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Sample records for air-borne terverticillate penicillia

  1. Production of secondary metabolites by some terverticillate penicillia on carbohydrate-rich and meat substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Félix; Westphal, Carmen D; Bermúdez, Elena; Asensio, Miguel A

    2007-12-01

    Most terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured meat products are toxigenic, but their ability to produce hazardous metabolites on meat-based substrates is not well known. The production of extrolites by selected terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured ham has been studied on carbohydrate-rich media (malt extract agar, Czapek yeast autolysate agar, rice extract agar, and rice), meat extract triolein salt agar, and ham slices. Chloroform extracts from the selected strains grown on malt extract agar were toxic for the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae and VERO cells at a concentration of 2 mg/ml, but 0.02 mg/ml produced no toxic effect. Analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) or with mass spectrometry (MS) and an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source revealed different biologically active metabolites: cyclopiazonic acid and rugulovasine A from Penicillium commune; verrucosidin, anacine, puberuline, verrucofortine, and viridicatols from Penicillium polonicum; arisugacin and viridicatols from Penicillium echinulatum; and compactin and viridicatols from Penicillium solitum. Most of these metabolites, including the amino acid-derived compounds, were produced in the media containing high levels of carbohydrates. High concentrations of nitrogen compounds in the medium does not imply a greater production of the metabolites studied, not even those derived from the amino acids. However, molds growing on dry-cured ham are able to synthesize limited amounts of some secondary metabolites, a fact not previously reported. The combination of HPLC coupled with DAD and MS-APCI was useful for identification of closely related terverticillate Penicillium species from dry-cured ham. These techniques could be used to characterize the risk associated with the potential production of secondary metabolites in cured meats.

  2. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

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    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita, L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  3. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

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    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. [i]Lavandula angustifolia[/i], [i]Carum carvi[/i], [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Mentha piperita[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.,[i] Pinus sylvestris[/i], [i]Satureia hortensis[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L., [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinali[/i]s L., [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L. [i]Rausch[/i], [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. for antifungal activity against five [i]Penicillium[/i] species: [i]Penicillium brevicompactum[/i], [i]Penicillium citrinum[/i], [i]Penicillium crustosum[/i], [i]Penicillium expansum[/i] and [i]Penicillium griseofulvum[/i]. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against [i]Penicillium[/i] fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L., [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i], [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. and [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i]. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.[i] Rausch[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinalis[/i].

  4. Terverticillate penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts II. Database and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectral database was built using standard instrument software from 678 electrospray mass spectra (mass profiles) from crude fungal extracts of terverticillate taxa within the genus Penicillium. The match factors calculated from searching all the mass profiles stored in the database were...

  5. Terverticillate Penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts: I. Chemosystematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1997-01-01

    ) and Yeast Extract Sucrose agar (YES) directly into the electrospray source of the mass spectrometer. A data matrix was made from each substrate by transferring the complete centroid mass spectrum from 200 to 700 amu as 501 variables to individual columns. No attempt was made to identify ions in the mass......A chemosystematic study of 339 isolates from all known terverticillate Penicillium taxa was performed using electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of extractable metabolites. The mass profiles were made by injecting crude plug extracts made from cultures grown on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA...

  6. Classification of terverticillate Penicillia by electrospray mass spectrometric profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Michael Edberg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    429 isolates of 58 species belonging to Penicillium subgenus Penicillium are classified from direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry (diMS) analysis of crude extracts by automated data processing. The study shows that about 70% of the species can be classified correctly into species using...

  7. Food and soil-borne Penicillia in Arctic environments: Chemical diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    Penicillia are very common inhabitants of cold environments, including arctic soil, plants, animals, and foods. We have investigated the mycobiota of Greenland inland ice and soil, and found a very unique and pronounced diversity among the Penicillia. Nearly all species were new to science....... The species found in inland ice were both of the soil-borne type, and Penicillia that grow and sporulate well at 25°C. The latter group of Penicillia have been found earlier in refrigerated foods, including P. nordicum, and in glacier ice and melting water from Svalbard (se Sonjak et al., this conference......). This “food-borne group” of arctic fungi also contained some new species, but not as many as in arctic soil. The chemical diversity of the Penicillium species was remarkably high and in most cases even larger than the chemical diversity of Penicillia in the tropics. Several new secondary metabolites were...

  8. The antimicrobial spectra of selected Penicillia against some pathogenic bacteria and yeasts

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    Shashi Chauhan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antagonista activity of eight isolaies of penicillia bas been studied against 13 pathogenic organisms, which included 6 Gram-positive bacteria, 4 Gram-negative bacteria and 3 yeasts.

  9. Studies on ultraviolet inactivation of air-borne microorganisms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shin-ichi; Doi, Hitoshi; Yamayoshi, Takao; Nunoura, Masako; Tatsumi, Noriyuki.

    1989-01-01

    UV(254nm) inactivation of air-borne bacteria in an air-controlling apparatus was studied. The appratus was composed of a chamber for vaporizing a bacterial suspension and an irradiation duct equipped with an UV lamp(GL-30). The bacterial which passed through the irradiation duct impinged on a petri dish by an air slit sampler. Selected bacteria for the experiment were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Sarcina lutea and Bacillus subtilis(spores). The apparatus was useful for the study of the susceptibility of air-borne bacteria to UV radiation. UV dose necessary to inhibit colony formation in 90% of individual bacteria in the controlled air was as low as 27 to 35% of the dose required for the agar plate method. (author)

  10. Air-borne contact dermatitis caused exclusively by xanthium strumarium

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    Pasricha J

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases having air-borne contact dermatitis (ABCD in India are considered to be caused by Parthenium hysterophorus. In some cases however, other plants have also been noticed to give positive patch test reactions. We are reporting two cases presenting as ABCD who showed positive patch tests with Xanthium strumarium while the patch tests with Parthenium hysterophorus were negative. It is therefore necessary to realise that every case of ABCD is not caused by Parthenium, and patch testing with Parthenium alone can lead to serious mistakes.

  11. Air-borne contact dermatitis caused exclusively by xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, J S; Verma, K K; D'Souza, P

    1995-01-01

    Most cases having air-borne contact dermatitis (ABCD) in India are considered to be caused by Parthenium hysterophorus. In some cases however, other plants have also been noticed to give positive patch test reactions. We are reporting two cases presenting as ABCD who showed positive patch tests with Xanthium strumarium while the patch tests with Parthenium hysterophorus were negative. It is therefore necessary to realise that every case of ABCD is not caused by Parthenium, and patch testing with Parthenium alone can lead to serious mistakes.

  12. YOGYAKARTA AIR BORNE QUALITY BASED ON THE LEAD PARTICULATE CONCENTRATION

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    Zaenal Abidin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Yogyakarta air quality based on concentration of lead particulate using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA method has been done. The sample was taken 3 times in 16 strategic locations of Yogyakarta city using Hi-Vol air sampler that equipped with cellulose filter TFA 2133. The sample irradiated for 30 min with 14 MeV fast neutron and then counted using gamma spectroscopy (AccuSpec. The result indicated that concentration of Pb-208 along Diponegoro street up to Janti street respectively are minimally (0.689 - 0.775 mg/m3, and maximally:  (1.598 - 1.785 mg/m3. According to DIY governor decree No. 153/2002 about the limited toxicity ambient on Yogyakarta area it is concentration that Pb. The concentration of Pb-208 are still below the permitted value of 2 mg/m3, but in certain areas, the Pb concentration is almost equal to upper limit of permitted concentration of Pb.   Keywords: air borne, neutron generator, FNAA

  13. Better Visualisation of Air-borne Laser Scanning for geomorphological and archaeological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Thomas; Scott, D; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    Digital elevation models derived from high-precision Air-borne Laser Scanning (ALS or LiDAR) point clouds are becoming increasingly available throughout the world. These elevation models presents a very valuable tool for locating and interpreting geomorphological as well as archaeological features...

  14. Selection and evaluation of Debaryomyces hansenii isolates as potential bioprotective agents against toxigenic penicillia in dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Félix; Lara, María S; Peromingo, Belén; Delgado, Josué; Sánchez-Montero, Lourdes; Andrade, María J

    2015-04-01

    Biocontrol using autochthonous Debaryomyces hansenii isolates is a potentially suitable strategy for inhibiting toxigenic moulds in dry-cured meat products. The antifungal activity of 280 D. hansenii isolated from dry-cured meat products as well as the mode of action of the most active isolates against toxigenic penicillia were evaluated in this work. A 13.9% of the D. hansenii isolates showed inhibitory activity in a radial inhibition assay. The effects on penicillia growth of both the cell-free culture filtrate and volatile compounds from active yeast isolates were analysed. Penicillia growth inhibition by D. hansenii was probably based on additive or synergistic effects of several inhibiting factors such as competition for nutrient and space, and production of soluble or volatile compounds. When four D. hansenii isolates were tested on dry-fermented sausage, two of them produced a significantly growth reduction of the ochratoxigenic Penicillium verrucosum, keeping its counts under the level considered as hazardous for the mycotoxin presence. Therefore, the use of these two D. hansenii isolates during the processing of dry-fermented meat product could be a promising tool to control toxigenic moulds in the meat industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Air-borne heavy metal contamination to dietary vegetables: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Richa; Shubhashish, K

    2009-12-01

    Contamination of edible parts of three dietary vegetables, Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) by air-borne cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) was determined using pot culture experiments at three sites in the city of Varanasi, India. The data revealed that although Cr and Cu in vegetables remained below their safe limits, about 68% of the total samples contained Cd, Ni, and Pb above their respective safe limits of 1.5, 1.5, and 2.5 μg g(-1). Site wise synchrony and air accumulation factor (AAF) indicated that atmospheric deposition was the main contributor of metal contamination to vegetables. The study suggests that if the present trends of atmospheric deposition are continued, air-borne heavy metals will contaminate the agricultural produce with long-term health implications.

  16. Robust and Rapid Air-Borne Odor Tracking without Casting1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Urvashi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Casting behavior (zigzagging across an odor stream) is common in air/liquid-borne odor tracking in open fields; however, terrestrial odor localization often involves path selection in a familiar environment. To study this, we trained rats to run toward an odor source in a multi-choice olfactory arena with near-laminar airflow. We find that rather than casting, rats run directly toward an odor port, and if this is incorrect, they serially sample other sources. This behavior is consistent and accurate in the presence of perturbations, such as novel odors, background odor, unilateral nostril stitching, and turbulence. We developed a model that predicts that this run-and-scan tracking of air-borne odors is faster than casting, provided there are a small number of targets at known locations. Thus, the combination of best-guess target selection with fallback serial sampling provides a rapid and robust strategy for finding odor sources in familiar surroundings. PMID:26665165

  17. On exposure to air-borne particulate activity in a radiological laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Bara, Vivek; Jat, Deepika; Srinivasan, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate different exposure scenarios in a laboratory having once through ventilation. It has been considered a laboratory of volume V (m 3 ) which has once through ventilation rate of λ(hr -1 ). It is assumed that a certain amount, q Bq, of long lived activity has got released into the laboratory and the air-bone activity instantaneously got distributed throughout the volume of the laboratory. In the study a simple mathematical expression is applied for the source term for generic cases of containment breach leading to air-borne activity. It is analysed, considering different time duration of release as less than total time of exposure, for duration of 7 hour exposure

  18. Experimental study of defoaming by air-borne power ultrasonic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Germán; Riera, Enrique; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A.; Acosta, Víctor M.; Pinto, Alberto; Martínez, Ignacio; Blanco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Foam is a dispersion of gas in a liquid in which the distances between the gas bubbles are very small. Foams are frequently generated in the manufacture of many products as result from the aeration and agitation of liquids, from the vaporization of the liquid and also from biological or chemical reactions. Foams are generally an unwanted product in industrial processes because they cause difficulties in process control and in equipment operation. The most efficient conventional method for defoaming is the use of chemical agents but they contaminate the product. High-intensity ultrasonic waves offer a clean procedure to break foam bubbles. The potential use of ultrasound for foam breaking that was known since many years has been recently reinforced by the application of a new type of ultrasonic defoamer based on the stepped-plate high-power transducers to generate air-borne ultrasound. This defoamer has been successfully applied in several industrial problems such as the control of excess foam produced during the filling operation of bottles and cans on high-speed canning lines and in fermenting vessels and other reactors of great dimensions. The treatment of such industrial problems requires the proper characterization and quantification of the main parameters involved in the mechanisms of the defoaming effect. This paper deals with an experimental study about the separate influence of such parameters with the aim of improving the application of the stepped-plate power ultrasonic generators for the production of the defoaming action on industrial processes

  19. Application of High Resolution Air-Borne Remote Sensing Observations for Monitoring NOx Emissions

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    Souri, A.; Choi, Y.; Pan, S.; Curci, G.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Liu, J.; Herman, J. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) are one of the air pollutants, responsible for the formation of tropospheric ozone, acid rain and particulate nitrate. The anthropogenic NOx emissions are commonly estimated based on bottom-up inventories which are complicated by many potential sources of error. One way to improve the emission inventories is to use relevant observations to constrain them. Fortunately, Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most successful detected species from remote sensing. Although many studies have shown the capability of using space-borne remote sensing observations for monitoring emissions, the insufficient sample number and footprint of current measurements have introduced a burden to constrain emissions at fine scales. Promisingly, there are several air-borne sensors collected for NASA's campaigns providing high spatial resolution of NO2 columns. Here, we use the well-characterized NO2 columns from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) onboard NASA's B200 aircraft into a 1×1 km regional model to constrain anthropogenic NOx emissions in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area. Firstly, in order to incorporate the data, we convert the NO2 slant column densities to vertical ones using a joint of a radiative transfer model and the 1x1 km regional model constrained by P3-B aircraft measurements. After conducting an inverse modeling method using the Kalman filter, we find the ACAM observations are resourceful at mitigating the overprediction of model in reproducing NO2 on regular days. Moreover, the ACAM provides a unique opportunity to detect an anomaly in emissions leading to strong air quality degradation that is lacking in previous works. Our study provides convincing evidence that future geostationary satellites with high spatial and temporal resolutions will give us insights into uncertainties associated with the emissions at regional scales.

  20. Ultrasonic transducers with resonant cavities as emitters for air-borne applications

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    Montero De Espinosa Freijo, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a new proposal to improve the emission efficiency of air-borne ultrasonic transducers is introduced. A theoretical ultrasonic transducer design is studied using a piezoelectric membrane and a Helmholtz resonator with two acoustic ports. The resonator provides radiation in the acoustic ports in phase with that of the membrane. Several finite element simulations and experimental results are used to study the device. The finite element models were used to compare its behaviour with that of conventional vacuum-cavity transducers. These results show an improvement in the bandwidth reaching a quality factor value of 19. Furthermore, the experimental measurements were used to study the effects of the resonant cavity in the response. Several measurements for different cavity depths were performed. The results show an improvement of 25 dB in the emitted pressure through tuning the transducer.

    En este trabajo se presenta una nueva propuesta para mejorar la eficiencia de transductores ultrasónicos acoplados a aire. Para este estudio se ha empleado un diseño teórico de transductor ultrasónico que utiliza una membrana piezoeléctrica y un resonador de Helmholtz con dos puertos acústicos. El resonador hace que la radiación en los puertos acústicos se encuentre en fase con la producida por la membrana. Para estudiar el dispositivo se utilizaron resultados obtenidos mediante programas de elementos finitos y resultados experimentales. Por un lado, los modelos de elementos finitos se utilizaron para comparar el comportamiento del dispositivo con el de transductores convencionales con cavidades al vacío. Estos resultados indican una mejora en el ancho de banda alcanzando valores de factor de calidad de 19. Por otro lado, los resultados experimentales se emplearon para identificar los efectos de la cavidad resonante en el funcionamiento del dispositivo. Para ello se realizaron varias medidas utilizando ciertas profundidades de cavidad

  1. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

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    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  2. Trace-Determination of Cadmium by Neutron Activation. Application to Air-Borne Particulates, Hair and Foodstuffs. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Vries, H.H. de

    1971-01-01

    This study describes a routine-procedure by neutron activation for the determination of cadmium in industrial air-borne particulate samples, collected on filter paper, hair and foodstuffs. The reaction used is 114 Cd(n, γ) 115 Cd (β)/→ T½ = 53.5 h 115m In (β)/ → T½ = 4.5 h 115 In Cadmium is isolated by liquid-liquid extraction with a chloroform solution of dithizone. The activity of the 115 In-daughter is counted. The method was tested by analysis of the standard kale powder. (author)

  3. Determination of data correction coefficients and the sensitivities of the KIER air-borne gamma-ray spectrometer survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.H.; Cho, D.H.; Park, Y.S.

    1982-01-01

    In air-borne gamma-ray spectrometer survey, the observed data must be corrected for the background, Compton scattering and flight altitude. And the corrected data are usually converted into the radiometric elements equivalents of the ground, using the sensitivities of the survey system. Accordingly, the correction coefficients and the sensitivities are determined as follows for the KIER air-borne survey system. The stripping or Compton scattering coefficients α, β and γ at the ground level were first determined on the basis of the gamma-ray count rates due to the 5 concrete calibration pads of the Soosaek Airbase, together with the radiometric elements concentrations of the core samples taken from the pads. As for the determination of the exponential altitude coefficients anti μ(K), anti μ(U), anti μ(Th) and anti μ(Tc), the count rates observed over the Hongseong Test Strip of about 3 km length were used after they had been corrected for the background and Compton scattering. The background count rates mainly caused by the air-craft as well as cosmic radiations were determined with the data taken over the West Sea near Anmyon Island, Chung-cheongnam-do. And the corrected count rates observed over the Strip, combined with the average radiometric elements concentrations of the Strip, yielded the sensitivities k(K), k(U) and k(Th) at the 400 feet flight altitude. (author)

  4. Cross-reactivity among antigens of different air-borne fungi detected by ELISA using five monoclonal antibodies against Penicillium notatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H D; Lin, W L; Chen, R J; Han, S H

    1990-10-01

    Cross-reactivity among antigens of 12 genera of air-borne fungi, 13 species of Penicillium, and 5 species of Aspergillus was studied by ELISA using five monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Penicillium notatum. Epitopes recognized by all the five MoAbs were susceptible to treatment of mild periodate oxidation and may therefore be associated with carbohydrates. Furthermore, our results showed that there is cross-reactivity among antigens of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Eurotium species. By using these MoAbs, cross reactivity was not detected between antigens of Penicillium notatum and antigens of Fusarium solani, Alternaria porri, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Curvularia species, Nigrospora species, Aureobasidium pullulans, Wallemia species, Rhizopus arrhizus, and Candida albicans. Cross-reactivity among antigens of 11 species of Penicillium and 5 species of Aspergillus could be detected by ELISA using one of the five MoAbs (MoAb P15). The fact that there may be cross-reactivity among antigens of closely related fungi species should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergic diseases.

  5. Multiple scattering effects on the Linear Depolarization Ratio (LDR) measured during CaPE by a Ka-band air-borne radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshio; Meneghini, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Air-borne radar measurements of thunderstorms were made as part of the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification) experiment in Florida in July 1991. The radar has two channels, X-band (10 GHz) and Ka-band (34.5 GHz), and is capable of measuring cross-polarized returns as well as co-polarized returns. In stratiform rain, the cross-polarized components can be observed only at the bright band region and from the surface reflection. The linear depolarization ratios (LDR's) measured at X-band and Ka-band at the bright band are nearly equal. In convective rain, however, the LDR in Ka-band often exceeds the X-band LDR by several dB, and sometimes by more than 10 dB, reaching LDR values of up to -5 dB over heavy convective rain. For randomly oriented hydrometeors, such high LDR values cannot be explained by single scattering from non-spherical scattering particles alone. Because the LDR by single backscatter depends weakly on the wavelength, the difference between the Ka-band and X-band LDR's suggests that multiple scattering effects prevail in the Ka-band LDR. In order to test this inference, the magnitude of the cross-polarized component created by double scattering was calculated using the parameters of the airborne radar, which for both frequencies has beamwidths of 5.1 degrees and pulse widths of 0.5 microsecond. Uniform rain beyond the range of 3 km is assumed.

  6. Continuous measurements of natural radionuclides on air-borne dust using β-α correlated events. Towards on-line detection of artificial radionuclides in nuclear-fuel reprocessing and its related facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Ishiyama, Hisanobu; Itou, Shigeki

    2008-01-01

    On the highly sensitive and on-line detection for the contamination of artificial nuclides, much attention has been paid to the elimination of significant problem due to 222 Rn-progenies. A phosfich-type α- and β-ray radiation counter, which was fixed just above the dust-collecting filter paper within a space in a few mm, provides both α- and β-ray pulses during continuous collection of air-borne dust. Both pulse input times were registered into the memory buffer in a pulse time interval analyzing (TIA) system, followed rapidly by the data processing using MTA (multiple TIA) method. Resultant β-α TIA-spectrum (or decay-curve of β-α correlated events) and changes of α- and β-counting rates were displayed instantly on a PC-display with 1 μs time resolution using installed softwares. Thus, three practical values, including β-α correlated event rates (n αβ ), α-(n α ), and β-ray counting rates (n β ) were available from the present TIA-measurement system. A uranium deposited source (as mixture of α- and β-ray emitters), uranium mineral powder sample, and 226 Ra-source (as β-source) showed negligible contribution to β-α correlated events in TIA-spectrum, giving constant α/β counting ratios. In the case of air-borne dust samples, the β-α correlated events in TIA-spectrum showed certainly a presence of 164 μs decay-curve due to 214 Po, based on successive decay process such as 241 Bi(β) → 214 Po(α:T 1/2 =164 μs)→. By using three measuring values, new parameters, R α and R β [equal to (n α or n β ) * (n α + n β )/n αβ ], have been introduced for the highly sensitive and real-time indicators of contamination owing to artificial nuclides, even under the inevitable existence of 222 Rn progenies in the air-borne dust sample. The present radiation measurement system, combined with β-α correlated events, has been proved to be useful for the detection of extremely small contamination with artificial α-nuclides as well as

  7. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  8. Air-borne shape measurement of parabolic trough collector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Christoph; Röger, Marc; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    The optical and thermal efficiency of parabolic trough collector solar fields is dependent on the performance and assembly accuracy of its components such as the concentrator and absorber. For the purpose of optical inspection/approval, yield analysis, localization of low performing areas, and optimization of the solar field, it is essential to create a complete view of the optical properties of the field. Existing optical measurement tools are based on ground based cameras, facing restriction concerning speed, volume and automation. QFly is an airborne qualification system which provides holistic and accurate information on geometrical, optical, and thermal properties of the entire solar field. It consists of an unmanned aerial vehicle, cameras and related software for flight path planning, data acquisition and evaluation. This article presents recent advances of the QFly measurement system and proposes a methodology on holistic qualification of the complete solar field with minimum impact on plant operation.

  9. Effect Of Ecosystem Changes On Air-Borne And Vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dwelling arthropods was carried out in the Agu-Awka area of Awka, Anambra State capital. Areas investigated were roadsides, cultivated agricultural, built-up, uncultivated agricultural and forest sites using the sweep net for arthropods on ...

  10. Death of spruce needles due to air-borne ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maran, B

    1959-01-01

    This paper discusses the damage caused by the deposition of ash, with a high content of sulfur dioxide, on spruce trees. The data in this paper covers the source of the pollution, the effects of weather on the transport of the pollution, and the type of damage caused by the pollution. Other types of trees included in the data are pine, larch, and 5 broadleaf species.

  11. Toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia isolated from aged, cured meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M T; Ayres, J C; Koehler, P E

    1974-12-01

    Eighty-nine cultures of Aspergillus and 54 cultures of Penicillium isolated from aged, cured meats were tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. Two of 22 isolates of A. ruber, 5 of 28 A. repens, 2 of 12 A. sydowi, 1 of 12 A. restrictus, 2 of 7 A. amstelodami, 1 of 2 A. chevalieri, and an A. fumigatus isolate exhibited toxicity. Similarly, 2 of 15 isolates of P. expansum, 1 of 3 P. notatum, 1 of 2 P. brevi-compactum, and 1 of 8 Penicillium spp. were found to be the most toxic. Among these fungi, the chloroform extract from the growth of an A. sydowi isolate showed the greatest toxicity. There was no direct or indirect evidence that aged, cured meats contain toxic metabolites.

  12. Air born soil pollution assessment and mitigation in the south of ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Olga; Kharytonov, Mykola; Moschner, Christin; Khlopova, Valentina M.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric emissions made by mining and metallurgy industry account for 54 % of total air pollutions of the Dnipropetrovsk Region. As it has been shown previously, the range of pollutants depends on the number and types of the industrial enterprises located within the each urban area. In Dnipropetrovsk and surrounding cities the dominant emissions come from the waste of metallurgical and chemical industries, which is heavily developed in this area. The multipollution exposure assessment was made for the several cities in Dnipropetrovsk industrial region in the south of Ukraine. In this connection the monitoring of atmospheric air pollution in the environment of the Dnepropetrovsk megalopolis area was carried out in several industrial cities: Dnipropetrovsk, Dneprodzerzhynsk, Kryvyy Ryg and Pavlograd with use of the network of stationary monitoring stations at the Dnepropetrovsk Regional Center of Hydrometeorology. The initial evaluation of technogenic atmospheric pollution with toxic substances was performed with due to the limit values of so-called maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for harmful emissions in the atmosphere as set out in the Ukrainian Air Quality Standards. The main sources of air pollution in industrial cities are stationary. Meantime increasing road transport is a growing source of pollution. The maximum excess of MPC content of NO2 in the atmosphere of the cities has reached twice. Over the last 5 years in the atmosphere of industrial cities in the region there was an increased level of nitrogen dioxide (excess of MPC in 1, 5-2, 5 times). Number of inorganic aerosols (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other) has an effect of summation. In the presence of diffuse sources are superimposed individual emissions and formed the total torch actually located over the whole of the industrial agglomeration. Spatial structure of such a torch is very complicated, instant concentrations of impurities at various points in the city are substantially different. Summary torch formed over each industrial city from the merger of numerous enterprises emissions, under the influence of wind can spread in the long distances.The main sources of soil pollution in Pavlograd city and suburban territories are mine tailings, heat supply companies, operating in Western Donbass coal, other industrial enterprises and transport. The coal and mine rocks contain significant amounts of heavy metals and rare earth elements, lead, zinc, vanadium, manganese, cobalt, chromium, germanium, cerium and others. Settling on the earth's surface, they form insoluble compounds and accumulate in the upper parts of the soil cover. The detection of acid rain impact for the vast number of analyzed soil samples (95 %) were weakly acidic pH (6.3 - 6.8). As a result of consistent mapping of pollution in the city of Pavlograd six heavy metals was obtained corresponding GIS map. Follow to the analysis of the GIS map, it becomes possible to select multiple halos increased density of total soil contamination with heavy metals. The total pollution index of multipollution level of soil contamination was calculated for generalization of the obtained results. For most of the analyzed samples, according to the above gradation, the environmental situation of the contamination of soils by heavy metals is changed from "moderately threatening" to "threatening". The conception of step by step integrated approach using phytostabilization and phytoremediation measures has been completed. Some rocks as sorbents for detoxification of contaminated soils with heavy metals were studied. The coefficients of heavy metals accumulation for some crops were established in model experiments.

  13. Experimental study on utilization of air-borne jet sound in coolant leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayamizu, Y.; Kitahara, T.; Hayashi, T.; Nishimura, M.

    1975-10-01

    Studies have been undertaken to develop a new coolant leak detection method by the use of a microphone to pick up jet sound generated when pressurized high temperature water is discharged from a pressure boundary into the atmosphere. Leakage was simulated in three shapes, such as two machine-made circular holes and longitudinal and transverse slits in an inlet tube of a blowdown test facility. The measured power level of the jet sound was in agreement with theoretical values calculated from Lighthill's equation. In the study of utilization, this new method has been confirmed as applicable, and to be calculated theoretically for design on 'signal to noise ratio' evaluation. Detection of a small coolant leakage of 1 kg/sec is possible in a recirculation pump room which has large background noise from the pump if a suitable isolation wall, such as hot boxes, is installed between the monitored pipes and the pump. (auth.)

  14. Developing Toolsets for AirBorne Data (TAD): Overview of Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L.; Perez, J.; Chen, G.; Benson, A.; Peeters, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    NASA has conducted airborne tropospheric chemistry studies for about three decades. These field campaigns have generated a great wealth of observations, including a wide range of the trace gases and aerosol properties. Even though the spatial and temporal coverage is limited, the aircraft data offer high resolution and comprehensive simultaneous coverage of many variables, e.g. ozone precursors, intermediate photochemical species, and photochemical products. The recent NASA Earth Venture Program has generated an unprecedented amount of aircraft observations in terms of the sheer number of measurements and data volume. The ASDC Toolset for Airborne Data (TAD) is being designed to meet the user community needs for aircraft data for scientific research on climate change and air quality relevant issues, particularly: 1) Provide timely access to a broad user community, 2) Provide an intuitive user interface to facilitate quick discovery of the variables and data, 3) Provide data products and tools to facilitate model assessment activities, e.g., merge files and data subsetting capabilities, 4) Provide simple utility 'calculators', e.g., unit conversion and aerosol size distribution processing, and 5) Provide Web Coverage Service capable tools to enhance the data usability. The general strategy and design of TAD will be presented.

  15. Hypersaline waters - a potential source of foodborne toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butinar, Lorena; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of hypersaline environments have revealed the dominant presence of melanized yeast-like fungi and related Cladosporium spp. In this study, we focused on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and their teleomorphic forms. From oligotrophic and eutrophic hypersaline waters around...... herbariorum, as they were quite evenly distributed among the sampled sites, and Aspergillus candidus, which was abundant, but more locally distributed. These species and their byproducts can accumulate downstream following evaporation of brine, and they can become entrapped in the salt crystals. Consequently...

  16. Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gareis, M.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and P...

  17. Analysis of survival curves for Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillia irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Etsuji; Danno, Akibumi; Miyazato, Mitsuru

    1994-01-01

    This study was aimed to understand the survival pattern of some microorganisms which were treated by γ-sterilization. Though most of the works were concentrated and reported with D 10 -values, it was presently found that the γ-irradiated survival curves showed sigmoid pattern and L-values were reached about half of the D 10 -value for each strains. It was further confirmed that if L-values were used for practical sterilization with D 10 -values, the estimation of sterilized levels would become more accurate. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Isolation and Identification of Air Borne Fungal Spores and Fragments in Buildings within Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkafi Sa’adatu Aliyu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Indoor air contains a complex mixture of microorganisms, microorganism fragments, and by products such as molds, bacteria, endotoxins, mycotoxins, and volatile microbial organic compounds. Airborne fungi and bacteria can be toxic, allergenic and/or infectious. A research was conducted to determine the number and types of airborne fungal spores in Buildings of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. Five (5 areas were chosen within the University for the Survey, these were student Hostel, Staff Quarters, Botanical garden, Microbiology laboratory and city campus of Usmanu Danfodiyo University. . A total number of fifteen (15 petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar each were vertically placed in each sampler and exposed at end of each height and site for 10 and 20 minutes respectively.  A total of thirteen (13 different fungal specie were identified namely; Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A fumigates, A. ustus, A. terreus, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Alterneria altenata, Rhizopus oryzae,  R. stolonifer, Helminthosporum sp., Penicillum candidum and Absedia corymbifera. Aspergillus niger had the highest frequency of occurrence of (14.9%, Helminthosporus species had the least frequency of occurrence of (1.5%. Conclusively it was observed that the concentration of fungal spores was high in the upper surface than the ground level at the time of the survey.

  19. Surface Deformation Associated With a Historical Diking Event in Afar From Correlation of Space and Air-Borne Optical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J.; Peltzer, G.; Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.; Kasser, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present new measurements of the surface deformation associated with the rifting event of 1978 in the Asal-Ghoubbet rift, Republic of Djibouti. The Asal-Ghoubbet rift forms a component of the Afar Depression, a broad extensional region at the junction between the Nubia, Arabia, and Somalia plates, which apart from Iceland, is the only spreading center located above sea-level. The 1978 rifting event was marked by a 2-month sequence of small to moderate earthquakes (Mb ~3-5) and a fissural eruption of the Ardukoba Volcano. Deformation in the Asal rift associated with the event included the reactivation of the main bordering faults and the development of numerous open fissures on the rift floor. The movement of the rift shoulders, measured using ground-based geodesy, showed up to 2.5 m of opening in the N40E direction. Our data include historical aerial photographs from 1962 and 1984 (less than 0.8 m/pixel) along the northern border fault, three KH-9 Hexagon(~8 m/pixel) satellite images from 1973, and recently acquired ASTER (15 m/pixel) and SPOT5 (2.5 m/pixel) data. The measurements are made by correlating pre- and post-event images using the COSI-Corr (Co-registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation) software developed at Caltech. The ortho-rectification of the images is done with a mosaic of a 10 m resolution digital elevation model, made by French Institut Geographique National (IGN), and the SRTM and GDEM datasets. Correlation results from the satellite images indicate 2-3 meters of opening across the rift. Preliminary results obtained using the 1962 and 1984 aerial photographs indicate that a large fraction of the opening occurred on or near Fault γ, which borders the rift to the North. These preliminary results are largely consistent with the ground based measurements made after the event. A complete analysis of the aerial photograph coverage will provide a better characterization of the spatial distribution of the deformation throughout the rift.

  20. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    , airplanes, etc. The second part of the thesis focuses on a novel ventilation strategy for reduction the risk of cross-infection for medical staff, visitors, and patients in hospital wards. The novel ventilation strategy is implemented by a specially developed device, named Hospital Bed Integrated...

  1. Studies on the genus Eupenicillium Ludwig I. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Penicillia in relation to their sclerotioid ascocarpic states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Amelia C.; Scott, De B.

    1967-01-01

    The ascocarpic genus Eupenicillium Ludwig has been re-instated and reviewed taxonomically. It accommodates the perfect states of species characterized by pseudoparenchymatic or sclerotioid cleistothecia. The imperfect states belong to Penicillium Link ex Fries. Descriptions and synonomy of the genus

  2. A real case simulation of the air-borne effluent dispersion on a typical summer day under CDA scenario for PFBR using an advanced meteorological and dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V; Venkatesan, R.; Bagavath Singh, A.; Somayaji, K.M.

    2003-11-01

    Environmental concentrations and radioactive doses within and beyond the site boundary for the CDA situation of PFBR have been estimated using an Advanced Radiological Impact Prediction system for a real atmospheric situation on a typical summer day in the month of May 2003. The system consists of a meso-scale atmospheric prognostic model MM5 coupled with a random walk Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART for the simulation of transport, diffusion and deposition of radio nuclides. The details of the modeling system, its capabilities and various features are presented. The model has been validated for the simulated coastal atmospheric features of land-sea breeze, development of TIBL etc., with site and regional meteorological observations from IMD. Analysis of the dose distribution in a situation that corresponds to the atmospheric conditions on the chosen day shows that the doses for CDA through different pathways are 8 times less than the earlier estimations made according to regulatory requirements using the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) approach. However for stack releases a higher dose than was reported earlier occurred beyond the site boundary at 2-4 km range under stable and fumigation conditions. The doses due to stack releases under these conditions maintained almost the same value in 3 to 10 km range and decreased there after. Deposition velocities computed from radionuclide species, wind speed, surface properties were 2 orders lower than the values used earlier and hence gave more realistic estimates of ground deposited activity. The study has enabled to simulate the more complex meteorological situation that actually is present at the site of interest and the associated spatial distribution of radiological impact around Kalpakkam. In order to draw meaningful conclusion that can be compared with regulatory estimates future study would be undertaken to simulate the dispersion under extreme meteorological situations which could possibly be worse than the worst situation perceived by GPM approach. Similarly, dispersion simulation during a more realistic or the statistically meaningful occurrence of typical events representative of different seasons for Kalpakkam would also be undertaken in order to develop comprehensive understanding of the dispersion pattern which would further enable estimation of doses through different pathways and help implementation of remedial counter measures. (author)

  3. Description of NORMTRI: a computer program for assessing the off-site consequences from air-borne releases of tritium during normal operation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1994-10-01

    The computer program NORMTRI has been developed to calculate the behaviour of tritium in the environment released into the atmosphere under normal operation of nuclear facilities. It is possible to investigate the two chemical forms tritium gas and tritiated water vapour. The conversion of tritium gas into tritiated water followed by its reemission back to the atmosphere as well as the conversion into organically bound tritium is considered. NORMTRI is based on the statistical Gaussian dispersion model ISOLA, which calculates the activity concentration in air near the ground contamination due to dry and wet deposition at specified locations in a polar grid system. ISOLA requires a four-parametric meteorological statistics derived from one or more years synoptic recordings of 1-hour-averages of wind speed, wind direction, stability class and precipitation intensity. Additional features of NORMTRI are the possibility to choose several dose calculation procedures, ranging from the equations of the German regulatory guidelines to a pure specific equilibrium approach. (orig.)

  4. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, J.C.; Houbraken, J.; Popma, S.; Samson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181T = IBT 6005T = IMI 30428T) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192T = IBT 22220T) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate conidiophores with

  5. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Houbraken, Jos; Popma, Suuske

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181(T) = IBT 6005(T) = IMI 30428(T) ) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192(T) = IBT 22220(T) ) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate...... conidiophores with echinulate thick-walled conidia and produce the extrolites asperphenamate, citreoisocoumarin, communesin A and B, asperentin and 5'-hydroxy-asperentin. Penicillium spathulatum is unique in having restricted colonies on Czapek yeast agar (CYA) with an olive grey reverse, good growth on CYA...... supplemented with 5% NaCl, terverticillate bi- and ter-ramulate conidiophores and consistently produces the extrolites benzomalvin A and D and asperphenamate. The two new species belong to Penicillium section Brevicompacta and are phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium tularense. With exception...

  6. Comments on "Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China. Toxins 2015, 7, 3858-3875"-in Attributing Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis Within the Genus Penicillium Occurring on Natural Agricultural Produce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantle, Peter; Copetti, Marina Venturini; Buddie, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The unusual attribution of trace amounts of ochratoxin A in some Chinese food commodities to Penicillium polonicum is questioned by European experience in searches for ochratoxinogenic food-spoilage Penicillia, where mistaken attribution is now known to have been due to cryptic Penicillium verruc...

  7. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  8. Parthenium the terminator: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium dermatitis is a distressing dermatitis caused by the air borne allergen of the Compositae weed Parthenium hysterophorus. Uncommon presentations, newer insights in pathogenesis and management of this "scourge" are discussed in this article.

  9. Evaluation of Acoustic Propagation Paths into the Human Head

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, William D., Jr; Liu, Yuhui

    2005-01-01

    The overall goal of this research was to develop an acoustic wave propagation model using well-understood and documented computational techniques that track and quantify an air-borne incident acoustic...

  10. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    of the massive amounts of data. We present an automated data processing method to quantitatively compare large numbers of spectra from the analysis of complex mixtures, exploiting the full quality of high-resolution mass spectra. By projecting all detected ions - within defined intervals on both the time...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... infusion analyses of crude extract to find the relationship between species from several species terverticillate Penicillium, and also that the ions responsible for the segregation can be identified. Furthermore the process can automate the process of detecting unique species and unique metabolites....

  11. The mycobiota of three dry-cured meat products from Slovenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Ličen, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    “milanense” was isolated from 21 items. The other penicillia were rarely isolated. Of the isolated and identified species, those that can produce mycotoxins are: A. versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. nordicum, and Penicillium polonicum. Their growth on dry-cured meat products......The surface mycobiota of three types of Slovenian dry-cured meat products were isolated from a total of 75 items of product that were sampled periodically during the drying/ripening stage of processing. The predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Eurotium spp., Aspergillus...

  12. Development of activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media : their characteristics and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Ramarathinam, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of its low maximum permissible concentration in air, air-borne radioiodine must be accurately monitored in contaminated air streams, in the working environment and handling facilities, before release to the environment from the nuclear facilities. Activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media are found to be most suitable for monitoring airborne iodine-131. Because of its simplicity and reproducible nature in assessment of air-borne radioactive iodine, the work on the development of such media was undertaken in order to find a suitable substitute for imported activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media. Eight different media of such type were developed, evaluated and compared with two imported media. Best suitable medium is recommended for its use in air-borne iodine sampling which was found to be even better suited than imported media of such type. (author)

  13. Air conducted and body conducted sound produced by own voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    When we speak, sound reaches our ears both through the air, from the mouth to ear, and through our body, as vibrations. The ratio between the air borne and body conducted sound has been studied in a pilot experiment where the air borne sound was eliminated by isolating the ear with a large...... attenuation box. The ratio was found to lie between -15 dB to -7 dB, below 1 kHz, comparable with theoretical estimations. This work is part of a broader study of the occlusion effect and the results provide important input data for modelling the sound pressure change between an open and an occluded ear canal....

  14. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension....

  15. Effect of road side dust pollution on the growth and total chlorophyll ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-02-25

    Feb 25, 2014 ... activities and traffic congestion contributes most of air pollution problems, resulting in damage to the plants growth. Therefore, the present work was mainly designed to analyze the effects of air born-dust pollution, dom- nantly presented by automobile, industrial pollution and microclimate on physiology and ...

  16. Indoor air mycoflora of residential dwellings in Jos metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The quality of air in the environment where one lives or works can have potential effects on human health. There are strong indications that in many parts of the world, our homes, schools and workplaces are heavily contaminated with air-borne molds and other biological contaminants. Objectives: This study ...

  17. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to ... of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances....

  18. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, E.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Wahba, A.G.; Elraey, M.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  19. Recent developments in remote sensing for coastal and marine applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available at the coast is that it is in a permanent state of change. Remote sensing, whether from orbiting (space-borne) or air-borne platforms, can greatly assist in the task of monitoring coastal environments. In particular, remote sensing enables simultaneous or near...

  20. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  1. presence of pathogenic yeasts and fungi on schools playing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    processed and cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose . ... numbers of air-borne spores which if inhaled ma) eventually penetrate deep into the ... Two factors prompted this work; first, the fact that animals, both domestic and wild .... neoformans has a predilection for the brain and meningenes but also im·ades the skin, lungs and.

  2. Radioactive Waste Management Information for 1992 and record-to-date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litteer, D.L.; Randall, V.C.; Sims, A.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1993-07-01

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on air borne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1992. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System

  3. Application of a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for PCB Removal from Older Structures on DoD Facilities. Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Navy’s Inactive Ship Program and Badger Army Ammunition Plant including: Mr. Mark Kershner of the USAF, Glen ...environment because of inhalation or ingestion concerns as the paint degrades and becomes brittle and can become air-born or impact soil, surface water or

  4. A physical theory of focus development in plant disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zawolek, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter 1. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development in plant disease is introduced. Foci develop in space and time. The theory applies primarily to air-borne fungal diseases of the foliage.

    Chapter 2. The contents of the present volume are outlined.

