexual intercourse withstrangers at MSM avenues in the last six months. The OR (95% CI) values were 2.288( 1.702-3.077), 3.231 (2.462-4.241 ), 2.840 (2.140-3.770). All the above mentioned figures werehigher than those without the experience, with significant differences. They had a significant lower rate of 45.7% of condom use while having sex with female partners (P<0.05). Conclusion MSM with the experience of exchanging money for the same sex would have more AIDS-related high risk behaviors, AIDS preventative measures should be taken to target different subgroups.%目的 探讨男男性行为者(MSM)中曾向同性"买"性的亚人群艾滋病高危行为状况.方法 采用定向抽样法进行横断面调查.对全国9城市1959名MSM的有效匿名问卷用SPSS 13.0统计软件包建

  19. The double soft limit in cosmological correlation functions and graviton exchange effects

    CERN Document Server

    Alinea, Allan L; Misumi, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The graviton exchange effect on cosmological correlation functions is examined by employing the double soft limit technique. A new relation among correlation functions that contain the effects due to graviton exchange diagrams is derived by using the background field method and independently by the method of Ward identities associated with dilatation symmetry. The four point correlation function is shown to consist of three terms that come from scalar-exchange, scalar-contact-interaction and the graviton exchange. We compare these three terms, putting small values for the slow roll parameters and $(1-n_{s}) = 0.042$, where $n_{s}$ is the scalar spectral index. It is argued that the graviton exchange effects are more dominant than the other two and could be observed in the trispectrum in the double soft limit.

  20. Control and prevention of ice formation and accretion on heat exchangers for ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In cold climates, the application of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery like are airto-air exchangers is used for reducing energy consumption for heating buildings by transferring heat exhausted air to supply air. However, increase efficiency of heat exchanger results in lower...... exhaust air temperatures and Ice formation on heat exchanger fins, which can cause problem and is not favourable. Therefore, prevention and control of ice formation on heat exchangers is necessary. The existing methods are divided into two different methods: active and passive ice control methods....... The active methods are e.g. bypass, recirculation, preheating. The passive methods relate to the surface characteristics of the heat exchanger fins as they have effect on ice formation in initial phase. All these methods have varying levels of success, cost, and effectiveness, which are depending on the heat...