WorldWideScience

Sample records for air void contents

  1. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    are conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids...... is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling...... will take place in the air void, being feed from the capillary, but without pressure build-up in the capillary. If the capillary is not connected to an air void, ice formation will take place in the capillary pore, where it can generate substantial pressure. Like this, frost resistance depends...

  2. Image analysis of aggregate,mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture%Image analysis of aggregate, mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADHIKARI Sanjeev; YOU Zhan-ping; HAO Pei-wen; WANG Hai-nian

    2013-01-01

    The shape characterization and spatial distribution of aggregate,mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture were analyzed.Three air void percentage asphalt mixtures,4%,7% and 8%,respectively,were cut into cross sections and polished.X-ray scanning microscope was used to capture aggregate,mastic,air void phase by the image.The average of polygon diameter was chosen as a threshold to determine which aggregates would be retained on a given sieve.The aggregate morphological image from scanned image was utilized by digital image processing method to calculate the gradation of aggregate and simulate the real gradation.Analysis result shows that the air void of asphalt mixture has influence on the correlation between calculation gradation and actual gradation.When comparing 4.75 mm sieve size of 4%,7% and 8% air void asphalt mixtures,7% air void asphalt mixture has 55% higher than actual size gradation,8% air void asphalt mixture has 8% higher than actual size gradation,and 4% air void asphalt mixture has 3.71% lower than actual size gradation.4% air void asphalt mixture has the best correlation between calculation gradation and actual gradation comparing to other specimens.The air void percentage of asphalt mixture has no obvious influence on the air void orientation,and three asphalt mixtures show the similar air orientation along the same direction.4 tabs,7 figs,17 refs.

  3. Compensation for air voids in photoacoustic computed tomography image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Most image reconstruction methods in photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) assume that the acoustic properties of the object and the surrounding medium are homogeneous. This can lead to strong artifacts in the reconstructed images when there are significant variations in sound speed or density. Air voids represent a particular challenge due to the severity of the differences between the acoustic properties of air and water. In whole-body small animal imaging, the presence of air voids in the lungs, stomach, and gastrointestinal system can limit image quality over large regions of the object. Iterative reconstruction methods based on the photoacoustic wave equation can account for these acoustic variations, leading to improved resolution, improved contrast, and a reduction in the number of imaging artifacts. However, the strong acoustic heterogeneities can lead to instability or errors in the numerical wave solver. Here, the impact of air voids on PACT image reconstruction is investigated, and procedures for their compensation are proposed. The contributions of sound speed and density variations to the numerical stability of the wave solver are considered, and a novel approach for mitigating the impact of air voids while reducing the computational burden of image reconstruction is identified. These results are verified by application to an experimental phantom.

  4. A novel random void model and its application in predicting void content of composites based on ultrasonic attenuation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jun; Mu, Yunfei; Li, Ximeng

    2011-06-01

    A novel two-dimensional random void model (RVM) based on random medium theory and a statistical method is proposed to describe random voids in composite materials. The spatial autocorrelation function and statistical parameters are used to describe the large-scale heterogeneity from the composite matrix and the small-scale heterogeneities of elastic fluctuations from random voids, the values of which are determined by statistical data from microscopic observations of void morphology. A RVM for CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) composite specimens with void content of 0.03-4.62% is presented. It is found that the geometric morphology of voids from the RVM presents good matches to the microscopic images. Calculations of ultrasonic attenuation coefficients from the RVM at 5 MHz are much closer to the experiments than those from the previous deterministic model. Furthermore, the RVM can also cover abnormal coefficients from unusually large voids, which unpredictably occur during the composite preparation and have a detrimental effect on the strength and mechanical properties of the components. The significant enhancements in description of void morphology and quantitative correlation between void content and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient make this method a good candidate for predicting void content of composite materials non-destructively.