    Chapter 3. The

  5. A taxonomic revision of the Wallemia sebi species complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jančič, Sašo; Nguyen, Hai D. T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wallemia sebi is a xerophilic food- and air-borne fungus. The name has been used for strains that prevail in cold, temperate and tropical climates. In this study, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, DNA replication licensing factor (MCM7), pre...

  6. Knowledge of and misconceptions about the spread and prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three or more misconceptions were present in 48% of the participants, such as HIV spread by casual contact, the sharing of personal items, air-borne infection, mosquito bites, HIV testing and AIDS prevention or cure by traditional medicines or alternatives. Sixty-two per cent of the older women were found to have adequate ...

  7. 77 FR 58665 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Guideline 415); a reproduction and fertility effects test (OECD Test Guideline 416); a reproduction... potentially exposed employees wear specified respirators unless actual measurements of the workplace air show that air-borne concentrations of the PMN substance are below a New Chemical Exposure Limit (NCEL) that...

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Absorption of arsenic in inhaled air borne particles is highly dependent on the ... study. Arsenic is found in the earth crust and the activities of underground mining involving ... electrons within the coil to flow in the closed annular paths. .... Cameron, N.; Fitzgerald, M.; Li, H.; Robin, J.; Yskollari, M.; Dodova, E. Measurement of.

  9. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 22, Number 1, February 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    bullet wound? a. Head or neck b. Rest of body (4) Other injury (e.g., sports injury, accidental fall , etc.)? If yes to any of the above, please... pregnancy loss and preterm labor.1,2 Mumps virus spreads easily from per- son to person through inhalation of air- borne saliva droplets or from

  10. Evolution of Trace Gases and Particles Emitted by a Chaparral Fire in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    measurements in BB plumes and concluded that O3 formation is ubiquitous in tropical BB plumes, but O3 formation or destruction can oc- cur in extratropical BB...the Aventech AIMMS20AQ air- borne probe for turbulence measurements during the Convective Storm Initiation Project, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5449–5463

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 851 - 900 of 985 ... Vol 14 (2009), The effect of extreme-low-frequency electromagnetic field on air borne ... Vol 14 (2009), The effect of non-linear wave in front of vertical ... the total energy convergence of bulk crystal using FHI98MD code ...

  12. Use of an electric field for the removal of droplets in a gaseous fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Roos, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The invention provides the use, a method, and an apparatus to reduce and remove liquid droplets in air, such as fog, mist, or haze, although the invention in specific embodiments might also be used to reduce and remove liquid droplets from a spray or steam.The invention of the mist and/or air borne

  13. 75 FR 70665 - Proposed Significant New Use Rule for Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    .... Attention: Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OPPT-2009-0922. The DCO is open from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through... respirators unless actual measurements of the workplace air show that air-borne concentrations of the PMN...; requires establishment of a hazard communication program; and prohibits releases to water. The proposed...

  14. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions and mitigation options from livestock production in peri-urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.; Bai, Z.H.; Chadwick, D.; Hou, Y.; Qin, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Jiang, R.F.; Ma, L.

    2018-01-01

    Livestock production in peri-urban areas constitutes an important sub-sector of the agricultural production system in China, and contributes to environmental degradation and local air borne pollution contributing to smog. As a result, local policies are being implemented to safeguard the

  15. Knowledge of and misconceptions about the spread and prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-27

    May 27, 2009 ... and misconceptions regarding the spread and prevention of HIV in ... personal items, air-borne infection, mosquito bites, HIV testing and AIDS prevention or cure by traditional medicines or .... related stigmatisation, discrimination, isolation and the ... services to the patients living in the central and eastern.

  16. Physical and chemical processes of air masses in the Aegean Sea during Etesians: Aegean-GAME airborne campaign

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tombrou, M.; Bossioli, E.; Kalogiros, J.; Allan, J. D.; Bacak, A.; Biskos, J.G.; Coe, H.; Dandou, A.; Kouvarakis, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Percival, C. J.; Protonotariou, A. P.; Szabó-Takács, Beáta

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 506, feb (2015), s. 201-216 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Aegean-GAME campaign * Air borne measurements * Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer * Turbulent fluxes * Gas and aerosol composition * Etesian winds Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.976, year: 2015

  17. Computerized screening for novel producers of Monascus-like food pigments in Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Meyer, Anne S.

    2008-01-01

    , rubropunctamine, and citrinin. The cross hits were then manually identified on the basis of their UV-vis and mass spectra. X-hitting was found to be a good tool in the rapid screening of crude pigment extracts. Monascus pigments were discovered in the extracts of two closely related species of Penicillium...... Penicillium extracts showed the presence of citrinin. Thus, the present study brought out two novel promising sources of yellow, orange, and purple-red Monascus-like food pigments in the species of Penicillia that do not produce citrinin and opened the door to look for several more new promising sources...... that were only distantly related to the genus Monascus. Monascorubrin, xanthomonasin A, and threonine derivatives of rubropunctatin were identified in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263, and monascorubrin was identified in the extract of Penicillium pinophilum IBT 13104. None of the tested...

  18. Global analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters reveals vast potential of secondary metabolite production in Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Grijseels, Sietske; Prigent, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with important pharmaceutical applications, such as antibiotic penicillins and cholesterol-lowering statins. However, less attention has been paid to fungal secondary metabolites compared to those from bacteria. In this study, we...... sequenced the genomes of 9 Penicillium species and, together with 15 published genomes, we investigated the secondary metabolism of Penicillium and identified an immense, unexploited potential for producing secondary metabolites by this genus. A total of 1,317 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were......-referenced the predicted pathways with published data on the production of secondary metabolites and experimentally validated the production of antibiotic yanuthones in Penicillia and identified a previously undescribed compound from the yanuthone pathway. This study is the first genus-wide analysis of the genomic...

  19. The effects of habitat edges and trampling intensity on vegetation in urban forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamberg, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Although changes in urban forest vegetation have been documented in previous Finnish studies, the reasons for these changes have not been studied explicitly. Especially, the consequences of forest fragmentation, i.e. the fact that forest edges receive more solar radiation, wind and air-borne nutrients than interiors have been ignored. In order to limit the change in urban forest vegetation we need to know why it occurs. Therefore, the effects of edges and recreational use of urban forests on ...

  20. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Park

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Benzene, a known human carcinogen for leukemia, and arsine, a hematologic toxin, were not detected in wafer fabrication sites in this study. Among reproductive toxic substances, n-butyl acetate was not detected, but fluorides and PGMEA existed in small amounts in the air. This investigation was focused on the air-borne chemical concentrations only in regular working conditions. Unconditional exposures during spills and/or maintenance tasks and by-product chemicals were not included. Supplementary studies might be required.

  1. Quantification of the removal of chemical species by snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwikowski, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Bruetsch, S.; Keil, R.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Poulida, O. [Frederick Research Center, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1997-09-01

    In order to quantify the scavenging of chemical species in mixed phase clouds, in-cloud field experiments were conducted in October and November 1993 at the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch. On the average, air to snow transfer fractions were rather low with the highest value of 0.5 for nitrate, thus, most of the air borne chemical mass remained in the air parcel after precipitation. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  2. Manual on radiological safety in uranium and thorium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The manual describes the personnel radiation hazards in uranium and thorium mines and mills. Measures which should be taken in order to protect the workers are outlined. The problems of air born radioactivity, external radiation, surface contamination and radioactive waste are treated. Safety standards in relation to the above mentioned subjects are given. An outline is given for monitoring programme. Monitoring methods, control methods and means of medical control are given

  3. Hot particles in industrial waste and mining tailings

    CERN Document Server

    Selchau-Hansen, K; Freyer, K; Treutler, C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    Industrial waste was studied concerning its radioactive pollution. Using known properties of the solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 we found among a high concentration of more or less homogeneously distributed single alpha-tracks discrete spots of very high enrichments of alpha-particles created by so called hot particles. We will report about the alpha-activity, the concentration of hot particles and about their ability to be air borne.

  4. Indigenous high volume air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.; Setty, N.P.N.; Raghunath, B.; Sivasubrahmanyam, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A high volume air sampler for use in assessing concentrations of low levels of air borne particulates has been fabricated. The sampler will be of use in radioactive installations, conventional industries and environmental pollution analysis. It is comparable in performance with the imported Staplex air samplers. A turbine and motor system similar to the one found in conventional vacuum cleaners is used in its design. The sampler units can be produced in large numbers. (M.G.B.)

  5. Military Application of Space-Time Adaptive Processing (Les applications militaires du traitement adaptatif espace-temps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    SAR system”, Proc. EUSAR’98, 25-27 May 1998, Friedrichshafen , Ger- many [15] Farina, A., Timmoneri, L., ”Space-time processing for AEW radar”, Proc...98, Friedrichshafen , Germany, 25-27 May 1998. [PSF00] V. Pascazio, G. Schirinzi, A. Farina, “ Along track interferometry by one bit coded SAR signals...airborne multi-channel SAR systems AER II.The air- borne experimental multi-channel SAR system”, Proc. EUSAR’98, 25-27 May 1998, Friedrichshafen , Ger

  6. Behaviour of 7Be air concentration observed during a period of 13 years and comparison with sun activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannizzaro, F.; Greco, G.; Raneli, M.; Spitale, M.C.; Tomarchio, E.

    1995-01-01

    The study reported in this work is addressed to review the time variations of the air-borne concentration of cosmogenic 7 Be obtained in the period January 1982-December 1994. Among other things, the observation of a long-term modulation present in the average monthly concentrations led us to perform a comparison with the behaviour in the same period of solar activity owing to its important influence on cosmic rays, from which the 7 Be production originates. (author)

  7. Development of an Advanced Respirator Fit Test Headform (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for pro - tection studies against viable airborne particles. A Static (i.e., non-moving, non-speaking...requiredto wear respirators to reduce their exposure to air- borne hazards.(1) The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA ) Respiratory...13 workplace protection factors.(9,10). Inward leakage (IL) of con - taminants into a respirator facepiece has been described as a combination of

  8. Comparison of filter papers and an electrostatic precipitator for measurements on radioactive aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, R

    1958-06-15

    Measurements in which electrostatic precipitators have been compared with filter papers for collection of air-borne radioactivity as to the accuracy in alpha and beta measurements have been made. The results show that the filter paper method is as good as the electrostatic method in determining beta-activity disregarding clogging and moisture sensitivity of the filter paper but it is inferior for alpha measurements. Experimental values of the alpha absorption factor for different types of filter papers are given.

  9. Evolution of the amount of artificial radioactive elements in the atmosphere of Paris. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abribat, M; Pouradier, J

    1953-01-01

    The ..beta..-activities of air-borne dust particles, rain waters, and natural waters were assayed daily between January and September 1953. The dust-particle activity showed 2 max. 24 March to 25 June and 30 August to 17 September, which probably resulted from atmospheric explosions in the US and Russia, respectively. Rainwater activity gave only the earlier max. while no changes in the activity of natural waters were found.

  10. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development, reasons, measures , future; Luftkvaliteten i norske byer. Utvikling, aarsaker, tiltak, framtid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larssen, Steinar; Hagen, Leif Otto

    1999-11-01

    The report is a survey of the air pollution development in Norwegian cities and towns during the latter part of this century. It deals with particular pollutants some of which are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, benzenes, lead, soot and various air borne particulate matter. There are sections on traffic, vehicle technology and pollution problems, various pollution development possibilities and pollution control measures. 31 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Relationship between ecophysiological factors, growth and ochratoxin A contamination of dry-cured sausage based matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Capela, Daniela; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2015-02-02

    Dry-cured sausages are colonised by moulds during the ripening process. The temperature and the salt content (which affects water activity, aw) predispose the surface to colonisation by Penicillium species, including Penicillium nordicum and Penicillium verrucosum which can lead to contamination of the sausages with ochratoxin A (OTA). The objective of this work was to obtain scientific data on the impact that interaction between ionic water stress (aw; 0.97, 0.94, 0.90, 0.87 and 0.84) and temperature (30, 25, 20, 15 and 10°C) may have on lag phases prior to growth, growth and OTA production by some P. verrucosum and P. nordicum strains isolated from dry-cured meat products on a dry-cured sausage-based medium over a period of 12days. Although P. nordicum had shorter lag phases than P. verrucosum, the latter grew faster than P. nordicum in most conditions tested. For both species, there was no growth and OTA production at 0.84 aw at all the temperatures tested. The fungi were more tolerant at moderate ionic aw conditions (0.94 and 0.90) and 20 and 25°C. In contrast, the patterns of production of OTA were very different from those for growth. Different OTA production profiles between the two OTA-producing species were found. While P. nordicum began producing OTA in most of the conditions tested by day 6, P. verrucosum only produced the toxin in these conditions when the temperature and aw were >10°C and >0.90, respectively. However, the P. verrucosum strain produced much higher concentrations of OTA than the P. nordicum strain in all conditions. We developed contour maps of the optimum and marginal aw×temperature conditions for growth/OTA production on dry-cured sausage-based medium for the first time. This suggests that these interacting conditions during the early phases of production must be effectively controlled as these favour growth of the toxigenic Penicillia. Knowledge on the ecophysiology of these two important Penicillium species on these matrices

  12. Potential of Penicillium Species in the Bioremediation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Leitão

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the environment of pollution, particularly that caused by various industrial activities, have been responsible for the accelerated fluxes of organic and inorganic matter in the ecosphere. Xenobiotics such as phenol, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and heavy metals, even at low concentrations, can be toxic to humans and other forms of life. Many of the remediation technologies currently being used for contaminated soil and water involve not only physical and chemical treatment, but also biological processes, where microbial activity is the responsible for pollutant removal and/or recovery. Fungi are present in aquatic sediments, terrestrial habitats and water surfaces and play a significant part in natural remediation of metal and aromatic compounds. Fungi also have advantages over bacteria since fungal hyphae can penetrate contaminated soil, reaching not only heavy metals but also xenobiotic compounds. Despite of the abundance of such fungi in wastes, penicillia in particular have received little attention in bioremediation and biodegradation studies. Additionally, several studies conducted with different strains of imperfecti fungi, Penicillium spp. have demonstrated their ability to degrade different xenobiotic compounds with low co-substrate requirements, and could be potentially interesting for the development of economically feasible processes for pollutant transformation.

  13. Mycoflora assessment, growth and toxigenic features of patulin-producers in kiwifruit in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Feng, Kewei; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Zhiwei; Wei, Jianping; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2018-05-01

    Fungal development in agricultural products may cause mycotoxin contamination, which is a significant threat to food safety. Patulin (PAT) and PAT-producer contamination has been established as a worldwide problem. The present study aimed to investigate the mycoflora and PAT-producers present in kiwifruits and environmental samples collected from orchards and processing plants in Shaanxi Province, China. Variations in mycoflora were observed in different samples, with penicillia and aspergilli as the predominant genera. Approximately 42.86% of dropped fruits were contaminated with PAT-producers, which harbored the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase and the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase genes that are involved in PAT biosynthesis. The growth of Penicillium expansum, Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium paneum in kiwi puree agar (KPA) medium and kiwi juice well fitted the modified Gompertz and Baranyi and Roberts models (R 2 ≥ 0.95). A significant positive correlation between colony diameter and PAT content in KPA medium of P. expansum and P. griseofulvum was observed (P < 0.05). The present study analyzed the mycofloral composition and the potential risk for PAT and PAT-producer contamination in kiwifruit, which may be utilized in the establishment of proper management practices in the kiwifruit industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Choice of the irradiation dose for the sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, V.V.; Pavlov, E.P.; Sedov, V.V.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Tushov, Eh.G.; Konyaev, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The principles for selecting the appropriate dose for the radiation sterilization of medical products are set forth, taking into account the initial contamination of the product, the radiation senstivity of contaminants and the required level of reliability of sterilization. The initial contamination level of certain preparations (glucose and radiopharmaceuticals) is established and the radiation sensitivity of the isolated contaminants is determined in terms of Dio indices. Of the microorganisms isolated the most common were staphylococci, streptococci, Gram-negative bacteria, Aspergilli, Penicillia and yeast fungi. Spore-forming types of microorganisms were isolated with a frequency of the order of 10 -2 . The radiation sensitivity in terms of D 10 was established for more than 3000 strains of microorganisms. For 75-85% of the strains the D 10 indices gave 10-40 krad and for 0.2-1% more than 100 krad. The experimental data were subjected to computer analysis which confirmed the adequacy of the techniques used to determine radiosensitivity. The authors then calculated by computer the radiation sterilizing doses for different degrees of initial contamination of the products with reliability coefficients of 10 6 and 10 8 . For sterilizing radiopharmaceuticals and glucose solutions these doses are 0.8-1 Mrad. Verification experiments show that these doses give reliable sterilization of the medical products concerned. (author)

  15. Inhibition of fungal growth with extreme low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1998-01-01

    Fungal spoilage of foods is effectively controlled by removal of oxygen from the package, especially if this is combined with elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. However, great uncertainty exist on just how low the residual oxygen levels in the package must be especially when carbon dioxide lev...... food with low CO2 levels. Active packaging with oxygen absorbers may be considered for these products. The packaging solution must also reflect the micro flora of the product.......Fungal spoilage of foods is effectively controlled by removal of oxygen from the package, especially if this is combined with elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. However, great uncertainty exist on just how low the residual oxygen levels in the package must be especially when carbon dioxide...... Penicillia and Aspergilli were also inhibited by oxygen levels less than 0.5%, but less than 0.01% was required to efficiently inhibit these fungi. Most resistant to very low oxygen levels was the Fusarium species.These results shows that very low oxygen levels are required to avoid fungal growth in package...

  16. Towards high-siderophore-content foods: optimisation of coprogen production in submerged cultures of Penicillium nalgiovense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emri, Tamás; Tóth, Viktória; Nagy, Csilla Terézia; Nagy, Gábor; Pócsi, Imre; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Antal, Károly; Balla, József; Balla, György; Román, Gyula; Kovács, István; Pócsi, István

    2013-07-01

    Fungal siderophores are likely to possess atheroprotective effects in humans, and therefore studies are needed to develop siderophore-rich food additives or functional foods to increase the siderophore uptake in people prone to cardiovascular diseases. In this study the siderophore contents of mould-ripened cheeses and meat products were analysed and the coprogen production by Penicillium nalgiovense was characterised. High concentrations of hexadentate fungal siderophores were detected in penicillia-ripened Camembert- and Roquefort-type cheeses and also in some sausages. In one sausage fermented by P. nalgiovense, the siderophore content was comparable to those found in cheeses. Penicillium nalgiovense produced high concentrations of coprogen in submerged cultures, which were affected predominantly by the available carbon and nitrogen sources under iron starvation. Considerable coprogen yields were still detectable in the presence of iron when the fermentation medium was supplemented with the iron chelator Na₂-EDTA or when P. nalgiovense was co-cultivated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data may be exploitable in the future development of high-siderophore-content foods and/or food additives. Nevertheless, the use of P. nalgiovense fermentation broths for these purposes may be limited by the instability of coprogen in fermentation media and by the β-lactam production by the fungus. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. PRESENCE OF FUNGAL CONTAMINATION IN THE PRODUCTION CHAIN OF FRESH FILLED PASTA, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO THE PENICILLIUM GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lomonaco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A shelf-life study was carried out on fresh filled pasta in order to evaluate the presence of fungal contamination in the production process (environment, raw materials and finished products, with particular regard to the Penicillium genus. Analyses were conducted on three types of products, while air sampling was carried out in shaping processes and packaging areas. After isolation of molds, phenotypic identification of Penicillium genus and genotyping confirmation were carried out. As for the isolated strains, the species identified are those expected from this type of matrix: 40.7% P. viridicatum, 14.8% P. griseofulvum, 11.1% P. chrysogenum, 7.4% for P. citrinum, P. nalgiovense and P. crustosum and finally 3.7% for each of the three remaining species (P. roqueforti, P. formosanum, P. atramentosum. Results showed environmental contamination, particularly at the end of the work day. In fact, 59% of identified Penicillia originated from air samples, while only 10% from foods. Moreover, even if fungal contamination was observed at all considered times, level of contamination were generally low and never resulted in spoilage of the product as no macroscopically visible colonies were observed. It is therefore clear that pasteurization and modified atmosphere packaging are able to control the growth of potentially present fungal contamination.

  18. An evaluation of the proteolytic and lipolytic potential of Penicillium spp. isolated from traditional Greek sausages in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A number of novel Penicillium strains belonging to Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium solitum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium oxalicum species, isolated from the surface of traditional Greek sausages, were evaluated for their proteolytic and lipolytic potential in a solid substrate first and next in submerged fermentations, using complex media. Extracellular proteolytic activity was assessed at acid, neutral, and alkaline pH, while the lipolytic activity was assessed using olive oil, the short-chain triacylglycerol tributyrin, and the long-chain triolein, as substrates. The study revealed that although closely related, the tested strains produce enzymes of distinct specificities. P. nalgiovense PNA9 produced the highest alkaline proteolytic activity (13.2 unit (U)/ml) and the highest lipolytic activity with tributyrin (92 U/ml). Comparisons with known sources show that proteases and/or lipases can be secreted effectively by some Penicillia (P. nalgiovense PNA4, PNA7, and PNA9 and P. solitum PSO1), and further investigations on their properties and characteristics would be promising.

  19. Correlation of light transmittance with asthma attack: fine water particles as a possible inducing factor of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Kazuo; Okamoto, Koji; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that air-borne fine water particles (or mist) can induce asthma attacks in asthmatic children. To date, no attempt has been made to quantify the density of air-borne fine water particles with the aim of relating particle density to the etiology of asthma among children. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of asthma attack frequency and the particle density evaluated in terms of light transmittance. The density of fine water particles was quantified by measuring reductions in light transmittance at 250, 365 and 580 nm at an outdoor location when the surroundings were in darkness. The measurements were made at distances varying from 1 to 3 m from the light sources and performed every morning and evening for 1 year. Each day was separated into two half-day units [i.e., morning (from midnight to noon) and afternoon (from noon to midnight)]. The number of asthma attacks among 121 enrolled asthmatic children was counted for each unit. A possible correlation between the transmittance reduction and frequency of asthma attacks was assessed. A significant difference was observed in the extent of reduction in light transmittance at 365 nm between the units with asthma attacks and those without attacks. Furthermore, the reduction in the transmittance was more evident when more asthma attacks were recorded among the patients. No difference was detected in the reduction in light transmittance at 250 or 580 nm. These results support the hypothesis that air-borne fine water particles are among the etiological factors that induce asthma attacks in asthmatic children.

  20. Bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in upper Egypt: related species and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharamah, A A; Moharram, A M; Ismail, M A; Al-Hussaini, A K

    2012-08-01

    To study risk factors, contributing factors of bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in Upper Egypt, test the isolated species sensitive to some therapeutic agents, and to investigate the air-borne bacteria and fungi in opthalmology operating rooms. Thirty one cases of endophthalmitis were clinically diagnosed and microbiologically studied. Indoor air-borne bacteria and fungi inside four air-conditioned operating rooms in the Ophthalmology Department at Assiut University Hospitals were also investigated. The isolated microbes from endophthalmitis cases were tested for their ability to produce some extracellular enzymes including protease, lipase, urease, phosphatase and catalase. Also the ability of 5 fungal isolates from endophthalmitis origin to produce mycotoxins and their sensitivity to some therapeutic agents were studied. Results showed that bacteria and fungi were responsihle for infection in 10 and 6 cases of endophthalmitis, respectively and only 2 cases produced a mixture of bacteria and fungi. Trauma was the most prevalent risk factor of endophthalmitis where 58.1% of the 31 cases were due to trauma. In ophthalmology operating rooms, different bacterial and fungal species were isolated. 8 bacterial and 5 fungal isolates showed their ability to produce enzymes while only 3 fungal isolates were able to produce mycotoxins. Terbinafine showed the highest effect against most isolates in vitro. The ability of bacterial and fungal isolates to produce extracellular enzymes and mycotoxins may be aid in the invasion and destruction of eye tissues. Microbial contamination of operating rooms with air-borne bacteria and fungi in the present work may be a source of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  1. Observations on the radioactive fallout originated from the reactor accident at Chernobyl in USSR, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Hisanaga, Saemi

    1986-01-01

    On 26 April a large amount of radioactive materials was accidentally released from the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in USSR. At the beginning of May the radioactivity was also detected at first at Chiba city in Japan, soon later at many places in country; the whole country was covered with radioactive plume transported from Chernobyl. In Higashi-Osaka city district radioactivity was found in air-borne dust at dawn of 4 May. The health physics group at Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University in Osaka analysed γ and β radioactivities in a large amount of environmental samples, such as air-borne dust, rain water, vegetations, milk on the market, tap water and Biwa-lake water etc. Gamma-ray spectral analyses and gross β analyses were carried out for the above samples and nuclides of fission products such as 131 I, 132 I, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 99 Mo( 99m Tc), 132 Te, 140 Ba and 140 La etc. were detected. Maximum 131 I concentrations in air-borne dust, rain water, milk on the market, tap water, vegetations and Biwa-lake water etc. were 2.45 pCi/m 3 (0.0907 Bq/m 3 ), 118 pCi/l (4.37 Bq/l), 91.4 pCi/l (3.38 Bq/l), 20 pCi/l (0.74 Bq/l), 7.9 x 10 3 pCi/kg fresh weight (292 Bq/kg fresh weight) and 0.81 pCi/l (0.0300 Bq/l), respectively. Thereafter average radioactivity concentrations in air-borne dust, rainwater, tap water and milk on the market etc. gradually declined to the normal value or below detectable limit. However, nuclides of long half-lives were expected to remain in vegetations and soils. After administration of 131 I through milk, the radioactivity concentration of which is 91 pCi/l (3.4 Bq/l), internal exposure is calculated to be 8.6 mrem/y (0.086 mSv/y), referring the guide-line issued by Japan Atomic Energy Commission for the purpose of exposure estimation near nuclear power stations. (J.P.N.)

  2. Study of occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at an iron and steel complex by using neutron activation analysis of scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Z.F.; Qian, Q.F.; Feng, X.Q.; Zhang, P.Q.; Liu, N.Q.; Feng, W.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken. (author)

  3. Hearing in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens): pre-adaptation to pressure hearing in tetrapods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Wilson, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of the tetrapods, and the ear of recent lungfishes resembles the tetrapod ear more than the ear of ray-finned fishes and is therefore of interest for understanding the evolution of hearing in the early tetrapods. The water-to-land transition resulted...... shows measurable vibrations above 100 Hz when stimulated by air-borne sound, but the ear is apparently insensitive at these frequencies, suggesting that the lungfish ear is neither adapted nor pre-adapted for aerial hearing. Thus, if the lungfish ear is a model of the ear of early tetrapods...

  4. Experimental Analysis of Fly Ash & Coir Fiber Mix Cement Concrete for Rigid Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Amit Kumar Ahirwar; Prof. Rajesh Joshi

    2015-01-01

    In India Thermal power plants which use pounded coal as a fuel, generates million tones of fly ash every year as a waste. Conservative clearance of this material which gets easily air-borne and constitutes a serious health hazards to the community, is an expensive operation. A part from this compacted fly ash can be used in embankments, road sub-bases and also for structural fills. The major drawbacks of such materials are their limited load carrying capacity and poor settlement c...

  5. Levels of strontium 90 in the environment at PINSTECH (Period 1979-1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, N.; Aziz, A.

    1981-01-01

    Strontium 90, a most toxic among the beta emitting radionuclides, is found in the environment originating mostly from the global fallout from nuclear tests. Radioactive concentration of this radionuclide was measured in air-borne particulates, precipitation, surface water, seasonal vegetables and other items of diet. The report describes a radiochemical procedure for the separation of Y 90 by solvent extraction leading to the determination of Sr 90 content in the environmental and biological samples. The report also presents data on the concentration of Sr 90 in the biomedia at PINSTECH during 1979-80. The values of these concentrations are fairly comparable to those published in the current literature. (author)

  6. ORION: a computer code for evaluating environmental concentrations and dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Nomura, T.; Iwai, M.

    1983-05-01

    The computer code ORION has been developed to evaluate the environmental concentrations and the dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from air-borne radionuclides released from multiple nuclear installations. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate the dispersion of the radionuclide. Gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered to be the causes of depletion and deposition on the ground or on vegetation. ORION is written in the FORTRAN IV language and can be run on IBM 360, 370, 303X, 43XX and FACOM M-series computers. 8 references, 6 tables

  7. Radiocaesium transfer from whole milk to a range of milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnri, Catherine; Cunningham, J.D.; Mitchell, P.I.

    1990-12-01

    Milk and milk products constitute a substantial portion of the human diet and represent one of the principal means by which food-borne radionuclides are ingested. The Chernobyl accident and subsequent widespread contamination demonstrated clearly that the dairy industry is highly sensitive to air-borne pollution. In this report, the results of a project to study the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products manufactured by the Irish Dairy Industry are presented together with a review of the relevant literature

  8. An experimental study of the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products produced by the Irish dairy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnri, C.

    1990-07-01

    Milk and milk products constitute a substantial portion of the human diet and represent one of the principal means by which food-borne radionuclides are ingested. The Chernobyl accident and subsequent widespread contamination demonstrated clearly that the dairy industry is highly sensitive to air-borne pollution. In this thesis, the results of a project to study the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products manufactured by the Irish Dairy Industry are presented together with a review of the relevant literature

  9. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  10. A report of airbone radiometric and magnetic test survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.H.; Park, Y.S.; Woo, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    By the end of Oct. 1981, a complete set of GeoMetrics' air-borne radiometric and magnetic survey system was purchased by KIER using the ADB loan, and it took one week from Nov. 11 1981 to install the system on a Bell 206 B helicopter (HL 9102) owned by Asia Aeroservice Company. The test survey was flown over an area including Hongseong, Daecheon, Seosan and Manripo Sheets, from Nov. 19 to Dec. 14 1981. A Hongseong air-strip was used as the base. (Author)

  11. Data of the 21st nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The news of Kyodo-Reuter said that on 17 November 1976 the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), U.S.A., announced for the 21st nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China. The radioactivity surveillance was carried out for the period from 18 November 1976 to 25 November 1976. From the results of the surveillance, a few effects of this nuclear explosion test were detected in the radioactivity measurement of rain, dry fallout, and air-borne dust. (author)

  12. Data of the 22nd nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    US. Energy Research and Development Administration (US ERDA) announced for the 22 nd nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China. The radioactivity surveillance was carried out for the period from September 19, to September 28, 1977. From the results of this surveillance, the effects of this nuclear explosion test were detected in the radioactivity measurement of rainwater, dry fallout, air-borne dusts in upper atmosphere, and raw milk samples. Survey on iodine-131 concentrations in raw milk was continued until October 11, 1977. The results of radioactivity surveillance were described in the following articles. (author)

  13. The accident in Fukushima. Preliminary report on the accident progress in the nuclear power plants as a consequence of the earth quake on 11th March 2011; Der Unfall in Fukushima. Zwischenbericht zu den Ablaeufen in den Kernkraftwerken nach dem Erdbeben vom 11. Maerz 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghoff, Stefan; Brueck, Benjamin; Kilian-Huelsmeyer, Yvonne; Maqua, Michael; Mildenberger, Oliver; Quester, Claudia; Stahl, Thorsten; Thuma, Gernot; Wetzel, Norbert; Wild, Volker

    2011-08-15

    The preliminary report on the accident progress in the nuclear power plants as a consequence of the earth quake on 11th March 2011 describes the chronologic sequence of the accident in the different units of the power plant. The measures for mitigation of the accident impact at the site of Fukushima Daiichi and Fukushima Daini included the efforts to reach and maintain stable plant conditions. The issue radiological situation includes an estimation of the air-borne radionuclide release, the contamination of the environment and the sea water, measures for protection of the public. The lessons learned following the NISA and IAEA fact finding missions and the open questions are summarized.

  14. Theoretical study on volatile organic compound removal and energy performance of a novel heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Zhang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    for cooling, dehumidification and indoor air cleaning in normal office, commercial or residential buildings. The desiccant rotor was used for dehumidification and indoor air cleaning; the heat pump provided sensible cooling and regeneration heat for the desiccant rotor. The theoretical model consisted of two...... and predicted. The theoretical model was validated by experimental data. Validating results showed that the model could be used to predict the performance of HP-SDC. The results also showed that the HP-SDC could clean air borne contaminants effectively and could provide an energy efficient choice...

  15. Ocean tidal loading affecting precise geodetic observations on Greenland: Error account of surface deformations by tidal gravity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jentzsch, G.; Knudsen, Per; Ramatschi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Air-borne and satellite based altimetry are used to monitor the Greenland ice-cap. Since these measurements are related to fiducial sites at the coast, the robustness of the height differences depends on the stability of these reference points. To benefit from the accuracy of these methods...... observations. Near the coast ocean tidal loading causes additional vertical deformations in the order of 1 to 10 cm Therefore, tidal gravity measurements were carried out at four fiducial sites around Greenland in order to provide corrections for the kinematic part of the coordinates of these sites. Starting...

  16. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  17. Hempcrete Noise Barrier Wall for Highway Noise Insulation : Research & Construction

    OpenAIRE

    KC, Prabesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the possibility of Hempcrete or hemp-lime composite noise barrier walls in the highways and to construct the walls for the acoustic test according to the European Union Standards EN ISO 717-1 and ISO 10140-2 for air-borne sound insulation. The thesis was commissioned by the company Hemprefine Oy, and all the standard tests were performed in the HAMK-Ruukki Sheet Metal Centre in Hämeenlinna and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd in Espoo. ...

  18. Separation of V(V)-4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinolato complex from a large excess reagent using an ODS cartridge for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Kaneko, Emiko; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2006-12-01

    A selective off-line preconcentration technique for the V(V) complex with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol has been developed and successfully applied to the determination of V(V) in an air-borne sample. The target complex was separated from excess reagent using an ODS cartridge and water as the eluent. The complex was then concentrated on another ODS cartridge using tetrabutylammonium bromide and eluted with methanol; the eluate was applied to a one-drop concentration/HPLC. A detection limit as low as (6.05 +/- 0.82)x 10(-11) M (5 ppt) was achieved.

  19. Correction for the absorption of plutonium alpha particles in filter paper used for dust sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, J G

    1956-01-01

    This sample of air-borne dust collected on a filter paper when laboratory air is monitored for plutonium with the 1195 portable dust sampling unit may be regarded, for counting purposes, as a thick source with a non-uniform distribution of alpha-active plutonium. Experiments have been carried out to determine a correction factor to be applied to the observed count on the filter paper sample to correct for internal absorption in the paper and on the dust layer. From the results obtained it is recommended that a correction factor of 2 be used.

  20. Improvement on a science curriculum including experimental demonstration of environmental radioactivity for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsubara, Shizuo; Aiba, Yoshio; Eriguchi, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Saburo; Takeyama, Tetsuji.

    1988-01-01

    A science curriculum previously prepared for teaching environmental radioactivity was modified on the basis of the results of trial instructions in secondary schools. The main subject of the revised curriculum is an understanding of the natural radioactivity through the experimental demonstration about air-borne β and γ ray emitters. The other subjects included are the radioactive decay, the biological effects of radiation, the concept of risk-benefit balance (acceptable level) and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation. The work sheets and reference data prepared as learning materials are in two levels corresponding to the ability of students for this curriculum. (author)

  1. Radiation safety research information database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Noriko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan began to construct Radiation Safety Research Information Database' in 2001. The research information database is of great service to evaluate the effects of radiation on people by estimating exposure dose by determining radiation and radioactive matters in the environment. The above database (DB) consists of seven DB such as Nirs Air Borne Dust Survey DB, Nirs Environmental Tritium Survey DB, Nirs Environmental Carbon Survey DB, Environmental Radiation Levels, Abe, Metabolic Database for Assessment of Internal Dose, Graphs of Predicted Monitoring Data, and Nirs nuclear installation environment water tritium survey DB. Outline of DB and each DB are explained. (S.Y.)

  2. Dispersion simulation of airborne effluent through tree canopy using OpenFOAM CFD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakesh, P.T.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear plants are often surrounded by tree canopy as a part of landscaping and green belt development. The transport and dispersion of air borne pollutants within the tree/plant canopies is greatly controlled by turbulence. The density of the tree canopy, the height and type of the trees is of importance while determining the intensity of turbulence. In order to study the mechanical effect of the canopy and the consequent modification in the ground level concentration pattern from a ground level release of radioactivity, a CFD code called OpenFOAM is used. The main task of this study is the implementation of flow and dispersion through plant canopies in Open FOAM

  3. Experimental investigations of an air curtain device subjected to external perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havet, M.; Rouaud, O.; Solliec, C.

    2003-01-01

    Although plane air jets are often used as dynamic barriers to separate two environments, only a few works have explored their sensitivity to perturbations. We investigated the influence of sharp changes of pressure on the flow field of a device designed to avoid air-borne contamination. Laser tomography and tracer gas experiments clearly indicate that the air curtain is strongly sensitive to perturbations such as draughts. The results highlight that the control of air curtains used in open protection devices should be further investigated

  4. Monitoring of exposure to selected metals in workers of a ferroalloy production plant using NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Havranek, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Bencko, V.; Fabianova, E.; Sysalova, J.

    1998-01-01

    Advantages and pitfalls of direct and biological monitoring of occupational exposure are briefly mentioned and a project aimed at evaluating exposure to chromium (and possibly manganese) in workers of a ferro-alloy production plant using both the above approaches is outlined. Facilities for NAA and PIXE at the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez to be used in the project are described. Results of quality assurance of INAA method for analysis of workplace air born particulate matter and blood sampling are presented. Results from previous work relating to this Co-ordinated Research Programme - studying exposure of workers of a vanadium pentoxide production plant are also briefly reviewed. (author)

  5. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  6. Urban Air Pollution by Nanoparticles in Ostrava Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdenka, Kalicáková; Pavel, Danihelka; Vladimír, Mícka; Karel, Lach

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution harms human health and the environment. Ostrava's agglomeration and its immediate vicinity suffer regular exceeding of air pollution limits due to its geomorphologic location and present heavy industry. Maximum exceedances of air quality standards and especially PM10 which 24 hour limit value is in EU 50μg.m-3, must not be exceeded more than 35 days per year. This limit is being still often exceeded. In the year 2011 such as situation occurred 126 times. It is very important then for identify sources of air pollution to find out maximum information about air borne dust, like size distribution, chemical composition of individual size fractions, morphology of particulate matter together with other parameters like meteorological conditions, year season etc. Our measurement started two years ago. We focus on the critical situation when there are values of PM10 over a long period above the limit. In winter season it is so called inversion. By default, during the campaign it is measured size distribution of air born dust in range 5.6 nm −560nm by FMPS and using the sampler NanoId are collected samples in range 1nm – 35μm in 12 size fractions for chemical analysis and morphological observations. This contribution deals with results of size distributions only.

  7. The natural history of sound localization in mammals – a story of neuronal inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt eGrothe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our concepts of sound localization in the vertebrate brain are widely based on the general assumption that both the ability to detect air-borne sounds and the neuronal processing are homologous in archosaurs (present day crocodiles and birds and mammals. Yet studies repeatedly report conflicting results on the neuronal circuits and mechanisms, in particular the role of inhibition, as well as the coding strategies between avian and mammalian model systems.Here we argue that mammalian and avian phylogeny of spatial hearing is characterized by a convergent evolution of hearing air-borne sounds rather than by homology. In particular, the different evolutionary origins of tympanic ears and the different availability of binaural cues in early mammals and archosaurs imposed distinct constraints on the respective binaural processing mechanisms. The role of synaptic inhibition in generating binaural spatial sensitivity in mammals is highlighted, as it reveals a unifying principle of mammalian circuit design for encoding sound position. Together, we combine evolutionary, anatomical and physiological arguments for making a clear distinction between mammalian processing mechanisms and coding strategies and those of archosaurs. We emphasize that a consideration of the convergent nature of neuronal mechanisms will significantly increase the explanatory power of studies of spatial processing in both mammals and birds.

  8. Monitoring and assessing the effects from Metro networks construction on the urban acoustic environment: The Athens Metro Line 3 Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Zafiropoulou, Vassiliki; Mouzakis, Haralampos

    2018-10-15

    The Line 3 Extension from Aghia Marina to Piraeus constitutes one of the most significant construction projects in full development in Athens Greater area. For the management and abatement of the air borne noise generated from surface, and/or underground construction activities, relevant machinery operation, and trucks movements at open worksites and the tunnel, a continuous monthly noise and vibration monitoring program is enforced in order to assess any potential intrusion of the acoustic environment. On basis of measured 24 hour L eq noise levels, both L den and L night EU indices were assessed along with vibration velocity for every worksite and tunnel construction activity. The existing environmental noise background generated mainly from road traffic was assessed in order to evaluate potential effects on both air borne noise from construction activities. This comprehensive monitoring program aims to protect the inhabitants in the vicinity of worksites and the tunnel surrounding from construction noise and vibration processing and evaluating all necessary mitigation measures. Especially, for the protection of sensitive receptors, this program may serve as a tool ensuring a successful management of both noise and vibration levels emitted from open air construction activities and (Tunnel Boring Machine) TBM or hammer/pilling operation by implementing mitigation measures where necessary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the variation of environmental radioactivity in Dae-Jeon area (Jan. 1977-Dec. 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.P.; Oh, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This study concerns with gamma-ray exposure in natural background radiation and radioactivities in the air-borne dust, the fall-out, and the rain-out which had been measured in Dae-Jeon area during the period of five years from Jan. 1, 1977 to Dec. 31, 1981. The special survey results from the 22th, 23th, and 24th nuclear explosion tests carred out by Red China are included in this paper. The results of these measurements are as follows: 1. The average value of natural background radiation in the laboratory 20.69μR/hr, and it is found that the natural background was not affected by the nuclear explosion tests. 2. The average value of radioactivity in the air-borne dust is 0.11pμci/cc, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 0.47pμci/cc. 3. The average value of radioactivity of the fall-out is 0.09mci/km 2 -10d, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 0.84mci/km 2 -10d. 4. The average value of radioactivity in the rain-out is 0.45 x 10 -8 μci/cc, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 1.97 x 10 -8 μci/cc. (Author)

  10. Particulate Respirators Functionalized with Silver Nanoparticles Showed Excellent Real-Time Antimicrobial Effects against Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Clark Renjun; Li, Shuai; Ye, Chengsong; Li, Xinyang; Zhang, Chiqian; Yu, Xin

    2016-07-05

    Particulate respirators designed to filtrate fine particulate matters usually do not possess antimicrobial functions. The current study aimed to functionalize particulate respirators with silver nanoparticles (nanosilver or AgNPs), which have excellent antimicrobial activities, utilizing a straightforward and effective method. We first enhanced the nanosilver-coating ability of nonwoven fabrics from a particulate respirator through surface modification by sodium oleate. The surfactant treatment significantly improved the fabrics' water wet preference where the static water contact angles reduced from 122° to 56°. Both macroscopic agar-plate tests and microscopic scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization revealed that nanosilver functionalized fabrics could effectively inhibit the growth of two model bacterial strains (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The coating of silver nanoparticles would not affect the main function of particulate respirators (i.e., filtration of fine air-borne particles). Nanosilver coated particulate respirators with excellent antimicrobial activities can provide real-time protection to people in regions with severe air pollution against air-borne pathogens.

  11. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Hyperspectral Images for Geosciences Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Bruno; Pizzolante, Raffaele

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral images are acquired through air-borne or space-borne special cameras (sensors) that collect information coming from the electromagnetic spectrum of the observed terrains. Hyperspectral remote sensing and hyperspectral images are used for a wide range of purposes: originally, they were developed for mining applications and for geology because of the capability of this kind of images to correctly identify various types of underground minerals by analysing the reflected spectrums, but their usage has spread in other application fields, such as ecology, military and surveillance, historical research and even archaeology. The large amount of data obtained by the hyperspectral sensors, the fact that these images are acquired at a high cost by air-borne sensors and that they are generally transmitted to a base, makes it necessary to provide an efficient and secure transmission protocol. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that allows secure and efficient transmission of hyperspectral images, by combining a reversible invisible watermarking scheme, used in conjunction with digital signature techniques, and a state-of-art predictive-based lossless compression algorithm.

  12. The natural history of sound localization in mammals--a story of neuronal inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Benedikt; Pecka, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Our concepts of sound localization in the vertebrate brain are widely based on the general assumption that both the ability to detect air-borne sounds and the neuronal processing are homologous in archosaurs (present day crocodiles and birds) and mammals. Yet studies repeatedly report conflicting results on the neuronal circuits and mechanisms, in particular the role of inhibition, as well as the coding strategies between avian and mammalian model systems. Here we argue that mammalian and avian phylogeny of spatial hearing is characterized by a convergent evolution of hearing air-borne sounds rather than by homology. In particular, the different evolutionary origins of tympanic ears and the different availability of binaural cues in early mammals and archosaurs imposed distinct constraints on the respective binaural processing mechanisms. The role of synaptic inhibition in generating binaural spatial sensitivity in mammals is highlighted, as it reveals a unifying principle of mammalian circuit design for encoding sound position. Together, we combine evolutionary, anatomical and physiological arguments for making a clear distinction between mammalian processing mechanisms and coding strategies and those of archosaurs. We emphasize that a consideration of the convergent nature of neuronal mechanisms will significantly increase the explanatory power of studies of spatial processing in both mammals and birds.

  13. Investigation of the correlation between noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow in a circulator pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Denghao; Ren, Yun; Mou, Jiegang; Gu, Yunqing [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    Circulator pumps have wide engineering applications but the acoustics, vibration and unsteady flow structures of the circulator pump are still not fully understood. We investigated the noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow structures in a circulator pump at different flow rates. Three-dimensional, unsteady RANS equations were solved on high-quality structured meshes with SST k-ω turbulence model numerically. Measurements were made in a semi-anechoic chamber to get an overview of noise and vibration level of a pump at different flow rates. The 1/3 octave-band filter technique was applied to obtain the explicit frequency spectra of sound, pressure fluctuations and vibration signals and their principal frequencies were identified successfully. The air-borne noise level of the designed condition is lower than that of the off-design conditions, and the highest sound pressure level is found at part-load condition. The acoustic emission from the pump is mainly caused by unsteady flow structures and pressure fluctuations. In addition, both the link between air- borne noise and pressure fluctuation, and the correlation between vibration and unsteady hydrodynamic forces, were quantitatively examined and verified. This work offers good data to understand noise and vibration characteristics of circulator pumps and the relationships among the noise, vibration and unsteady flow structures.

  14. Automation system for production of UO2 granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, N.; Setty, C.R.P.; Banerjee, P.K.; Husnain, G.; Rao, K.C.M.; Satyanarayana, A.

    1990-01-01

    Precompaction of UO 2 powder into slugs and granulation of the slugs were used to be carried out in two different work centres involving manual loading/handling of powder and compacts which resulted in a very high level of air-borne activity. This has been simplified by integrating both the operations into one work centre on both the precompaction presses. In the present system, UO 2 powder is transferred to feed hopper through the use of high vac. feeder. The powder in metered quantities is fed into the shoe by deploying screw feeder driven by a compact hydraulic motor. The die cavity is filled with just the right quantity of powder to prevent spillage. The compacts are pushed on to the granulator through a set of guides mounted on the die platform. The granulated powder is made to pass through Vibro screen for separating the fines before collecting in a replaceable S.S. Container. This container is mounted on the final compacting press by using job crane installed on the press. The replaceable container handling facility drastically cuts down the manual handling of UO 2 granules and also eliminates spillage, air borne activity. The development and fabrication of hydraulically operated screw feeder, feed shoe, replaceable container and the job crane structure etc., were completely carried out at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Paper deals in detail the design of the system developed, present operational experiences and further improvements planned. (author). 6 figs

  15. Natural radioactivity of airbone particulates in coal-ash disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made on the actual concentrations of U, Th and Po in air-borne dust and soil around coal power stations, to study the effect of coal-ash disposal site on natural radioactivity of environmental samples. Samples were collected at a coal-ash disposal and its reference places. The results obtained are summaried as follows; (1) Concentrations of U, Th and Po in air-borne dust at the disposal place was nealy equal to those at the reference place. (2) Origin of those α-emitting elements in the dust was successfully deduced, on the basis of correlating concentrations of Sc and Cl elements in the dust. (3) It was inferred that elements of both U and Po in the dust at disposal site came from soil by about 80% and artificial origin such as exhausted gas by remainder. Almost all Th element were from soil. It was therefore concluded that effect of disposal site on radioactivity concentrations of dusts was negligible. (author)

  16. The Role of Abiotic Environmental Conditions and Herbivory in Shaping Bacterial Community Composition in Floral Nectar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni-Blank, Michal; Izhaki, Ido; Laviad, Sivan; Bar-Massada, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram; Halpern, Malka

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that “everything is everywhere, but the environment selects”. Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria) and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient. Bacteria were sampled from floral nectar and bugs at four sites, spanning a geographical range of 200 km from Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions, under open and bagged flower treatments. In agreement with the niche assembly hypothesis, the differences in bacterial community compositions were explained by differences in abiotic environmental conditions. These results suggest that microbial model systems are useful for addressing macro-ecological questions. In addition, similar bacterial communities were found in the nectar and on the surface of the bugs that were documented visiting the flowers. These similarities imply that floral nectar bacteria dispersal is shaped not only by air borne bacteria and nectar consumers as previously reported, but also by visiting vectors like the mirid bugs. PMID:24922317

  17. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: an upcoming era of research on bio-meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Bardin, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Vogel, B.; Leyronas, C.; Ariya, P. A.; Psenner, R.

    2008-01-01

    For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  18. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Bardin, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Vogel, B.; Leyronas, C.; Ariya, P. A.; Psenner, R.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  19. Stage 1 performance qualification of heat-ventilation air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the manufacturing of Tc-99m Generator at Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen Ng; Noriah Jamal; Rehir Dahalan; Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Noraisyah Yusof; Shaharum Ramli; Jusnan Hashim; Ariff Hamzah; Wan Firdaus Wan Ishak; Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Asmah Mohibat; Shafii Khamis; Zulkifli Mohamed Hashim; Zakaria Ibrahim; Shaaban Kasim

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing of Tc-99m generator is carried out in clean room Block 21 of Malaysian Nuclear Agency, which need to comply current Good Manufacturing Practice requirement. High-ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) is a new renovated system. It is a critical system for maintaining suitable temperature, relative humidity and pressure differential in the clean room. The objective of this paper is to present results on Stage 1 Performance Qualification (PQ) for HVAC. This PQ stage 1 was done from 7 February 2007 till 16 March 2007. Temperature, Relative Humidity and Pressure Differential for each compartment in the clean room was monitored twice daily. The Measurement of air-born particle count was done weekly. Settle plate for microbial test was also done weekly. The results were then analyzed and compared with the pre-determined specification. We found that temperature was within the specs, namely 24 +20 degree C. Relative humidity was less than 65%. Pressure differential shows variation, some compartments are below the specs namely 1-3 mm H 2 O. Air-born particle and microbial test also meet the requirement. The results show that all parameters meeting the specs excepts for the pressure differential for certain compartments are a bit low, but is sufficient to create proper air flow and not cause any risk of cross contamination. The existing HVAC system in the clean room is in compliance to the pre-determined specification. However, further improvement can be made by increasing the pressure differential between compartments. (Author)

  20. Aspects microbiologiques de la production par fermentation solide des endo-beta-1,4-xylanases de moisissures : le cas de Penicillium canescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assamoi AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial aspects of endo-β-1,4-xylanase production in solid-state fermentation by Penicillia: the case of Penicillium canescens. Production of xylanases by Penicillium canescens 10-10c is the research object in Walloon Center of Industrial Biology. Previous works used submerged or liquid fermentation. The actual works are oriented more and more towards solid fermentation from agricultural or agro-alimentary residues. In addition to the valorization of these residues, solid-state fermentation reaches an increasingly significant interest in various other fields like the biological breakdown of the solid residues, the bioremediation of the organic pollutants in the grounds and the reduction of the air pollution by the biofiltration. Xylanase is an industrial enzyme used in general in extraction and clarification processes. P. canescens can produce an activity of it, particularly in its balanced forms of xylanases, beta-xylosidase and arabinosidase, and not contaminated by cellulolytic and amylolytic activities. It is a hyper producing strain of xylanase. The production rate is one of the highest in literature (535 U.ml-1 and 9,632 U.g-1 in Erlenmeyer flasks, in submerged and solid state fermentation, respectively. The biobleaching activity of the cellulose pulp by the purified enzyme is higher than a commercial preparation of xylanases from Trichoderma longibrachiatum used industrially. It has a complete hydrolysis degree of 40% (on glucuronoxylan and 35% (on arabinoxylan at 55°C and at pH of 5.9. These characteristics lead to many industrial applications of this enzyme. That is why the optimization of its production by the solid-state fermentation at the laboratory scale in order to define a policy for the industrial transposition later is carried out. This article presents a summary of the scientific literature on this subject.

  1. J-SEx : The Jollie Snow Experiment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, T.; Singh, S.; Kees, L.; Webster, C.; Clark, M.; Hendrikx, J.; Woods, R.

    2012-04-01

    Intensive snow observations have been collected in a steep alpine catchment (the Jollie Valley) in the Southern Alps of New Zealand for four years at the time of maximum snow storage. The campaign, called the Jollie Snow Experiment (J-SEx), was undertaken to improve understanding of snow variability in a steep alpine landscape. Observation methods included manual depth-probing at hundreds of locations with associated snowpit-digging, and surface and air-borne ground penetrating radar. In addition, repeat (daily) oblique photography was carried out on a subcatchment for two of the years. Analysis of the observations, in conjunction with similar observations from around the world has enabled direction to be given for selecting optimal modelling scales, and an indication of what processes need to be resolved at the different scales. For instance, if models are to operate at sub-100 m horizontal scales, they need to resolve drifting, sloughing and avalanching processes. Binary regression tree methods have been applied to identify terrain variables which explain the observed snow mass variability. This has enabled an assessment of total catchment snow storage to be established for each year. This assessment showed that the controlling variables change from year to year, so that no single terrain-based interpolation method may be generally applied. The change in the terrain relationships each year has been taken as an indication that the different frequencies of snowfall-related climate types from one year to the next affects which terrain characteristics have the greatest impact on snow variability. Assessment of terrain effects at the slope scale indicates that slope angle has the potential to be a strong influence on snow variability in that steep slopes do not build up large accumulations, and that low-angled regions below steep areas become areas of large snow build-up. This "slope" effect is clearly evident from the repeat photography, with the last areas to melt

  2. The relationship between human behavior and the process of epidemic spreading in a real social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.; Rosińska, M.

    2012-07-01

    On the basis of experimental data on interactions between humans we have investigated the process of epidemic spreading in a social network. We found that the distribution of the number of contacts maintained in one day is exponential. Data on frequency and duration of interpersonal interactions are presented. They allow us to simulate the spread of droplet-/-air-borne infections and to investigate the influence of human dynamics on the epidemic spread. Specifically, we investigated the influence of the distribution of frequency and duration of those contacts on magnitude, epidemic threshold and peak timing of epidemics propagating in respective networks. It turns out that a large increase in the magnitude of an epidemic and a decrease in epidemic threshold are visible if and only if both are taken into account. We have found that correlation between contact frequency and duration strongly influences the effectiveness of control measures like mass immunization campaigns.

  3. Carry-over of pollutants from the atmosphere and on forest soil pollution in the ARGE ALP and ALPEN-ADRIA countries. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, M.; Roesel, K.; Reuther, M.

    1993-11-01

    The issue of the pollution of the alpine region, especially the mountain forest ecosystem which, - together with some additional subject matters and issues constitutes the main issue of this conference and is, of course an ecological and economical issue of some urgency and an area where several problems compete with one another. This ecosystem is very sensitive both in terms of location and climate and in terms of the additional loads created by road traffic, tourism, agriculture and forestry. High precipitation in form of rain, fog and snow in the alpine regions means that air-borne pollutants from other areas can be deposited in large amounts. Higher mountaineous regions are especially prone to the generation of photooxidants which represent another potential of stress and danger for the forests. (orig./EW) [de

  4. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  5. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  6. Dust Spectroscopy and the Nature of Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based, air-borne and space-based, infrared spectra of a wide variety of objects have revealed prominent absorption and emission features due to large molecules and small dust grains. Analysis of this data reveals a highly diverse interstellar and circumstellar grain inventory, including both amorphous materials and highly crystalline compounds (silicates and carbon). This diversity points towards a wide range of physical and chemical birthsites as well as a complex processing of these grains in the interstellar medium. In this talk, I will review the dust inventory contrasting and comparing both the interstellar and circumstellar reservoirs. The focus will be on the processes that play a role in the lifecycle of dust in the interstellar medium.

  7. Loading an Optical Trap with Diamond Nanocrystals Containing Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers from a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Ji, Peng; Dutt, M. V. Gurudev; D'Urso, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple and effective method of loading particles into an optical trap. Our primary application of this method is loading photoluminescent material, such as diamond nanocrystals containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers, for coupling the mechanical motion of the trapped crystal with the spin of the NV centers. Highly absorptive material at the trapping laser frequency, such as tartrazine dye, is used as media to attach nanodiamonds and burn into a cloud of air-borne particles as the material is swept near the trapping laser focus on a glass slide. Particles are then trapped with the laser used for burning or transferred to a second laser trap at a different wavelength. Evidence of successful loading diamond nanocrystals into the trap presented includes high sensitivity of the photoluminecscence (PL) to the excitation laser and the PL spectra of the optically trapped particles

  8. Contact dermatitis due to xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old mining engineer at Dhanbad was having air bome contact Dermatitis suspected to be caused by Xanthium strumarium. Patch tests with a 15% aqueous extract of air dried leaves showed a severe positive reaction, but the patient also had positive patch tests with Parthenium hysterphorus and a few other weeds and trees known to cause air-borne contact dermatitis. The titre of contact hypersensitivity with the extract of Xanthium struma′rium was more than 1:100,000 and for Parthenium hysterophrous it was 1:10 indicating a high degree of hypersensitivity to Xanthium strumarium. Further tests in 14 other patients revealed a high prevalence of cross sensitivity between these two plants both of which belong to the compositae family.

  9. A Scintillometer Assembly for Geological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Landstroem, O.

    1965-12-01

    An instrument for gamma radiation measurements in connection with geological survey is described. It consists of a scintillation detector with a 5x6 inch sodium iodide crystal and a pulse height analyzer with four independent channels. In field survey work these channels are usually set in fixed positions to record different components of the gamma radiation simultaneously in order to facilitate an identification of the radioactive mineral from which the radiation originates. However, the instrument can also be used for more detailed study of gamma spectra either in the field or in the laboratory. The methods for interpretation of gamma spectra from radioactive ores are briefly reviewed, and a few typical results are given from car-borne and air-borne surveys

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. D.; Lee, S. Y. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. Gross beta activities were measured and gamma radionuclides were analysed for the environmental samples of air-borned dust. precipitation. fallout and drinking water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center. and gamma exposure rates were also measured. To establish the basic data base on the environmental radioactivity, gamma radionuclide analyses were carried out for the samples of soil, drinking water, grain, vegetable, milk, and fish which were obtained from 31 different areas, and the spatial gamma exposure rates from 61 different points were also measured in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  11. Environmental policy in the 9th German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (1980-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This presentation of environmental policy constitutes the continuation of copies No. 49 and No. 72 of the 'Materialien' [Materials] (Environmental policy in the 7th German Bundestag or environmental policy in the 8. German Bundestag and in the Bundesrat, resp. - 1976 to 1980). References to factual terms espec. indications of speech references, apply to the register annexed to 'Verhandlungen des Deutschen Bundestages und des Bundesrates' (Deliberations of the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat) for the 9th period of office on which the 'Materialie' is based. Among other things, the 'Materialie' comprises: General fundamentals and primaples, aspects of structural policy, scientific and technical/technological fundamentals, organizational fundamentals, international and intergovernmental co-operation, air-borne emission abatement, waste management, chemical substances released to environment, nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  12. A Scintillometer Assembly for Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissing, E; Landstroem, O

    1965-12-15

    An instrument for gamma radiation measurements in connection with geological survey is described. It consists of a scintillation detector with a 5x6 inch sodium iodide crystal and a pulse height analyzer with four independent channels. In field survey work these channels are usually set in fixed positions to record different components of the gamma radiation simultaneously in order to facilitate an identification of the radioactive mineral from which the radiation originates. However, the instrument can also be used for more detailed study of gamma spectra either in the field or in the laboratory. The methods for interpretation of gamma spectra from radioactive ores are briefly reviewed, and a few typical results are given from car-borne and air-borne surveys.

  13. Nuclear instrumentation for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Ch. V.N.; Sarma, C.V.R.; Sreehari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation required for uranium exploration may be broadly classified based on surface and sub-surface measurement of gamma-ray intensity. Surface measurement of gross and spectral gamma intensity are carried out by employing portable Geiger Mueller/scintillation counters and four-channel spectrometers. Measurement of thoron ( 220 Rn) and radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil gas is being carried out by closed circuit technique using radon measuring system. Radiometric mapping of trenches, pits and mine-faces are carried out using shielded probe with 2π source geometry, whereas logging sonde with instruments through the steel armoured cable are employed for point to 4π geometry. Spectral borehole logging system with built-in multi-channel analyser (MCA) has been developed for the uranium exploration programme for AMD. Note-book PC based high sensitivity air-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey system has been designed, developed and test flown. (author)

  14. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  15. Heavy metals in bottom sediments of Lake Umbozero in Murmansk Region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernström, Jussi; Lehto, J.; Dauvalter, A.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment cores collected from different locations of Lake Umbozero were studied with respect to concentration and mobility of trace and heavy metals Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn. Lake Umbozero is the second largest lake in the Murmansk Region and subjected to contamination by air......-borne emissions and river transportation from the nearby metallurgical and mining industries. Unlike its neighboring, more industry-prone Lake Imandra, Lake Umbozero is relatively unexplored with respect to its state of pollution. In our study, metal distribution in sediments was found to vary with respect...... in lakes of Kola Peninsula located further off from industrial pollutant sources. An exception was Pb the concentration of which was at the same level as in Lake Imandra, probably due to long-distance transport. Sediment layers were subjected to four-step sequential extraction procedure to reveal the metal...

  16. Potential effects of salt-laden cooling air in the ALMR RVACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsbedt, A.; Gordon, B.M.; Baston, V.F.; Steigerwald, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) concept has a totally passive safety-related decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the 471 MWt modular reactor to the atmosphere or ambient air by natural convection heat transfer. The system has no active components, requires no operator action to initiate, and thus is totally passive. The effects of operation of the RVACS in coastal environments where the air has high concentrations of air-borne sea-salt have been addressed. The potential for corrosion of the carbon steel and RVACS related structures have been evaluated and it was concluded that corrosion is not a problem. (author)

  17. A study on the distribution of radioactivity in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    1976-01-01

    Scintillation counting techniques developed for routine radiological health monitoring in the uranium mine at Jaduguda are described. A brief description of the mine and mining activities is given and the radiological hazards encountered in a uranium mine are summarised. The main hazard is the inhalation hazard due to radon and air borne, short lived radon daughter products. A summary of results of monitoring (radon in air and water) conducted during the last 10 years using the methods described in these studies is presented. Based on the monitoring data, the cumulative exposure of miners to radon daughters has been estimated. The values applicable to certain categories of workers as a whole are given. From the data it appears that the muckers are the most exposed. The average figure in their case is 3.32 WLM which is much less than the standard adopted in U.S.A. (4 WLM year). (A.K.)

  18. Dispersal and biogeography of silica-scaled chrysophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The silica-scaled chrysophytes—here mainly represented by the freshwater genera Mallomonas and Synura—have special problems in dispersal from one habitat to another because they cannot tolerate desiccation. Their dispersal is limited by the fragile construction and aquatic habit. Dispersal from one...... water body to another involves dangerous changes of the environment, and the ability to avoid desiccation during transport is crucial. So, air-borne and ectozoic dispersal by birds or mammals can only work at short distances. This danger may be avoided by endozoic dispersal of thick-walled cysts; as far....... The distribution of a species at a given time depends on several factors: dispersal capacity—available vectors—suitable available habitats—and most important: sufficient time for dispersal. It is remarkable that the chrysophytes—in spite of their fragile cell construction and apparently low dispersal capacity...

  19. Ocean tidal loading affecting precise geodetic observations on Greenland: Error account of surface deformations by tidal gravity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jentzsch, G.; Knudsen, Per; Ramatschi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Air-borne and satellite based altimetry are used to monitor the Greenland ice-cap. Since these measurements are related to fiducial sites at the coast, the robustness of the height differences depends on the stability of these reference points. To benefit from the accuracy of these methods...... on the centimeter level, station corrections regarding the Earth tides and the ocean tidal loading have to be applied. Models for global corrections esp. for the body tides are available and sufficient, but local corrections regarding the effect of the adjacent shelf area still have to be inferred from additional...... observations. Near the coast ocean tidal loading causes additional vertical deformations in the order of 1 to 10 cm Therefore, tidal gravity measurements were carried out at four fiducial sites around Greenland in order to provide corrections for the kinematic part of the coordinates of these sites. Starting...

  20. Investigation of the Time Evolution and Species Production in a 2-Dimensional Packed Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeling, Kenneth; Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Kushner, Mark; Foster, John

    2016-09-01

    Plasma production in microporous media has potential to enable a number of technologies ranging from flameless combustion to environmental hazard mitigation addressing air borne pollutants. Packed bed reactors (PBRs) is one such technology that relies on plasma production in microporous media. The physics of plasma production and transport in such media however remains poorly understood. In order to better understand the plasma propagation and plasma driven chemical reaction within microporous media, absorption spectroscopy and time-resolved imaging diagnostics are being utilized. We report on plasma driven species formation and plasma discharge spatial structure and evolution characteristics found in the 2-dimensional representation of a PBR. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  1. EFEKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA ORGANOCHLORIN OMS-1558 DALAM PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR MALARIA ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ YANG SUDAH KEBAL TERHADAP DDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barodji Barodji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A village-scale trial of organochlorin compound OMS-1558 as an 70% water-dispersible powder (wdp and applied as an indoor residual spray at 2 gr/m2, was carried out against the DDT—resistant malaria vector Anopheles aconitus near Semarang, Central Java. Result of this trial, as evaluated by human-vector contact rates, resting densities and parous rate showed effectiveness against the vector populations for only about one week or less. In contact bioassay tests mortalities of 50% or greater for one week, while mortalities from air-borne bioassay tests were negligible. It was concluded that DDT—resistant malaria vector can not be controlled by this insecticide. The result of susceptibility tests showed there is cross resistance between DDT and new organochlorin OMS-1558.

  2. Key Technologies and Applications of Satellite and Sensor Web-coupled Real-time Dynamic Web Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Nengcheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The geo-spatial information service has failed to reflect the live status of spot and meet the needs of integrated monitoring and real-time information for a long time. To tackle the problems in observation sharing and integrated management of space-borne, air-borne, and ground-based platforms and efficient service of spatio-temporal information, an observation sharing model was proposed. The key technologies in real-time dynamic geographical information system (GIS including maximum spatio-temporal coverage-based optimal layout of earth-observation sensor Web, task-driven and feedback-based control, real-time access of streaming observations, dynamic simulation, warning and decision support were detailed. An real-time dynamic Web geographical information system (WebGIS named GeoSensor and its applications in sensing and management of spatio-temporal information of Yangtze River basin including navigation, flood prevention, and power generation were also introduced.

  3. Change detection in polarimetric SAR images using complex Wishart distributed matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning

    In surveillance it is important to be able to detect natural or man-made changes e.g. based on sequences of satellite or air borne images of the same area taken at different times. The mapping capability of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is independent of e.g. cloud cover, and thus this technology...... scattering matrix, and after suitable preprocessing the outcome at each picture element (pixel) may be represented as a 3 by 3 Hermitian matrix following a complex Wishart distribution. One approach to solving the change detection problem based on SAR images is therefore to apply suitable statistical tests...... in the complex Wishart distribution. We propose a set-up for a systematic solution to the (practical) problems using the likelihood ratio test statistics. We show some examples based on a time series of images with 1024 by 1024 pixels....

  4. Preparation of Sandy Soil Stabilizer for Roads Based on Radiation Modified Polymer Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnahas, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation modified polymer composite (RMPC) was studied to build an extremely durable sandy road, construct a trail or bath, or control dust and erosion. A dilute solution of composite binds sandy soil fines through a coagulation bonding process. The result is a dense soil structure that has superior resistance to cracks and water penetration and can also solve erosion control problems. In erosion control applications, diluted composite is merely sprayed into sandy soil without compaction, effectively sealing the surface to prevent air-born dust or deterioration from erosion. The prepared composite has an elastic and melt-able film formation that imparts thermal compacting to the stabilized sandy soil after full dryness for sandy road leveling, repairing and restoration processes. The prepared composite is environmentally economical when compared with traditional sandy soil stabilizing (SSS) or sealing methods.

  5. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  6. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  7. A comparative study of the ignition and burning characteristics of after burning aluminum and magnesium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyup; Yoon, Woong Sup

    2014-01-01

    Ignition and the burning of air-born single aluminum and magnesium particles are experimentally investigated. Particles of 30 to 106 μm-diameters were electrodynamically levitated, ignited, and burnt in atmospheric air. The particle combustion evolution was recorded by high-speed cinematography. Instant temperature and thermal radiation intensity were measured using two-wavelength pyrometry and photomultiplier tube methods. Ignition of the magnesium particle is prompt and substantially advances the aluminum particle by 10 ms. Burning time of the aluminum particles is extended 3 to 5 times longer than the magnesium particles. Exponents of a power-law fit of the burning rates are 1.55 and 1.24 for aluminum and magnesium particles, respectively. Flame temperature is slightly lower than the oxide melting temperature. For the aluminum, dimensionless flame diameter is inert to the initial particle size, but for the magnesium inversely proportional to the initial diameter.

  8. A comparative study of the ignition and burning characteristics of after burning aluminum and magnesium particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyup; Yoon, Woong Sup [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Ignition and the burning of air-born single aluminum and magnesium particles are experimentally investigated. Particles of 30 to 106 μm-diameters were electrodynamically levitated, ignited, and burnt in atmospheric air. The particle combustion evolution was recorded by high-speed cinematography. Instant temperature and thermal radiation intensity were measured using two-wavelength pyrometry and photomultiplier tube methods. Ignition of the magnesium particle is prompt and substantially advances the aluminum particle by 10 ms. Burning time of the aluminum particles is extended 3 to 5 times longer than the magnesium particles. Exponents of a power-law fit of the burning rates are 1.55 and 1.24 for aluminum and magnesium particles, respectively. Flame temperature is slightly lower than the oxide melting temperature. For the aluminum, dimensionless flame diameter is inert to the initial particle size, but for the magnesium inversely proportional to the initial diameter.

  9. A knowledge on environmental radiation monitoring about the influence from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Mitsuo; Terakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kasai, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive substances were released in the atmosphere and contaminated a large area across Japan due to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company triggered by Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on May 11th 2011. At Fukui University of Technology, monitoring of air radiation (gamma ray) and radiation in environmental samples in Fukui prefecture and some areas of Fukushima prefecture were conducted in order to study the influence of radiation and radioactivity on the citizens as well as the perception of this study results by the citizens. Also, in order to study the dependency of the radiation influence on the distance from the accident location, radiation monitoring of fallouts (air-borne dust, rainwater, sediment mud, and so on) was conducted. In this article, the knowledge obtained on environmental radiation monitoring was summarized and reported. Especially, slightly modified dose-level evaluation for internal exposure was reported. (S.K.)

  10. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  11. Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting Aspergillus section Flavi incidence in Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, A C; Azanza, P V; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting the incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi in dried Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines were examined. The average counts of Aspergillus section Flavi (AFC) in fresh and dried Cavendish bananas from 10 production batches of the Philippine Agro-Industrial Development Cooperative in Davao del Norte, Southern Philippines were 1.2 x 10(2) and 1.6 x 10(2) cfu/g, respectively. Isolates from both samples were identified to be Aspergillus flavus based on spore type and conidial structure of isolates. An increasing trend in the AFC of Cavendish bananas was observed during dried banana chips processing. Variability in the AFC between production batches was attributed to differences in aerobic and fungal populations and physicochemical characteristics of the fruits, peel damage of the raw materials, concentration of AFC in the air and food-contact surfaces of the production area, and temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions of the environment during production and storage. Physicochemical characteristics of Cavendish bananas from the receipt of raw materials up to the first day of drying were within the reported range of values allowing growth and toxin production by aflatoxigenic fungi. Air-borne AFC varied depending on the section of the production area examined. The close proximity of the waste disposal area from the production operation to the preparation, drying and storage areas suggests that cross-contamination, probably air-borne or insect-borne was a likely occurrence. The hands of workers were also identified as AFC sources. Results of this study highlight the need for the development of strategies to control aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in Philippine dried Cavendish bananas.

  12. Design and development of portable continuous beta air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankaj Kumar; Pandey, J.P.N.; Jaroli, Manish; Dubey, K.

    2014-01-01

    Most of Continuous air monitors used for the measurement of air borne activity at nuclear plants are bulky in size, makes lot of noise (> 70 DB) due to belt derive vacuum pump. In addition to that users also face difficulties in displacement of the instrument from one location to another location. To overcome these problems, a compact and portable continuous Beta air monitor was indigenously designed and developed which has extremely low noise level and has shown excellent performance for the measurement of air borne activity. The details of the design and development of portable continuous beta air monitor are presented in this paper. Compact design makes the instrument light in weight and easy to displace it from one location to another location. Shielding design of the detector and filter holder assembly is very effective to reduce the interference of external gamma. Replacement of filter papers in this design of filter holder is much easier and convenient than old model filter holders. The integrity of leak tightness of the system ensures collection efficiency more than 99 % for sub micron particles. Observed efficiency of the detector with 5 mm minimum air gap between filter paper and detector is 13% which is 1.5 times higher than earlier model. Use of motor mounted vacuum pump and silencer was found quite effective to reduce the noise level upto 70 DB. Introduction of electronic air flow sensor provides additional features to get flow rate at the time of individual alarm conditions. Self diagnostic features like detector fail, HV fail and pump fail indications on display system helps to identify the specific type of faults. Internal memory of display unit can store all such data with date and time in programmable intervals (0-250 minutes)

  13. Acoustic phenomena observed in lung auscultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenbaum, V. I.; Tagil'Tsev, A. A.; Kulakov, Yu. V.

    2003-05-01

    The results of studying respiratory noise at the chest wall by the method of acoustic intensimetry reveal the presence of frequency components with different signs of the real and imaginary parts of the cross spectrum obtained for the responses of the receivers of vibratory displacement and dynamic force. An acoustic model is proposed to explain this difference on the basis of the hypothesis that the contributions of both air-borne and structure-borne sound are significant in the transmission of respiratory noise to the chest wall. It is shown that, when considered as an acoustic channel for the basic respiratory noise, the respiratory system of an adult subject has two resonances: in the frequency bands within 110 150 and 215 350 Hz. For adults in normal condition, the air-borne component of the basic respiratory noise predominates in the region 100 300 Hz in the lower parts of lungs. At forced respiration of healthy adults, the sounds of vesicular respiration are generated by the turbulent air flow in the 11th-through 13th-generation bronchi, and the transmission of these sounds to the chest wall in normal condition is mainly through air and is determined by the resonance of the vibratory system formed by the elasticity of air in the respiratory ducts of lungs and by the surface mass density of the chest wall. It is demonstrated that the distance from the chest wall to the sources of structure-borne additional respiratory noise, namely, wheezing with frequencies above 300 Hz, can be estimated numerically from the ratio between the real and imaginary parts of the cross spectrum on the assumption that the source is of the quadrupole type.

  14. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  15. Air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major problems faced by the over crowded mega-cities of the world in general and that in third world is the alarming levels of air pollution causing damage to the health of its inhabitants. In Cairo estimated lives lost annually due to air pollution varies between 4000 to 16000 while Delhi has been rated as the most polluted city in the world. Karachi now a mega-city typically represents pollution status of the third world. Major cause of pollution is more than 0.62 millions vehicles on the roads. The pollution due to industries is localized and mainly affects the health of the workers. Measurement carried out for the selected areas along the roads carrying high density traffic show a very high pollution level (CO, 3 to 10 ppm; CO/sub 2/,170 to 350 ppm; HC 0.274 to 0.360 vol. %; particulate matter 67.0 to 565.5 ug/m/sup 3/. A parallel hospital survey to correlate air borne disease with air pollution indicates that over 16600 to 22977 patients suffered from air borne diseases while 6377 from bacterial infection. Analysis showed that 70% of the patients suffering from airborne disease come from the surveyed areas with high level pollution. Cancer is shifting from old age to middle age group indicating deteriorating air environment. Ratio of male to female patients is 2:1, which is indicative of hazardous ambient air quality outside to which men are exposed more than women. The paper discusses in depth the air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities with Karachi as a case study. (author)

  16. Derivation of radioecological parameters from the long-term emission of iodine-129. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Klipsch, K.; Ernst, T.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Vahlbruch, J.; Synal, H.A.; Schnabel, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this project, the distribution and behaviour of 129 I and 127 I in the environment and its pathways through the environment to man were comprehensively investigated in order to provide a basis for estimating the radiation exposure to man due to releases of 129 I. To this end, the actual situation in Lower Saxony, Germany, was studied for exemplary regions near to and far from the coast of the North Sea. Accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes, 129 I and P 127 I, in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. From the analytical results radioecological parameters for the long-term behaviour of 129 I in the pedo- and biosphere were derived. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium 129 I/ 127 I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 x 10 -13 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10 -6 to 10 -10 . The highest ratios are found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. The results are discussed with respect to their radiological relevance and in view of the general protection of the environment, i.e. air, water, soil and the biosphere. (orig.)

  17. RESUME 95. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The RESUME95 exercise - Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment, took place in Finland in August 1995. The objectives of the RESUME exercise were to compare different monitoring systems when used under the same conditions as well as to compare results from similar systems with different data analysis and presentation software. Another objective was to acquire some basic knowledge to standardize and cross calibrate the European air-borne gamma-ray surveying capability so that the results from different systems could be directly comparable. The exercise involved 10 airborn monitoring teams, 7 teams with vehicle monitoring systems as well as ground survey teams from 8 countries. Most systems incorporated GPS satellite navigational aids and computers for real time display of the data which was also recorded for post flight analysis. Most of the car- and airborne systems were based on Nal detectors whereas most of the In-situ systems and a few airborne systems were based on HpGe detectors. The exercise took place in an area near Lahti. Three different areas were surveyed. These were 1) An airfield near Vesivehmaa, which was intended as a calibration site. Soil samples had been taken previously and used to establish the 137 Cs activity of the soil as well as the activity of the natural radioactivity elements 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 Tl. 2) An area contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Area II. This area was intended to test the capabilities of the car- and airborne teams for mapping 137 Cs. A number of predefined points in the area were used by In-situ teams. 3) An area with a variety of hidden readioactive sources, Area III. These sources of 60 Co, 137 Cs, 192 Lr and 99 Tc ranged in activity from 0.6 mCi to 15 Ci and was used to test the capability of the different air-borne teams for locating lost radioactive sources. (EG)

  18. Prediction of the existence or fine-grained granite dykes in the Simpevarp area; Prediktering av foerekomst av finkorniga granitgaangar i Simpevarpsomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Haakan; Triumf, Carl-Axel [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Wahlgren, Carl-Henric [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-11-01

    Fine-grained granite dykes associated with a high fracture frequency occur in the bedrock of the Simpevarp region. In order to avoid problems in a future storage for nuclear waste it is important to find methods to detect areas where the dykes occur frequently. The aim of this project is to test the possibility to use airborne gamma ray spectrometry in the Simpevarp region to distinguish between different areas of the bedrock containing a varying frequency of fine-grained granite dykes. Investigations were also made to test if and how plastic deformation and a thin cover of moss affect the radiometric signature of the rocks. Ground measurements with a gamma ray spectrometer were performed on the islands of Aespoe, Aevroe and at the Simpevarp peninsula on different kinds of Smaaland granite with varying frequencies of fine-grained granite dykes. Reference measurements were performed on rocks without granite dykes. The bedrock at the measurement sites was geologically characterized in connection to the measurements. Air borne radiometric data (uranium, potassium and thorium) measured by the Geological Survey of Sweden in 1986 (flight altitude 30 m, point distance 40 m, line spacing 200 m) was compared to the existing bedrock map of the area and also to existing observation sites of fine-grained granite dykes. The ground measurements with gamma ray spectrometer clearly indicate that the fine-grained granite dykes have a specific radiometric signature compared to the granite-granodiorite at Aevroe and the quartzmonzodiorite-granodiorite at Aespoe. The main difference between the dykes and the other investigated rocks is seen in the thorium content, which is typically 3-5 times greater in the fine grained granite dykes. A thin cover of moss does not seem to significantly affect the radiometric signal of the bedrock, and neither does plastic deformation. However, the number of measurements on deformed and on covered rocks is low. The radiometric anomaly pattern shown in

  19. Long-lived Radionuclides in the Environment: On the Radioecology of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Klipsch, K.; Ernst, Th.; Vahlbruch, J.; Jakob, D.; Synal, H.A.; Schnabel, C.; Lopez-Gutierrez, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, nuclear accidents, and emissions from reprocessing plants have changed the natural abundances of the long-lived radionuclide 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7 Ma) in a sustainable manner. But still today, the radioecology of 129 I is just incompletely known. In this paper, we summarize the results of a long-term project aimed on a comprehensive understanding of the abundances of 129 I and 127 I in Lower Saxony, Germany, and of their pathways through the different environmental compartments to man. To this end, accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. Also the transfer factors for feed-milk and feed-meat transfer were determined both for farm and wild animals. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium 129 I/ 127 I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 10 -13 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10 -6 to 10 -10 . The highest ratios were found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. A differentiation by about a factor of ten between the iodine isotopes was observed for the different air-borne species demonstrating the complexity of

  20. EXAMINATION ABOUT INFLUENCE FOR PRECISION OF 3D IMAGE MEASUREMENT FROM THE GROUND CONTROL POINT MEASUREMENT AND SURFACE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results

  1. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  2. RESUME 95. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The RESUME95 exercise - Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment, took place in Finland in August 1995. The objectives of the RESUME exercise were to compare different monitoring systems when used under the same conditions as well as to compare results from similar systems with different data analysis and presentation software. Another objective was to acquire some basic knowledge to standardize and cross calibrate the European air-borne gamma-ray surveying capability so that the results from different systems could be directly comparable. The exercise involved 10 airborn monitoring teams, 7 teams with vehicle monitoring systems as well as ground survey teams from 8 countries. Most systems incorporated GPS satellite navigational aids and computers for real time display of the data which was also recorded for post flight analysis. Most of the car- and airborne systems were based on Nal detectors whereas most of the In-situ systems and a few airborne systems were based on HpGe detectors. The exercise took place in an area near Lahti. Three different areas were surveyed. These were 1) An airfield near Vesivehmaa, which was intended as a calibration site. Soil samples had been taken previously and used to establish the {sup 137}Cs activity of the soil as well as the activity of the natural radioactivity elements {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl. 2) An area contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Area II. This area was intended to test the capabilities of the car- and airborne teams for mapping {sup 137}Cs. A number of predefined points in the area were used by In-situ teams. 3) An area with a variety of hidden readioactive sources, Area III. These sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Lr and {sup 99}Tc ranged in activity from 0.6 mCi to 15 Ci and was used to test the capability of the different air-borne teams for locating lost radioactive sources. (EG).

  3. Low frequency noise case study : identification and mitigation of a severe infrasonic tone from a mine shaft ventilation fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.D. [HGC Engineering, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented a solution for a severe low frequency infrasound problem experienced at a home near a large mine shaft ventilation fan in Dallas, West Virginia. Strong low frequency acoustic pulsations were detected as far as 200 metres from the fan. HGC Engineering was retained by the coal mine company to investigate the source of the problem and to find solutions. Controlling low frequency sound is a challenge because the wavelengths of sound are long at low frequencies. The relatively high level of acoustic energy of a low frequency sound or infrasound that is loud enough to be heard also presents a problem for noise control. In order to be effective, low frequency noise control measures must usually be large, bulky and expensive. In this study, HGC Engineering readily identified acoustic pulsations in the order of 75 dB at 15 Hz outside the residences. At 15 Hz, the infrasound was not audible at the residence, but was causing rattling of lightweight furnishings inside the home. The measured sound pressure level at 15 Hz was approximately 10 dB greater than the onset of risk for rattling and perceptible vibration. The vibration was also perceptible on the walls and windows of the dwellings. The vibration of the dwelling structure had a high measured coherence with the air-borne pulsations at 15 Hz, suggesting that the vibration was induced by the air-borne infrasonic pulsations. HGC Engineering determined that 15 Hz corresponded to the rotational speed of the fan. A reduction of 15 dB at 15 Hz was targeted, in order to reduce the perceptibility and risk of rattling at the residence. A tuned acoustic plenum was considered to be a viable method to silence the fan. In order to investigate the effectiveness of this approach, HGC Engineering conducted a preliminary analytical design and parametric study of an acoustic plenum tuned to 15 Hz. An analytical model was developed to determine the acoustic behaviour of the plenum. In addition, a numerical boundary

  4. Derivation of radioecological parameters from the long-term emission of iodine-129. Final report; Ableitung von radiooekologischen Parametern aus dem langfristigen Eintrag von Iod-129. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R.; Klipsch, K.; Ernst, T.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Vahlbruch, J. [Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie (ZSR), Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst., ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schnabel, C. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    In this project, the distribution and behaviour of {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I in the environment and its pathways through the environment to man were comprehensively investigated in order to provide a basis for estimating the radiation exposure to man due to releases of {sup 129}I. To this end, the actual situation in Lower Saxony, Germany, was studied for exemplary regions near to and far from the coast of the North Sea. Accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes, {sup 129}I and P{sup 127}I, in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. From the analytical results radioecological parameters for the long-term behaviour of {sup 129}I in the pedo- and biosphere were derived. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 x 10{sup -13} with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -10}. The highest ratios are found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. The results are discussed with respect to their radiological relevance and in view of the general protection of the environment, i.e. air, water, soil and the biosphere. (orig.)