  5. The effect of form pressure on the air void structure of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Vibæk; Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    The high workability of self-compacting concrete (SCC) invites to high casting rates. However, casting walls at high rate may result in large pressure at the bottom of the form and subsequently compression of the air voids. This paper deals with the influence of hydrostatic pressure during setting...... on the air void structure of hardened, air entrained SCC. The subject was examined through laboratory investigations of SCC with two different amounts of air entrainment. The condition in the form was simulated by using containers making it possible to cure concrete under various pressures corresponding...... to the bottom of castings of 0, 2, 4, and 6 meters height. The laboratory investigations were supplemented with data from two full-scale wall castings. The air void structure of the hardened concretes was determined on plane sections. The results indicate that the pressure related changes of the air void...

  6. Effect of the Entrained Air Void on Strength and Interfacial Transition Zone of Air-Entrained Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; ZHANG Xiong; ZHANG Yongjuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate the development and application of air entraining agents (AEA) in the high performance concrete, entrained air void structure parameters (air void size range from 10 to 1 600 μm) of 28 d sifted mortar were measured by image analysis method. The relationship between the air void size distribution and strength of mortar was studied by methods of grey connection analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The multiple linear regression equation was established with a correlation coefifcient of 0.966. The weight of the affection of hierarchical porosity on the compressive strength ratio was also obtained. In addition, the effect of air voids on the paste-aggregate interfacial transition zone (ITZ) was analyzed by microhardness. The results show that the correlation between different pore size range and the compressive strength is negative. The effect of air void size distribution on 28 days compressive strength is different: under the condition of similar total porosity, with the increase of the porosity of the air void size, ranging from 10 to 200 μm, and the decrease of the porosity, ranging from 200 to 1 600 μm, the average air void diameter and mean free spacing are decreased; as well as the width of ITZ. On the contrary, the microhardness of the ITZ is increased while the compressive strength loss is decreased.

  7. Air-void embedded GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on laser drilling patterned sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Xiong, Han; Su, Xilin; Yun, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Air-void structure was introduced in GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LED) with one-step growth on periodic laser drilling patterned sapphire substrate, which free of any photolithography or wet/dry etching process. The influence of filling factors (FF) of air-void on crystal quality and optical performance were investigate. Transmission electron microscopy images and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the dislocation was bended and the partially compressed strain was released. When FF was 55.43%, compared with the LED structure grown on flat sapphire substrate, the incorporation of air-void was observed to reduce the compressed stress of ˜20% and the luminance intensity has improved by 128%. Together with the simulated reflection intensity enhancement by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we attribute the enhanced optical performance to the combined contribution of strong back-side light reflection of air-void and better GaN epitaxial quality. This approach provides a simple replacement to the conventional air-void embedded LED process.

  8. Air-Induced Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers: Velocity and Void Fraction Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Mäkiharju, Simo; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The injection of air into a turbulent boundary layer forming over a flat plate can reduce the skin friction. With sufficient volumetric fluxes an air layer can separate the solid surface from the flowing liquid, which can produce drag reduction in excess of 80%. Several large scale experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat plate model investigating bubble drag reduction (BDR), air layer drag reduction (ALDR) and the transition between BDR and ALDR. The most recent experiment acquired phase velocities and void fraction profiles at three downstream locations (3.6, 5.9 and 10.6 m downstream from the model leading edge) for a single flow speed (˜6.4 m/s). The profiles were acquired with a combination of electrode point probes, time-of-flight sensors, Pitot tubes and an LDV system. Additional diagnostics included skin-friction sensors and flow-field image visualization. During this experiment the inlet flow was perturbed with vortex generators immediately upstream of the injection location to assess the robustness of the air layer. From these, and prior measurements, computational models can be refined to help assess the viability of ALDR for full-scale ship applications.

  9. Research on segregation evaluation methods of asphalt pavement based on air voids distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eye observation was used to evaluate the segregation degree of asphalt pavement, which was not much creditable. To the asphalt pavement, road surface texture measuring method which has appeared recently can identify gradational segregation; but it can't reflect the influence of the temperature segregation. However,using infrared temperature detector to evaluate the segregation must be taken during paving, which brings much inconvenience. In this paper, measuring the air voids distribution using non-nuclear density gauge to evaluate asphalt pavement segregation was introduced. Result shows that this method can directly reflect the comprehensive results of the two types of segregation in a high efficient and accurate way. Moreover, using the sketch map of segregation area can help to analyze the segregation reason visually.