  5. The first detected airline introductions of yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to Europe, at Schiphol International airport, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Gloria-Soria, A; den Hartog, W; Dik, M; Jacobs, F; Stroo, A

    2017-12-08

    Air-borne introduction of exotic mosquitoes to Schiphol airport in the Netherlands has been considered plausible based upon findings of mosquitoes in aircraft cabins during 2008, 2010 and 2011. Beginning in 2013, surveillance efforts at Schiphol had focused on promptly detecting accidental introductions at the airport facilities in order to quickly react and avoid temporary proliferation or establishment of mosquito populations, identify the origin of the introductions, and avoid potential transmission of vector-borne diseases. BG-Mosquitaire mosquito traps were set at the most likely locations for arrival of the invasive Aedes mosquitoes as part of the mosquito monitoring program at Schiphol airport. Samples were collected bi-weekly. Upon detection of exotic specimens, information about the origin of the flights arriving to the particular location at the airport where specimens were captured was requested from airport authorities. The GIS tool Intersect was then used to identify airports of origin common to positive trapping locations during the specific trapping period. Captured Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were subsequently genotyped at 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and compared to a reference database of 79 populations around the world to further narrow down their location of origin. In 2016, six adult yellow fever mosquitoes were captured indoors and outdoors at the airport of Schiphol in the Netherlands confirming, for the first time, air-borne transport of this mosquito vector species into Europe. Mosquitoes were captured during three time periods: June, September and October. Containers carried by aircrafts are considered the most likely pathway for this introduction. GIS analysis and genetic assignment tests on these mosquitoes point to North America or the Middle East as possible origins, but the small sample size prevents us from reliably identifying the geographic origin of this introduction. The arrival of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes to Schiphol

  6. Thermally actuated resonant silicon crystal nanobalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjam, Arash

    As the potential emerging technology for next generation integrated resonant sensors and frequency references as well as electronic filters, micro-electro-mechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention over the past decade. As a result, a wide variety of high frequency micro/nanoscale electromechanical resonators have recently been presented. MEMS resonators, as low-cost highly integrated and ultra-sensitive mass sensors, can potentially provide new opportunities and unprecedented capabilities in the area of mass sensing. Such devices can provide orders of magnitude higher mass sensitivity and resolution compared to Film Bulk Acoustic resonators (FBAR) or the conventional quartz and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators due to their much smaller sizes and can be batch-fabricated and utilized in highly integrated large arrays at a very low cost. In this research, comprehensive experimental studies on the performance and durability of thermally actuated micromechanical resonant sensors with frequencies up to tens of MHz have been performed. The suitability and robustness of the devices have been demonstrated for mass sensing applications related to air-borne particles and organic gases. In addition, due to the internal thermo-electro-mechanical interactions, the active resonators can turn some of the consumed electronic power back into the mechanical structure and compensate for the mechanical losses. Therefore, such resonators can provide self-sustained-oscillation without the need for any electronic circuitry. This unique property has been deployed to demonstrate a prototype self-sustained sensor for air-borne particle monitoring. I have managed to overcome one of the obstacles for MEMS resonators, which is their relatively poor temperature stability. This is a major drawback when compared with the conventional quartz crystals. A significant decrease of the large negative TCF for the resonators has been attained by doping the devices with a high

  7. RESUME 95. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The RESUME95 exercise - Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment, took place in Finland in August 1995. The objectives of the RESUME exercise were to compare different monitoring systems when used under the same conditions as well as to compare results from similar systems with different data analysis and presentation software. Another objective was to acquire some basic knowledge to standardize and cross calibrate the European air-borne gamma-ray surveying capability so that the results from different systems could be directly comparable. The exercise involved 10 airborn monitoring teams, 7 teams with vehicle monitoring systems as well as ground survey teams from 8 countries. Most systems incorporated GPS satellite navigational aids and computers for real time display of the data which was also recorded for post flight analysis. Most of the car- and airborne systems were based on Nal detectors whereas most of the In-situ systems and a few airborne systems were based on HpGe detectors. The exercise took place in an area near Lahti. Three different areas were surveyed. These were 1) An airfield near Vesivehmaa, which was intended as a calibration site. Soil samples had been taken previously and used to establish the {sup 137}Cs activity of the soil as well as the activity of the natural radioactivity elements {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl. 2) An area contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Area II. This area was intended to test the capabilities of the car- and airborne teams for mapping {sup 137}Cs. A number of predefined points in the area were used by In-situ teams. 3) An area with a variety of hidden readioactive sources, Area III. These sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Lr and {sup 99}Tc ranged in activity from 0.6 mCi to 15 Ci and was used to test the capability of the different air-borne teams for locating lost radioactive sources. (EG).

  8. Avian pox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.

    1999-01-01

    Avian pox is the common name for a mild-to-severe, slowdeveloping disease of birds that is caused by a large virus belonging to the avipoxvirus group, a subgroup of poxviruses. This group contains several similar virus strains; some strains have the ability to infect several groups or species of birds but others appear to be species-specific. Mosquitoes are common mechanical vectors or transmitters of this disease. Avian pox is transmitted when a mosquito feeds on an infected bird that has viremia or pox virus circulating in its blood, or when a mosquito feeds on virus-laden secretions seeping from a pox lesion and then feeds on another bird that is susceptible to that strain of virus. Contact with surfaces or exposure to air-borne particles contaminated with poxvirus can also result in infections when virus enters the body through abraded skin or the conjunctiva or the mucous membrane lining that covers the front part of the eyeball and inner surfaces of the eyelids of the eye.

  9. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-02-01

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units--which we call metamaterial bricks--each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators.

  10. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.

  11. Increased uptake and effects of gaseous and particulate air pollutants during episodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B; Scholl, G

    1975-01-01

    The results of an effects-inventory, carried out by the LIB from 1972 and 1974, are presented. The inventory included effects on materials, plants, and, in a special category, humans. Standardized objects were exposed at systematically distributed monitoring sites. As defined in the inventory program, effects included the determination of pollutant accumulation in selected standardized acceptors, as well as the ascertainment of effects in the more limited sense of pollutant-dependent injury to objects exposed at the same sites for the same length of time. This combination of results allows the correlation of air pollution with the occurrence of the observed injury. The special category of effects of air pollutants on humans included determination of lead levels in the blood of newborn babies and their mothers. These results made possible a classification of lead concentrations in the living areas of the mothers and allowed an estimation of the influence of air-borne lead on the internal exposure to lead. 16 references, 29 figures.

  12. The Chaotic Prediction for Aero-Engine Performance Parameters Based on Nonlinear PLS Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the aero-engine performance parameters is very important for aero-engine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. In this paper, the chaotic phase space of engine exhaust temperature (EGT time series which come from actual air-borne ACARS data is reconstructed through selecting some suitable nearby points. The partial least square (PLS based on the cubic spline function or the kernel function transformation is adopted to obtain chaotic predictive function of EGT series. The experiment results indicate that the proposed PLS chaotic prediction algorithm based on biweight kernel function transformation has significant advantage in overcoming multicollinearity of the independent variables and solve the stability of regression model. Our predictive NMSE is 16.5 percent less than that of the traditional linear least squares (OLS method and 10.38 percent less than that of the linear PLS approach. At the same time, the forecast error is less than that of nonlinear PLS algorithm through bootstrap test screening.

  13. Fuel Retrieval and Management of Fuel Element Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chande, Shridhar; Lachaume, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear accidents involving core meltdown have not been so rare. While the first occurred in early fifties, it is reported that about 20 have occurred worldwide in military and commercial reactors. The more recent and major accidents are 1. Three Mile Island, USA in 1979: Approximately half the core was melted, and flowed to the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel however the pressure vessel remained intact and contained the damaged fuel. 2. Chernobyl, former USSR in 1984: Explosive release of radioactive material occurred. About 6 tons of fuel was dispersed as air-borne particles. Most of the core was damaged or melted. 3. Fukushima, Japan 2011: Three units suffered melt down. In unit 1 almost all the fuel assemblies melted and accumulated at the bottom of the vessel. It is reported that the vessel failed and the molten corium has penetrated the concrete. In the units 2 and 3, partial melting of cores has occurred. In several of these cases, fuel retrieval and management activities have been carried out. The experience and insights gained from these activities will be extremely useful for planning and execution of similar activities in future if ever they are needed. The purpose of this session was to exchange this experience and also to share the lessons learned. This is of particularly important, at this juncture, when planning and preparation for retrieval of damaged cores in Fukushima NPP is in progress. (author)

  14. Contribution to the study of tracheobronchial and pulmonary deposits in 52 subjects after inhalation of radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Pierre.

    1980-03-01

    Particle deposits in the bronchopulmonary system can lead to three main types of disorder: pneumoconioses, bronchial cancers and most chronic bronchopulmonary diseases. The study of deposition is useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses. The air-borne contaminants laid down are cleared by different mechanisms corresponding roughly to distinct anatomical regions. Short-term clearance, known as tracheobronchial (TB) takes place in a few hours, while long-term clearance from the deep lung is much slower: according to the International Radiological Protection Commission, 60% of particles deposited in the bronchiolo-alveolar region take more than 500 days to eliminate. It is useful therefore to known in what proportions the particles are fixed in the tracheobronchial region and on the deep lung. This was the purpose of the present work. The distribution of the deposit between these two regions was measured in 52 subjects having breathed in radioactive particles (indium 111). A functional respiratory study was conducted at the same time to find out whether the two sets of experimental data are related in any way [fr

  15. Real-time Monitoring and Simulating of Urban Flood, a Case Study in Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Wang, X.; Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years urban flood frequently occurred and seriously impacted city's normal operation, particular on transportation. The increase of urban flood could be attributed to many factors, such as the increase of impervious land surface and extreme precipitation, the decrease of surface storage capacity, poor maintenance of drainage utilities, and so on. In order to provide accurate and leading prediction on urban flooding, this study acquires precise urban topographic data via air-borne Lidar system, collects detailed underground drainage pipes, and installs in-situ monitoring networks on precipitation, water level, video record and traffic speed in the downtown area of Panyu District, Guangzhou, China. Based on the above data acquired, a urban flood model with EPA SWMM5 is established to simulate the flooding and inundation processes in the study area of 20 km2. The model is driven by the real-time precipitation data and calibrated by the water level data, which are converted to flooding volume with precise topographic data. After calibration, the model could be employed to conduct sensitivity analysis for investigating primary factors of urban flooding, and to simulate the flooding processes in different scenarios, which are beneficial to assessment of flooding risk and drainage capacity. This model is expected to provide real-time forecasting in emergency management.

  16. Risk assessment of atmospheric contamination due to combustion of fossil-fuels in Japan and possible application of fuzzy set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Shah, S.M.; Kanoh, E.

    1983-01-01

    For risk assessment of atmospheric contamination due to fossil-fuel combustion in Japan, epidemiological studies have been conducted since 1961. Health effects of sulfur dioxide in industrial areas of Japan where fossil-fuel power stations are located have been investigated. The dose-response relationship between prevalence rates of chronic bronchitis and sulphur dioxide was established. Various efforts have been made to reduce the concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. However, the average concentration of NO 2 tended to increase gradually. It was therefore considered important to study the health effects of nitrogen dioxide. In different areas of Japan with varying atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an extensive epidemiological survey was conducted with over 10,000 school-children. The results of the survey indicate that the prevalence rates of asthma and wheezing were higher with the higher degree of air pollution, and that the indoor pollution is important. It is also attempted to compare hazard indices of the air-borne wastes from fossil-fuel power plants and those from nuclear power plants. The conventional pollutants seem to be much more important as compared with the radioactive releases under normal conditions of operation. The survey of stochastic effects with very small chances of occurrence was not attempted because of the great uncertainties and difficulties in identifying a small signal within a large noise. The possible application of the theory of Fuzzy Set for risk analysis is suggested

  17. Exploring hotspots of pneumococcal pneumonia and potential impacts of ejecta dust exposure following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Mitchell, Peter; Apparicio, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) is well-known. Yet, some events may increase its incidence. Natural disasters may worsen air quality, a risk factor for PP. We investigated spatial/spatio-temporal clustering of PP pre- and post-earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand. The earthquakes resulted in deaths, widespread damage and liquefaction ejecta (a source of air-borne dust). We tested for clusters and associations with ejecta, using 97 cases (diagnosed 10/2008-12/2011), adjusted for age and area-level deprivation. The strongest evidence to support the potential role of ejecta in clusters of PP cases was the: (1) geographic shift in the spatio-temporal cluster after deprivation adjustment to match the post-earthquake clusters and; (2) increased relative risk in the fully-adjusted post-earthquake compared to the pre-earthquake cluster. The application of spatial statistics to study PP and ejecta are novel. Further studies to assess the long-term impacts of ejecta inhalation are recommended particularly in Christchurch, where seismic activity continues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-free Policy in Philadelphia Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Ann C; Lee, Nora L; Pankiewicz, Aaron; Ward, Rikki; Shuster, Michelle; Ogbenna, Bethany Townsend; Wade, Anita; Boamah, Maxwell; Osayameh, Olufunlayo; Rule, Ana M; Szymkowiak, Dorota; Coffman, Ryan; Bragg, Virginius; Mallya, Giridhar

    2017-04-01

    Multi-unit housing environments remain significant sources of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, especially for vulnerable populations in subsidized housing. In Philadelphia, the largest US housing authority to implement smoke-free policies, we measured baseline resident smoking-related behaviors and attitudes, and longitudinal exposures to airborne nicotine, during policy development and implementation. In 4 communities, we collected data in 2013, 2014, and 2016, before and after introduction of comprehensive smoke-free policies, interviewing persons in 172 households, and monitoring air-borne nicotine in non-smoking homes and public areas. Average nicotine level differences across years were estimated with multi-level models. Fifty-six percent of respondents smoked. Only 37% of households were smoke-free, with another 41% restricting smoking by area or time of day. The number of locations with detectable nicotine did not differ before and after policy implementation, with approximately 20% of non-smoking homes and 70%-80% of public areas having detectable nicotine. However, public area nicotine levels were lower in 2016, after policy implementation, than in 2013 and 2014 (-0.19 μg/m 3 , p = .03). Findings suggest that initial policy implementation was associated with reduced SHS exposure in Philadelphia. As HUD strengthens smoke-free policies, SHS monitoring can be useful to educate stakeholders and build support for policy enforcement.

  19. Ecology of heavy metals - a regional and historical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, A; Tyler, G

    1969-01-01

    Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme, collected during 1968-1969 in northeastern Goetaland, the low-land areas and the ridge areas of Skane (southern Sweden) have been analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr. The concentration of these metals were significantly lower in the north-eastern area than in the areas of Skane, particularly in Pb, Ni, and Cr. Between the two areas in Skane differences were only established for Pb and Cu, with the largest concentrations in the humid ridge areas. The differences in the concentrations of these heavy metals between northeastern Goetaland and Skane will be explained by the geographical position with respect to the large industrial regions of Europe. Samples of the same species, collected in Skane 1870-1943 have also been analyzed. Significant increases during the decades around 1900 were demonstrated for Cu and Zn. In the concentrations of Ni a rapid rise has occurred since about 1920, when this metal was introduced in the world production. The content of Ni in the samples from 1969 is more than twice as large as in the samples collected before 1926. The historical trends in the concentrations of Pb have earlier been demonstrated (Ruehling and Tyler 1968). There is little doubt that the rise in the concentrations of these metals is an effect of a larger air-borne supply, originating from human activity. 8 references.

  20. Development of a method to measure the concentration of 14C in the stack air of nuclear power plants by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, B.; Hellborg, R.; Haakansson, K.; Wiebert, A.; Skog, G.

    1993-04-01

    C-14, a pure low-energetic beta-emitter, is produced through various nuclear reactions in nuclear power plants. Some of this C-14 is air-borne and is transported via the ventilation system through the stack of the power station and is integrated in living matter in the surroundings of the plant. The long half-life of the isotope (T1/2=5730 years) and the biological importance of carbon may lead to a not negligible contribution of the radiation dose for those living in the neighbourhood of nuclear power plants. C-14 has earlier been measured radiometrically with mainly two different methods, using proportional counters or liquid scintillators. In this report a new method is described, using an accelerator based technique. accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This technique has at least three advantages over the radiometrical methods. It requires only a few litres of gas per sample, which is 100-1000 times less compared to the radiometrical methods. It is insensitive to the beta and gamma rays from other radioactive isotopes in the stack air. The measuring time with AMS, about 20 minutes per sample, is considerably shorter compared to the radiometrical methods, which demand several hours per sample. The integrity of the AMS method is high and it might be convenient for regulatory supervision. (22 refs.)

  1. Retrieval of snow albedo and grain size using reflectance measurements in Himalayan basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Negi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, spectral reflectance measurements of Himalayan seasonal snow were carried out and analysed to retrieve the snow albedo and effective grain size. The asymptotic radiative transfer (ART theory was applied to retrieve the plane and spherical albedo. The retrieved plane albedo was compared with the measured spectral albedo and a good agreement was observed with ±10% differences. Retrieved integrated albedo was found within ±6% difference with ground observed broadband albedo. The retrieved snow grain sizes using different models based on the ART theory were compared for various snow types and it was observed that the grain size model using two channel method (one in visible and another in NIR region can work well for the Himalayan seasonal snow and it was found consistent with temporal changes in grain size. This method can work very well for clean, dry snow as in the upper Himalaya, but sometimes, due to the low reflectances (<20% using wavelength 1.24 μm, the ART theory cannot be applied, which is common in lower and middle Himalayan old snow. This study is important for monitoring the Himalayan cryosphere using air-borne or space-borne sensors.

  2. Pb-210 and Po-210 from active volcanoes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, K.; Uchida, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Ueno, K.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of volcanic areas is of considerable interest from the viewpoints of geochemistry, geophysics and also health physics, because these nuclides are the useful tracers for the estimation of the residence time or life time of aerosols, and give the significant radiation dose due to inhalation and ingestion through food stuffs. Since the establishment of Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University, in 1976, the measurement of environmental radioactivity has been one of the main subjects, and the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of Kagoshima was begun in 1987 to estimate the contribution from Volcano Sakurajima. In this study, the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in air borne particles collected with air samplers, volcanic ash and lava of volcano Sakurajima of which the age of eruption is known. Moreover, the Po-210 in the volcanic gas and sulfur sublimate in the samples collected in four active volcanoes in Hokkaido was measured. The experiment and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To accurately represent how conservation and efficiency policies affect energy demand, both direct and indirect impacts need to be included in the accounting. The indirect impacts are defined here as the resource savings that accrue over the fuel production chain, which when added to the energy consumed at the point of use, constitute the full-fuel- cycle (FFC) energy. This paper uses the accounting framework developed in (Coughlin 2012) to calculate FFC energy metrics as time series for the period 2010-2040. The approach is extended to define FFC metrics for the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air-borne pollutants. The primary focus is the types of energy used in buildings and industrial processes, mainly natural gas and electricity. The analysis includes a discussion of the fuel production chain for coal, which is used extensively for electric power generation, and for diesel and fuel oil, which are used in mining, oil and gas operations, and fuel distribution. Estimates of the energy intensity parameters make use of data and projections from the Energy Information Agency’s National Energy Modeling System, with calculations based on information from the Annual Energy Outlook 2012.

  4. IMPACT UPON ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION DUE TO DEFECTIVELY PRODUCED AND OPERATED VENTILATION SYSTEMS IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Małecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical (air-conditioning ventilation systems and equipment in the food industry may transfer various pathogenic bacteria causing, for instance, pneumonia (Legionellosis. Microclimate parameters in manufacturing shops felt by people are affected by: human factors (health, individual temperature perception etc, and non-human factors (air physical parameters, air freshness and cleanliness etc.. Microbiological contamination of process equipment, machines and systems such as ventilation and air-conditioning equipment causes growth of pathogenic bacteria. The amount of air supplied and removed from a room depends on its use and load of odours and hazardous material. As a result of dew point formation in ventilation systems may appear the so-called air-borne condensation nuclei on which steam settles when the air gets oversaturated. The air flow rate has a material influence upon comfortable conditions in human inhabited zones. In manufacturing shops where the highest air quality is a priority, radial disinfection by means of catalytic ionization is applied. In food industry manufacturing shops of higher microbiological standard, ventilation systems based on air re-circulation should not be used.

  5. The effects of electric forces on dust lifting: Preliminary studies with a numerical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, J F; Renno, N O

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric dust aerosols affect the Earth's climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and by modifying cloud properties. Recent experiments have indicated that electric fields produced in dusty phenomena such as dust storms and dust devils could enhance the emission of dust aerosols. However, the generation of electric fields in dusty phenomena is poorly understood. To address this problem, we present results from the first physically-based numerical model of electric fields in dust lifting. Our model calculates the motion and collisions of air-borne particles, as well as the charge transfer during these collisions. This allows us to simulate the formation of electric fields as a function of physical parameters, such as wind stress and soil properties. Preliminary model results show that electric fields can indeed enhance the lifting of soil particles. Moreover, they suggest that strong electric fields could trigger a positive feedback because increases in the concentration of charged particles strengthen the original electric field, which in turn lifts additional surface particles. We plan to further test and calibrate our model with experimental data.

  6. Radiation detectors for use in major public events: classification, requirements, main features, tests and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Elder Magalhães de

    2017-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, we have entered a new terrorism era. The possibility of the use of lost/stolen radioactive materials increases the probability of a radiological threat. The real goal intended with the use of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RRD or dirty bomb) or a Radiation Exposure Device (RDE) could be psychological in nature. Panic in the venues and surrounding area would cause more deaths than the RDD itself, therefore these attempts could cause chaos, injury, fear and terror, the main target of terrorists. The response of the national authorities with the support and aid of the IAEA served as an increase of the capability of detection and identification of nuclear and radiological materials. But this response could not be limited only to the MPE, because if the country has radioactive or nuclear facilities they also should be considered in terms of theft, sabotage, illegal transfer, unauthorized access, and any other malicious acts. In 2007, Rio de Janeiro, received the first Brazilian Major Public Event in this new era. This was the first Brazilian operation which largely utilized detectors (personal radiations detectors -PRD- radiological identification detectors, -RID or RIID- and spectral radiations scanners, -backpacks-, HPGe detectors, car-borne and air-borne systems) to protect the venues, the athletes, the population and the environment. (author)

  7. Secondary limits of exposure in facilities handling uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    1999-08-01

    Annual limits of exposure and intake for radiation workers in nuclear installations have been recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the same have been adopted by the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board for all the radionuclides of interest. The prescribed limits cannot be directly used for day to day radiation protection work. Hence secondary limits have to be derived for routine applications. The modeling steps may be simple in some situations and more complicated in some others. The limits recommended are for individual radionuclides. But in facilities handling natural or enriched uranium the radionuclides (isotopes of uranium and its decay products) generally occur together in specific ratios. Derivation of secondary limits has to take this into consideration. The present document is an attempt at deriving the secondary limits required for routine application in facilities handling uranium (Mine, mill, refineries and fuel fabrication etc.). Secondary limits of exposure have been derived in this document for air borne activity, activity in water, surface contamination and internal exposures. (author)

  8. Truncated Levy flights and agenda-based mobility are useful for the assessment of personal human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlink, Uwe; Ragas, Ad M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-oriented approaches can assess the individual-specific exposure to air pollution. In such an individual-based model we analyse the impact of human mobility to the personal exposure that is perceived by individuals simulated in an exemplified urban area. The mobility models comprise random walk (reference point mobility, RPM), truncated Levy flights (TLF), and agenda-based walk (RPMA). We describe and review the general concepts and provide an inter-comparison of these concepts. Stationary and ergodic behaviour are explained and applied as well as performance criteria for a comparative evaluation of the investigated algorithms. We find that none of the studied algorithm results in purely random trajectories. TLF and RPMA prove to be suitable for human mobility modelling, because they provide conditions for very individual-specific trajectories and exposure. Suggesting these models we demonstrate the plausibility of their results for exposure to air-borne benzene and the combined exposure to benzene and nonane. - Highlights: → Human exposure to air pollutants is influenced by a person's movement in the urban area. → We provide a simulation study of approaches to modelling personal exposure. → Agenda-based models and truncated Levy flights are recommended for exposure assessment. → The procedure is demonstrated for benzene exposure in an urban region. - Truncated Levy flights and agenda-based mobility are useful for the assessment of personal human exposure.

  9. Analytical and experimental investigation on transmission loss of clamped double panels: implication of boundary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2009-03-01

    The air-borne sound insulation performance of a rectangular double-panel partition clamp mounted on an infinite acoustic rigid baffle is investigated both analytically and experimentally and compared with that of a simply supported one. With the clamped (or simply supported) boundary accounted for by using the method of modal function, a double series solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) of the structure is obtained by employing the weighted residual (Galerkin) method. Experimental measurements with Al double-panel partitions having air cavity are subsequently carried out to validate the theoretical model for both types of the boundary condition, and good overall agreement is achieved. A consistency check of the two different models (based separately on clamped modal function and simply supported modal function) is performed by extending the panel dimensions to infinite where no boundaries exist. The significant discrepancies between the two different boundary conditions are demonstrated in terms of the STL versus frequency plots as well as the panel deflection mode shapes.

  10. Vibrometry Assessment of the External Thermal Composite Insulation Systems Influence on the Façade Airborne Sound Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Urbán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper verifies the impact of the use of an external thermal composite system (ETICS on air-borne sound insulation. For optimum accuracy over a wide frequency range, classical microphone based transmission measurements are combined with accelerometer based vibrometry measurements. Consistency is found between structural resonance frequencies and bending wave velocity dispersion curves determined by vibrometry on the one hand and spectral features of the sound reduction index, the ETICS mass-spring-mass resonance induced dip in the acoustic insulation spectrum, and the coincidence induced dip on the other hand. Scanning vibrometry proves to be an effective tool for structural assessment in the design phase of ETICS systems. The measured spectra are obtained with high resolution in wide frequency range, and yield sound insulation values are not affected by the room acoustic features of the laboratory transmission rooms. The complementarity between the microphone and accelerometer based results allows assessing the effect of ETICS on the sound insulation spectrum in an extended frequency range from 20 Hz to 10 kHz. The modified engineering ΔR prediction model for frequency range up to coincidence frequency of external plaster layer is recommended. Values for the sound reduction index obtained by a modified prediction method are consistent with the measured data.

  11. A HYBRID METHOD IN VEGETATION HEIGHT ESTIMATION USING POLINSAR IMAGES OF CAMPAIGN BIOSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehnavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been plenty of researches on the retrieval of forest height by PolInSAR data. This paper aims at the evaluation of a hybrid method in vegetation height estimation based on L-band multi-polarized air-borne SAR images. The SAR data used in this paper were collected by the airborne E-SAR system. The objective of this research is firstly to describe each interferometry cross correlation as a sum of contributions corresponding to single bounce, double bounce and volume scattering processes. Then, an ESPIRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques algorithm is implemented, to determine the interferometric phase of each local scatterer (ground and canopy. Secondly, the canopy height is estimated by phase differencing method, according to the RVOG (Random Volume Over Ground concept. The applied model-based decomposition method is unrivaled, as it is not limited to specific type of vegetation, unlike the previous decomposition techniques. In fact, the usage of generalized probability density function based on the nth power of a cosine-squared function, which is characterized by two parameters, makes this method useful for different vegetation types. Experimental results show the efficiency of the approach for vegetation height estimation in the test site.

  12. a Hybrid Method in Vegetation Height Estimation Using Polinsar Images of Campaign Biosar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavi, S.; Maghsoudi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, there have been plenty of researches on the retrieval of forest height by PolInSAR data. This paper aims at the evaluation of a hybrid method in vegetation height estimation based on L-band multi-polarized air-borne SAR images. The SAR data used in this paper were collected by the airborne E-SAR system. The objective of this research is firstly to describe each interferometry cross correlation as a sum of contributions corresponding to single bounce, double bounce and volume scattering processes. Then, an ESPIRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques) algorithm is implemented, to determine the interferometric phase of each local scatterer (ground and canopy). Secondly, the canopy height is estimated by phase differencing method, according to the RVOG (Random Volume Over Ground) concept. The applied model-based decomposition method is unrivaled, as it is not limited to specific type of vegetation, unlike the previous decomposition techniques. In fact, the usage of generalized probability density function based on the nth power of a cosine-squared function, which is characterized by two parameters, makes this method useful for different vegetation types. Experimental results show the efficiency of the approach for vegetation height estimation in the test site.

  13. Virtual georeferencing : how an 11-eyed video camera helps the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, C.

    2006-08-15

    Designed by Immersive Media Corporation (IMC) the new Telemmersion System is a lightweight camera system capable of generating synchronized high-resolution video streams that represent a full motion spherical world. With 11 cameras configured in a sphere, the system is portable and can be easily mounted on ground and air-borne vehicles for use in surveillance; integration; commanded control of interactive intelligent databases; scenario modelling; and specialized training. The system was recently used to georeference immersive video of existing and proposed pipeline routes. Footage from the system was used to supplement traditional data collection methods for environmental impact assessment; route selection and engineering; regulatory compliance; and public consultation. Traditionally, the medium used to visualize pipeline routes is a map overlaid with aerial photography. Pipeline routes are typically flown throughout the planning stages in order to give environmentalists, engineers and other personnel the opportunity to visually inspect the terrain, identify issues and make decisions. The technology has significantly reduced the costs during the planning stages of pipeline routes, as the remote footage can be stored on DVD, allowing various stakeholders and contractors to view the terrain and zoom in on particular land features. During one recent 3-day trip, 500 km of proposed pipeline was recorded using the technology. Typically, for various regulatory and environmental requirements, a half a dozen trips would have been required. 2 figs.

  14. Duox2-induced innate immune responses in the respiratory epithelium and intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using polymer that mediates immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2018-05-01

    Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism. In respiratory epithelium, Duox2-derived ROS is critical for recognition of virus through families retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) at the early stage of antiviral innate immune responses. Various secreted interferons (IFNs) play essential roles for antiviral host defense by downstream cell signaling, and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is started to suppress viral replication. Type I and type III IFNs are verified more responsible for influenza A virus (IAV) infection in respiratory epithelium and Duox2 is required to regulate IFN-related immune responses. Transient overexpression of Duox2 using cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) induces secretion of type I and type III IFNs and significantly attenuated IAV replication in respiratory epithelium. Here, we discuss Duox2-mediated antiviral innate immune responses and the role of Duox2 as a mucosal vaccine to resist respiratory viral infection.

  15. Mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow screen reduces air contamination in a simulated setting for intra-vitreal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Traversari, Roberto; van der Linden, Jan Willem; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Lapid, Oren; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of a mobile ultra-clean laminar airflow screen reduces the air-borne particle counts in the setting of a simulated procedure of an intra-vitreal injection. A mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow (UDF) screen was tested in a simulated procedure for intra-vitreal injections in a treatment room without mechanical ventilation. One UDF was passed over the instrument tray and the surgical area. The concentration of particles was measured in the background, over the instrument table, and next to the ocular area. The degree of protection was calculated at the instrument table and at the surgical site. Use of the UDF mobile screen reduced the mean particle concentration (particles > 0.3 microns) on the instrument table by a factor of at least 100.000 (p air contamination. Mobile UDF screen reduces the mean particle concentration substantially. The mobile UDF screen may therefore allow for a safer procedural environment for ambulatory care procedures such as intra-vitreal injections in treatment rooms.

  16. Space-borne clear air lidar measurements in the presence of broken cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Astin

    Full Text Available A number of proposed lidar systems, such as ESA’s AEOLUS (formerly ADM and DIAL missions (e.g. WALES are to make use of lidar returns in clear air. However, on average, two-thirds of the globe is covered in cloud. Hence, there is a strong likelihood that data from these instruments may be contaminated by cloud. Similarly, optically thick cloud may not be penetrated by a lidar pulse, resulting in unobservable regions that are overshadowed by the cloud. To address this, it is suggested, for example, in AEOLUS, that a number of consecutive short sections of lidar data (between 1 and 3.5 km in length be tested for cloud contamination or for overshadowing and only those that are unaffected by cloud be used to derive atmospheric profiles. The prob-ability of obtaining profiles to near ground level using this technique is investigated both analytically and using UV air-borne lidar data recorded during the CLARE’98 campaign. These data were measured in the presence of broken cloud on a number of flights over southern England over a four-day period and were chosen because the lidar used has the same wavelength, footprint and could match the along-track spacing of the proposed AEOLUS lidar.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; general circulation

  17. Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2014-04-01

    Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant׳s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Computerized methodology for evaluating the long-range radiological impact of shallow-land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized methodology has been implemented to calculate the risk to local and intermediate-range (up to 80 km distant) populations resulting from water- and air-borne transport of radionuclides present in low-level wastes buried in shallow trenches such as those used at Oak Ridge. Our computer code, PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations), was developed under United States Environmental Protection Agency funding to evaluate possible health effects resulting from shallow burial operations. Sources of contamination include radionuclide releases from the trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. The model is intended to predict radionuclide transport and the ensuing exposure and health impact to at-risk populations for a 1000-year period following cessation of burial ground operations. Several classes of submodels are used in PRESTO to represent scheduled event, unit system response, and risk evaluation processes. Examples of scheduled events are trench cap failure, stabilization of insoluble surface contaminant, the onset of farming or reclamation practices, and human intrusion. Unit system response submodels simulate processes such as infiltration of rainwater into the trench and erosion of soil overburden from the trench cover. System response submodels generate parameters used repeatedly in the 1000-year simulation loop

  19. CEMARAN JAMUR DAN INFESTASI LALAT PADA MAKANAN OLAHAN SIAP SAJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik St Aminah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional market and modem market (Supermarket sells many ready made food such as: ayam bumbu kuning, telur asin, pepes ikan, udang bumbu tepung, sosis sapi and bakso daging. Fast food should be sold fast otherwise it will be contaminated with fungi and bacteria, then the appearance of food will not be interesting and the quality of food became bad. The fungi will produce toxin, called mycotoxin. Mycotoxin will remain in the food although the fungi died. But some fungi can still alive at high temperature. Fungi which produce mycotoxin among others: A.jlavus. A.fongigatu.s, A.ochrachius, Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., and Geotricum sp. This preliminary study was able to examine the fungi grown in fast food, the input of spices used in ready made food. Flies investation was also observed. The results of the study showed that the spices can preserve the food since the spices can prevent the growth of the fungi which contaminated the food. Most of the fungi that contaminated the food is air borne fungi dan the atsiri oil of same spices can be used as repellent.   Keywords: fast food, fungi contamination, flies investation

  20. Radiation detectors for use in major public events: classification, requirements, main features, tests and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Elder Magalhães de, E-mail: elder@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (DIRAD/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiometria

    2017-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, we have entered a new terrorism era. The possibility of the use of lost/stolen radioactive materials increases the probability of a radiological threat. The real goal intended with the use of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RRD or dirty bomb) or a Radiation Exposure Device (RDE) could be psychological in nature. Panic in the venues and surrounding area would cause more deaths than the RDD itself, therefore these attempts could cause chaos, injury, fear and terror, the main target of terrorists. The response of the national authorities with the support and aid of the IAEA served as an increase of the capability of detection and identification of nuclear and radiological materials. But this response could not be limited only to the MPE, because if the country has radioactive or nuclear facilities they also should be considered in terms of theft, sabotage, illegal transfer, unauthorized access, and any other malicious acts. In 2007, Rio de Janeiro, received the first Brazilian Major Public Event in this new era. This was the first Brazilian operation which largely utilized detectors (personal radiations detectors -PRD- radiological identification detectors, -RID or RIID- and spectral radiations scanners, -backpacks-, HPGe detectors, car-borne and air-borne systems) to protect the venues, the athletes, the population and the environment. (author)

  1. Chemical composition of water from roofs in Gdansk, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakovski, Stefan; Tobiszewski, Marek; Simeonov, Vasil; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the assessment of roof runoff waters from the region of Gdansk collected during the winter season (2007/2008). The chemical analysis includes 16 chemical variables: major ions, PAHs and PCBs measured at 3 sampling sites for 6-14 rain events. Although the data set is of limited volume the statistical data treatment using self-organizing maps (SOM) reveals the main factors controlling roof runoff water quality even for a data set with small dimension. This effort for explanation of the identified factors by the possible emission sources of the urban environment and air-particulate formation seems to be very reliable. Additionally to the roof runoff water quality factors the rain events patterns are found: 'background' group of events and groups formally named 'PAHs', 'PCBs' and 'air-borne particles' - dominated events. The SOM classification results give an opportunity to uncover the role of roof 'impact' on the runoff waters. Rain runoff water quality is described by four latent factors and the 'roof' impact is uncovered. - Identification of the urban roof runoff water quality factors and 'roof' impact by self-organizing map classification.

  2. Climate risks by radioactive krypton-85 from nuclear fission. Atmospheric-electrical and air-chemical effects of ionizing radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollert, R.

    1994-01-01

    The study shows that krypton-85 from nuclear fission enhances air ionization and, thus, interferes with the atmospheric-electrical system and the water balance of the earth atmosphere. This is reason for concern: There are unforeseeable effects for weather and climate if the krypton-85 content of the earth atmosphere continues to rise. There may be a krypton-specific greenhouse effect and a collapse of the natural atmospheric-electrical field. In addition, human well-being may be expected to be impaired as a result of the diminished atmospheric-electrical field. There is also the risk of radiochemical actions and effects caused-by krypton-85-containing plumes in other air-borne pollutants like the latters' transformation to aggressive oxidants. This implies radiation smog and more acid rain in the countries exposed. This study summarizes findings gained in these issues by various sciences, analyses them and elaborates hypotheses on the actions and effects of krypton-85 on the air, the atmosphere and the climate. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Multi-location wheat stripe rust QTL analysis: genetic background and epistatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M Dolores; Zemetra, Robert; Peterson, C James; Chen, Xianming M; Heesacker, Adam; Mundt, Christopher C

    2015-07-01

    Epistasis and genetic background were important influences on expression of stripe rust resistance in two wheat RIL populations, one with resistance conditioned by two major genes and the other conditioned by several minor QTL. Stripe rust is a foliar disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the air-borne fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and is present in most regions around the world where commercial wheat is grown. Breeding for durable resistance to stripe rust continues to be a priority, but also is a challenge due to the complexity of interactions among resistance genes and to the wide diversity and continuous evolution of the pathogen races. The goal of this study was to detect chromosomal regions for resistance to stripe rust in two winter wheat populations, 'Tubbs'/'NSA-98-0995' (T/N) and 'Einstein'/'Tubbs' (E/T), evaluated across seven environments and mapped with diversity array technology and simple sequence repeat markers covering polymorphic regions of ≈1480 and 1117 cM, respectively. Analysis of variance for phenotypic data revealed significant (P located in chromosomes 2AS and 6AL, with epistatic interaction between them, were responsible for the main phenotypic response. For the T/N population, eight QTL were identified, with those in chromosomes 2AL and 2BL accounting for the largest percentage of the phenotypic variance.

  4. A holistic image segmentation framework for cloud detection and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Xu, Haotian; Blasch, Erik; Horvath, Gregory; Pham, Khanh; Zheng, Yufeng; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric clouds are commonly encountered phenomena affecting visual tracking from air-borne or space-borne sensors. Generally clouds are difficult to detect and extract because they are complex in shape and interact with sunlight in a complex fashion. In this paper, we propose a clustering game theoretic image segmentation based approach to identify, extract, and patch clouds. In our framework, the first step is to decompose a given image containing clouds. The problem of image segmentation is considered as a "clustering game". Within this context, the notion of a cluster is equivalent to a classical equilibrium concept from game theory, as the game equilibrium reflects both the internal and external (e.g., two-player) cluster conditions. To obtain the evolutionary stable strategies, we explore three evolutionary dynamics: fictitious play, replicator dynamics, and infection and immunization dynamics (InImDyn). Secondly, we use the boundary and shape features to refine the cloud segments. This step can lower the false alarm rate. In the third step, we remove the detected clouds and patch the empty spots by performing background recovery. We demonstrate our cloud detection framework on a video clip provides supportive results.

  5. Assessment of radiological impact due to a hypothetical core disruptive accident for PFBR using an advanced atmospheric dispersion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan, R.; Natarajan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radiological impact due to air borne effluent dispersion from a hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) scenario for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam coastal site is estimated using an advanced system consisting of a 3-d meso-scale atmospheric model and a random walk particle dispersion model. A simulation of dispersion for CDA carried out for a typical summer day on 24th May 2003 predicted development of land-sea breeze circulation and Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) at Kalpakkam site, which have been confirmed by observations. Analysis of dose distribution corresponding to predicted atmospheric conditions shows maximum dose from stack releases beyond the site boundary at about 4 km during TIBL fumigation and stable conditions respectively. A multi mode spatial concentration distribution has been noticed with diurnal meandering of wind under land sea breeze circulation. Over a meso-scale range of 25 km, turning of plume under sea breeze and maximum concentration along plume centerline at distances of 3 to 10 km have been noticed. The study has enabled to simulate the more complex meteorological situation that is actually present at the site. (author)

  6. Consequences of urban pollution on Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Lagos state Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), (Nigeria)

    2000-07-01

    In most urban areas, the major air pollutants as earlier highlighted are CO, PbO. SO{sub 2}. NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons, particulate matters and even excess CO{sub 2}. Some of these have direct effects on health while some are of indirect effects. Other common gaseous emissions from industries are toxic waste fumes and dust/ fluff from spinning, weaving and other processes. In most cases when not properly taken care of may lead to human and plant lives being endangered. For instance it is an established fact that prolonged inhalation of fluff can also lead to Prysinosis with attendant symptoms of chest tightening and pain. In advanced stage, the situation could lead to tuberculosis. Similarly, heavy air pollution leads to acute and chronic harmful effects such as chronic bronchitis, asthma. dermatitis allergy and hypersensitivity. The processing houses produce substantial quantity of volatile chemicals. which pollute the air and could result in health impairment in human beings. It is sad to note that most African Countries including Nigeria still use leaded gasoline. The air quality degradation by these pollutants causes or aggravates most of the respiratory and air-borne diseases like asthma. tuberculosis etc which are rampant in a typical urban city like Lagos. The chart below buttresses this fact. (author)

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water; April, 1978 to March, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The samples of rain and dry fallout, air-borne dust, service water and fresh water, soil, sea water, sea sediment, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfishes and seaweed, and fresh water fishes, their sampling and prior treatment are described. The methods of separating Sr-90 and Cs-137 and their measurement are explained. The estimations of stable Sr, K and Ca are made by atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame spectrophotometry and potassium permanganate titration, respectively. The general plan of radioactivity survey in Japan is shown. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea water obtained from April, 1978, to March, 1979, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months and the locations of sampling, Cl (%), sample volume analyzed (l), and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (pCi/l) are shown. The maximum values are 0.21 pCi/l of Sr-90 found in Osaka Bay in August, 1978, and 0.19 pCi/l of Cs-137 off Niigata Port in July, 1978. (Kako, I.)

  8. Noise evaluation of automotive A/C compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Sameh M.; Khalil, Mohamed I.; Abouel-seoud, Shawki A. [Automotive and Tractors Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Passenger compartment's interior noise and thermal performance are essential criteria for the driving comfort of vehicles. The air-conditioning system influences both field of comfort. It creates comfortable thermal conditions. On the other hand, the noise radiation of the air-condition system's components can be annoying. The blower, the air distribution ducts and the registers affect air rush noise. In some cases, the refrigerant flow creates hissing noise. Such noise has a great influence on vehicle acoustical comfort and on overall quality perception of a vehicle Therefore, the acoustic performance of air-condition compressors become more important for passenger comfort. At engine idling and at extreme temperatures the air-condition compressor can be audible as the significant sound source. However, the aim of this paper is to quantify air-borne noise characteristics of vehicle air-condition compressor. A simulated experimental model comprises a small wooden box with dimensions of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m represented the principle of hemi-anechoic room was designed and acoustic characteristics of the sound field inside the box were determined. The air-condition compressor characteristics parameters considered in this paper are fan position and electric motor speed. In addition, a single number of the air column natural frequency is calculated. The results indicate that significant information can be obtained in order to investigate the vehicle air-condition compressor and consequently improve the vehicle interior quietness.

  9. [Protecting Safety During Dust Fires and Dust Explosions - The Example of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Wu, Jia-Wun; Li, Ya-Cing; Tang, Jia-Suei; Hsieh, Chun-Chien

    2016-02-01

    This paper will explore the fire and explosion characteristics of cornstarch powder as well as strategies for protecting the safety of people who are involved a dust fire or dust explosion. We discuss the 5 elements of dust explosions and conduct tests to analyze the fire and explosion characteristics of differently colored powders (yellow, golden yellow, pink, purple, orange and green). The results show that, while all of the tested powders were difficult to ignite, low moisture content was associated with significantly greater risks of ignition and flame spread. We found the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of air-borne cornstarch powder to be between 385°C and 405°C, with yellow-colored cornstarch powder showing the highest AIT and pink-colored cornstarch powder showing the lowest AIT. The volume resistivity of all powder samples was approximately 108 Ω.m, indicating that they were nonconductive. Lighters and cigarettes are effective ignition sources, as their lit temperatures are higher than the AIT of cornstarch powder. In order to better protect the safety of individuals at venues where cornstarch powder is released, explosion control measures such as explosion containment facilities, vents, and explosion suppression and isolation devices should be installed. Furthermore, employees that work at these venues should be better trained in explosion prevention and control measures. We hope this article is a reminder to the public to recognize the fire and explosion characteristics of flammable powders as well as the preventive and control measures for dust explosions.

  10. Antifungal Paper Based on a Polyborneolacrylate Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqi Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Paper documents and products are very susceptible to microbial contamination and damage. Fungi are mainly responsible for those biodeterioration processes. Traditional microbicidal strategies constitute a serious health risk even when microbes are dead. Ideal methods should not be toxic to humans and should have no adverse effects on paper, but should own a broad spectrum, good chemical stability and low cost. In this work, we utilize an advanced antimicrobial strategy of surface stereochemistry by applying a coating of a shallow layer of polyborneolacrylate (PBA, resulting in the desired antifungal performance. The PBA-coated paper is challenged with the most common air-borne fungi growing on paper, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. Ten percent by weight of the coating concentration or a 19-μm infiltration of PBA is sufficient to keep the paper spotless. The PBA coating also exhibits significant inhibition of spores’ germination. After PBA coating, both physicochemical properties (paper whiteness, pH, mechanical strength and inking performance display only slight changes, which are acceptable for general utilization. This PBA coating method is nontoxic, rapid and cost-effective, thus demonstrating great potential for applications in paper products.

  11. Internal State Dependent Odor Processing and Perception—The Role of Neuromodulation in the Fly Olfactory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Sayin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals rely heavily on their sense of olfaction to perform various vital interactions with an ever-in-flux environment. The turbulent and combinatorial nature of air-borne odorant cues demands the employment of various coding strategies, which allow the animal to attune to its internal needs and past or present experiences. Furthermore, these internal needs can be dependent on internal states such as hunger, reproductive state and sickness. Neuromodulation is a key component providing flexibility under such conditions. Understanding the contributions of neuromodulation, such as sensory neuron sensitization and choice bias requires manipulation of neuronal activity on a local and global scale. With Drosophila's genetic toolset, these manipulations are feasible and even allow a detailed look on the functional role of classical neuromodulators such as dopamine, octopamine and neuropeptides. The past years unraveled various mechanisms adapting chemosensory processing and perception to internal states such as hunger and reproductive state. However, future research should also investigate the mechanisms underlying other internal states including the modulatory influence of endogenous microbiota on Drosophila behavior. Furthermore, sickness induced by pathogenic infection could lead to novel insights as to the neuromodulators of circuits that integrate such a negative postingestive signal within the circuits governing olfactory behavior and learning. The enriched emporium of tools Drosophila provides will help to build a concrete picture of the influence of neuromodulation on olfaction and metabolism, adaptive behavior and our overall understanding of how a brain works.

  12. Using Remote Sensing Data to Parameterize Ice Jam Modeling for a Northern Inland Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Slave River is a northern river in Canada, with ice being an important component of its flow regime for at least half of the year. During the spring breakup period, ice jams and ice-jam flooding can occur in the Slave River Delta, which is of benefit for the replenishment of moisture and sediment required to maintain the ecological integrity of the delta. To better understand the ice jam processes that lead to flooding, as well as the replenishment of the delta, the one-dimensional hydraulic river ice model RIVICE was implemented to simulate and explore ice jam formation in the Slave River Delta. Incoming ice volume, a crucial input parameter for RIVICE, was determined by the novel approach of using MODIS space-born remote sensing imagery. Space-borne and air-borne remote sensing data were used to parameterize the upstream ice volume available for ice jamming. Gauged data was used to complement modeling calibration and validation. HEC-RAS, another one-dimensional hydrodynamic model, was used to determine ice volumes required for equilibrium jams and the upper limit of ice volume that a jam can sustain, as well as being used as a threshold for the volumes estimated by the dynamic ice jam simulations using RIVICE. Parameter sensitivity analysis shows that morphological and hydraulic properties have great impacts on the ice jam length and water depth in the Slave River Delta.

  13. Odors pulsed at wing beat frequencies are tracked by primary olfactory networks and enhance odor detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreejoy Tripathy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Each down stroke of an insect’s wings accelerates axial airflow over the antennae. Modeling studies suggest that this can greatly enhance penetration of air and air-born odorants through the antennal sensilla thereby periodically increasing odorant-receptor interactions. Do these periodic changes result in entrainment of neural responses in the antenna and antennal lobe (AL? Does this entrainment affect olfactory acuity? To address these questions, we monitored antennal and AL responses in the moth Manduca sexta while odorants were pulsed at frequencies from 10-72 Hz, encompassing the natural wingbeat frequency. Power spectral density (PSD analysis was used to identify entrainment of neural activity. Statistical analysis of PSDs indicates that the antennal nerve tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz. Furthermore, at least 50% of AL local field potentials (LFPs and between 7-25% of unitary spiking responses also tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz in a frequency-locked manner. Application of bicuculline (200µM abolished pulse tracking in both LFP and unitary responses suggesting that GABAA receptor activation is necessary for pulse tracking within the AL. Finally, psychophysical measures of odor detection establish that detection thresholds are lowered when odor is pulsed at 20 Hz. These results suggest that AL networks can respond to the oscillatory dynamics of stimuli such as those imposed by the wing beat in a manner analogous to mammalian sniffing.

  14. Analyte induced water adsorbability in gas phase biosensors: the influence of ethinylestradiol on the water binding protein capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopok, Borys; Kruglenko, Ivanna

    2015-05-07

    An ultra-sensitive gas phase biosensor/tracer/bio-sniffer is an emerging technology platform designed to provide real-time information on air-borne analytes, or those in liquids, through classical headspace analysis. The desired bio-sniffer measures gaseous 17α- ethinylestradiol (ETED) as frequency changes on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which is a result of the interactions of liquid sample components in the headspace (ETED and water) with a biorecognition layer. The latter was constructed by immobilization of polyclonal antiserum against a phenolic A-ring of estrogenic receptors through protein A. The QCM response exhibited stretched exponential kinetics of negative frequency shifts with reversible and "irreversible" components of mass uptake onto the sensor surface in static headspace conditions when exposed to water solutions of ETED over the sensor working range, from 10(-10) to 10(-17) g L(-1). It was shown that the variations in the QCM response characteristics are due to the change of the water-binding capacity of the sensing layer induced by protein transformations initiated by the binding of ETED molecules. This result is well correlated with the natural physiological function of estrogens in controlling the homeostasis of body fluids in living beings.

  15. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow Depth on Antarctic Sea Ice: An Inter-Comparison of Two Empirical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a key role for sea ice physical processes and complicates retrieval of sea ice thickness using altimetry. Current methods of snow depth retrieval are based on satellite microwave radiometry, which perform best for dry, homogeneous snow packs on level sea ice. We introduce an alternative approach based on in-situ measurements of total (sea ice plus snow freeboard and snow depth, which we use to compute snow depth on sea ice from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat total freeboard observations. We compare ICESat snow depth for early winter and spring of the years 2004 through 2006 with the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E snow depth product. We find ICESat snow depths agree more closely with ship-based visual and air-borne snow radar observations than AMSR-E snow depths. We obtain average modal and mean ICESat snow depths, which exceed AMSR-E snow depths by 5–10 cm in winter and 10–15 cm in spring. We observe an increase in ICESat snow depth from winter to spring for most Antarctic regions in accordance with ground-based observations, in contrast to AMSR-E snow depths, which we find to stay constant or to decrease. We suggest satellite laser altimetry as an alternative method to derive snow depth on Antarctic sea ice, which is independent of snow physical properties.

  16. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  17. A Dual-Wavelength Radar Technique to Detect Hydrometeor Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of a Ku- and Ka-band space/air-borne dual wavelength radar algorithm to discriminate various phase states of precipitating hydrometeors. A phase-state classification algorithm has been developed from the radar measurements of snow, mixed-phase and rain obtained from stratiform storms. The algorithm, presented in the form of the look-up table that links the Ku-band radar reflectivities and dual-frequency ratio (DFR) to the phase states of hydrometeors, is checked by applying it to the measurements of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Airborne Precipitation Radar Second Generation (APR-2). In creating the statistically-based phase look-up table, the attenuation corrected (or true) radar reflectivity factors are employed, leading to better accuracy in determining the hydrometeor phase. In practice, however, the true radar reflectivities are not always available before the phase states of the hydrometeors are determined. Therefore, it is desirable to make use of the measured radar reflectivities in classifying the phase states. To do this, a phase-identification procedure is proposed that uses only measured radar reflectivities. The procedure is then tested using APR-2 airborne radar data. Analysis of the classification results in stratiform rain indicates that the regions of snow, mixed-phase and rain derived from the phase-identification algorithm coincide reasonably well with those determined from the measured radar reflectivities and linear depolarization ratio (LDR).

  18. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  19. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the capital iron and steel company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chifang, Chai; Xiaolin, Hou; Qinfang, Qian; Wenjun, Ding; Xiangqian, Feng [Institute of High Energy Physics and Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China); Minxu, Kuang; Hongyu, Wang; Yongchen, Zhang [General Hospital of the Capital Iron and Steel Company, Beijing (China)

    1999-12-31

    The atmosphere pollution in some Chinese cities is becoming more and more serious with the industrial development in the past decades. The airborne particulate concentration in Beijing, the Capital of China, far exceeds the allowable level set by the Chinese government and by the related international organizations. The main contribution source for the Beijing atmospheric particulate is the Capital Iron and Steel Company, which constitutes 55% of total air-borne particulate in Beijing. In the framework of this CRP organized by IAEA, we select this company as a target workplace. The INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission analysis), SRXRF (synchronous radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and other related techniques will be applied to determine the concentrations of some target elements, e.g. heavy metal and toxic elements, in environmental samples (including airborne particulate, soil and plants) and human samples (including head hair, urine and blood) collected from this company, its surrounding region and a non-polluted region as a control. The activity completed at the first year and the working plan for next year is outlined in this report. Other related information will be dealt with as well. (author) 7 refs, 1 tab

  20. Home educating in an extended family culture and aging society may fare best during a pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Wayne; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-09-28

    Large cities can contain populations that move rapidly from one section to another in an efficient transportation network. An emerging air-borne or contact based pathogen could use these transportation routes to rapidly spread an infection throughout an entire population in a short time. Further, in many developed countries, the aging population is increasing. The family structure in these societies may also affect the course of a disease. To help understand the impact of an epidemic on family structure in a networked population, an individual based computer model that randomly generates networked cities with a specified range of population and disease characteristics and individual schedules, infectivity, transmission and hygiene factors was developed. Several salient issues emerged. First, a city of highly active individuals may in fact diminish the number of fatalities because the average duration of the interactions between agents is reduced. Second, home schooling can significantly improve survival because the institutional clustering of weak individuals is minimized. Third, the worst scenario for an aging population is the nuclear family where the aged population is confined to large housing facilities. Naturally, hygiene is the first barrier to infection. The results suggest that societies where extended families and small groups manage most of their own affairs may also be the most suitable for defense against a pandemic. This may prove applicable in city planning and policy making.

  1. Ventilation criteria for IDMS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Both Facility Evaluation Board (FEB) reviews of the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) have identified the inconsistency of the current IDMS Process Hazards Review (PHR) versus actual IDMS practice as regards the criteria to contain air borne pollutants that may be present in the Process Room (e.g. benzene and mercury). The PHR states that a 1.0 in. wc pressure differential be maintained between the IDMS Process Room and Building 672-T. In addition, the PHR further specifies that the linear velocity through openings into the Process Room (e.g. open doors) be equal to or greater than 150 fpm. Finally, the PHR recommended that mercury vapor and benzene monitors be installed in the Process Room ventilation exhaust to alert personnel to the presence of vapors of benzene and/or mercury before entering the Process Room. This report summarizes the results of reassessment of these criteria and the specific recommendation for permanent installation of mercury and benzene vapor monitors in the vapor exhaust of the Process Room

  2. Effect of surrounding gas temperature on the morphological evolution of TiO2 nanoparticles generated by laser ablation in tubular furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masayuki; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Titanium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by laser ablation of Ti target in oxygen atmosphere under well-controlled temperature profiles in a tubular furnace. The size and the shape of generated nanoparticles are varied by changing the temperature of furnace. The mobility-based size distributions of generated air-borne nanoparticles are measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer, and the size distributions of primary particles are analyzed by a scanning electron microscope. When the particles are generated by laser ablation at the room temperature, the particles are agglomerates in gas phase with the average mobility diameter of 117 nm and the mean diameter of primary particles of 11 nm. The primary particle diameter increases from 11 to 24 nm by raising the furnace temperature up to 800 °C. Since the mass of Ti vapor ablated from a target is found to be constant regardless of the furnace temperature, this particle growth may be attributed to the reduction in nuclei number as a result of mild quenching at higher temperatures. As the temperature reaches higher than 1,000 °C, the mobility diameter suddenly drops and the primary particle diameter increases due to sintering, and at 1,200 °C the mobility diameter coincides with the primary particle diameter. Since the laser oven method offers an independent control of vapor concentration and the temperature of surrounding atmosphere, it is an effective tool to study the formation process of nanoparticles from primary particles with a given size.

  3. Characterizing post-industrial changes in the ocean carbon cycle in an Earth system model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy S.; Chikamoto, Megumi O. (Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Minnesota, MN (United States)), e-mail: katsumi@umn.edu; Ridgwell, Andy (School of Geographical Sciences, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom))

    2010-10-22

    Understanding the oceanic uptake of carbon from the atmosphere is essential for better constraining the global budget, as well as for predicting the air-borne fraction of CO{sub 2} emissions and thus degree of climate change. Gaining this understanding is difficult, because the 'natural' carbon cycle, the part of the global carbon cycle unaltered by CO{sub 2} emissions, also responds to climate change and ocean acidification. Using a global climate model of intermediate complexity, we assess the evolution of the natural carbon cycle over the next few centuries. We find that physical mechanisms, particularly Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and gas solubility, alter the natural carbon cycle the most and lead to a significant reduction in the overall oceanic carbon uptake. Important biological mechanisms include reduced organic carbon export production due to reduced nutrient supply, increased organic carbon production due to higher temperatures and reduced CaCO{sub 3} production due to increased ocean acidification. A large ensemble of model experiments indicates that the most important source of uncertainty in ocean uptake projections in the near term future are the upper ocean vertical diffusivity and gas exchange coefficient. By year 2300, the model's climate sensitivity replaces these two and becomes the dominant factor as global warming continues

  4. Investigations of the emission of radionuclides from coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1980-02-01

    Samples of coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash and 4 sieve fractions of collected fly ash from various electrostatic filter stages as well as samples of escaping fly ash, all taken simultaneously on 3 operating-days, have been investigated. In samples from coal through fly ash sieve fractions U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Pb-210 and K-40 have been determined by γ-spectrometry, Po-210 by chemical separation with subsequent α-spectrometry. In escaping fly ash samples, which are available in small amounts only (ca. 1 g or less), after chemical separation U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228 and Po-210 were determined by α-spectrometry and Pb-210 by low-level β-counting. Furthermore, Po-210 has been determined by direct α-spectrometry in several particle size fractions collected with a cascade impactor from the exhaust stream. The analytical procedures, which partially had to be developed for the purposes of the present study, are presented shortly. Specific activities of escaping fly ash are in good agreement with specific activities of the fly ash collected from the last electrostatic precipitator stage, provided that, for the latter, the particle size distribution in escaping fly ash is taken into account. Using these specific activities annual air-borne radionuclide emissions are calculated. The resulting activity concentrations in ground level air are compared to values of natural radioactivity. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Investigation of the fluctuation range of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.

    1985-01-01

    Daily and seasonal concentration fluctuations of short-lived Rn fission products observed and the seasonal and long-term concentration fluctuations of Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, K-40 and Be-7 are discussed; the frequency distributions of the concentration values are illustrated. For a period of several years, the following mean values of activity concentrations were found (μBq/m 3 ): Pb-210: 600 Ra-226: 1.3 K-40: 13, Po-210: 33 Ra-228: 0.5 Be-7: 3700. In accordance with the origin from the soil, there is a significant correlation between the respective activity concentration and air-borne dust concentration for Ra-226, Ra-228, and K-40. The investigation revealed a most significant correlation between the Pb-210 concentration and the stagnancy index, the latter being a measure for the degree of blending of the surface layer of air. The resuspension factors found for Ra-226 and Pb-210 are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Humidification of unwrapped chilled meat on retail display using an ultrasonic fogging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim; Corry, Janet E L; Evans, Judith A

    2007-12-01

    The effects of an ultrasonic humidification system on unwrapped meat in a chilled retail display cabinet were assessed. Humidification raised the relative humidity of the cabinet air from a mean of 76.7% to just below saturation at 98.8%. This reduced the mean evaporative weight loss from whole samples of meat after 14h from 1.68% to 0.62% of their initial weight. The rate of deterioration in the appearance of the meat due to dehydration was reduced to the extent that while the unhumidified trial was terminated after 14h because all samples were judged to be unacceptable, the humidified trial was continued for 24h without any major changes in appearance. Levels of presumptive pseudomonas bacteria were relatively high in water samples taken from the humidification system and defrost water during the humidified trial, but Legionella spp. were not isolated. Significant increases in the numbers of bacteria on the meat during either trial were only found in one case, that of humidified minced beef. However, some of the samples had high counts even before display, and this may have masked any effect due to humidification. Differences in levels of air-borne contamination were small and inconsistent. Air temperatures were raised by humidification by between 1 and 2°C and this was reflected in similarly raised product temperatures. Temperatures of air leaving the evaporator indicated that this was due to icing of the evaporator in the periods leading up to defrosts.

  7. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Park, Kyung Bae; Chung, Yong Sam; Chung, Young Ju; Bang, Hong Sik; Han, Hyun Soo; Shin, Byung Chul; Park, Choon Deuk; Han, Kwang Hee; Shin, Hun Young; Park, Woong Woo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Jin Kyung; Kim, Seung Jun

    1994-07-01

    To increase the production of RI and labelled compounds utilizing the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR), development of P-32 production process, devices and tools of neutron irradiation use, GMP facilities of radiopharmaceuticals, Dy-165/Ho-166 macroaggregate of radiation synovectomy use for rheumatoid archritis have been carried out, respectively. To utilize NAA in analysis of environmental samples, experimental studies on air borne samples have also been carried out. An efficient P-32 production process obtaining high recovery of >98% with sufficiently high radionuclidic purity of >99% has been established through reaction 32 S(n,p) 32 P and subsequent reduced pressure distillation purification. Various capsules, loading/unloading device for capsule/rigs, cole-welder for capsules, checking instrument for capsule sealing, working table/tools, transfer cask for the irradiated targets, etc. have been developed. To maintain cleanliness inside of hot cells, a modification has been proposed, and a two door type autoclave usable in GMP facility has been prepared. An efficient way of preparation of the Dy-165/Ho-166 macroaggregate of radiation synovectomy use as well as its clinical application scheme has been developed. A suitable process of environmental sample analyses has been established by carrying out NAA of standard/reference samples as well as airborne dust samples. (Author)

  8. Distribution and diversity of airborne microflora under mangrove forest at sandspit area karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim, K.; Khan, M.U.; Ali, Q.M.; Ahmed, M.; Shaukat, S.S.; Sherwani, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi and bacteria are heterotrophic decomposers that grow on organic matter and occupy various habitats in mangrove forests. This paper deals with the distribution and diversity of air-borne microbiota (fungi and bacteria) under a mangrove forest at Sandspit, Pakistan. A permanent stand was set up at Sandspit to observe the qualitative and quantitative variations throughout the year, using petri plate techniques. During the study, a total of 16 fungal species, viz., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. sulphureus, A. terreus, A. wentii, A. flavus, Alternaria alternata, A. maritima, A. porri, Alternaria sp., Rhizopus varians, Mucormucedo, Penicillium sp., P. notatum, Dreshellera biseptata, Exosporiella fungorum, Cladosporium oxysporum and 14420 +- 267 bacterial colonies were recorded from the selected site. The study revealed that the fungi were the major component of airborne microflora in mangrove environment. It was observed that both fungal species and number of bacterial colonies were higher in summer than in winter. It is anticipated that the temperature and salinity of sea-water directly affect the diversity of fungi and bacteria in mangroves environment. The maximum diversity H' (1.906) was recorded in August whereas the minimum H' (1.053) was recorded in March. It is hoped that this research will add to our knowledge pertaining to the distribution and diversity of the airborne microbiota (bacteria and fungi) in mangrove ecosystem. (author)

  9. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil; April, 1977 to September, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The samples of rain and dry fallout, air-borne dust, service water and fresh water, soil, sea water, sea sediment, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfishes and sea weed, and fresh water fishes, their sampling and prior treatment are described. The methods of separating Sr-90 and Cs-137 and their measurement are explained. The estimations of stable Sr, K and Ca are made by atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame spectrophotometry and potassium permanganate titration, respectively. The general plan of radioactivity survey in Japan is shown. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in soil obtained from April to September, 1977, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months, the locations and the depth of sampling, air soil (%), Sr(%) and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (pCi/kg or mCi/km 2 ) are shown. The maximum values are 55 mCi/km 2 of Sr-90 and 150 mCi/km 2 of Cs-137 found in Obama, Nagasaki Prefecture, in July, 1977. (Kako, I.)

  10. SMART instruments for radiological surveillance at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, K.A.; Jauhri, G.S.; Ganesh, G.; Kulkarni, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The back end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle mainly consists of Fuel Reprocessing Plant and Waste Management Plant for treatment of different types of wastes generated during processing of spent fuel. A fuel reprocessing plant handles annually several million curies of fission product activity and few hundred kg of plutonium. A Waste Management Facility associated with a reprocessing plant also handles several million curies of fission product activity. In both the plants several types of radiological measurements have to be carried out to ensure that the individual doses are well below regulatory limits and release of radioactivity to environment (through stack and through liquid effluent) is below the limit stipulated in technical specifications of the plant. The measurements comprise individual external dose, measurement of radiation level in different areas of the plant, assessment of air-borne activity due to plutonium and fission products in different areas of the plant, radioactivity release to environment through liquid effluents and through stack. In order to carry out the above mentioned measurements large number of different types of instruments are required. The existing instruments are analog instruments. These instruments have served well. However they have certain limitations with respect to flexibility and extra functionality. In this respect the 'SMART' instruments have distinct advantages. The advantages, that are offered by the 'SMART' instrument in making the radiological surveillance programme more effective, are brought out in the paper. (author)

  11. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinger, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.) [de

  12. Energy performance of three Airtight Drywall Approach houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Mayhew, W.J.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess a new constructon technique, the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA), as it was implemented in three test houses, and to compare the performance of these houses against three control houses typical of residential construction techniques in Alberta. The study focussed on four aspects of house performance integrity of the air barrier system, energy conservation. ventilation, and indoor air quality, and the development and demonstration of computer-based field monitoring techniques. Data were gathered through continuous computer-based measurements, regular site visits, manual measurements, homeowner interviews, and special site tests. The results of the air-leakage tests indicated that ADA is an effective method of reducing air infiltration in homes. The floor joist sealing technique used in the ADA houses was observed to deteriorate within a year of construction. It is no longer recommended. The monitoring results showed a significant reduction in energy consumption in the homes with energy conservation features. Measurements of air-borne contaminants indicated that the ADA test homes performed similar to other energy-efficient homes monitored across Canada and that pollutant levels were within accepted guidelines. 6 refs., 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Nature Run for the North Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Region: System Evaluation and Regional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, V.; Androulidakis, I.; Halliwell, G. R., Jr.; Kang, H.; Mehari, M. F.; Atlas, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype ocean Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) system, first developed and data validated in the Gulf of Mexico, has been applied on the extended North Atlantic Ocean hurricane region. The main objectives of this study are: a) to contribute toward a fully relocatable ocean OSSE system by expanding the Gulf of Mexico OSSE to the North Atlantic Ocean; b) demonstrate and quantify improvements in hurricane forecasting when the ocean component of coupled hurricane models is advanced through targeted observations and assimilation. The system is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and has been applied on a 1/250 Mercator mesh for the free-running Nature Run (NR) and on a 1/120 Mercator mesh for the data assimilative forecast model (FM). A "fraternal twin" system is employed, using two different realizations for NR and FM, each configured to produce substantially different physics and truncation errors. The NR has been evaluated using a variety of available observations, such as from AVISO, GDEM climatology and GHRSST observations, plus specific regional products (upper ocean profiles from air-borne instruments, surface velocity maps derived from the historical drifter data set and tropical cyclone heat potential maps derived from altimetry observations). The utility of the OSSE system to advance the knowledge of regional air-sea interaction processes related to hurricane activity is demonstrated in the Amazon region (salinity induced surface barrier layer) and the Gulf Stream region (hurricane impact on the Gulf Stream extension).

  14. Pb-210 and Po-210 from active volcanoes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K; Uchida, K; Yamamoto, M; Ueno, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan)

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of volcanic areas is of considerable interest from the viewpoints of geochemistry, geophysics and also health physics, because these nuclides are the useful tracers for the estimation of the residence time or life time of aerosols, and give the significant radiation dose due to inhalation and ingestion through food stuffs. Since the establishment of Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University, in 1976, the measurement of environmental radioactivity has been one of the main subjects, and the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of Kagoshima was begun in 1987 to estimate the contribution from Volcano Sakurajima. In this study, the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in air borne particles collected with air samplers, volcanic ash and lava of volcano Sakurajima of which the age of eruption is known. Moreover, the Po-210 in the volcanic gas and sulfur sublimate in the samples collected in four active volcanoes in Hokkaido was measured. The experiment and the results are reported. (K.I.).

  15. Acoustic system for pipe rupture monitoring and leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, W.; Jonas, H.

    1982-06-01

    As a safety aspect pipe rupture and leakage effects are of particular interest in nuclear power plants where severe consequences for the reactor may result. Counter measures against postulated pipe breaks and leakages in nuclear power plants are necessary whenever the main safety goals: safe shut-down, safe afterheat removal and retention of radioactivity, are endangered. The requirements to be met by a leak detection system depend on the time available for counter actions. If this time is short so that automatic actions are necessary the German safety criteria for nuclear power plants (Criterion 6.1) require two physically diverse signals to be monitored. One fairly obvious possibility of leak detection is to monitor process parameters (pressure, flow). As a diverse signal physical parameters outside the process may be employed: pressure transients temperature, humidity are principally suitable. In practical application, however, it is difficult to predict these parameters by way of calculation in order to establish the required set-point of the monitoring system. Experimental determination is possible only in special cases. A study of several ways of diverse leak detection methods leads to the very promising acoustic method. We investigated experimentally the feasibility of monitoring the sound created by a leakage. Air borne sound as well as body borne sound was analyzed

  16. The Need for Accurate Geometric and Radiometric Corrections of Drone-Borne Hyperspectral Data for Mineral Exploration: MEPHySTo—A Toolbox for Pre-Processing Drone-Borne Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drone-borne hyperspectral imaging is a new and promising technique for fast and precise acquisition, as well as delivery of high-resolution hyperspectral data to a large variety of end-users. Drones can overcome the scale gap between field and air-borne remote sensing, thus providing high-resolution and multi-temporal data. They are easy to use, flexible and deliver data within cm-scale resolution. So far, however, drone-borne imagery has prominently and successfully been almost solely used in precision agriculture and photogrammetry. Drone technology currently mainly relies on structure-from-motion photogrammetry, aerial photography and agricultural monitoring. Recently, a few hyperspectral sensors became available for drones, but complex geometric and radiometric effects complicate their use for geology-related studies. Using two examples, we first show that precise corrections are required for any geological mapping. We then present a processing toolbox for frame-based hyperspectral imaging systems adapted for the complex correction of drone-borne hyperspectral imagery. The toolbox performs sensor- and platform-specific geometric distortion corrections. Furthermore, a topographic correction step is implemented to correct for rough terrain surfaces. We recommend the c-factor-algorithm for geological applications. To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the applicability of the corrected dataset for lithological mapping and mineral exploration.

  17. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Control of Fe(O,OH)6 nano-network structures of rust for high atmospheric-corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masao; Kihira, Hiroshi; Ohta, Noriaki; Hashimoto, Misao; Senuma, Takehide

    2005-01-01

    A new-type of weathering steel containing 3.0 mass% Ni and 0.4 mass% Cu ('advanced weathering steel') exhibits good atmospheric-corrosion resistance in an atmosphere containing relatively high air-born salinity. Here, we show that the high performance was successfully achieved by controlling Fe(O,OH) 6 nano-network structures of rust formed on their surfaces. A novel technique using synchrotron radiation has been developed for the in situ observation of rust-formation during wet-dry cycles. It has been revealed that the evolution of Fe(O,OH) 6 nano-network structures of rust formed on the advanced weathering steel was more unique than those of conventional weathering steel and mild steel. At an early stage of reaction, Fe 2 NiO 4 and CuO phases precipitate, which provide sites for the nucleation of the Fe(O,OH) 6 nano-network resulting in the formation of rust composed of fine and dense-packed grains. The existence of Fe 2 NiO 4 in the nano-network changes the ion-exchanging properties of rust from anion to cation selective. Then, the rust on the advanced weathering steel 'breathes out' chloride ions from the rust/steel interface, and protects steel for more than a century by reducing the life cycle maintenance cost in an environment-friendly manner

  19. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the capital iron and steel company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Chifang; Hou Xiaolin; Qian Qinfang; Ding Wenjun; Feng Xiangqian; Kuang Minxu; Wang Hongyu; Zhang Yongchen

    1998-01-01

    The atmosphere pollution in some Chinese cities is becoming more and more serious with the industrial development in the past decades. The airborne particulate concentration in Beijing, the Capital of China, far exceeds the allowable level set by the Chinese government and by the related international organizations. The main contribution source for the Beijing atmospheric particulate is the Capital Iron and Steel Company, which constitutes 55% of total air-borne particulate in Beijing. In the framework of this CRP organized by IAEA, we select this company as a target workplace. The INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission analysis), SRXRF (synchronous radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and other related techniques will be applied to determine the concentrations of some target elements, e.g. heavy metal and toxic elements, in environmental samples (including airborne particulate, soil and plants) and human samples (including head hair, urine and blood) collected from this company, its surrounding region and a non-polluted region as a control. The activity completed at the first year and the working plan for next year is outlined in this report. Other related information will be dealt with as well. (author)

  20. Do circadian genes and ambient temperature affect substrate-borne signalling during Drosophila courtship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izarne Medina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Courtship vibratory signals can be air-borne or substrate-borne. They convey distinct and species-specific information from one individual to its prospective partner. Here, we study the substrate-borne vibratory signals generated by the abdominal quivers of the Drosophila male during courtship; these vibrations travel through the ground towards courted females and coincide with female immobility. It is not known which physical parameters of the vibrations encode the information that is received by the females and induces them to pause. We examined the intervals between each vibratory pulse, a feature that was reported to carry information for animal communication. We were unable to find evidence of periodic variations in the lengths of these intervals, as has been reported for fly acoustical signals. Because it was suggested that the genes involved in the circadian clock may also regulate shorter rhythms, we search for effects of period on the interval lengths. Males that are mutant for the period gene produced vibrations with significantly altered interpulse intervals; also, treating wild type males with constant light results in similar alterations to the interpulse intervals. Our results suggest that both the clock and light/dark cycles have input into the interpulse intervals of these vibrations. We wondered if we could alter the interpulse intervals by other means, and found that ambient temperature also had a strong effect. However, behavioural analysis suggests that only extreme ambient temperatures can affect the strong correlation between female immobility and substrate-borne vibrations.

  1. Detection of oral streptococci in dental unit water lines after therapy with air turbine handpiece: biological fluid retraction more frequent than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Moroni, Catia; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-03-01

    Oral streptococci detected in water from dental unit water lines (DUWLs) are a surrogate marker of patients' biological fluid retraction during therapy. We investigated oral streptococci detection rate in DUWLs in a representative sample of private offices in real-life conditions. Samples of nondisinfected water (100 ml) were collected from the DUWL designated for the air turbine handpiece in 81 dental units, immediately after dental treatment of patients with extensive air turbine handpiece use. Water was filtered and plated on a selective medium for oral streptococci and, morphologically, typical colonies of oral streptococci were counted. The lowest detection limit was 0.01 CFU/ml. The oral streptococci detection rate was 72% (95% CI: 62-81%), with a mean level of 0.7 CFU/ml. Oral streptococci detection was not affected by handpiece age or dental treatment type, but was associated with dental unit age. Biological fluid retraction into DUWLs during patient treatment and, possibly, the risk for patient-to-patient blood- or air-borne pathogen transmission are more frequent than expected.

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in marine sediment; April, 1978 to March, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The samples of rain and dry fallout, air-borne dust, service water and fresh water, soil, sea water, sea sediment, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfishes and seaweed, and fresh water fishes, their sampling and prior treatment are described. The methods of separating Sr-90 and Cs-137 and their measurement are explained. The estimations of stable Sr, K and Ca are made by atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame spectrophotometry and potassium permanganate titration, respectively. The general plan of radioactivity survey in Japan is shown. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea sediment obtained from April, 1978, to March, 1979, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months and the locations of sampling, depth (m), and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (pCi/kg) are shown. The maximum values are 17 pCi/kg of Sr-90 found in Mutsu Bay and 180 pCi/kg of Cs-137 in Ajisu, Yamaguchi Prefecture, in August, 1978. (Kako, I.)

  3. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - II: Measurement and effects of an enhanced evaporation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Yee, J.L.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of salt spray drift from pilot technologies employed by the US Bureau of Reclamation on deposition rates of various air-born ions. An enhanced evaporation system (EES) was tested in the field at the Salton Sea, California. Dry deposition of NO3-, NH4+, SO42-, Cl-, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Se was assessed by using nylon filters and branches of natural vegetation exposed for one-week long periods. The simultaneous exposure of both lyophilized branches and branches of live plants offered important information highlighting the dynamics of deposited ions on vegetation. The EES significantly increased the deposition rates of Cl-, SO42- and Na+ in an area of about 639-1062 m surrounding the sprayers. Similarly, higher deposition of Ca 2+ and K+ caused by the EES was detected only when deposition was assessed using nylon filters or lyophilized branches. Deposition fluxes of NO3-, NH4+ and Se were not affected by the spraying system. Techniques for measuring dry deposition and calculating landscape-level depositional loads in non-forested systems need further development. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of ventilation rate in uranium or thorium handling laboratories using short-lived thoron daughter activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivade, R.K.; Deshpande, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium in oxide form is used as fuel in the Indian PHWR. Natural 238 U fuel contains 232 Th as an impurity to the extent of 50 - 60 ppm. This thorium impurity is converted to 232 U in reactor during irradiation. 232 U is converted to 224 Ra by alpha decays, 224 Ra further decays to 220 Rn by alpha decays. 220 Rn decays to stable 208 Pb by emitting alpha, beta particles and gamma rays. 220 Rn is inert gas but its daughter products are in particulate form. Effective half-life of Tn decay series is 10.6 hrs and four days are required to reduce the air borne activity concentration to negligible level on a filter paper sample. Uranium or thorium is handled remotely in the glove boxes with proper shielding. Glove boxes are under optimum negative pressure. Exhausts from glove boxes are connected to stack with proper filtration. Amber ares of the Lab is also supplied with conditioned air supply for human comfort and to keep the atmospheric thoron daughter concentration under control. Even after using proper engineering safety features, thoron that is in the gaseous form can came out from glove boxes due to holes on the neoprene gloves of micro or nano dimensions. Probability of thoron gas leakage is more during bagging out or bagging in operations. This gives rise to thoron daughter activity in the working atmosphere of Lab constantly and workers should be protected adequately

  5. Production integrated nondestructive testing of composite materials and material compounds - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straß, B.; Conrad, C.; Wolter, B.

    2017-03-01

    Composite materials and material compounds are of increasing importance, because of the steadily rising relevance of resource saving lightweight constructions. Quality assurance with appropriate Nondestructive Testing (NDT) methods is a key aspect for reliable and efficient production. Quality changes have to be detected already in the manufacturing flow in order to take adequate corrective actions. For materials and compounds the classical NDT methods for defectoscopy, like X-ray and Ultrasound (US) are still predominant. Nevertheless, meanwhile fast, contactless NDT methods, like air-borne ultrasound, dynamic thermography and special Eddy-Current techniques are available in order to detect cracks, voids, pores and delaminations but also for characterizing fiber content, distribution and alignment. In Metal-Matrix Composites US back-scattering can be used for this purpose. US run-time measurements allow the detection of thermal stresses at the metal-matrix interface. Another important area is the necessity for NDT in joining. To achieve an optimum material utilization and product safety as well as the best possible production efficiency, there is a need for NDT methods for in-line inspection of the joint quality while joining or immediately afterwards. For this purpose EMAT (Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer) technique or Acoustic Emission testing can be used.

  6. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  7. The concept of target and critical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigal, D.F.

    1991-09-01

    Target and critical loads were initially developed for assessment and control of acidic deposition, but are being considered for other air pollutants such as ozone and air-borne toxic compounds. These loads are based on thresholds, with damage assumed to occur above some defined level of deposition. Many of the historically proposed targets for acidic deposition were based on arbitrary interpretations of data. The concept of critical loads has recently separated from that of target loads. A critical load is the amount of pollutant deposition, determined by technical analysis, above which there is a specific deleterious ecological effect. A target load is the deposition, determined by political agreement, above which unacceptable ecological damage occurs; it may be greater than the critical load because of political or economic considerations, or less to conservatively account for uncertainty in the estimation of the critical load. Recent definitions of critical loads include recognition that each kind of ecosystem and effect may require a different load. Geographic regions contain a mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial resources. If precise knowledge leads to different critical loads for each system, then how is the regional target load established? For better or worse, target and critical loads are likely to be used to regulate air pollutants. The philosophy of their establishment as thresholds, their quantitative validity, and their application in regulation all require careful examination. 36 refs., 3 figs

  8. [Animals as a potential source of human fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Changing environment is a reason, that many saprotrophic fungi became opportunists and in the end also maybe a pathogenic. Host specific adaptation is not so strong among fungi, so there are many common fungal pathogens for people and for animals. Animals suffering from dermatomycosis are well recognize as source of human superficial mycoses. Breeding of different exotic animals such as parrots, various Reptiles and Amphibians, miniature Rodents and keeping them as a pets in the peoples houses, have become more and more popular in the recent years. This article is shortly presenting which animals maybe a potential source of fungal infections for humans. Looking for the other mycoses as systemic mycoses, especially candidiasis or aspergilosis there are no data, which allow excluding sick animals as a source of infection for human, even if those deep mycoses have endogenic reactivation mechanism. Immunocompromised people are in high-risk group when they take care of animals. Another important source of potentially pathogenic, mostly air-born fungi may be animal use in experimental laboratory work. During the experiments is possible that laboratory workers maybe hurt and these animals and their environment, food and house boxes could be the possible source of microorganisms, pathogenic for humans or other animals. Unusual way to inoculate these potentially pathogens into the skin of laboratory personnel may cause granulomatous, local lesions on their hands.

  9. Development of inspection safety evaluation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Chul; Yoon, Yeo Chang; Kim, Jong Soo; Lee, Tae Young; Kim, Chang Ryol; Lee, Hyung Sub; Kim, Jong Soo

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to protection nation inspector`s over exposure from radiation that can be occurred by inspection activity at nuclear facilities and its environment, and to ensure the safety of inspection activity at the nuclear facilities. To effectively carry out the domestic inspection task to be enforced from 1996, the evaluation for special radiation exposure rate of nuclear facilities, air and surface contamination level, and measurement and monitoring of water contamination level were made to determine whether these measured values exceeded permissible limitations, and to protect the inspector`s over exposure from radiation at domestic nuclear facilities. Management of inspector`s exposure was carried out under assistance of the Department of Health Physics. Performance tests of two gamma detectors, one neutron detector, alpha and beta detector, and gamma spectroscopy analyzer were carried out to control dose on extremity, the characteristic test for extremity dosimeter was carried out and the theoretical calculation of gamma dose conversion factors based on ANSI N13.32 standard was performed. Under the 93+2 program, IAEA began to recognize the necessity of environmental observation technology development of air-borne particulates travelled from long distance location. Associated with the necessity of this technology development, a proposal of international joint research for development of the special radiation measurement and analysis has been prepared. (author). 21 tabs., 24 figs., 20 refs.