  10. Chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm/jute fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri layer hybrid composites of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and jute fibres was prepared by keeping oil palm EFB as skin material and jute as the core material and vice versa. The chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm EFB/Jute composites was investigated with reference to the relative weight of oil palm EFB/Jute, i.e. 4:1, the fibre loading was optimized and different layering pattern were investigated. It is found from the chemical resistance test that all the composites are resistant to various chemicals. It was observed that marked reduction in void content of hybrid composites in different layering pattern. From the different layering pattern, the tensile properties were slightly higher for the composite having jute as skin and oil palm EFB as core material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study tensile fracture surfaces of different composites.

  11. Measurement of air distribution and void fraction of an upwards air-water flow using electrical resistance tomography and a wire-mesh sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olerni, Claudio; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi

    2013-03-01

    Measurements on an upwards air-water flow are reported that were obtained simultaneously with a dual-plane electrical resistance tomograph (ERT) and a wire-mesh sensor (WMS). The ultimate measurement target of both ERT and WMS is the same, the electrical conductivity of the medium. The ERT is a non-intrusive device whereas the WMS requires a net of wires that physically crosses the flow. This paper presents comparisons between the results obtained simultaneously from the ERT and the WMS for evaluation and calibration of the ERT. The length of the vertical testing pipeline section is 3 m with an internal diameter of 50 mm. Two distinct sets of air-water flow rate scenarios, bubble and slug regimes, were produced in the experiments. The fast impedance camera ERT recorded the data at an approximate time resolution of 896 frames per second (fps) per plane in contrast with the 1024 fps of the wire-mesh sensor WMS200. The set-up of the experiment was based on well established knowledge of air-water upwards flow, particularly the specific flow regimes and wall peak effects. The local air void fraction profiles and the overall air void fraction were produced from two systems to establish consistency for comparison of the data accuracy. Conventional bulk flow measurements in air mass and electromagnetic flow metering, as well as pressure and temperature, were employed, which brought the necessary calibration to the flow measurements. The results show that the profiles generated from the two systems have a certain level of inconsistency, particularly in a wall peak and a core peak from the ERT and WMS respectively, whereas the two tomography instruments achieve good agreement on the overall air void fraction for bubble flow. For slug flow, when the void fraction is over 30%, the ERT underestimates the void fraction, but a linear relation between ERT and WMS is still observed.

  12. The Void Galaxy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, R; Platen, E; Beygu, B; van Gorkom, J H; van der Hulst, J M; Aragon-Calvo, M A; Peebles, P J E; Jarrett, T; Rhee, G; Kovac, K; Yip, C -W

    2011-01-01

    The Void Galaxy Survey (VGS) is a multi-wavelength program to study $\\sim$60 void galaxies. Each has been selected from the deepest interior regions of identified voids in the SDSS redshift survey on the basis of a unique geometric technique, with no a prior selection of intrinsic properties of the void galaxies. The project intends to study in detail the gas content, star formation history and stellar content, as well as kinematics and dynamics of void galaxies and their companions in a broad sample of void environments. It involves the HI imaging of the gas distribution in each of the VGS galaxies. Amongst its most tantalizing findings is the possible evidence for cold gas accretion in some of the most interesting objects, amongst which are a polar ring galaxy and a filamentary configuration of void galaxies. Here we shortly describe the scope of the VGS and the results of the full analysis of the pilot sample of 15 void galaxies.

  13. Effect of initial oxygen content on the void swelling behavior of fast neutron irradiated copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Density measurements were performed on high purity copper specimens containing {le}10 wt.ppm and {approximately}120 wt.ppm oxygen following irradiation in FFTF MOTA 2B. Significant amounts of swelling were observed in both the oxygen-free and oxygen-doped specimens following irradiation to {approximately}17 dpa at 375 C and {approximately}47 dpa at 430 C. Oxygen doping up to 360 appm (90 wt.ppm) did not significantly affect the void swelling of copper for these irradiation conditions.