  10. The 23rd nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Concerning the 23 rd nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China, the results of measurements of radioactivity, etc. in Japan are presented. (1) As for gross beta-radioactivity in upper air, high radioactivity was measured in western Japan. (2) As for gross beta-radioactivity in surface air at monitoring posts, relatively high radioactivity was detected in south-western Japan. (3) As for gross beta-radioactivity in rain and dry fallout, 130 mCi/km 2 in Hachijo Island and 101.9 mCi/km 2 in Saitama Prefecture were detected, and as for dry fallout, 82 mCi/km 2 was measured at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba Prefecture). (4) As for gross beta-radioactivity in air-borne dust, higher radioactivity than normal was measured in several prefectures. (5) As for the radioactive iodine concentration in raw milk, relatively high concentration of radioactive iodine was detected by National Institute of Radiological Sciences. (6) Hot particles. (7) Analysis of radionuclides. (8) Other related data. (J.P.N.)

  11. In-Situ Characteristics of Particle Emissions from Biomass Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagels, Joakum; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri; Swietlicki, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In this work we used a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Electrical Low-pressure Impactor to: a) Derive information of the particle morphology through air-borne analysis and b) Identify time and size variations of particle phase components from incomplete combustion and ash-components. The results presented here covers measurements in two moving grate boilers (12 MW operating on moist forest residue and 1.5 MW operating on wood pellets). We have previously shown that PM1 estimated from Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI)-measurements consisted of a rather constant background with peaks correlating with CO and OGC peaks. In the 1.5 MW boiler EC contributed to 34% of PM1, while in the 12 MW boiler EC was below 0.5%. Figure 2 shows time variations in the 1.5 MW boiler as the current in three stages of the ELPI-impactor. Note that time-variations increase strongly with particle size. The fraction of the gravimetric mass detected as water-soluble ions (IC) decreased from ∼ 70% for dae= 78 and 133 nm to ∼ 25% for 322 and 510 nm particles and increased to around 50% for particles larger than 1 μm. In the 12 MW boiler time variations were as low as for 128 nm particles and IC recovery was high for all studied particle sizes. Based on these data we conclude that PM consisting of ash-components are formed with small time variations mainly in mobility-sizes below 250 nm, while Elemental Carbon is emitted at high concentrations during peaks on the time-scale 10-30 s, mainly in particle sizes larger than 150 nm. However, the detailed mixing status of these two particle types/materials is still not known

  12. First correlated measurements of the shape and scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-05-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires the knowledge of the link between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of the cloud particles. Usually, this link is created by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles, simultaneously. Clouds containing particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter can be systematically characterized with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns which were conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced comparable size distributions and images to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is candidate to be a novel air borne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurements instruments.

  13. Study on the proton-induced X-ray emission(PIXE) using external proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, M. Y.; Yoon, J. C.; Park, K. J. [Seoul Natioanl University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    We intend to develop a system that can extract a proton beam into air for a qualitative, and quantitative PIXE analysis up to ppm(percent per million) composition. When such an R and D is accomplished, first it is possible to get equipped with a system for PIXE and PIGmE, second, it is possible to contribute to an academic progress by the study for physical properties of matter through an nuclear science methods when the comparison between the measurement and the calculated quantities, and third, it is possible to contribute to a multi-disciplinary researches by the measurements of the samples for which it is hard to get the SRM for the samples. We intend to develop methods to measure the beam current for an air-borne proton beam, and to minimize the energy and current loss of the beam. We intend to acquire a set of PIXE data for rare-earth metals and transient metals, to form a basic database for the analysis for various samples for which it is hard to get the SRM. Developed PIXE beamline can extract the beam diameter up to 5mm, and beam intensity in the range 0.5nA to 10nA variable. sustaining the vacuum better than 10{sup -6} mtorr. Necessary detection system and methodology are complete. As the application of the present research achievements, we studied the analysis of aerosol composition, the appraisal of the cultural heritages, and a feasibility study for a proton beam writing. It is expected to become possible to analyse the compositions of the gems, the elemental compositions of the food, the discrimination of the traditional ink and the modern ink on the documents, the evaluation of the documents by the analysis of the elemental composition of the stamps, The analysis of the paper with respect to the date and the quality, the analysis of the color, and the core bored samples

  14. A cohort study with children living in an air-polluted region--a model for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marth, E; Haselbacher-Marko, S; Schaffler, K

    1996-11-01

    Regions with heavy industry are in many ways regions of crisis. The health of the population is primarily affected by the different air pollutants. Dust, with all its organic (dioxins and furans) and inorganic (heavy metals) contents, makes up the greatest part of the air-borne pollutants. The influence on health of environmental pollution was ascertained through the determination of different parameters (functional methods and determination of physiological parameters). This influence could be observed in children over a period of 8 years with regular investigations (e.g. determination of pulmonary function by spirometry and immunological parameters). Besides this exogenous load the persons are exposed to other environmental stresses-shift work, unemployment, alcoholism and divorce-which have a particular influence on the attitude and the upbringing of the children. Sixty per cent of the children in this polluted region ate no breakfast in the morning. Consequently it could be shown that the blood sugar in 70% of the children was below 70 mg/dl. Additionally, a relatively high amount of COHb (2.5% to 3%), and an increased concentration of serum IgE (47% of children with a concentration over 100 IU/ml), could be detected. Through a change in the environmental awareness of the children and their consequent influence, an effort should be made to achieve a positive effect on the health of the whole population. The children were given a chance to participate in various sports for the whole day during a week in the mountains at 1200 m. The teachers exercised with the children for at least 8 h per day. Besides gymnastics the program consisted of downhill and cross-country skiing. In addition, the children were offered a balanced and natural diet and they were instructed accordingly. This week of activity led to a clear reduction of the concentration of COHb, but to a far less clear improvement in the concentration of blood sugar and the pulmonary function.

  15. Safety and Convergence Analysis of Intersecting Aircraft Flows Under Decentralized Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Ahmed H.

    Safety is an essential requirement for air traffic management and control systems. Aircraft are not allowed to get closer to each other than a specified safety distance, to avoid any conflicts and collisions between aircraft. Forecast analysis predicts a tremendous increase in the number of flights. Subsequently, automated tools are needed to help air traffic controllers resolve air born conflicts. In this dissertation, we consider the problem of conflict resolution of aircraft flows with the assumption that aircraft are flowing through a fixed specified control volume at a constant speed. In this regard, several centralized and decentralized resolution rules have been proposed for path planning and conflict avoidance. For the case of two intersecting flows, we introduce the concept of conflict touches, and a collaborative decentralized conflict resolution rule is then proposed and analyzed for two intersecting flows. The proposed rule is also able to resolved airborne conflicts that resulted from resolving another conflict via the domino effect. We study the safety conditions under the proposed conflict resolution and collision avoidance rule. Then, we use Lyapunov analysis to analytically prove the convergence of conflict resolution dynamics under the proposed rule. The analysis show that, under the proposed conflict resolution rule, the system of intersecting aircraft flows is guaranteed to converge to safe, conflict free, trajectories within a bounded time. Simulations are provided to verify the analytically derived conclusions and study the convergence of the conflict resolution dynamics at different encounter angles. Simulation results show that lateral deviations taken by aircraft in each flow, to resolve conflicts, are bounded, and aircraft converged to safe and conflict free trajectories, within a finite time.

  16. Anthropogenic Pollutants in Extracts from Maritsa Iztok Dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Maya; Milakovska, Zlatka; Marinov, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Coals are suspected for many human health problems and are an object of the new discipline - “medical geology”. Potential human health risk of organic compounds with coal/lignite provenance includes endocrine disruption, nephrotoxicity, cancer, etc. Recent investigations proved that different organic components, i.e. hydrocarbons, phenols etc. move through/release out of the dump area as a result of alteration processes of the organic matter (OM) caused by the wash-out and/or drainage processes. The timeliness of the present study is based on the scarcity of information on organic geochemistry of dump materials from open pit coal mines and weathered lignites in particular. The limited number of studies on dumps clarifies that even for the “short” time span (some tens of years) in geological point of view, processes of transformation of the extractable OM are detectable. The secondary phases, a result of the OM transformations, move through and out of the dump area and could be potential contaminants for the surface/underground waters and soils in the area. Another environmental problem comes from the air-born VOCs and products of the modern chemical industry. By GC-MS in the slightly polar fractions of the chloroform extracts of dump samples a broad set of components was determined, i.e. phthalates (dominant), i-propyl palmitate, i-propyl myristate, n-hexyl benzoates, etc. These organic contaminants could be regarded more likely as anthropogenic (originating from plasticizers, industrial pollutants, etc.). Presently, it seems that the identified compounds do not represent an acute toxic risk from an environmental viewpoint. However, some compounds could raise concerns and further attention is needed to be focused on them.

  17. Current perspectives on unconventional shale gas extraction in the Appalachian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David J; Stolz, John F

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian Basin is home to three major shales, the Upper Devonian, Marcellus, and Utica. Together, they contain significant quantities of tight oil, gas, and mixed hydrocarbons. The Marcellus alone is estimated to contain upwards of 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. The extraction of these deposits is facilitated by a combination of horizontal drilling and slick water stimulation (e.g., hydraulic fracturing) or "fracking." The process of fracking requires large volumes of water, proppant, and chemicals as well as a large well pad (3-7 acres) and an extensive network of gathering and transmission pipelines. Drilling can generate about 1,000 tons of drill cuttings depending on the depth of the formation and the length of the horizontal bore. The flowback and produced waters that return to the surface during production are high in total dissolved solids (TDS, 60,000-350,000 mg L(-1)) and contain halides (e.g., chloride, bromide, fluoride), strontium, barium, and often naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) as well as organics. The condensate tanks used to store these fluids can off gas a plethora of volatile organic compounds. The waste water, with its high TDS may be recycled, treated, or disposed of through deep well injection. Where allowed, open impoundments used for recycling are a source of air borne contamination as they are often aerated. The gas may be "dry" (mostly methane) or "wet," the latter containing a mixture of light hydrocarbons and liquids that need to be separated from the methane. Although the wells can produce significant quantities of natural gas, from 2-7 bcf, their initial decline rates are significant (50-75%) and may cease to be economic within a few years. This review presents an overview of unconventional gas extraction highlighting the environmental impacts and challenges.

  18. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M.; Engin, Ayse Basak; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M.; Rezaee, Ramin; Karimi, Gholamreza; Drozd, Vladimir A.; Nikitina, Anna V.; Solomennik, Sergey F.; Kudryavkina, Olga R.; Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Golokhvast, Kirill S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500 mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500 mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. - Highlights: • Basophil sensitization is more important than cell count in VEP exposure. • CD16+ cells are more effective than basophils on CD4+ T cell proliferation. • CD16+ and CD16- monocytes respond to VEP exposure in opposite directions. • CD8+ T cell proliferation is inhibited by all doses of VEPs. • Globally, more stringent standards are needed for vehicle particle emissions.

  19. Operational mesoscale atmospheric dispersion prediction using high performance parallel computing cluster for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan, R.; Muralidharan, N.V.; Das, Someshwar; Dass, Hari; Eswara Kumar, P.

    2005-08-01

    An operational atmospheric dispersion prediction system is implemented on a cluster super computer for 'Online Emergency Response' for Kalpakkam nuclear site. The numerical system constitutes a parallel version of a nested grid meso-scale meteorological model MM5 coupled to a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The system provides 48 hour forecast of the local weather and radioactive plume dispersion due to hypothetical air borne releases in a range of 100 km around the site. The parallel code was implemented on different cluster configurations like distributed and shared memory systems. Results of MM5 run time performance for 1-day prediction are reported on all the machines available for testing. A reduction of 5 times in runtime is achieved using 9 dual Xeon nodes (18 physical/36 logical processors) compared to a single node sequential run. Based on the above run time results a cluster computer facility with 9-node Dual Xeon is commissioned at IGCAR for model operation. The run time of a triple nested domain MM5 is about 4 h for 24 h forecast. The system has been operated continuously for a few months and results were ported on the IMSc home page. Initial and periodic boundary condition data for MM5 are provided by NCMRWF, New Delhi. An alternative source is found to be NCEP, USA. These two sources provide the input data to the operational models at different spatial and temporal resolutions and using different assimilation methods. A comparative study on the results of forecast is presented using these two data sources for present operational use. Slight improvement is noticed in rainfall, winds, geopotential heights and the vertical atmospheric structure while using NCEP data probably because of its high spatial and temporal resolution. (author)

  20. Geospatial Analysis Using Remote Sensing Images: Case Studies of Zonguldak Test Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayık, Çağlar; Topan, Hüseyin; Özendi, Mustafa; Oruç, Murat; Cam, Ali; Abdikan, Saygın

    2016-06-01

    Inclined topographies are one of the most challenging problems for geospatial analysis of air-borne and space-borne imageries. However, flat areas are mostly misleading to exhibit the real performance. For this reason, researchers generally require a study area which includes mountainous topography and various land cover and land use types. Zonguldak and its vicinity is a very suitable test site for performance investigation of remote sensing systems due to the fact that it contains different land use types such as dense forest, river, sea, urban area; different structures such as open pit mining operations, thermal power plant; and its mountainous structure. In this paper, we reviewed more than 120 proceeding papers and journal articles about geospatial analysis that are performed on the test field of Zonguldak and its surroundings. Geospatial analysis performed with imageries include elimination of systematic geometric errors, 2/3D georeferencing accuracy assessment, DEM and DSM generation and validation, ortho-image production, evaluation of information content, image classification, automatic feature extraction and object recognition, pan-sharpening, land use and land cover change analysis and deformation monitoring. In these applications many optical satellite images are used i.e. ASTER, Bilsat-1, IKONOS, IRS-1C, KOMPSAT-1, KVR-1000, Landsat-3-5-7, Orbview-3, QuickBird, Pleiades, SPOT-5, TK-350, RADARSAT-1, WorldView-1-2; as well as radar data i.e. JERS-1, Envisat ASAR, TerraSAR-X, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM. These studies are performed by Departments of Geomatics Engineering at Bülent Ecevit University, at İstanbul Technical University, at Yıldız Technical University, and Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation at Leibniz University Hannover. These studies are financially supported by TÜBİTAK (Turkey), the Universities, ESA, Airbus DS, ERSDAC (Japan) and Jülich Research Centre (Germany).

  1. GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS USING REMOTE SENSING IMAGES: CASE STUDIES OF ZONGULDAK TEST FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ç. Bayık

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inclined topographies are one of the most challenging problems for geospatial analysis of air-borne and space-borne imageries. However, flat areas are mostly misleading to exhibit the real performance. For this reason, researchers generally require a study area which includes mountainous topography and various land cover and land use types. Zonguldak and its vicinity is a very suitable test site for performance investigation of remote sensing systems due to the fact that it contains different land use types such as dense forest, river, sea, urban area; different structures such as open pit mining operations, thermal power plant; and its mountainous structure. In this paper, we reviewed more than 120 proceeding papers and journal articles about geospatial analysis that are performed on the test field of Zonguldak and its surroundings. Geospatial analysis performed with imageries include elimination of systematic geometric errors, 2/3D georeferencing accuracy assessment, DEM and DSM generation and validation, ortho-image production, evaluation of information content, image classification, automatic feature extraction and object recognition, pan-sharpening, land use and land cover change analysis and deformation monitoring. In these applications many optical satellite images are used i.e. ASTER, Bilsat-1, IKONOS, IRS-1C, KOMPSAT-1, KVR-1000, Landsat-3-5-7, Orbview-3, QuickBird, Pleiades, SPOT-5, TK-350, RADARSAT-1, WorldView-1-2; as well as radar data i.e. JERS-1, Envisat ASAR, TerraSAR-X, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM. These studies are performed by Departments of Geomatics Engineering at Bülent Ecevit University, at İstanbul Technical University, at Yıldız Technical University, and Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation at Leibniz University Hannover. These studies are financially supported by TÜBİTAK (Turkey, the Universities, ESA, Airbus DS, ERSDAC (Japan and Jülich Research Centre (Germany.

  2. HIGH RESOLUTION LANDCOVER MODELLING WITH PLÉIADES IMAGERY AND DEM DATA IN SUPPORT OF FINE SCALE LANDSCAPE THERMAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of air-borne thermal infrared imaging sensors, the use of simulated spectral infrared scenery is a cost-effective way to provide input to the sensor. The benefit of simulated scenes includes control over parameters governing the spectral and related thermal behaviour of the terrain as well as atmospheric conditions. Such scenes need to have a high degree of radiometric and geometric accuracy, as well as high resolution to account for small objects having different spectral and associated thermal properties. In support of this, innovative use of tri-stereo, ultra-high resolution Pléiades satellite imagery is being used to generated high detail, small scale quantitative terrain surface data to compliment comparable optical data in order to produce detailed urban and rural landscape datasets representative of different landscape features, within which spectrally defined characteristics can be subsequently matched to thermal signatures. Pléiades tri-stereo mode, acquired from the same orbit during the same pass, is particularly favourable for reaching the required metric accuracy because images are radiometrically and geometrically very homogeneous, which allows a very good radiometric matching for relief computation. The tri-stereo approach reduces noise and allows significantly enhanced relief description in landscapes where simple stereo imaging cannot see features, such as in dense urban areas or valley bottoms in steep, mountainous areas. This paper describes the datasets that have been generated for DENEL over the Hartebeespoort Dam region, west of Pretoria, South Africa. The final terrain datasets are generated by integrated modelling of both height and spectral surface characteristics within an object-based modelling environment. This approach provides an operational framework for rapid and highly accurate mapping of building and vegetation structure of wide areas, as is required in support of the evaluation of thermal

  3. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the Northern Hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  4. Comparison of three distinct clean air suits to decrease the bacterial load in the operating room: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Piotr; Tammelin, Ann; Blomfeldt, Anne-Marie; Ljungqvist, Bengt; Reinmüller, Berit; Ottosson, Carin

    2016-01-01

    Lowering air-borne bacteria counts in the operating room is essential in prevention of surgical site infections in orthopaedic joint replacement surgery. This is mainly achieved by decreasing bacteria counts through dilution, with appropriate ventilation and by limiting the bacteria carrying skin particles, predominantly shed by the personnel. The aim of this study was to investigate if a single use polypropylene clothing system or a reusable polyester clothing system could offer similar air quality in the operating room as a mobile laminar airflow device-assisted reusable cotton/polyester clothing system. Prospective observational study design, comparing the performance of three Clean Air Suits by measuring Colony Forming Units (CFU)/m(3) of air during elective hip and knee arthroplasties, performed at a large university-affiliated hospital. The amount of CFU/m(3) of air was measured during 37 operations of which 13 were performed with staff dressed in scrub suits made of a reusable mixed material (69 % cotton, 30 % polyester, 1 % carbon fibre) accompanied by two mobile laminar airflow units. During 24 procedures no mobile laminar airflow units were used, 13 with staff using a reusable olefin fabric clothing (woven polypropylene) and 11 with staff dressed in single-use suits (non-woven spunbonded polypropylene). Air from the operating field was sampled through a filter, by a Sartorius MD8, and bacterial colonies were counted after incubation. There were 6-8 measurements from each procedure, in total 244 measurements. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test. The single-use polypropylene suit reduced the amount of CFU/m(3) to a significantly lower level than both other clothing systems. Single-use polypropylene clothing systems can replace mobile laminar airflow unit-assisted reusable mixed material-clothing systems. Measurements in standardized laboratory settings can only serve as guidelines as environments in real operation settings present a

  5. Using GIS servers and interactive maps in spectral data sharing and administration: Case study of Ahvaz Spectral Geodatabase Platform (ASGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Rangzan, Kazem; Saberi, Azim

    2013-10-01

    With emergence of air-borne and space-borne hyperspectral sensors, spectroscopic measurements are gaining more importance in remote sensing. Therefore, the number of available spectral reference data is constantly increasing. This rapid increase often exhibits a poor data management, which leads to ultimate isolation of data on disk storages. Spectral data without precise description of the target, methods, environment, and sampling geometry cannot be used by other researchers. Moreover, existing spectral data (in case it accompanied with good documentation) become virtually invisible or unreachable for researchers. Providing documentation and a data-sharing framework for spectral data, in which researchers are able to search for or share spectral data and documentation, would definitely improve the data lifetime. Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) are main candidates for spectral data management and their efficiency is proven by many studies and applications to date. In this study, a new approach to spectral data administration is presented based on spatial identity of spectral samples. This method benefits from scalability and performance of RDBMS for storage of spectral data, but uses GIS servers to provide users with interactive maps as an interface to the system. The spectral files, photographs and descriptive data are considered as belongings of a geospatial object. A spectral processing unit is responsible for evaluation of metadata quality and performing routine spectral processing tasks for newly-added data. As a result, by using internet browser software the users would be able to visually examine availability of data and/or search for data based on descriptive attributes associated to it. The proposed system is scalable and besides giving the users good sense of what data are available in the database, it facilitates participation of spectral reference data in producing geoinformation.

  6. Unmanned aerial vehicles ('drones') as tools for small scale radiometric surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luff, R.; Stöhlker, U.; Bossew, P., E-mail: rluff@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    An UAV has been developed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and tested in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in September 2016. A commercially available hexacopter has been equipped with a 1.5 cm³ CZT gamma spectrometric detector (μSPEC), GPS, data processing unit (Rasperry PI with Linux) and Wi-Fi for data transmission to the ground base. Optionally a camera can be carried. The system records gamma dose rate every 2 seconds and gamma spectra every 10 minutes. The total cost of the system is significantly below 10k€ which includes the detector (6k€), data acquisition system (0.2k€) and the UAV (1.2k€). The system is very mobile, easy to set up and to operate in the field. Results are plausible and easy to interpret, spatial resolution of the gamma dose rate on the ground is surprisingly high. Measurement results from the Chernobyl exclusion zone show that the sensitivity of the detector allows radiation survey in areas where the dose rate level is above 0.3 μSv/h. Limitation of the small system are the relatively short operation range of a few 100 m and the lack of an altimeter to assure constant flight altitude above ground. Among the results of the exercise were that a high gamma dose rate gradient in the field can be well identified and the observation that the measured gamma dose rate depends relatively little on the flight altitude between 3 and about 15 meters above ground, for a large scale contamination field. As a conclusion, the use of UAVs for radiometric surveys is a promising and viable complement to traditional air-borne reconnaissance for small areas, and an alternative to ground-based surveys in case of high radiation levels or difficult access. (author)

  7. Heavy metal speciation in various grain sizes of industrially contaminated street dust using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Gülşen; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife

    2016-02-01

    A total of 36 street dust samples were collected from the streets of the Organised Industrial District in Kayseri, Turkey. This region includes a total of 818 work places in various industrial areas. The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in street dusts of the study area. The BCR was classified into three steps: water/acid soluble fraction, reducible and oxidisable fraction. The remaining residue was dissolved by using aqua regia. The concentrations of the metals in street dust samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Also the effect of the different grain sizes (dust samples on the mobility of the metals was investigated using the modified BCR procedure. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the first three phases (for grain size) was: Cd (71.3)>Cu (48.9)>Pb (42.8)=Cr (42.1)>Ni (41.4)>Zn (40.9)>Co (36.6)=Mn (36.3)>Fe (3.1). No significant difference was observed among metal partitioning for the three particle sizes. Correlation, principal component and cluster analysis were applied to identify probable natural and anthropogenic sources in the region. The principal component analysis results showed that this industrial district was influenced by traffic, industrial activities, air-borne emissions and natural sources. The accuracy of the results was checked by analysis of both the BCR-701 certified reference material and by recovery studies in street dust samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Rocklöv

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation, while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts.

  9. EO-1 analysis applicable to coastal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Hsiao-hua K.; Misra, Bijoy; Hsu, Su May; Griffin, Michael K.; Upham, Carolyn; Farrar, Kris

    2003-09-01

    The EO-1 satellite is part of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). It consists of three imaging sensors: the multi-spectral Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Hyperion and Atmospheric Corrector. Hyperion provides a high-resolution hyperspectral imager capable of resolving 220 spectral bands (from 0.4 to 2.5 micron) with a 30 m resolution. The instrument images a 7.5 km by 100 km land area per image. Hyperion is currently the only space-borne HSI data source since the launch of EO-1 in late 2000. The discussion begins with the unique capability of hyperspectral sensing to coastal characterization: (1) most ocean feature algorithms are semi-empirical retrievals and HSI has all spectral bands to provide legacy with previous sensors and to explore new information, (2) coastal features are more complex than those of deep ocean that coupled effects are best resolved with HSI, and (3) with contiguous spectral coverage, atmospheric compensation can be done with more accuracy and confidence, especially since atmospheric aerosol effects are the most pronounced in the visible region where coastal feature lie. EO-1 data from Chesapeake Bay from 19 February 2002 are analyzed. In this presentation, it is first illustrated that hyperspectral data inherently provide more information for feature extraction than multispectral data despite Hyperion has lower SNR than ALI. Chlorophyll retrievals are also shown. The results compare favorably with data from other sources. The analysis illustrates the potential value of Hyperion (and HSI in general) data to coastal characterization. Future measurement requirements (air borne and space borne) are also discussed.

  10. Upscaling the Coupled Water and Heat Transport in the Shallow Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviercoski, R. F.; Efendiev, Y.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2018-02-01

    Predicting simultaneous movement of liquid water, water vapor, and heat in the shallow subsurface has many practical interests. The demand for multidimensional multiscale models for this region is important given: (a) the critical role that these processes play in the global water and energy balances, (b) that more data from air-borne and space-borne sensors are becoming available for parameterizations of modeling efforts. On the other hand, numerical models that consider spatial variations of the soil properties, termed here as multiscale, are prohibitively expensive. Thus, there is a need for upscaled models that take into consideration these features, and be computationally affordable. In this paper, a multidimensional multiscale model coupling the water flow and heat transfer and its respective upscaled version are proposed. The formulation is novel as it describes the multidimensional and multiscale tensorial versions of the hydraulic conductivity and the vapor diffusivity, taking into account the tortuosity and porosity properties of the medium. It also includes the coupling with the energy balance equation as a boundary describing atmospheric influences at the shallow subsurface. To demonstrate the accuracy of both models, comparisons were made between simulation and field experiments for soil moisture and temperature at 2, 7, and 12 cm deep, during 11 days. The root-mean-square errors showed that the upscaled version of the system captured the multiscale features with similar accuracy. Given the good matching between simulated and field data for near-surface soil temperature, the results suggest that it can be regarded as a 1-D variable.

  11. Statistical data evaluation in mobile gamma spectrometry. An optimisation of on-line search strategies in the scenario of lost point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjerpe, T.; Samuelsson, C.

    1999-01-01

    There is a potential risk that hazardous radioactive sources could enter the environment, e.g. via satellite debris, smuggled radioactive goods or lost metal scrap. From a radiation protection point of view there is a need for rapid and reliable methods for locating and identifying sources. Car-borne and air-borne detector systems are suitable for the task. The condition in this work is a situation where the missing radionuclide is known, which is not an unlikely scenario. The possibility that the source is located near a road can be high, and thus motivating a car-borne spectrometer system. The main object is to optimise on-line statistical methods in order to achieve a high probability for locating point sources, or hot spots, and still have reasonably few false alarms from variations in the natural background radiation. Data were obtained from a car-borne 3 litres (NaI(Tl) detector and two point sources, located at various distances from the road. The nuclides used were 137 Cs and 131 I. Spectra were measured stationary on the road. From these measurements spectra we have reconstructed spectra applicable to different speed and sampling times; the time 3 seconds and 50 km/h are used in this work. The maximum distance a source can be located from the road and still be detected is estimated with four different statistical analysis methods. This distance is called the detection distance, DD. The method is applied on gross counts in the full energy peak window. For each method alarm thresholds has been calculated from background data obtained in Scania (Skaane), in the south of Sweden. The results show a 30-50% difference in DD's. With this semi-theoretical approach, the two sources could be detected from 250 m ( 137 Cs, 6GBq) and 200 m ( 131 I, 4GBq). (au)

  12. Preliminary Results of BTDF Calibration of Transmissive Solar Diffusers for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflected solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the optical properties of their diffusers used in pre-flight and post-flight calibrations. The majority of recent and current space instruments use reflective diffusers. As a result, numerous Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) calibration comparisons have been conducted between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and other industry and university-based metrology laboratories. However, based on literature searches and communications with NIST and other laboratories, no Bidirectional Transmittance Distribution Function (BTDF) measurement comparisons have been conducted between National Measurement Laboratories (NMLs) and other metrology laboratories. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the use of transmissive diffusers in the calibration of satellite, air-borne, and ground-based remote sensing instruments. Current remote sensing instruments employing transmissive diffusers include the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite instrument (OMPS) Limb instrument on the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) platform,, the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on the Korea Aerospace Research Institute's (KARI) Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura platform, the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument and the Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS).. This ensemble of instruments requires validated BTDF measurements of their on-board transmissive diffusers from the ultraviolet through the near infrared. This paper presents the preliminary results of a BTDF comparison between the NASA Diffuser Calibration Laboratory (DCL) and NIST on quartz and thin Spectralon samples.

  13. Unmanned aerial vehicles ('drones') as tools for small scale radiometric surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luff, R.; Stöhlker, U.; Bossew, P.

    2017-01-01

    An UAV has been developed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and tested in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in September 2016. A commercially available hexacopter has been equipped with a 1.5 cm³ CZT gamma spectrometric detector (μSPEC), GPS, data processing unit (Rasperry PI with Linux) and Wi-Fi for data transmission to the ground base. Optionally a camera can be carried. The system records gamma dose rate every 2 seconds and gamma spectra every 10 minutes. The total cost of the system is significantly below 10k€ which includes the detector (6k€), data acquisition system (0.2k€) and the UAV (1.2k€). The system is very mobile, easy to set up and to operate in the field. Results are plausible and easy to interpret, spatial resolution of the gamma dose rate on the ground is surprisingly high. Measurement results from the Chernobyl exclusion zone show that the sensitivity of the detector allows radiation survey in areas where the dose rate level is above 0.3 μSv/h. Limitation of the small system are the relatively short operation range of a few 100 m and the lack of an altimeter to assure constant flight altitude above ground. Among the results of the exercise were that a high gamma dose rate gradient in the field can be well identified and the observation that the measured gamma dose rate depends relatively little on the flight altitude between 3 and about 15 meters above ground, for a large scale contamination field. As a conclusion, the use of UAVs for radiometric surveys is a promising and viable complement to traditional air-borne reconnaissance for small areas, and an alternative to ground-based surveys in case of high radiation levels or difficult access. (author)

  14. Gas Phase Thz Spectroscopy of Organosulfide and Organophosphorous Compounds Using a Synchrotron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2011-06-01

    This study concerns the gas phase rovibrational spectroscopy of organosulfide and organophosphorous which are considered as non toxic model compounds in the analysis of chemical weapon materials, high pathogenic and mutagenic agents, and other environmentally interesting air-borne species. The coupling of the synchrotron radiation with multipass cells and the FTIR spectrometer allowed to obtain very conclusive results in term of sensitivity and resolution and improved the previous results obtained with classical sources. For DMSO, using an optical path of 150 m the spectra have been recorded at the ultimate resolution of 0.001 Cm-1 allowing to fully resolve the rotational structure of the lowest vibrational modes observed in the THz region. In the 290 - 420 Cm-1 region, the rovibrational spectrum of the "perpendicular" and "parallel" vibrational bands associated with, respectively, the asymmetric ν23 and symmetric ν11 bending modes of DMSO have been recorded with a resolution of 1.5× 10-3 Cm-1. The gas phase vibrational spectra of organophosphorous compounds were measured by FTIR spectroscopy using the vapor pressure of the compounds. Except for TBP, the room temperature vapor pressure was sufficient to detect all active vibrational modes from THz to NIR domain. Contrary to DMSO, the rotational patterns of alkyl phosphates and alkyl phosphonates could not be resolved; only a vibrational analysis may be performed. Nevertheless, the spectral fingerprints observed in the THz region allowed a clear discrimination between the molecules and between the different molecular conformations. A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, F. Cazier, H. Nouali, J. Demaison, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2008, 112:, 12516-12525 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy and D. A. Sadovskií, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2010, 492: 30-34 I. Smirnova, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2010, 114: 16936-16947.

  15. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  16. IBA and synchrotron methods for sub-micron fine particle characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R. Stampfl. A.; Cai, Z.; Ilinski, P.; Rodrigues, W.; Legnini, D.G.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.

    1999-01-01

    Fine air-borne particles, whose average diameters are 2.5 μm and less (PM2.5), are known to play significant roles in a number of human and environmental issues. They may penetrate deep into the human lung system and are believed, due to their small size or due to toxins adsorbed onto their surfaces, to be responsible for up to 60,000 and 10,000 deaths in the U.S. and U.K. respectively. Health studies within NSW, Australia carried out by the NSW EPA, have shown increased hospital admissions and excess deaths related to high fine particle pollution episodes. A number of environmental issues are affected by the amount and type of fine-particles in the air. The white and brown hazes that occur in populated cities causing poor visibility are due to light scattering from fine particles. These same particles are easily transported large distances in the lower atmosphere playing a key role in global pollution and climate forcing. Current knowledge of fine-particle concentrations and constituents is very limited. Sources of fine particles are both natural and man-made. Over the past few years considerable work on the characterisation of these particles has been going on at ANSTO using accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) methods. X-ray fluorescence using ion beams from accelerators and synchrotron fluorescence are complementary techniques. This is well demonstrated by the plot. PIXE has higher cross sections for low Z elements, but for high Z elements closer to the excitation energy (16keV) synchrotron radiation cross sections are larger. Both techniques are multi-elemental analysis techniques

  17. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Zupančič

    Full Text Available We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium. Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within

  18. 3D Exploration of Meteorological Data: Facing the challenges of operational forecasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutek, Michal; Debie, Frans; van der Neut, Ian

    2016-04-01

    In the past years the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has been working on innovation in the field of meteorological data visualization. We are dealing with Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model data and observational data, i.e. satellite images, precipitation radar, ground and air-borne measurements. These multidimensional multivariate data are geo-referenced and can be combined in 3D space to provide more intuitive views on the atmospheric phenomena. We developed the Weather3DeXplorer (W3DX), a visualization framework for processing and interactive exploration and visualization using Virtual Reality (VR) technology. We managed to have great successes with research studies on extreme weather situations. In this paper we will elaborate what we have learned from application of interactive 3D visualization in the operational weather room. We will explain how important it is to control the degrees-of-freedom during interaction that are given to the users: forecasters/scientists; (3D camera and 3D slicing-plane navigation appear to be rather difficult for the users, when not implemented properly). We will present a novel approach of operational 3D visualization user interfaces (UI) that for a great deal eliminates the obstacle and the time it usually takes to set up the visualization parameters and an appropriate camera view on a certain atmospheric phenomenon. We have found our inspiration in the way our operational forecasters work in the weather room. We decided to form a bridge between 2D visualization images and interactive 3D exploration. Our method combines WEB-based 2D UI's, pre-rendered 3D visualization catalog for the latest NWP model runs, with immediate entry into interactive 3D session for selected visualization setting. Finally, we would like to present the first user experiences with this approach.

  19. Simulation of an advanced small aperture track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tommy J.; Crockett, Gregg A.; Brunson, Richard L.; Beatty, Brad; Zahirniak, Daniel R.; Deuto, Bernard G.

    2001-08-01

    Simulation development for EO Systems has progressed to new levels with the advent of COTS software tools such as Matlab/Simulink. These tools allow rapid reuse of simulation library routines. We have applied these tools to newly emerging Acquisition Tracking and Pointing (ATP) systems using many routines developed through a legacy to High Energy Laser programs such as AirBorne Laser, Space Based Laser, Tactical High Energy Laser, and The Air Force Research Laboratory projects associated with the Starfire Optical Range. The simulation architecture allows ease in testing various track algorithms under simulated scenes with the ability to rapidly vary system hardware parameters such as track sensor and track loop control systems. The atmospheric turbulence environment and associated optical distortion is simulated to high fidelity levels through the application of an atmospheric phase screen model to produce scintillation of the laser illuminator uplink. The particular ATP system simulated is a small transportable system for tracking satellites in a daytime environment and projects a low power laser and receives laser return from retro-reflector equipped satellites. The primary application of the ATP system (and therefore the simulation) is the determination of the illuminator beam profile, jitter, and scintillation of the low power laser at the satellite. The ATP system will serve as a test bed for satellite tracking in a high background during daytime. Of particular interest in this simulation is the ability to emulate the hardware modelogic within the simulation to test and refine system states and mode change decisions. Additionally, the simulation allows data from the hardware system tests to be imported into Matlab and to thereby drive the simulation or to be easily compared to simulation results.

  20. A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

  1. Melanin dependent survival of Apergillus fumigatus conidia in lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shayista; Thywissen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Saluz, Hans Peter; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne pathogenic fungus of humans. Upon inhalation of conidia, the fungus makes close contact with lung epithelial cells, which only possess low phagocytic activity. These cells are in particular interesting to address the question whether there is some form of persistence of conidia of A. fumigatus in the human host. Therefore, by also using uracil-auxotrophic mutant strains, we were able to investigate the interaction of A549 lung epithelial cells and A. fumigatus conidia in detail for long periods. Interestingly, unlike professional phagocytes, our study showed that the presence of conidial dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin enhanced the uptake of A. fumigatus conidia by epithelial cells when compared with non-pigmented pksP mutant conidia. Furthermore, conidia of A. fumigatus were able to survive within epithelial cells. This was due to the presence of DHN melanin in the cell wall of conidia, because melanised wild-type conidia showed a higher survival rate inside epithelial cells and led to inhibition of acidification of phagolysosomes. Both effects were not observed for white (non-melanised) conidia of the pksP mutant strain. Moreover, in contrast to pksP mutant conidia, melanised wild-type conidia were able to inhibit the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in A549 lung epithelial cells even for longer periods. The anti-apoptotic effect was not restricted to conidia, because both conidia-derived melanin ghosts (cell-free DHN melanin) and a different type of melanin, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanin, acted anti-apoptotically. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of melanin-dependent persistence of conidia in lung epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M; Engin, Ayse Basak; Chernyshev, Valery V; Chaika, Vladimir V; Ugay, Sergey M; Rezaee, Ramin; Karimi, Gholamreza; Drozd, Vladimir A; Nikitina, Anna V; Solomennik, Sergey F; Kudryavkina, Olga R; Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2017-01-01

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis the temporal and spatial impact of water harvesting on Aforestation processes, at the Northen Negev region, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, E.; Egozi, R.; Goldshlager, N.

    2012-04-01

    Water availability in arid regions is a major limiting factor, which affect plant development. Therefore, knowledge about preliminary and ongoing spatial & temporal conditions (e.g. land surface properties, hydrological regime and vegetation dynamics) can improve greatly afforestation practice. The Ambassadors forest is one of the Jewish National Fund (JNF) new afforestation projects (initiated on 2005), which rely on water harvesting irrigation systems, located at the northern Negev region, Israel. Temporal and spatial processes are studied utilizing ground, air-borne and space-borne techniques for assessment of surface processes, that take place due to significant land-use change. Since 2005 the area shows significant variation of surface energy balance components which impact the spatial and temporal forest generation. Both human and climate affect these parameters, hence their influence is essential for future study of the region. Parameters of surface Albedo & Temperature and Vegetation dynamics are gathered by space-borne sensors (e.g. MODIS, Landsat & ALI) and verified at field scale in conjunction with ground-truth measurements of climate and soil properties. In addition, the project study various scenarios that might result from diverse climate trajectories that impact soil formation factors and therefore forest development. Preliminary results show that surface physical & ecoligical properties had changed significantly since the aforestation project began, comparing previous years. Sharp increase of surface albedo detected since 2005 that raised from 0.25 to 0.32, while vegetation density, estimated from NDVI, had dropped from annaul average of 0.21 down to 0.13 during 10-year time period. These changes are related to human interferance. The current paper presents the first phase of the long-term study of the Remote Sensing analysis and the current surface monitoring phase.

  4. How "Sustainability" is Changing How We Make and Choose Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl O' Brien

    2006-07-01

    What does Sustainability mean, and why should people in the thermophysical properties business care? This paper will describe sustainability in the context of product development, which is where much of the buzz is currently being generated. Once described, it will discuss how expectations for Sustainability are changing product lines, and then discuss the controversial issues now emerging from trying to measure Sustainability. One of the most organized efforts in the U.S. is the U.S. Green Building Council revolutionizing how the built environment is conceptualized, designed, built, used, and disposed of - and born again. The appeal of the US Green Building Council is that it has managed to checklist how to "do" Sustainability. By following this checklist, better described as a rating system, a more Sustainable product should be achieved. That is, a product that uses less energy, less water, is less noxious to the user, and consumes fewer resources. We care because these Sustainable products are viewed as preferable by a growing number of consumers and, consequently, are more valuable. One of the most interesting aspects of the Sustainability movement is a quantitative assessment of how sustainable a product is. Life Cycle Assessment techniques (not to be confused with life cycle economic costs) developed since the early 1990s are gaining ground as a less biased method to measure the ultimate "bad" consequences of creating a product (depletion of natural resources, nutrification, acid rain, air borne particulates, solid waste, etc.). For example, one assertion is that these studies have shown that recycling can sometimes do more environmental harm than good.

  5. Estimation of uranium in bioassay samples of occupational workers by laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suja, A.; Prabhu, S.P.; Sawant, P.D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Tiwari, A.K.; Sharma, R.

    2010-01-01

    A newly established uranium processing facility has been commissioned at BARC, Trombay. Monitoring of occupational workers at regulars intervals is essential to assess intake of uranium by the workers in this facility. The design and engineering safety features of the plant are such that there is very low probability of uranium getting air borne during normal operations. However, the leakages from the system during routine maintenance of the plant may result in intake of uranium by workers. As per the new biokinetic model for uranium, 63% of uranium entering the blood stream gets directly excreted in urine. Therefore, bioassay monitoring (urinalysis) was recommended for these workers. A group of 21 workers was selected for bioassay monitoring to assess the existing urinary excretion levels of uranium before the commencement of actual work. For this purpose, sample collection kit along with an instruction slip was provided to the workers. Bioassay samples received were wet ashed with conc. nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to break down the metabolized complexes of uranium and it was co-precipitated with calcium phosphate. Separation of uranium from the matrix was done using ion exchange technique and final activity quantification in these samples was done using laser fluorimeter (Quantalase, Model No. NFL/02). Calibration of the laser fluorimeter is done using 10 ppb uranium standard (WHO, France Ref. No. 180000). Verification of the system performance is done by measuring concentration of uranium in the standards (1 ppb to 100 ppb). Standard addition method was followed for estimation of uranium concentration in the samples. Uranyl ions present in the sample get excited by pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm, and on de-excitation emit fluorescence light (540 nm) intensity which is measured by the PMT. To estimate the uranium in the bioassay samples, a known aliquot of the sample was mixed with 5% sodium pyrophosphate and fluorescence intensity was measured

  6. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Engin, Ayse Basak [Gazi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology, 06330, Hipodrom, Ankara (Turkey); Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Rezaee, Ramin [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Gholamreza [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Drozd, Vladimir A.; Nikitina, Anna V.; Solomennik, Sergey F.; Kudryavkina, Olga R. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan [Biology Institute Shandong Academy of Science, Jinan 250014 (China); Tzatzarakis, Manolis [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Golokhvast, Kirill S., E-mail: droopy@mail.ru [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500 mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500 mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. - Highlights: • Basophil sensitization is more important than cell count in VEP exposure. • CD16+ cells are more effective than basophils on CD4+ T cell proliferation. • CD16+ and CD16- monocytes respond to VEP exposure in opposite directions. • CD8+ T cell proliferation is inhibited by all doses of VEPs. • Globally, more stringent standards are needed for vehicle particle emissions.