  14. Investigation of oil-air two-phase mass flow rate measurement using Venturi and void fraction sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-jian; YUE Wei-ting; HUANG Zhi-yao

    2005-01-01

    Oil-air two-phase flow measurement was investigated with a Venturi and void fraction meters in this work. This paper proposes a new flow rate measurement correlation in which the effect of the velocity ratio between gas and liquid was considered.With the pressure drop across the Venturi and the void fraction that was measured by electrical capacitance tomography apparatus,both mixture flow rate and oil flow rate could be obtained by the correlation. Experiments included bubble-, slug-, wave and annular flow with the void fraction ranging from 15% to 83%, the oil flow rate ranging from 0.97 kg/s to 1.78 kg/s, the gas flow rate ranging up to 0.018 kg/s and quality ranging nearly up to 2.0%. The root-mean-square errors of mixture mass flow rate and that ofoil mass flow rate were less than 5%. Furthermore, coefficients of the correlation were modified based on flow regimes, with the results showing reduced root-mean-square errors.

  15. Nuclear Grade Air Trap{sup T}M and Gas Void Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckeague, L.; Echerer, S.

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear power industry experiences constant challenges and emerging issues from a variety of sources, most of which are formalized by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A recent issue identified by the NRC is entrapped air/gases in otherwise liquid-filled safety-related fluid systems. This issues and mandatory licensee actions are outlined in NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 (GL 08-01). As a result of this, a new technology has been developed to allow licensees to track, control the accumulation of, and eliminate unwanted air/gases before potential damages can occur. The solution to these problems is obtained by implementation of the Nuclear Grade Air Trap{sup T}M (NGAT{sup T}M). (Author)

  16. A study of the effect of fabrication variables on the void content and quality of fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiencek, T.C.

    1986-10-01

    The control of void content and quality of dispersion type fuel plates fabricated for research and test reactors are issues of concern to plate fabricators. These two variables were studied by examining the data for various geometries of fuel plates fabricated at ANL. It was found that the porosity of a fuel plate can be increased by: (1) decreasing the fuel particle size, (2) increasing the fuel particle surface roughness, (3) increasing the matrix strength, (4) decreasing the rolling temperature, (5) decreasing the final fuel zone thickness, and (6) increasing the volume percentage of the fuel. Porosity formation is controlled by bulk movement and deformation and/or fracture of particles. The most important factor is the flow stress of the matrix material. Lowering the flow stress will decrease the plate porosity. The percentage of plates with fuel-out-of-zone is a function of the fuel material and the loading. The highest percentage of plates with fuel-out-of-zone were those with U3Si2 which is at this time the most commonly used silicide fuel.

  17. An experimental investigation on the effect of particle size on the thermal properties and void content of Solid Glass Microsphere filled epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Debasmita; Satapathy, Alok

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates about the thermal characterization of Solid glass micro-sphere (SGM) filled epoxy composites. SGMs of different sizes are embedded in epoxy resin to fabricate composites by hand-layup technique. The composites for various SGM content ranging from 0 to about 35 vol % are thus fabricated and the effective thermal conductivities (keff ) of the composites are estimated. The theoretical values are then compared with keff values obtained from the experiment. This study shows that the incorporation of SGm results in an improvement in thermal insulation capability of the polymer. Further, the influence of size and content of SGMs in the extent of reduction of keff was studied. Also, the effect of void content on improving insulation capability of the composites was analysed.