  7. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX): An Immersive Simulation System for Training Astronauts to Perform Glovebox Experiments in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station (ISS) has finally arrived, providing researchers on Earth a unique opportunity to study long-term effects of weightlessness and the space environment on structures, materials and living systems. Many of the physical, biological and material science experiments planned for ISS will require significant input and expertise from astronauts who must conduct the research, follow complicated assay procedures and collect data and samples in space. Containment is essential for Much of this work, both to protect astronauts from potentially harmful biological, chemical or material elements in the experiments as well as to protect the experiments from contamination by air-born particles In the Space Station environment. When astronauts must open the hardware containing such experiments, glovebox facilities provide the necessary barrier between astronaut and experiment. On Earth, astronauts are laced with the demanding task of preparing for the many glovebox experiments they will perform in space. Only a short time can be devoted to training for each experimental task and gl ovebox research only accounts for a small portion of overall training and mission objectives on any particular ISS mission. The quality of the research also must remain very high, requiring very detailed experience and knowledge of instrumentation, anatomy and specific scientific objectives for those who will conduct the research. This unique set of needs faced by NASA has stemmed the development of a new computer simulation tool, the Virtual Glovebox (VGB), which is designed to provide astronaut crews and support personnel with a means to quickly and accurately prepare and train for glovebox experiments in space.

  8. Meteorology and dispersion forecast in nuclear emergency in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, Juan J.; Boutet, Luis I.; Jordan, Osvaldo D.; Hernandez, Daniel G.; Guichandut, M.E.; Chiappesoni, H.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) (ARN in Spanish)' and the 'National Meteorological Office (NMO) (SMN in Spanish)' of Argentine has been working together on the improvement of both meteorological forecasting and dispersion prediction. In the pre-release phase of a nuclear emergency, it is very important to know the wind direction and the forecast of it, to establish the area, around the installation, where the emergency state is declared and to foresee the modification of this area. Information is also needed about deterministic effects, to begin the evacuation. At this time, meteorological forecast of wind direction and speed, and the real time meteorological information is available in the nuclear power plant (NPP) and in the Nuclear Emergency Control Centre at the ARN headquarters, together with the short-range dose calculation provided by our dispersion code, SEDA. By means of the SEDA code, we can estimate the optimum place to measure the radioactive material concentration in air, needed do to reduce evaluation uncertainties due, among others, to poor knowledge of the source term. The SEDA code allows considering atmospheric condition, and the need to reduced doses of the measuring team in charge of the measurements. For the evaluation in the medium range, we participate in the project IXP, which provides four hours and about 50 kilometres forecast. In the long-range movement of air borne radioactivity, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), whose contact point in Argentina is the SMN, can assist us. We have developed together, with the SMN, a detailed procedure to request assistance from the WMO. In this work, we describe the combined tasks that were carried out with the SMN to define the procedures and the concepts for their application during a real emergency. The results of an application exercise carried out in 2006 are also described. (author)

  9. Antigenic variants of influenza A virus, PR8 strain. I. Their development during serial passage in the lungs of partially immune mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERBER, P; LOOSLI, C G; HAMBRE, D

    1955-06-01

    Antigenically different strains of mouse-adapted PR8 influenza A virus have been produced by 17 serial passages of the virus in the lungs of mice immunized with the homologous agent. Comparative serological tests show that the variant strains share antigenic components with the parent strain but the dominant antigen is different. By means of antibody absorption it was shown that the "new" antigenic component of the variant was already present in minor amounts up to the eighth passage and thereafter gained prominence with continued passage in vaccinated mice. Groups of mice vaccinated with either the PR8-S or T(21) virus and having comparable antibody titers showed no growth of virus in the lungs following aid-borne challenge with homologous strains. On the other hand, following heterologous air-borne challenge no deaths occurred, but virus grew in the lungs of both groups of vaccinated mice. Almost unrestricted virus multiplication took place in the lungs of mice vaccinated with the parent strain and challenged with the PR8-T(21) virus which resulted in extensive consolidation. Less virus grew in the lungs of the mice vaccinated with the variant strains and challenged with the PR8-S virus. In these animals only microscopic evidence of changes due to virus growth in the lungs was observed. The successful serial passage of PR8 influenza A virus in immunized animals was dependent on the initial selection of mice with uniformly low H.I. antibody titers as determined on tail blood, and the intranasal instillation of sufficient virus to favor the survival of those virus particles least related to the antibodies present. The epidemiological implications of these observations are discussed briefly.

  10. Build-up dynamics of heavy metals deposited on impermeable urban surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A; O'Sullivan, A

    2012-12-30

    A method using thin boards (3 cm thick, 0.56 m(2)) comprising different paving materials typically used in urban environments (2 asphalt types and concrete) was employed to specifically investigate air-borne deposition dynamics of TSS, zinc, copper and lead. Boards were exposed at an urban car park near vehicular traffic to determine the rate of contaminant build-up over a 13-day dry period. Concentration profiles from simulated rainfall wash-off were used to determine contaminant yields at different antecedent dry days. Maximum contaminant yields after 13 days of exposure were 2.7 kg ha(-1) for TSS, 35 g ha(-1) zinc, 2.3 g ha(-1) copper and 0.4 g ha(-1) lead. Accumulation of all contaminants increased over the first week and levelled off thereafter, supporting theoretical assumptions that contaminant accumulation on impervious surfaces asymptotically approaches a maximum. Comparison of different surface types showed approximately four times higher zinc concentrations in runoff from asphalt surfaces and two times higher TSS concentrations in runoff from concrete, which is attributed to different physical and chemical compositions of the pavement types. Contaminant build-up and wash-off behaviours were modelled using exponential and saturation functions commonly applied in the US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) showing good correlation between measured and modelled concentrations. Maximum build-up, half-saturation time, build-up rate constants and wash-off coefficients, necessary for stormwater contaminant modelling, were determined for the four contaminants studied. These parameters are required to model contaminant concentrations in urban runoff assisting in stormwater management decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuberculosis in migrant populations. A systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Abarca Tomás

    Full Text Available The re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB in low-incidence countries and its disproportionate burden on immigrants is a public health concern posing specific social and ethical challenges. This review explores perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and treatment adherence behaviour relating to TB and their social implications as reported in the qualitative literature.Systematic review in four electronic databases. Findings from thirty selected studies extracted, tabulated, compared and synthesized.TB was attributed to many non-exclusive causes including air-born transmission of bacteria, genetics, malnutrition, excessive work, irresponsible lifestyles, casual contact with infected persons or objects; and exposure to low temperatures, dirt, stress and witchcraft. Perceived as curable but potentially lethal and highly contagious, there was confusion around a condition surrounded by fears. A range of economic, legislative, cultural, social and health system barriers could delay treatment seeking. Fears of deportation and having contacts traced could prevent individuals from seeking medical assistance. Once on treatment, family support and "the personal touch" of health providers emerged as key factors facilitating adherence. The concept of latent infection was difficult to comprehend and while TB screening was often seen as a socially responsible act, it could be perceived as discriminatory. Immigration and the infectiousness of TB mutually reinforced each another exacerbating stigma. This was further aggravated by indirect costs such as losing a job, being evicted by a landlord or not being able to attend school.Understanding immigrants' views of TB and the obstacles that they face when accessing the health system and adhering to a treatment programme-taking into consideration their previous experiences at countries of origin as well as the social, economic and legislative context in which they live at host countries- has an important role and should be

  12. The Role and Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.

  13. Morphology and histochemistry of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands in terrestrial hermit crabs of the genus Coenobita (Decapoda: Paguroidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Tuchina

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have successfully adapted to a variety of environments including fresh- and saltwater as well as land. Transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle required adaptations of the sensory equipment of an animal, particularly in olfaction, where the stimulus itself changes from hydrophilic to mainly hydrophobic, air-borne molecules. Hermit crabs Coenobita spp. (Anomura, Coenobitidae have adapted to a fully terrestrial lifestyle as adults and have been shown to rely on olfaction in order to detect distant food items. We observed that the specialized olfactory sensilla in Coenobita, named aesthetascs, are immersed in a layer of mucous-like substance. We hypothesized that the mucous is produced by antennal glands and affects functioning of the aesthetascs. Using various microscopic and histochemical techniques we proved that the mucous is produced by aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands, which we consider to be modified rosette-type aesthetasc tegumental glands known from aquatic decapods. These epidermal glands in Coenobita are multicellular exocrine organs of the recto-canal type with tubulo-acinar arrangement of the secretory cells. Two distinct populations of secretory cells were clearly distinguishable with light and electron microscopy. At least part of the secretory cells contains specific enzymes, CUB-serine proteases, which are likely to be secreted on the surface of the aesthetasc pad and take part in antimicrobial defense. Proteomic analysis of the glandular tissue corroborates the idea that the secretions of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands are involved in immune responses. We propose that the mucous covering the aesthetascs in Coenobita takes part in antimicrobial defense and at the same time provides the moisture essential for odor perception in terrestrial hermit crabs. We conclude that the morphological modifications of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands as well as the functional characteristics

  14. Total vs. internal element concentrations in Scots pine needles along a sulphur and metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, Pasi; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Different methods should be used for foliar analyses of trees used as bioindicators of pollution, than those analyses used in nutritional studies of trees. - Analysis of foliar elements is a commonly used method for studying tree nutrition and for monitoring the impacts of air pollutants on forest ecosystems. Interpretations based on the results of foliar element analysis may, however, be different in nutrition vs. monitoring studies. We studied the impacts of severe sulphur and metal (mainly Cu and Ni) pollution on the element concentrations (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S and Zn) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) foliage along an airborne sulphur and metal pollution gradient. Emphasis was put on determining the contribution of air-borne particles that have accumulated on needle surfaces to the total foliage concentrations. A comparison of two soil extraction methods was carried out in order to obtain a reliable estimate of plant-available element concentrations in the soil. Element concentrations in the soil showed only a weak relationship with internal foliar concentrations. There were no clear differences between the total and internal needle S concentrations along the gradient, whereas at the plot closest to the metal smelter complex the total Cu concentrations in the youngest needles were 1.3-fold and Ni concentrations over 1.6-fold higher than the internal needle concentrations. Chloroform-extracted surface wax was found to have Ni and Cu concentrations of as high as 3000 and 600 μg/g of wax, respectively. Our results suggest that bioindicator studies (e.g. monitoring studies) may require different foliar analysis techniques from those used in studies on the nutritional status of trees

  15. Preliminary results of BTDF calibration of transmissive solar diffusers for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2016-09-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflected solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the optical properties of their diffusers used in pre-flight and post-flight calibrations. The majority of recent and current space instruments use reflective diffusers. As a result, numerous Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) calibration comparisons have been conducted between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and other industry and university-based metrology laboratories. However, based on literature searches and communications with NIST and other laboratories, no Bidirectional Transmittance Distribution Function (BTDF) measurement comparisons have been conducted between National Measurement Laboratories (NMLs) and other metrology laboratories. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the use of transmissive diffusers in the calibration of satellite, air-borne, and ground-based remote sensing instruments. Current remote sensing instruments employing transmissive diffusers include the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite instrument (OMPS) Limb instrument on the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) platform,, the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on the Korea Aerospace Research Institute's (KARI) Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura platform, the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument and the Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS).. This ensemble of instruments requires validated BTDF measurements of their onboard transmissive diffusers from the ultraviolet through the near infrared. This paper presents the preliminary results of a BTDF comparison between the NASA Diffuser Calibration Laboratory (DCL) and NIST on quartz and thin Spectralon samples.

  16. Assimilation of remotely sensed chlorophyll fluorescence data into the land surface model CLM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieneke, S.; Ahrends, H. E.; Rascher, U.; Schween, J.; Schickling, A.; Crewell, S.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthesis is the most important exchange process of CO2 between the atmosphere and the land-surface. Therefore, the prediction of vegetation response to environmental conditions like increasing CO2 concentrations or plant stress is crucial for a reliable prediction of climate change. Photosynthesis is a complex physiological process that consists of numerous bio-physical sub-processes and chemical reactions. Spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthesis depend on dynamic plant-specific adaptation strategies to highly variable environmental conditions. Photosynthesis can be estimated using land-surface models, but, while state-of-the-art models often rely on Plant Functional Type (PFT) specific constants, they poorly simulate the dynamic adaptation of the physiological status of plant canopies in space and time. Remotely sensed sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SICF) gives us now the possibility to estimate the diurnal dynamic vitality of the photosynthetic apparatus at both, the leaf and canopy levels. We installed within the framework of the Transregio32 project (www.tr32.de) automated hyperspectral fluorescence sensors at an agricultural site (winter wheat) in the Rur catchment area in West Germany at the end of July 2012. End of August, additional measurements of SIFC on nearby temperate grassland site (riparian meadow) and on a sugar beet field were performed. Spatial covering SICF data of the region were obtained during a measurement campaign using the newly developed air-borne hyperspectral sensor HyPlant on the 23 and 27 August 2012. SIFC data and data provided by eddy covariance measurements will be used to update certain model parameters that are normally set as constants. First model results demonstrate that the assimilation of SIFC into the Community Land Model 4 (CLM4) will result in a more realistic simulation of plant-specific adaptation strategies and therefore in a more realistic simulation of photosynthesis in space and time.

  17. Soft tissue conduction as a possible contributor to the limited attenuation provided by hearing protection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Chordekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC. Aims: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. Subjects and Methods: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a unprotected ears, (b ears covered with earmuffs, (c ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs. BC thresholds were assessed with and without earplugs to assess the OE. Results: Addition of earmuffs to earplugs did not cause significantly greater attenuation than earplugs alone, confirming minimal AC leakage through the external meatus and the absence of the OE. Maximum REATs ranged between 40 and 46 dB, leading to thresholds of 46–54 dB HL. Furthermore, calculation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and bone predicted at least 60 dB attenuation of BC. Conclusion: Results do not support the notion that skull vibrations (BC contributed to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. An alternative explanation, supported by experimental evidence, suggests transmission of sound to inner ear via non-osseous pathways such as skin, soft tissues, and fluid. Because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissues is smaller than that between air and bone, air-borne sounds would be transmitted to soft tissues more effectively than to bone, and therefore less attenuation is expected through soft tissue sound conduction. This can contribute to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. The present study

  18. Using palynology to re-assess the Dead Sea laminated sediments - Indeed varves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, Revital; Lopez-Merino, Lourdes; Belmaker, Reuven; Eshel, Amram; Epshtein Epshtein, Valentina; Leroy, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Lacustrine laminated sediments are often varves representing annual rhythmic deposition. The Dead Sea high-stand laminated sections consist of mm-scale alternating detrital and authigenic aragonite laminae. Previous studies assumed these laminae were varves; detritus deposition during the winter and aragonite in the summer. These sequences were used for varve counting and chronology, however this assumption has never been robustly validated. Here, we report an examination of the seasonal deposition of detrital and aragonite couplets from two well-known Late Holocene laminated sections at the Ze'elim fan-delta using palynology and grain-size distribution analyses. These analyses are complemented by the study of contemporary flash-flood samples and multivariate statistical analysis. Because transport affects the pollen preservation state, well-preserved (mostly) air-borne transported pollen was analysed separately from badly-preserved pollen and fungal spores, which are more indicative of water transport and reworking from soils. Our results indicate that (i) both detrital and aragonite laminae were deposited during the rainy season; (ii) aragonite laminae have significantly lower reworked pollen and fungal spore concentrations than detrital and flash-flood samples; and (iii) detrital laminae are composed of recycling of local and distal sources, with coarser particles that were initially deposited in the Dead Sea watershed and later transported via run-off to the lake. The conclusions suggest that detrital and aragonite couplets in the Dead Sea laminated sediments are most likely not varves and that the laminae deposition is related to the occurrence of flash-flood events. Consequently, at least for the Holocene sequences, laminated sediments cannot be considered as varves and Quaternary laminated sequences should be re-evaluated. The Dead Sea Basin laminated sequences (as the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project record) should be used for the reconstruction of

  19. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    emissions of during combustion. The preparation of wood and transport has a significant contribution to nitrogen oxides air-borne emissions. The natural gas heating and electricity appear to be most beneficial for this indicator. For wood heating, the combustion stage accounts for 95% of air emissions of toxic metals. The natural gas heating is proving to be the most advantageous while heating with wood present the most damaging. The wood heating also emerges as the least well-positioned for emissions of toxic metals in soils. This is linked to the metals contained in ash, half of which is regarded as applied in the garden. The main means to improve the environmental balance sheet are: - Optimisation of the fuel supply chain (Increasing energy efficiency of processes for example); - Increasing combustion efficiency would improve the environmental impacts linked to airborne emissions of pollutants. (author)

  20. The GEOSS Component and Service Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, L.; Bai, Y.; Shen, D.; Shao, Y.; Shrestha, R.; Wang, H.; Nebert, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Petabytes of Earth science data have been accumulated through space- and air-borne Earth observation programs during the last several decades. The data are valuable both scientifically and socioeconomically. The value of these data could be further increased significantly if the data from these programs can be easily discovered, accessed, integrated, and analyzed. The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is addressing this need. Coordinated by the Group on Earth Observations (or GEO), a voluntary partnership of 86 governments, the European Commission, and 61 intergovernmental, international, and regional organizations has been working on implementing GEOSS for a number of years. After four years of international collaboration, the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) has been established. GCI consists of the Standards and Interoperability Registry (SIR), the Component and Service Registry (CSR), the GEO clearinghouse, and the GEO Portal. The SIR maintains the list of the public standards recognized by the GEO. CSR provides a centralized registry for available Earth Observation resources. The GEO clearinghouse works as a single search facility for GEOSS-wide resources and the GEO Portal provides an integrated Web-based interfaces for users. Since January 2007, researchers at CSISS, GMU have collaborated with officials from the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) on designing, implementing, maintaining, and upgrading CSR. Currently CSR provides the following capabilities for data providers: user registration, resource registration, and service interface registration. The CSR clients can discover the resources registered in CSR through OGC Catalog for Web (CSW), UUDI, and other standard interfaces. During the resource registration process, providers may define detailed descriptive information for their resources, in particular, the targeted societal benefit area and sub-areas of focus, and the targeted critical Earth Observations. The service

  1. KAPP-3 and 4 containment pressure following postulated severe accident along with SAMG implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kr.; Bhartia, D.K.; Mohan, Nalini; Malhotra, P.K.; Ghadge, S.G.; Chandra, Umesh

    2011-01-01

    Containment is an ultimate safety barrier which is designed to enclose whole reactor systems and to prevent the spread of active air-borne fission products. Studies are done to access its performance following severe accident i.e. Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) along with failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), moderator and calandria vault water cooling system. The accident progression begins with the double ended break in reactor outlet/inlet header with simultaneous failure of ECCS followed by failure of moderator and calandria vault water cooling system. Initially decay heat and metal water reaction energy are assumed to be added to moderator water resulting in boiling of moderator and re-pressurization of containment due to steam addition. Subsequent to moderator boiling, decay heat and metal water reaction energy are assumed to be added to calandria vault water resulting in boiling and re-pressurization of containment due to steam addition. After moderator and calandria vault water have completely boiled off, rapid hydrogen generation would take place due to oxidation of pressure tubes and calandria tubes. In such accident scenario, the core is severely damaged. It will also lead to release of a large quantity of radio nuclides to containment atmosphere. To arrest the progression of accident, which can result in Severe Core damage and large amount of hydrogen production, which could leads to containment failure due to hydrogen deflagration or detonation, application of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG) has been studied. SAMG involve addition of water to calandria and calandria vault. It would result the boiling of the added water and consequent pressurization of containment. This paper presents the analysis for pressure-temperature of KAPP-3 and 4 containment following the postulated accident along with the application of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG). SAMG initiated action helps in arresting the progression of core

  2. About uncertainties in sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.

    2014-03-01

    One goal of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative sea ice Essential Climate Variable project is to provide a quality controlled 20 year long data set of Arctic Ocean winter-time sea ice thickness distribution. An important step to achieve this goal is to assess the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval based on satellite radar altimetry. For this purpose a data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and collocated observations of snow and sea ice freeboard from Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) air-borne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine Upward Looking Sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E) and the Warren Climatology (Warren et al., 1999). An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets stresses the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. This is confirmed by a comparison of snow freeboard measured during OIB and CryoVEx and snow freeboard computed from radar altimetry. For first-year ice the agreement between OIB and AMSR-E snow depth within 0.02 m suggests AMSR-E snow depth as an appropriate alternative. Different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches are realized. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft computed from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the realized approaches is able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests: in order to obtain sea ice thickness as accurate as 0.5 m from radar altimetry, besides a freeboard estimate with centimetre accuracy, an ice-type dependent sea ice density is as mandatory

  3. Using Piezoelectric Ceramics for Dust Mitigation of Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Heather K.

    2004-01-01

    The particles that make up moon dust and Mars soil can be hazardous to an astronaut s health if not handled properly. In the near future, while exploring outer space, astronauts plan to wander the surfaces of unknown planets. During these explorations, dust and soil will cling to their space suits and become imbedded in the fabric. The astronauts will track moon dust and mars soil back into their living quarters. This not only will create a mess with millions of tiny air-born particles floating around, but will also be dangerous in the case that the fine particles are breathed in and become trapped in an astronaut s lungs. research center are investigating ways to remove these particles from space suits. This problem is very difficult due to the nature of the particles: They are extremely small and have jagged edges which can easily latch onto the fibers of the fabric. For the past summer, I have been involved in researching the potential problems, investigating ways to remove the particles, and conducting experiments to validate the techniques. The current technique under investigation uses piezoelectric ceramics imbedded in the fabric that vibrate and shake the particles free. The particles will be left on the planet s surface or collected a vacuum to be disposed of later. The ceramics vibrate when connected to an AC voltage supply and create a small scale motion similar to what people use at the beach to shake sand off of a beach towel. Because the particles are so small, similar to volcanic ash, caution must be taken to make sure that this technique does not further inbed them in the fabric and make removal more difficult. Only a very precise range of frequency and voltage will produce a suitable vibration. My summer project involved many experiments to determine the correct range. Analysis involved hands on experience with oscilloscopes, amplifiers, piezoelectrics, a high speed camera, microscopes and computers. perfect this technology. Someday, vibration to

  4. Growth and nutrition of coniferous forests on acidic mineral soils - status and effects of liming and fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikstroem, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    Deposited air-borne S- and N- containing pollutants acidify forest soils in southern Sweden. It has been suggested that this may severely affect forest yield. Liming and/or application of specific nutrients, e.g. phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), have been proposed as countermeasures. The influence of such measures, and of nitrogen (N) addition, was investigated in two experimental series over 5-10 years. Stem growth and needle element concentrations were assessed, predominantly in high-yielding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, 30-60 years old, growing on acidic mineral soils in southern Sweden. The effect on crown transparency was also evaluated in some of the Norway spruce stands. The treatments included liming (500-6,000 kg ha -1 ), and N addition at low annual doses (2x10 kg N ha -1 ) and in single shots (150 kg N ha -1 ). Combinations of lime+N, lime+PK and lime+PKN were also tested. The effects were generally weak or negligible, except that growth was significantly increased by N fertilization in the Scots pine stands, and by lime+PKN in some of the Norway spruce stands. In another study, the survival and growth of Norway spruce seedlings were found to be more or less unaffected when planted in pre-harvest acidified, limed or N fertilized soil, although the Ca and Zn concentrations in their needles rose after liming, while those of Mn and Al declined. In closed-canopy stands of Norway spruce and Scots pine with N concentrations of more than 15-16 mg (g DM) -1 in current-year needles, N fertilization was indicated to not necessarily stimulate increased growth. Other indicators of highly N-rich forests (e.g. elevated arginine levels) also start to appear above this level. The closed-canopy stands growing on the most acidic soils showed no signs of severe damage or nutrient deficiencies. These findings, together with the small or negligible effects of the tested countermeasures against soil acidification

  5. Advances in understanding, models and parameterisations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechard, C. R.; Massad, R.-S.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Simpson, D.; Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+) to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal) and space (patchwork landscapes). The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (Γ). Surface/atmosphere exchange models for NH3 are necessary to compute the temporal and spatial patterns of emissions and deposition at the soil, plant, field, landscape, regional and global scales, in order to assess the multiple environmental impacts of air-borne and deposited NH3 and NH4+. Models of soil/vegetation/atmosphereem NH3 exchange are reviewed from the substrate and leaf scales to the global scale. They range from simple steady-state, "big leaf" canopy resistance models, to dynamic, multi-layer, multi-process, multi

  6. Quantifying airborne dispersal routes of pathogens over continents to safeguard global wheat supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M; Cox, J A; Hitchings, M D T; Burgin, L; Hort, M C; Hodson, D P; Gilligan, C A

    2017-10-01

    Infectious crop diseases spreading over large agricultural areas pose a threat to food security. Aggressive strains of the obligate pathogenic fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), causing the crop disease wheat stem rust, have been detected in East Africa and the Middle East, where they lead to substantial economic losses and threaten livelihoods of farmers. The majority of commercially grown wheat cultivars worldwide are susceptible to these emerging strains, which pose a risk to global wheat production, because the fungal spores transmitting the disease can be wind-dispersed over regions and even continents 1-11 . Targeted surveillance and control requires knowledge about airborne dispersal of pathogens, but the complex nature of long-distance dispersal poses significant challenges for quantitative research 12-14 . We combine international field surveys, global meteorological data, a Lagrangian dispersion model and high-performance computational resources to simulate a set of disease outbreak scenarios, tracing billions of stochastic trajectories of fungal spores over dynamically changing host and environmental landscapes for more than a decade. This provides the first quantitative assessment of spore transmission frequencies and amounts amongst all wheat producing countries in Southern/East Africa, the Middle East and Central/South Asia. We identify zones of high air-borne connectivity that geographically correspond with previously postulated wheat rust epidemiological zones (characterized by endemic disease and free movement of inoculum) 10,15 , and regions with genetic similarities in related pathogen populations 16,17 . We quantify the circumstances (routes, timing, outbreak sizes) under which virulent pathogen strains such as 'Ug99' 5,6 pose a threat from long-distance dispersal out of East Africa to the large wheat producing areas in Pakistan and India. Long-term mean spore dispersal trends (predominant direction, frequencies, amounts) are

  7. Initial assessment of CryoSat-2 Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingham, D.; Galin, N.; Ridout, A.; Cullen, R.; Giles, K. A.; Laxon, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    imagery from ENVISAT. Using one month's of data, we have determined an initial dynamic topography that agrees with a high resolution region ocean model to 4 cm. We have estimated the precision of individual (20 Hz) measurements to be 2 cm. We have combined estimated the Arctic ice thickness for January and February 2011, and made a preliminary comparison with contemporaneous in-situ and air-borne estimates of thickness which agree to 20 cm. In summary, with the corrected data products, we are able to confirm that the system performance of CryoSat-2 will meet or exceed its specification over the continental and marine ice sheets.

  8. AgMIP: Next Generation Models and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    Next steps in developing next-generation crop models fall into several categories: significant improvements in simulation of important crop processes and responses to stress; extension from simplified crop models to complex cropping systems models; and scaling up from site-based models to landscape, national, continental, and global scales. Crop processes that require major leaps in understanding and simulation in order to narrow uncertainties around how crops will respond to changing atmospheric conditions include genetics; carbon, temperature, water, and nitrogen; ozone; and nutrition. The field of crop modeling has been built on a single crop-by-crop approach. It is now time to create a new paradigm, moving from 'crop' to 'cropping system.' A first step is to set up the simulation technology so that modelers can rapidly incorporate multiple crops within fields, and multiple crops over time. Then the response of these more complex cropping systems can be tested under different sustainable intensification management strategies utilizing the updated simulation environments. Model improvements for diseases, pests, and weeds include developing process-based models for important diseases, frameworks for coupling air-borne diseases to crop models, gathering significantly more data on crop impacts, and enabling the evaluation of pest management strategies. Most smallholder farming in the world involves integrated crop-livestock systems that cannot be represented by crop modeling alone. Thus, next-generation cropping system models need to include key linkages to livestock. Livestock linkages to be incorporated include growth and productivity models for grasslands and rangelands as well as the usual annual crops. There are several approaches for scaling up, including use of gridded models and development of simpler quasi-empirical models for landscape-scale analysis. On the assessment side, AgMIP is leading a community process for coordinated contributions to IPCC AR6

  9. Calculation methods for air supply design in industrial facilities. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K; Siren, K; Zhivov, A M

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of air distribution systems for warm air heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are to create the proper thermal environment conditions in the occupied zone (combination of temperature, humidity, and air movement), and to control vapor and air born particle concentration within the target levels set by the process requirements and/or threshold limit values based on health effects, fire and explosion prevention, or other considerations. HVAC systems designs are constrained by existing codes, standards, and guidelines, which specify some minimum requirements for the HVAC system elements, occupant`s and process environmental quality and safety. There is a variety of different methods consulting engineers use to design room air diffusion and to select and size air diffusers, such as assumption of perfect mixing, design methods employing the empirical relations determined through research, such as the air diffusion performance index (ADPI), air jet theory and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Air supplied into the room through the various types of outlets (grills, ceiling mounted air diffusers, perforated panels etc.), is distributed by turbulent air jets. In mixing type air distribution systems, these air jets are the primary factor affecting room air motion. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies that developed a solid base for turbulent air jets theory were conducted concurrently in different countries (Germany, Sweden, Russia, U.K., USA) from the 1930`s through the 1980`s. Design methods based on air jet theory allows for the prediction of extreme values of air velocities and air temperatures in the occupied zone of empty spaces. Current air jet theory techniques account for the effects of buoyancy, confinement, jets interaction. For many conditions of jet discharge, it is possible to analyze jet performance and determine: the angle of divergence of the jet boundary; the velocity patterns along heated or chilled the jet axis; the

  10. Pollution and energy management in tanning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, N.U.

    2005-01-01

    Tanning industry uses a number of chemicals such as Common Salt, Lime (Calcium Hydroxide), Sodium Sulfide and Basic Chromium Sulfate etc. During process, only a part of the chemical is consumed and the rest ends up in the effluent as pollutant. This paper deals with the techniques, locally developed or published in literature to recycle these chemicals and also discusses some energy saving techniques which can be used in tanning industry. Basic Chromium Sulfate (BCS) is one of the expensive chemicals used in 'Chrome Tanning'. By precipitating d filtering basic chromium sulfate, the recovery is nearly complete and the effluent obtained contains less than 1ppm Chromium. Dried raw hides contain up to 15% sodium chloride (w/w) and this can be removed in solid form by using mechanical brushes and can be re-used. The recovered salt contains foreign matter as impurities. After dissolution in water, the salt solution is filtered through cartridge filters and can be used in pickle bath. Liming slurry containing sodium sulfide is wasted as it contains fleshing and hair etc. A self cleaning 'J' type screen has no moving parts and removes fleshing and hair from the lime suspension. 'Counter Current Washing Technique,' reduces the wash water quantity by a factor of five to six. Air born pollution generated during buffing and dyeing can be captured by properly designed air filters. The solvents released in atmosphere during dyeing and finishing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, gelatin and protein can be recovered from waste fleshing. In tanning industry, drying of hides is the major consumer of thermal energy. Hot air can be produced by steam, hot water or solar energy. Advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed. Wastage of thermal energy in dryers can be reduced by improving the existing designs. Hot water for tanning purposes can be generated by recovering waste heat present in the boiler flue gases. Boiler efficiency can also be improved by cycling heat

  11. Collection and Analysis of Bioburden Information in Pharmaceutical Clean Room%药品洁净室生物负载信息的采集与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟盛; 朱荣峰; 关倩明

    2015-01-01

    目的::对洁净室生物负载信息进行采集,了解洁净室的微生物负载状况,查找洁净室中微生物控制的薄弱环节及风险,提高洁净室管理效率。方法:按照GB/T 16293-2010及本所实验室的环境菌检测规程,对洁净室主要区域(微生物限度检查、无菌1室、无菌2室、阳性接种)及进入该区域人员的浮游菌和表面菌进行采集与鉴定,获取生物负载信息。结果:初步建立生物负载数据信息,发现洁净室主要的生物负载是微球菌与葡萄球菌,真菌检出率约为5%。结论:洁净室需要加强控制人流物流,并且存在样品消毒不彻底的风险。%Objective:To collect the bioburden information in clean room to understand the bioburden status, find out weak points and risks in microbial control and improve the management efficiency in clean room. Methods: According to GB/T 16293-2010 and the standard operation practice ( SOP) in our lab, the bioburden information was obtained by the collection and identification of air-borne microbe and surface bacteria in the four main areas of clean room ( microbial limit test room, sterile room 1 and 2, positive room) and on the person entered clean room. Results:The preliminarily established bioburden information indicated that the main mi-croorganism in clean room was Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. The detection rate of fungi was about 5% in clean room. Conclusion:The movement of people and goods in clean room should be strengthened, and samples should be with thorough disinfection.

  12. Large Scale Numerical Modelling to Study the Dispersion of Persistent Toxic Substances Over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinger, A.; Petersen, G.

    2003-12-01

    For the past two decades environmental research at the GKSS Research Centre has been concerned with airborne pollutants with adverse effects on human health. The research was mainly focused on investigating the dispersion and deposition of heavy metals like lead and mercury over Europe by means of numerical modelling frameworks. Lead, in particular, served as a model substance to study the relationship between emissions and human exposition. The major source of airborne lead in Germany was fuel combustion until the 1980ies when its use as gasoline additive declined due to political decisions. Since then, the concentration of lead in ambient air and the deposition rates decreased in the same way as the consumption of leaded fuel. These observations could further be related to the decrease of lead concentrations in human blood measured during medical studies in several German cities. Based on the experience with models for heavy metal transport and deposition we have now started to turn our research focus to organic substances, e.g. PAHs. PAHs have been recognized as significant air borne carcinogens for several decades. However, it is not yet possible to precisely quantify the risk of human exposure to those compounds. Physical and chemical data, known from literature, describing the partitioning of the compounds between particle and gas phase and their degradation in the gas phase are implemented in a tropospheric chemistry module. In this way, the fate of PAHs in the atmosphere due to different particle type and size and different meteorological conditions is tested before carrying out large-scale and long-time studies. First model runs have been carried out for Benzo(a)Pyrene as one of the principal carcinogenic PAHs. Up to now, nearly nothing is known about degradation reactions of particle bound BaP. Thus, they could not be taken into account in the model so far. On the other hand, the proportion of BaP in the gas phase has to be considered at higher ambient

  13. Remote sensing for investigations of woodlands impacted by lignite open surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, M. [ILV-Fernerkundung GmbH, Teltow (Germany); Lohstraeter, O. [Abteilung Markscheidewesen, MIBRAG mbH, Theissen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The development of a long term monitoring concept for post-mining landscapes and mine surroundings as ordered by the company MIBRAG requires different preliminary studies. Objectives of these methodologically oriented analyses presented were the recording of ecologically relevant parameters, their changes and of possible effects caused by the mining activities in the flood plains of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder' situated between the open surface lignite mines 'Vereinigtes Schleenhain' and 'Profen' south of Leipzig. Besides other information, repeatedly generated satellite data of the SPOT system was prepared for research of various vegetation types, selected by certain criteria for a long term monitoring. The satellite data analysis methodology and research findings are presented. The generation of radiometrical and comparable data records using the atmosphere correction software 'ATCOR' as part of the image processing system 'ERDAS IMAGINE' and the evaluation of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index NDVI are important parts of the analysis. Based on deciduous woodland maps near the rivers of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder', which were categorised as ecologically valuable, statistical analyses were made using the vegetation status evaluated by remote sensing. As a result, tendencies of vegetation change are demonstrated. To obtain more details about special relations between vegetation development and remote sensing data, further research is necessary involving spectral features of deciduous plant canopy and their causalities. Future gathering of high-precision geometric and radiometric (digital airborne) data is one way of reaching more detailed information of the objects in question. The high geometric accuracy of digital camera data (by DMC) and the color bands are benefits for the mining company which can now replace regular air-borne surveying made with analogous technology

  14. Exploration for sandstone- type uranium mineralisation in the Siwaliks of northwestern Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarnkar, B.M.; Kothari, P.K.; Umamaheswar, K.; Srinivasan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Siwalik Group with a thickness of about 6000m of fluvial sediments of middle Miocene to Pleistocene age has been explored extensively over two decades for U, using various types of exploration techniques involving air-borne gamma-ray spectrometry, radiation jeep survey, hydrogeochemical survey, ground radiometric survey, radon survey, exploratory drilling and mining, Exploration effort by the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) has helped in identifying numerous uranium occurrences spread over the entire Siwalik belt between Poonch (Jammu and Kashmir) in the west and Tanakpur (Uttar Pradesh) in the east, in the northwest Himalaya. Eight significant zones were delineated, mostly confining to distinct stratigraphic horizons of the transition zone between Middle and Upper Siwaliks, and occasionally the transition zone between Lower and Middle Siwaliks. These mineralised zones have a considerable lateral extent of up to 12 km and are associated with sandstones and rarely conglomerates. Uranium mineralisation occurs in the form of peneconcordant lensoidal bodies with individual lenses traceable from a few tens of metres to 700m, sub-parallel to strike or dip, with average grades varying from 0.020 - 0.060% U 3 O 8 and thickness less than a metre to 4m. The host rock of uranium mineralisation is predominantly sandstone containing carbonaceous matter, pyrite and clay pellets. The sandstone is often arkosic and micaceous, and termed as lithic wacke and arkosic wacke. The uranium minerals present are uraninite, pitchblende, coffinite and secondary minerals such as tyuyamunite, metatyuyamunite, uranophane, bayleyite, andersonite, schoepite, liebegite, swartzite, schroekingerite, wulfenite, billictite, betauranophane, autunite and torbernite. Relatively higher concentrations or Se, Mo, Cu, Co, V and Au have been noted in a few uranirerous zones. Concentration or uranium in the Siwalik clastic sediments is controlled by the redox interface

  15. Risks from accidental exposures to engineered nanoparticles and neurological health effects: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Mats-Olof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are certain concerns regarding the safety for the environment and human health from the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs which leads to unintended exposures, as opposed to the use of ENPs for medical purposes. This review focuses on the unintended human exposure of ENPs. In particular, possible effects in the brain are discussed and an attempt to assess risks is performed. Animal experiments have shown that investigated ENPs (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes can translocate to the brain from different entry points (skin, blood, respiratory pathways. After inhalation or instillation into parts of the respiratory tract a very small fraction of the inhaled or instilled ENPs reaches the blood and subsequently secondary organs, including the CNS, at a low translocation rate. Experimental in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that several types of ENPs can have various biological effects in the nervous system. Some of these effects could also imply that ENPs can cause hazards, both acutely and in the long term. The relevance of these data for risk assessment is far from clear. There are at present very few data on exposure of the general public to either acute high dose exposure or on chronic exposure to low levels of air-borne ENPs. It is furthermore unlikely that acute high dose exposures would occur. The risk from such exposures for damaging CNS effects is thus probably very low, irrespective of any biological hazard associated with ENPs. The situation is more complicated regarding chronic exposures, at low doses. The long term accumulation of ENPs can not be excluded. However, we do not have exposure data for the general public regarding ENPs. Although translocation to the brain via respiratory organs and the circulation appears to be very low, there remains a possibility that chronic exposures, and/or biopersistent ENPs, can influence processes within the brain that are triggering or aggravating

  16. Environmental quality and preservation; reefs, corals, and carbonate sands; guides to reef-ecosystem health and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidz, Barbara H.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the health of the entire coral reef ecosystem that lines the outer shelf off the Florida Keys has declined markedly. In particular, loss of those coral species that are the building blocks of solid reef framework has significant negative implications for economic vitality of the region. What are the reasons for this decline? Is it due to natural change, or are human activities (recreational diving, ship groundings, farmland runoff, nutrient influx, air-borne contaminants, groundwater pollutants) a contributing factor and if so, to what extent? At risk of loss are biologic resources of the reefs, including habitats for endangered species in shoreline mangroves, productive marine and wetland nurseries, and economic fisheries. A healthy reef ecosystem builds a protective offshore barrier to catastrophic wave action and storm surges generated by tropical storms and hurricanes. In turn, a healthy reef protects the homes, marinas, and infrastructure on the Florida Keys that have been designed to capture a lucrative tourism industry. A healthy reef ecosystem also protects inland agricultural and livestock areas of South Florida whose produce and meat feed much of the United States and other parts of the world. In cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Marine Sanctuary Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues longterm investigations of factors that may affect Florida's reefs. One of the first steps in distinguishing between natural change and the effects of human activities, however, is to determine how coral reefs have responded to past environmental change, before the advent of man. By so doing, accurate scientific information becomes available for Marine Sanctuary management to understand natural change and thus to assess and regulate potential human impact better. The USGS studies described here evaluate the distribution (location) and historic vitality (thickness) of Holocene

  17. The potential of satellite data to study individual wildfire events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benali, Akli; López-Saldana, Gerardo; Russo, Ana; Sá, Ana C. L.; Pinto, Renata M. S.; Nikos, Koutsias; Owen, Price; Pereira, Jose M. C.

    2014-05-01

    information about the major spatial corridors through which fires spread, and their relative importance in the full fire event. These major fire paths are then used to extract relevant descriptors, such as the distribution of fire spread direction, rate of spread and fire intensity (i.e. energy emitted). The reconstruction of the fire spread is shown for some case studies for Portugal and is also compared with fire progressions obtained by air-borne sensors for SE Australia. The approach shows solid results, providing a valuable tool for the reconstruction of individual fire events, understand their complex spread patterns and their main drivers of fire propagation. The major fire pathsand the spatio-temporal distribution of active fires are being currently combined with fire spread simulations within the scope oftheFIRE-MODSATproject, to provideuseful information to support and improve fire suppression strategies.

  18. The use of town refuse ash in urban agriculture around Jos, Nigeria: health and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, M W

    2006-01-15

    This paper reports on a study that examines the health and environmental risks of using town refuse ash in urban vegetable production in Jos, Nigeria, in terms of heavy metal accumulation in the food chain. Soil and crop samples, collected from five study farms, and samples of the river water used for irrigation, were analysed for seven heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. On the basis of the field data the paper discusses: (1) the potential soil deficiencies and toxicities; (2) the probable links between soil heavy metal levels and fertilisation practices; (3) the heavy metal concentrations in crop tissue in relation to crop growth and human health. The findings suggest that soil concentrations of the seven metals fall within 'typical' soil levels, and that there should not be any problems of either toxicities or deficiencies for crop growth. There was evidence of slight accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd on some of the farms with a history of town refuse ash use. However, in all farms lettuce crops contained very large concentrations of Fe, and Pb concentrations that were 20 to 40 times higher than the WHO/FAO maximum recommended level in leafy vegetables for human consumption. The Cd content of carrot tissue was 10 times higher than the WHO/FAO recommended limit. The relatively small number of soil and crop samples precluded any formal attempt at correlating the concentrations of heavy metals found in the vegetable crops with the farm levels. Nevertheless, the data suggested that these were not linked. The paper goes on to consider various potential sources of the metals found in the crops, including irrigation water, town refuse ash and air-borne dust, and discusses additional health and environmental risks pertaining to the use of town refuse ash. Undoubtedly, the heavy Pb and Cd contamination of certain crops indicates the urgent need for future studies to ascertain the precise source of these metals, and although the practice of using town refuse ash does

  19. A Bayesian Retrieval of Greenland Ice Sheet Internal Temperature from Ultra-wideband Software-defined Microwave Radiometer (UWBRAD) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Durand, M. T.; Jezek, K. C.; Yardim, C.; Bringer, A.; Aksoy, M.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The ultra-wideband software-defined microwave radiometer (UWBRAD) is designed to provide ice sheet internal temperature product via measuring low frequency microwave emission. Twelve channels ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 GHz are covered by the instrument. A Greenland air-borne demonstration was demonstrated in September 2016, provided first demonstration of Ultra-wideband radiometer observations of geophysical scenes, including ice sheets. Another flight is planned for September 2017 for acquiring measurements in central ice sheet. A Bayesian framework is designed to retrieve the ice sheet internal temperature from simulated UWBRAD brightness temperature (Tb) measurements over Greenland flight path with limited prior information of the ground. A 1-D heat-flow model, the Robin Model, was used to model the ice sheet internal temperature profile with ground information. Synthetic UWBRAD Tb observations was generated via the partially coherent radiation transfer model, which utilizes the Robin model temperature profile and an exponential fit of ice density from Borehole measurement as input, and corrupted with noise. The effective surface temperature, geothermal heat flux, the variance of upper layer ice density, and the variance of fine scale density variation at deeper ice sheet were treated as unknown variables within the retrieval framework. Each parameter is defined with its possible range and set to be uniformly distributed. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is applied to make the unknown parameters randomly walk in the parameter space. We investigate whether the variables can be improved over priors using the MCMC approach and contribute to the temperature retrieval theoretically. UWBRAD measurements near camp century from 2016 was also treated with the MCMC to examine the framework with scattering effect. The fine scale density fluctuation is an important parameter. It is the most sensitive yet highly unknown parameter in the estimation framework

  20. Measurement of Air Pollution Comes from Adra Cement Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Meslmani, Y.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Shamali, K.

    2013-06-01

    Measurements of air pollution were carried out in and around Adra cement factory during a single period (December). The Measurements included the following: 1- Dust fall. 2- Total suspended particulates (TSP) and inhalable particulates PM-1-0 & PM-3 inside the factor and in residential area surrounded the factory (Worker City of Adra, Adra city, Wafeden Mokheam, Baironi Hospital and Alkatiefa City). 3-Determination the levels of Cd, Pb, Cu and zinc associated with air born. 4- Determination of toxic gases (CO, SO-2 and NO-x) emitted from the chimneys. The results showed that the quantity of dust fall was varied obviously inside the factory and the regions affected by air pollutions. The monthly concentration of dust fall were 165, 27 and 10 tons/Km 2 /month inside the factory , affected villages and Baironi Hospital respectively, Wherein the permissible limit is (9tons/Km'2/month). The total suspended particulates (TSP) and inhalable particulates PM-1-0 & PM-3 in the studies area were higher than the permissible limit. The TSP concentrations inside the factory ranged between 497 and 2021 microgram/m'3 while the ranged between 328 and 561 microgram /m'3 in the surrounded villages and between 232 and 244 microgram/m'3 near Damascus, the were far higher than the world health organization (WHO) standards (120 Microgram/m'3). The PM-3 which is the most effecting on the human health reached 117.6, 124.6 and 62.6 microgram /m 3 inside the factory (main in trance), city worker of Adra and Baironi Hospital respectively, theses concentrations were higher than the Syrian standards (15 microgram/m'3) The measurements which were carried out through an exclusive day refered that the percentage of TSP/PM-3 is increasedwith moving away from the factory and reached 6.8, 18.6, 19.3% in the main intrance of the factory, worker city of Adra and Bironi Hospital respectively. The level of toxic gases inside the source (chimneys) was within the standards

  1. Color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Nerudová, Jana; Lukás, Edgar; Cábelková, Zdena; Cikrt, Miroslav

    2003-08-01

    To study color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor. Twenty-four male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg vapor, aged 42+/-9.8 years, duration of exposure 14.7+/-9.7 years, were examined. The 8h TWA air-borne Hg concentration in workplace was 59 microg/m(3); mean Hg urinary excretion (HgU) was 20.5+/-19.3 microg/g creatinine; mean Hg urinary excretion after the administration of a chelating agent, sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonate (DMPS), was 751.9+/-648 microg/48h. Twenty-four age- and gender-matched control subjects were compared. Visual acuity, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and history of diseases or drugs potentially influencing color vision were registered. The Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (L-D15-d) was used to assess color vision. The results were expressed quantitatively as Bowman's Color Confusion Index (CCI), and qualitatively according to Verriest's classification of acquired dyschromatopsias. The CCI was significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control (mean CCI 1.15 versus 1.04; P=0.04). The proportion of subjects with errorless performance on the Lanthony test was significantly lower in the Hg exposed group compared to referents (52% versus 73%; P=0.035). The exposed group showed higher frequency of type III dyschromatopsias (blue-yellow confusion axis) in comparison with the control group (12.5% versus 8.3%), however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression did not show any significant relationship between the CCI, and age, alcohol consumption, or measures of exposure. In agreement with previous studies by Cavalleri et al. [Toxicol. Lett. 77 (1995) 351; Environ. Res. Sec. A 77 (1998) 173], the results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to mercury vapor can induce sub-clinical color vision impairment. This effect was observed at an exposure level below the current biological limit for occupational exposure to mercury. This

  2. Neuropsychological effects of chronic low-dose exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klett Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to indoor air of private or public buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has raised health concerns in long-term users. This exploratory neuropsychological group study investigated the potential adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to specific air-borne low chlorinated PCBs on well-being and behavioral measures in adult humans. Methods Thirty employees exposed to indoor air contaminated with PCBs from elastic sealants in a school building were compared to 30 non-exposed controls matched for education and age, controlling for gender (age range 37–61 years. PCB exposure was verified by external exposure data and biological monitoring (PCB 28, 101, 138, 153, 180. Subjective complaints, learning and memory, executive function, and visual-spatial function was assessed by standardized neuropsychological testing. Since exposure status depended on the use of contaminated rooms, an objectively exposed subgroup (N = 16; PCB 28 = 0.20 μg/l; weighted exposure duration 17.9 ± 7 years was identified and compared with 16 paired controls. Results Blood analyses indicated a moderate exposure effect size (d relative to expected background exposure for total PCB (4.45 ± 2.44 μg/l; d = 0.4. A significant exposure effect was found for the low chlorinated PCBs 28 (0.28 ± 0.25 μg/l; d = 1.5 and 101 (0.07 ± 0.09 μg/l; d = 0.7. Although no neuropsychological effects exceeded the adjusted significance level, estimation statistics showed elevated effect sizes for several variables. The objectively exposed subgroup showed a trend towards increased subjective attentional and emotional complaints (tiredness and slowing of practical activities, emotional state as well as attenuated attentional performance (response shifting and alertness in a cued reaction task. Conclusion Chronic inhalation of low chlorinated PCBs that involved elevated blood levels was associated with a subtle attenuation of emotional well

  3. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xin; Qiu, Jie; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Lv, Ling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhao, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between air borne particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ) exposure and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted, and fewer were conducted in areas with high levels of PM 10 . Methods: To examine the association between PM 10 and PIH by different exposure time windows during pregnancy, we analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted in Lanzhou, China including 8 745 pregnant women with available information on air pollution during pregnancy. A total of 333 PIH cases (127 gestational hypertension (GH) and 206 preeclampsia (PE)) were identified. PM 10 daily average concentrations of each subject were calculated according to the distance between home/work addresses and monitor stations using an inverse-distance weighting approach. Results: Average PM 10 concentration over the duration of entire pregnancy was significantly associated with PIH (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.23 per 10 μg m −3 increase), PE (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.30 per 10 μg m −3 increase), late onset PE (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32 per10 μg m −3 increase), and severe PE (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48 per 10 μg m −3 increase). Average PM 10 during the first 12 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of GH (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.21 per 10 μg m −3 increase), and PM 10 exposure before 20 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of severe PE (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30 per 10 μg m −3 increase). Conclusions: We found that high level exposure to ambient PM 10 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PIH, GH and PE and that the strength of the association varied by timing of exposure during pregnancy. (letter)

  4. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    triple-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument for simultaneous measurement of water vapor and carbon-dioxide column density measurement from an air-borne platform. This presentation will give an overview of the 2 decades of 2-micron coherent and direction detection of laser/lidar development at NASA Langley Research Center and will present the ground and airborne wind and column CO2 measurement intercomparison with in-situ, balloon and flask measurements.

  5. Studying soil properties using visible and near infrared spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, S.; Garfagnoli, F.; Innocenti, L.; Chiarantini, L.

    2009-04-01

    This research is carried out inside the DIGISOIL Project, whose purposes are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies, for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going form the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in digital soil mapping. The study area is located in the Virginio river basin, about 30 km south of Firenze, in the Chianti area, where soils with agricultural suitability have a high economic value connected to the production of internationally famous wines and olive oils. The most common soil threats, such as erosion and landslide, may determine huge economic losses, which must be considered in farming management practices. This basin has a length of about 23 km for a basin area of around 60,3 Km2. Geological formations outcropping in the area are Pliocene to Pleistocene marine and lacustrine sediments in beds with almost horizontal bedding. Vineyards, olive groves and annual crops are the main types of land use. A typical Mediterranean climate prevails with a dry summer followed by intense and sometimes prolonged rainfall in autumn, decreasing in winter. In this study, three types of VNIR and SWIR techniques, operating at different scales and in different environments (laboratory spectroscopy, portable field spectroscopy) are integrated to rapidly quantify various soil characteristics, in order to acquire data for assessing the risk of occurrence for typically agricultural practice-related soil threats (swelling, compaction, erosion, landslides, organic matter decline, ect.) and to collect ground data in order to build up a spectral library to be used in image analysis from air-borne and satellite sensors. Difficulties encountered in imaging spectroscopy, such as influence of measurements conditions, atmospheric attenuation, scene dependency and sampling representation are investigated and mathematical pre-treatments, using proper algorithms, are applied and

  6. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    wave refraction and Rayleigh wave dispersion data. Theoretical standard high-frequency and air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion calculated by the inferred site structure match the observed dispersion curves. Our study suggests that natural or controlled air-borne pressure sources can be used to investigate the near-surface site structures for earthquake shaking hazard studies.

  7. Towards automatic lithological classification from remote sensing data using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing data can be effectively used as a mean to build geological knowledge for poorly mapped terrains. Spectral remote sensing data from space- and air-borne sensors have been widely used to geological mapping, especially in areas of high outcrop density in arid regions. However, spectral remote sensing information by itself cannot be efficiently used for a comprehensive lithological classification of an area due to (1) diagnostic spectral response of a rock within an image pixel is conditioned by several factors including the atmospheric effects, spectral and spatial resolution of the image, sub-pixel level heterogeneity in chemical and mineralogical composition of the rock, presence of soil and vegetation cover; (2) only surface information and is therefore highly sensitive to the noise due to weathering, soil cover, and vegetation. Consequently, for efficient lithological classification, spectral remote sensing data needs to be supplemented with other remote sensing datasets that provide geomorphological and subsurface geological information, such as digital topographic model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data. Each of the datasets contain significant information about geology that, in conjunction, can potentially be used for automated lithological classification using supervised machine learning algorithms. In this study, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based supervised learning method, was applied to automated lithological classification of a study area in northwestern India using remote sensing data, namely, ASTER, DEM and aeromagnetic data. Several digital image processing techniques were used to produce derivative datasets that contained enhanced information relevant to lithological discrimination. A series of SVMs (trained using k-folder cross-validation with grid search) were tested using various combinations of input datasets selected from among 50 datasets including the original 14 ASTER bands and 36 derivative datasets (including 14

  8. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

    2013-08-01

    Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail

  9. Current Assessment of Integrated Content of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Soils of the Head Part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace - Current Assessment of Integrated Stocks of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Soils of the Head Part of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, Konstantin L. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620990 Kovalevskoy St., 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Molchanova, Inna V.; Mikhailovskaya, Lyudmila N.; Pozolotina, Vera N.; Antonova, Elena V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 8 Marta St., 202, 620144 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The East Ural Radioactive Trace is a result of the accident at the Production Association Mayak in 1957(the Kyshtym accident). The {sup 90}Sr was the main contaminant among long-lived radionuclides. Most of it was concentrated in the zone closest to the accident epicentre to the north-west (a narrow sector of about 15 deg., 35 km long). Later, in 1967, the EURT area was contaminated again with air-borne radioactive sediments from Lake Karachay, which had been used by the PA Mayak for storage of liquid radioactive waste. At this case the primary contaminant was {sup 137}Cs most of which was spread within 60 deg. sector oriented in the same direction (Aarkrog et al., 1997; Romanov et al., 1990). Our earlier radioecological studies included the assessment of integrated quantities of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 239,240}Pu within the central axis of the trace (Pozolotina et al., 2008; Molchanova et al., 2009). The aim of this investigation was the current assessment of integrated stocks of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 239,240}Pu in soils of the head part of the EURT along the central axis and the adjacent areas, to map the contamination data of the studied area using established geostatistical models by ArcGIS 9.3 (ESRI, USA). An inventory of the existing data (38 sampling locations) was performed earlier (Molchanova et al., 2009). Currently the database has information on 102 soil profile cuts. Taking into account the presence of global trends and anisotropy in the source data, ordinary kriging interpolation method was used. Geostatistical data analysis was performed for the determination of the basic parameters of spatial dependencies and the integral assessment of long-lived radionuclides in soils of the central, east peripheral, and west one parts of the trace. This analysis employed simplified geometric models (sector- and rectangle-shaped areas). The Monte Carlo technique was used for quantitatively assesses the uncertainty of the integrated stocks to

  10. Investigation of noise sources and propagation in external gear pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperwall, Timothy J.

    element vibro-acoustic model as well as the influence of additional models for system components to better understand the essential problems of noise generation in hydraulic systems. This model is a step forward for the field due to the coupling of an advanced internal model of pump operation coupled to a detailed vibro-acoustic model. Several experimental studies were also completed in order to advance the current science. The first study validated the pump model in terms of outlet pressure ripple prediction through comparison to experimentally measured results for the reference pump as well as prototype pumps designed for low outlet pressure ripple. The second study focused on the air-borne noise through sound pressure and intensity measurements on reference and prototype pumps at steady-state operating conditions. A third study over a wide range of operating speeds and pressures was completed to explore the impact of operating condition and system design to greater detail through measuring noise and vibration in the working fluid, the system structures, and the air. Applying the knowledge gained through experimental and simulation studies has brought new advances in the understanding of the physics of noise generation and propagation in hydraulic components and systems. The focus of the combined simulation and modeling approach is to clearly understand the different contributions from noise sources and surpasses the previous methods that focus on the outlet pressure ripple alone as a source of noise. The application of the new modeling and experimental approach allows for new advances which directly contribute to advancing the science of noise in hydraulic applications and the design of new quieter hydrostatic units and hydraulic systems.

  11. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Spongberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the north- western coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica.Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of air-borne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprisingSe analizó los bifenilos policlorados (PCB en 31 muestras de sedimentos colectadas entre 1996 -2003 en el estuario del Golfo de Nicoya, costa noroeste de Costa Rica. Esto es parte de un primer estudio para evaluar la contaminación por PCB en aguas costeras de Costa Rica. En general, las concentraciones fueron bajas especialmente cuando se les compara con sedimentos de climas templados y / o sedimentos de areas altamente industrializadas. Los valores promedio son inferiores a 3 ng / dw (peso seco de sedimento. Sin embargo, unas pocas muestras contienen hasta 7 ng/ g dw de sedimento. Los sedimentos con las concentraciones más altas están localizados en el area de Punta Morales, en cienos de entre raíces de mangle. Las

  12. Simulation of the FRP Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Johnston, Joshua; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the different alternative of remote sensing technologies for estimating global fire carbon emission, the thermally-based measures of fire radiative power (FRP; and its temporal integration, fire radiative energy or FRE) has the potential to capture the spatial and temporal variability of fire occurrence. It was shown that a strong linear relationship exists between the total amount of thermal radiant energy emitted by a fire over its lifetime (the FRE) and the amount of fuel burned. Since all vegetation is 50(±5)% carbon, it is therefore in theory a potentially simple matter to measure the FRE and estimate the carbon release. In a fire inventory like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS), the total carbon emission is derived from a gridded FRE product forced by the MODIS observation, using Ct = β x FRE x Ef, where β is a conversion factor initially estimated from small scale experiment as β=0.368 and later derived for different bio dome by comparison with the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). The sensitivities of the above equation to (i) different types of fire activity (ie, flaming, smoldering, torching), (ii) sensor view angles or (iii) soot/smoke absorption have not yet been well studied. The investigation of these types of sensitivity, and of the information content of thermal IR observations of actively burning fires in general, is one of the primary subjects of this study. Our approach is based on a combination of observational work and simulations conducted via the linkage of different fire models and the 3D radiative transfer (RT) model DART operating in the thermal domain. The radiation properties of a fire as seen from above its plume (e.g. space/air borne sensor) depend on the temperature distribution, the gas concentration (mainly CO2, H2O), and the amount, shape, distribution and optical properties of the soot particles in the flame (where they are emitting) and in the cooling plume (where they are mainly absorbing). While gas and

  13. Monitoring Multitemporal Soil Moisture, Rainfall, and ET in Lake Manatee Watershed, South Florida under Global Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N.

    2009-12-01

    temporal distributions of key variables in the hydrological cycle, such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation. The multi-sensor platform may include not only in-situ sensor network, ground-based radar, air-borne aircraft, but also even space-borne satellites. The use of a decadal-scale historical record from 1998 to 2008 to support such a trend analysis via NEXRAD (Rainfall), GOES (ET), and MODIS (soil moisture) satellite images may uniquely support middle-term and long-term water resources management in the near future. This study confirms that the potential of using remotely sensed time-series biophysical and ecohydrological states of landscape to characterize soil moisture condition, ET, and other states should be further investigated based on the pros and cons of each type of satellite imageries so as to maximize the beneficial use of remote sensing.

  14. Technical and Scientific Progress of the CryoSat-2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Wingham, D.; Cullen, R.; Mcmillan, M.; Pagli, C.

    2012-12-01

    contemporaneous SAR imagery from ENVISAT. Using one month's of data, we have determined an initial dynamic topography that agrees with a high resolution region ocean model to 4 cm. We have estimated the precision of individual (20 Hz) measurements to be 2 cm. We have combined estimated the Arctic ice thickness for January and February 2011, and made a preliminary comparison with contemporaneous in-situ and air-borne estimates of thickness which agree to 20 cm. In summary, with the corrected data products, we are able to confirm that the system performance of CryoSat-2 will meet or exceed its specification over the continental and marine ice sheets. This presenetation sumamrises the key outcomes of the mission performance assessment, and presents a series of example case studies where CryoSat-2 data have been applied to land ice. These case studies include the production of digital elevation models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets that make use of LRM and SARIn data, and studies of SARIn data over areas of rough terrain that were previously not surveyed by conventional altimeter systems.

  15. Estimation of snowpack matching ground-truth data and MODIS satellite-based observations by using regression kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is essential for an appropriate assessment of the available water resources in Alpine catchment. The hydrologic regime in these areas is dominated by the storage of water in the snowpack, which is discharged to rivers throughout the melt season. An accurate estimation of the resources will be necessary for an appropriate analysis of the system operation alternatives using basin scale management models. In order to obtain an appropriate estimation of the SWE we need to know the spatial distribution snowpack and snow density within the Snow Cover Area (SCA). Data for these snow variables can be extracted from in-situ point measurements and air-borne/space-borne remote sensing observations. Different interpolation and simulation techniques have been employed for the estimation of the cited variables. In this paper we propose to estimate snowpack from a reduced number of ground-truth data (1 or 2 campaigns per year with 23 observation point from 2000-2014) and MODIS satellite-based observations in the Sierra Nevada Mountain (Southern Spain). Regression based methodologies has been used to study snowpack distribution using different kind of explicative variables: geographic, topographic, climatic. 40 explicative variables were considered: the longitude, latitude, altitude, slope, eastness, northness, radiation, maximum upwind slope and some mathematical transformation of each of them [Ln(v), (v)^-1; (v)^2; (v)^0.5). Eight different structure of regression models have been tested (combining 1, 2, 3 or 4 explicative variables). Y=B0+B1Xi (1); Y=B0+B1XiXj (2); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj (3); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2XjXl (4); Y=B0+B1XiXk+B2XjXl (5); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl (6); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3XlXk (7); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl+B4Xk (8). Where: Y is the snow depth; (Xi, Xj, Xl, Xk) are the prediction variables (any of the 40 variables); (B0, B1, B2, B3) are the coefficients to be estimated. The ground data are employed to calibrate the multiple regressions. In

  16. Ebinformatics: Ebola fuzzy informatics systems on the diagnosis, prediction and recommendation of appropriate treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Oluwagbemi

    . The Root Sum Square (RSS was adopted as a fuzzy inference method. The degree of participation of each input parameter was shown using the triangular membership function and the defuzzification technique used is the Center of Gravity (CoG.The resulting software produced a user-friendly desktop-based, Windows-based, application and the tools used were explained in the results section in three (3 separate phases. First, a comprehensive online survey was conducted over a period of about 3–9 months. 100 Participants participated in the survey on the perception and knowledge analysis of different individuals about Ebola Virus Disease (EVD transmission factors. 31% of the participants didn't know that there is presently no cure for Ebola. 28% believed that there is presently a cure for Ebola. 43% agreed that Ebola is both air-borne and water-borne, while 33% disagreed, 24% do not know. 23% believed that insects and mosquitoes can help in transmitting the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD, while 30% were completely ignorant. We noticed that ignorance was a major limiting factor among some participants.Second, a test was conducted among 45 people. Results from a comprehensive testing of the Ebinformatics software by allowing users to operate and use the software, revealed that 60% of them were satisfied, while 16% were not satisfied with the software, while 24% were indifferent. 69% of the users were in agreement that Ebinformatics was supportive, 20% disagreed, while 11% were indifferent. 67% found the software easy to use, 13% disagreed, while 20% were indifferent. Third, the output of the software, showing the various diagnosis and recommendations interfaces were presented. Recommendations were also given with respect to how the system can be extended, and further improved upon. Keywords: Ebola, Informatics, Fuzzy, Diagnosis, Recommender

  17. Upscaling the impact of convective overshooting (COV) through BRAMS: a continental and wet-season scale study of the water vapour (WV) budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Abhinna; Rivière, Emmanuel; Marécal, Virginie; Rysman, Jean-François; Claud, Chantal; Burgalat, Jérémie

    2017-04-01

    The stratospheric water vapour (WV) has a conceding impact on the radiative and chemical budget of Earth's atmosphere. The convective overshooting (COV) at the tropics is well admitted for playing a role in transporting directly WV to the stratosphere. Nonetheless, its impact on the lower stratosphere is yet to be determined at global scale, as the satellite and other air-borne measurements are not of having fine enough resolution to quantify this impact at large scale. Therefore, efforts have been made to quantify the influence of COV over the WV budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through modelling. Our approach is to build two synthetic tropical wet-seasons; where one would be having only deep convection (DC) but no COV at all, and the second one would be having the COV, and in both cases the WV budget in the TTL would be estimated. Before that, a French-Brazilian TRO-pico campaign was carried out at Bauru, Brazil in order to understand the influence of COV on the WV budget in the TTL. The radio-sounding, and the small balloon-borne WV measurements from the campaign are being utilized to validate the model simulation. Brazilian version of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) is used with a single grid system to simulate a WV variability in a wet-season. Grell's convective parameterization with ensemble closure, microphysics with double moment scheme and 7 types of hydrometeors are incorporated to simulate the WV variability for a wet-season at the tropics. The grid size of simulation is chosen to be 20 km x 20 km horizontally and from surface to 30 km altitude, so that there cannot be COV at all, only DC due to such a relatively coarse resolution. The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses data are used every 6 hours for grid initialization and boundary conditions, and grid center nudging. The simulation is carried out for a full wet-season (Nov 2012 - Mar 2013) at Brazilian scale, so that it would

  18. A Prototype Land Information Sensor Web: Design, Implementation and Implication for the SMAP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Houser, P.; Tian, Y.; Geiger, J. K.; Kumar, S. V.; Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    developed and it is the very first sensor web framework developed especially for the land surface studies. Synthetic experiments based on the LISW-SOA and the virtual sensor web provide a controlled environment in which to examine the end-to-end performance of the prototype, the impact of various sensor web design trade-offs and the eventual value of sensor webs for a particular prediction or decision support. In this paper, the design, implementation of the LISW-SOA and the implication for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is presented. Particular attention is focused on examining the relationship between the economic investment on a sensor web (space and air borne, ground based) and the accuracy of the model predicted soil moisture, which can be achieved by using such sensor observations. The Study of Virtual Land Information Sensor Web (LISW) is expected to provide some necessary a priori knowledge for designing and deploying the next generation Global Earth Observing System of systems (GEOSS).

  19. Comparison of Laser and Stereo Optical, SAR and InSAR Point Clouds from Air- and Space-Borne Sources in the Retrieval of Forest Inventory Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that many of the future forest mapping applications will be based on three-dimensional (3D point clouds. A comparison study was conducted to verify the explanatory power and information contents of several 3D remote sensing data sources on the retrieval of above ground biomass (AGB, stem volume (VOL, basal area (G, basal-area weighted mean diameter (Dg and Lorey’s mean height (Hg at the plot level, utilizing the following data: synthetic aperture radar (SAR Interferometry, SAR radargrammetry, satellite-imagery having stereo viewing capability, airborne laser scanning (ALS with various densities (0.8–6 pulses/m2 and aerial stereo imagery. Laser scanning is generally known as the primary source providing a 3D point cloud. However, photogrammetric, radargrammetric and interferometric techniques can be used to produce 3D point clouds from space- and air-borne stereo images. Such an image-based point cloud could be utilized in a similar manner as ALS providing that accurate digital terrain model is available. In this study, the performance of these data sources for providing point cloud data was evaluated with 91 sample plots that were established in Evo, southern Finland within a boreal forest zone and surveyed in 2014 for this comparison. The prediction models were built using random forests technique with features derived from each data sources as independent variables and field measurements of forest attributes as response variable. The relative root mean square errors (RMSEs varied in the ranges of 4.6% (0.97 m–13.4% (2.83 m for Hg, 11.7% (3.0 cm–20.6% (5.3 cm for Dg, 14.8% (4.0 m2/ha–25.8% (6.9 m2/ha for G, 15.9% (43.0 m3/ha–31.2% (84.2 m3/ha for VOL and 14.3% (19.2 Mg/ha–27.5% (37.0 Mg/ha for AGB, respectively, depending on the data used. Results indicate that ALS data achieved the most accurate estimates for all forest inventory attributes. For image-based 3D data, high-altitude aerial images and WorldView-2

  20. Emission factors of the iron and steel sector for the emission reporting; Emissionsfaktoren zur Eisen- und Stahlindustrie fuer die Emissionsberichterstattung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensmann, Michael; Haardt, Sebastian; Ebert, Dominik [Betriebsforschungsinstitut VDEh-Institut fuer Angewandte Forschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The German Umweltbundesamt (UBA) records emission factors of important groups of emitters of the iron- and steelmaking industry in a central database named ''Zentrales System Emissionen'' (ZSE) since 1990. This data is being used for calculations of emission inventories. The main purposes are the generation of forecasts, calculating emissions of other plants and the appraisal of potential measures for reduction of pollution. This makes it possible to identify and appraise future problems and measures. Because of steadily increasing requirements to data quality and quality assurance, it became necessary to update the ZSE with characteristical emission data in order to give a representative view of relevant stages in the iron- and steelmaking industry with respect to emissions. In 2008, the VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut (BFI) was assigned to determine up-to-date emission factors for the following relevant stages in the iron- and steelmaking industry: - sintering plant - coking plant - blast furnace - steel making (differentiated between oxygen and electric steel making) - production of rolled steel Due to a wide diversity of data quality, a consecutive project to determine the corresponding uncertainty of the emission factors was integrated into the ongoing project. This is necessary to create reliable forecasts of emissions and to meet national and international duties of reporting. The project was supported by 18 companies of the German iron- and steelmaking industry. A total of 40 relevant sources of emissions were identified within the five stages of steelmaking and taken into consideration. The emission data for documenting organic and inorganic components of harmful gas, heavy metals and air borne dusts in the ZSE was taken from the reports of emissions 2008 of the supporting companies and made up for a total of 63 plants. Due to a wide variety of data quality the emissions of point sources and diffuse sources are treated separately. While

  1. Multiple-scattering in radar systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Alessandro; Tanelli, Simone; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zrnic, Dusan; Hogan, Robin J.; Simmer, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    predominantly in the forward direction. A complete understanding of radiation transport modeling and data analysis methods under wide-angle multiple scattering conditions is mandatory for a correct interpretation of echoes observed by space-borne millimeter radars. This paper reviews the status of research in this field. Different numerical techniques currently implemented to account for higher order scattering are reviewed and their weaknesses and strengths highlighted. Examples of simulated radar backscattering profiles are provided with particular emphasis given to situations in which the multiple scattering contributions become comparable or overwhelm the single scattering signal. We show evidences of multiple scattering effects from air-borne and from CloudSat observations, i.e. unique signatures which cannot be explained by single scattering theory. Ideas how to identify and tackle the multiple scattering effects are discussed. Finally perspectives and suggestions for future work are outlined. This work represents a reference-guide for studies focused at modeling the radiation transport and at interpreting data from high frequency space-borne radar systems that probe highly opaque scattering media such as thick ice clouds or precipitating clouds.

  2. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Barkovsky, A.; Gromov, A.; Ivanov, S.; Kaduka, M.

    2014-01-01

    applicability of epiphytic fruticose lichens as retrospective bio-monitors for the air-borne radiocesium contamination of the environment is discussed. - Highlights: • Lichen samples from Sakhalin and Kuril Islands were collected in 2011–2013. • 134 Cs of Fukushima origin, 137 Cs and 7 Be have been quantified in the 56 samples. • Decay-corrected (on 15 March 2011) 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activities ratio was 0.99 ± 0.10. • The biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in Usnea lichens is 1.3 y. • Epiphytic fruticose lichens are useful biomonitors for 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio in fallout

  3. Frankincense and myrrh essential oils and burn incense fume against micro-inhabitants of sacral ambients. Wisdom of the ancients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljaljević Grbić, Milica; Unković, Nikola; Dimkić, Ivica; Janaćković, Peđa; Gavrilović, Milan; Stanojević, Olja; Stupar, Miloš; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Jelikić, Aleksa; Stanković, Slaviša; Vukojević, Jelena

    2018-03-09

    (12.97%), β-elemene (12.70%), and germacrene B (12.15%). Burn incense fume and soot had α-pinene (68.6%) and incensole (28.6%) as the most dominant compounds, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial assays demonstrated high bacterial and fungal sensitivity to the liquid and vapour phases of EOs, and burn incense fume. In situ application of B. carteri EO vapour and incense fume resulted in reduction of air-borne viable microbial counts by up to 45.39 ± 2.83% for fungi and 67.56 ± 3.12% for bacteria (EO); and by up to 80.43 ± 2.07% for fungi and 91.43 ± 1.26% for bacteria (incense fume). The antimicrobial properties of essential oil derived from frankincense, a compound with well-known traditional use, showed that it possesses a clear potential as a natural antimicrobial agent. Moreover, the results suggest possible application of B. carteri EO vapour and incense fume as occasional air purifiers in sacral ambients, apart from daily church rituals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the long term, H 2 production technologies will be strongly focusing on CO 2 -neutral or CO 2 -free methods. Nuclear with its virtually no air-borne pollutants emissions appears to be an ideal option for large-scale centralized H 2 production. It will be driven by major factors such as production rates of fossil fuels, political decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and independence of foreign oil uncertainties, or the economics of large-scale hydrogen production and transmission. A nuclear reactor operated in the heat and power cogeneration mode must be located in close vicinity to the consumer's site, i.e., it must have a convincing safety concept of the combined nuclear/ chemical production plant. A near-term option of nuclear hydrogen production which is readily available is conventional low temperature electrolysis using cheap off-peak electricity from present nuclear power plants. This, however, is available only if the share of nuclear in power production is large. But as fossil fuel prices will increase, the use of nuclear outside base-load becomes more attractive. Nuclear steam reforming is another important near-term option for both the industrial and the transportation sector, since principal technologies were developed, with a saving potential of some 35 % of methane feedstock. Competitiveness will benefit from increasing cost level of natural gas. The HTGR heated steam reforming process which was simulated in pilot plants both in Germany and Japan, appears to be feasible for industrial application around 2015. A CO 2 emission free option is high temperature electrolysis which reduces the electricity needs up to about 30 % and could make use of high temperature heat and steam from an HTGR. With respect to thermochemical water splitting cycles, the processes which are receiving presently most attention are the sulfur-iodine, the Westinghouse hybrid, and the calcium-bromine (UT-3) cycles. Efficiencies of the S-I process are in the

  5. The defective nature of ice Ic and its implications for atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4,5]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [6,7] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [8] and other group's work [9] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Moreover, the stacking faults lead to kinks in the outer shapes of the minute ice Ic crystals as seen by cryo scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM); these defective sites are likely to play some role in heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. The cryo-SEM work suggests that stacking-faulty ice Ic has many more active centres for such reactions than the usually considered thermodynamically stable form, ice Ih. [1] T Kobayashi & T Kuroda (1987) Snow Crystals. In: Morphology of Crystals (ed. I Sunagawa), Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, pp.649-743. [2] DM Murphy (2003) Dehydration in cold clouds is enhanced by a transition from from cubic to hexagonal ice. Geophys.Res.Lett.,30, 2230, doi:10.1029/2003GL018566. [3] RS Gao & 19 other authors (2004

  6. The time-dependence of the defective nature of ice Ic (cubic ice) and its implications for atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Christian; Koza, Michael M.; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2010-05-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [5,6] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [7] and other group's work [8] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Recently, we have studied the time-dependency of the changes in both "cubicity" and particle size at various temperatures of relevance for cirrus clouds and contrails by in-situ neutron powder diffraction. The timescales over which changes occur (several to many hours) are similar to the life-time of cirrus clouds and contrails and suggest that the supersaturation situation may change within this time span in the natural environment too. Some accompanying results obtained by cryo-SEM (scanning electron microscopy) work will also be presented and suggest that stacking-faulty ice Ic has kinky surfaces providing many more active centres for heterogeneous reactions on the surface than in the usually assumed stable hexagonal form of ice Ih with its rather

  7. The combined influence of the main European circulation patterns on carbon uptake by ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how natural climate variability affects carbon uptake by land and ocean pools is particularly relevant to better characterize human impact on the carbon cycle. Recently, we have contributed to assess the major role played by the El-Niño/Southern Oscillation in driving inter-annual variability (IAV) of carbon uptake by land ecosystems and significantly influencing global CO2 air-borne fraction [1]. Despite the prominent role played by ENSO, other important teleconnections on the hemispheric scale have deserved less attention. On the European scale, the main mode of variability is the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which controls storm tracks position and drives changes in temperature and precipitation over the whole region, affecting vegetation dynamics [2]. Besides NAO, a few additional large scale circulation patterns the Scandinavian (SC) and East-Atlantic (EA) Patterns, are also known to influence significantly the European climate [3]. Different combinations of these teleconnection polarities have been recently shown to modulate the overall role of the NAO impact location and strength, thus affecting winter temperature and precipitation patterns over Europe [4]. This work aims to answer the following questions: (i) how do NAO, EA and SC affect vegetation carbon uptake IAV? (ii) do the interactions between these three modes have a significant impact on land CO2 IAV? (iii) what is the contribution of the different physical variables to ecosystems' response to these modes? (iv) how well do the state-of-the-art Earth System Models (ESMs) from CMIP5 represent these climate variability modes and the corresponding carbon fluxes? We first analyze observational data to assess the relationships between the different combinations of NAO, SC and EA polarities and IAV of gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP, respectively), as well as the most relevant driving factors of ecosystem's response to those variability patterns. Although the winter state

  8. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.; Hubbard, A.; Ruskeeniemi, T.

    2011-12-01

    Sub-project A, (SPA), Ice sheet hydrology and subglacial groundwater formation. SPA aims to improve the understanding of ice sheet hydrology (i.e. to assess how an ice sheet impacts groundwater circulation and chemistry in crystalline bedrock) up to, including, and beyond proposed repository depths. The data collected in SPA will be utilized in numerical ice sheet flow and hydrological modelling. SPA focuses on indirect observations of the properties of the basal hydrological system, and on what parts of the ice sheet that contribute water for groundwater infiltration. The latter includes quantification of ice sheet surface water production and how that water is routed from the ice sheet surface to its basal interface. This is achieved through remote-sensing, as well as direct measurements of vertical ice displacement and horizontal velocity fluctuation, and the determination of how these parameters vary in space and time under variable surface meltwater production and routing. Main activities within SPA involve (1) the installation and monitoring of GPS receivers and automatic weather stations on the ice sheet, and (2) air borne- and ground-based radar studies. Sub-project B, (SPB), Subglacial ice sheet hydrology. SPB, like SPA, aims at improving the understanding of ice sheet hydrology. SPB aims at collecting direct observations and measurements of the characteristics of the hydrological system at the base of the ice sheet. The data collected in SPB will be utilized in numerical ice sheet flow and hydrological modelling. The main activity for SPB is drilling through the ice sheet at a number of locations where the ice sheet has been found to be wet-based from the radar surveys in SPA. The purpose of the drilling and borehole monitoring installations is to observe water pressures at the interface between the ice and bedrock. In addition to the ice drilling, collection of remote sensing data of ice-sheet surface conditions are to be carried out. SPB is the core of

  9. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J [Univ. of Montana (United States); Hubbard, A [Aberystwyth Univ. (United Kingdom); Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland); and others

    2011-12-15

    Sub-project A, (SPA), Ice sheet hydrology and subglacial groundwater formation. SPA aims to improve the understanding of ice sheet hydrology (i.e. to assess how an ice sheet impacts groundwater circulation and chemistry in crystalline bedrock) up to, including, and beyond proposed repository depths. The data collected in SPA will be utilized in numerical ice sheet flow and hydrological modelling. SPA focuses on indirect observations of the properties of the basal hydrological system, and on what parts of the ice sheet that contribute water for groundwater infiltration. The latter includes quantification of ice sheet surface water production and how that water is routed from the ice sheet surface to its basal interface. This is achieved through remote-sensing, as well as direct measurements of vertical ice displacement and horizontal velocity fluctuation, and the determination of how these parameters vary in space and time under variable surface meltwater production and routing. Main activities within SPA involve (1) the installation and monitoring of GPS receivers and automatic weather stations on the ice sheet, and (2) air borne- and ground-based radar studies. Sub-project B, (SPB), Subglacial ice sheet hydrology. SPB, like SPA, aims at improving the understanding of ice sheet hydrology. SPB aims at collecting direct observations and measurements of the characteristics of the hydrological system at the base of the ice sheet. The data collected in SPB will be utilized in numerical ice sheet flow and hydrological modelling. The main activity for SPB is drilling through the ice sheet at a number of locations where the ice sheet has been found to be wet-based from the radar surveys in SPA. The purpose of the drilling and borehole monitoring installations is to observe water pressures at the interface between the ice and bedrock. In addition to the ice drilling, collection of remote sensing data of ice-sheet surface conditions are to be carried out. SPB is the core of

  10. Genetic Diversity of Alternaria alternata Causal Agent of Early Blight of Tomato in Khuzestan Province Using SSRs Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Nourollahi

    2017-03-01

    sampled regions and geographical closeness as well. Conclusion: This study have been carried out for the first time in Iran, and in comparison of international populations, a different level of diversity was detected within and between populations of worldwide A. alternata isolates. In this study, the high genetic diversity of A. alternata detected in five populations exposed a potential risk to tomato farms. Genetic diversity of A. alternata in Khuzestan province as an air born pathogen is a warning for a breeder to apply the successful use of resistance genes in local disease management. This gene diversity helps breeders for screening potential resistant cultivars according to gene diversity of A. alternata population in order to develop of durable resistant. Quarantine regulations will need to prevent the introduction of more diverse isolates into these populations and prevent transmission any isolates from this area to other regions of the country. Understanding the genetic structure of pathogen populations in the present study may provide insights into the epidemiology and evolutionary potential of pathogens and could lead to improved strategies for managing the disease. The obtained results indicating the high genetic diversity due to mutation, recombinant and a sexual mating ability of the pathogen in the Khuzestan province. Results in this study will be useful in breeding for tomato early blight resistant cultivars and developing necessary control measures.

  11. The SURE House (Solar Decathlon 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastasi, John [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States); May, Edwin [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-21

    materials adapted from the boating industry, were developed by the student team to render the SURE House’s building envelope flood proof up to the FEMA AE 6/7 Zone (+ 6/7 feet of water above sea-level). Designed and fabricated utilizing glass-fiber composite materials, the custom storm shutter system serves to protect the large glazed openings of the home from both air-borne debris impact and water infiltration during a storm event while also providing deterrence from the vandalism that often occurs in the aftermath of a calamitous event. During extended power outages, a ‘resilient’ solar array is capable of supplying critical amounts of energy and hot water to the home, without the use of battery storage or grid infrastructure. PV Description AC GRID-TIED PV SYSTEM The SURE HOUSE solar system consists of two distinct arrays, the grid-tied rooftop array which produces AC Powerand the shutter-mounted array which converts DC power generated by the modules directly into usable heat for the domestic hot water (DHW). The roof-mounted AC grid-tied array is comprised of three strings, two 11 module strings connected to an SMA SB 5000TL-US-223 inverter and a single 10 module string equipped and an SMA SB 3000TL-US-22 central inverter. All modules for the rooftop AC array are LG MonoX 2804 watt solar panels, chosen for their durability and efficiency. Inverter sizing and string size are optimized to the electrical characteristics of the chosen PV modules and the desired energy production, see Appendix 5B. The SURE HOUSE is projected to produce 12,353 kWh per year to meet 6,157 kWh per year of estimated consumption. Solar modules for the two AC grid-tied sub arrays are mounted on the main roof surface of the SURE HOUSE with a 10 degree tilt angle using a partially-ballasted polyethylene roof mounting system made by Renusol, which is particularly suited to the corrosive salt air of a coastal environment. This method was chosen for its installation simplicity and to limit