  18. Distribution properties of internal air voids in asphalt mixtures%沥青混合料内部空隙分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海年; 郝培文; 吕光印

    2009-01-01

    利用X-ray CT无损检测设备分别对Marshall与SGC成型的AC-16、SMA-16与OGFC-16三种沥青混合料的内部结构进行扫描,利用数字图像处理技术,分析了混合料内部的空隙分布特征.分析结果表明:沥青混合料内部空隙呈不均匀分布状态,其变异性受成型方式与级配型式的影响.在试件的高度方向,SGC成型试件的内部空隙总体上呈现"两头大、中间小"的特性,但Marshall成型试件的空隙分布特征并不显著.在试件的横向,AC-16与SMA-16试件的空隙较多地分布在试件边缘,试件呈"外疏内密"状态.%X-ray computed tomography(CT) technology was adopted to scan the internal structures of AC-16, SMA-16 and OGFC-16 mixture specimens compacted using Marshall and Superpave gyratory compactor(SGC) methods. Digital image processing technology was adopted to analyze the spatial distribution of their internal air voids. The result shows that the distributions of air voids are not uniform in mixture specimens, and they vary greatly with the compacting styles and gradations of asphalt mixtures. Throughout the specimen height, air void percents are bigger on the top and at the bottom, and are smaller in the middles of the specimens compacted by SGC method, whereas the distribution variances are not marked for the specimens compacted by Marshall method. Throughout the cross sections of the specimens, air voids distribute more in the outside parts than in the middle parts for AC-16 and SMA-16 mixtures. 3 tabs, 11 figs, 10 refs.

  19. Dysfunctional voiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozza, M L

    2002-01-01

    Wetting may be considered the Cinderella of paediatric medicine. Before discussing dysfunctional voiding, the milestones of the normal development of continence in the child and the definitions used to describe this topic are presented. Bladder storage requires (1): accommodation of increasing volumes of urine at low intravesical pressure and with appropriate sensation; (2): a bladder outlet that is closed and not modified during increase in intra-abdominal pressure; (3): absence of involuntary bladder contractions. Development of continence in the child involves three independent factors maturing concomitantly: (1) development of normal bladder capacity; (2) maturation of urethral sphincter function; (3) development of neural control over bladder-sphincter function. All these processes are discussed. Abnormalities of any of these maturational sequences, which run parallel and overlapping, may result in clinically evident abnormalities of bladder sphincter control. Although dysfunctional voiding (DV) in children is very common its prevalence has not been well studied and, to date, and its origin is not well known. In a correct evaluation of functional voiding we must take into account different elements: the bladder capacity (that increases during the first 8 years of life roughly 30 ml per year), the micturition frequency, post-void residual volumes, bladder dynamics, urinary flow rates. Thus the correct assessment of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction should include a detailed history. Signs of DV range from urge syndrome to complex incontinence patterns during the day and the night. In addition to incontinence problems, children may have frequency, urgency, straining to void, weak or interrupted urinary stream, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and chronic constipation with or without encopresis. DV are also referred in enuretic children who wet the bed more than one time per night and have a functional bladder capacity lower than attended for age

  20. Method to Estimate the Dissolved Air Content in Hydraulic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the air content in hydraulic fluid, an instrument was needed to measure the dissolved air content before the fluid was loaded into the system. The instrument also needed to measure the dissolved air content in situ and in real time during the de-aeration process. The current methods used to measure the dissolved air content require the fluid to be drawn from the hydraulic system, and additional offline laboratory processing time is involved. During laboratory processing, there is a potential for contamination to occur, especially when subsaturated fluid is to be analyzed. A new method measures the amount of dissolved air in hydraulic fluid through the use of a dissolved oxygen meter. The device measures the dissolved air content through an in situ, real-time process that requires no additional offline laboratory processing time. The method utilizes an instrument that measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. By using a standardized calculation procedure that relates the oxygen partial pressure to the volume of dissolved air in solution, the dissolved air content is estimated. The technique employs luminescent quenching technology to determine the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. An estimated Henry s law coefficient for oxygen and nitrogen in hydraulic fluid is calculated using a standard method to estimate the solubility of gases in lubricants. The amount of dissolved oxygen in the hydraulic fluid is estimated using the Henry s solubility coefficient and the measured partial pressure of oxygen in solution. The amount of dissolved nitrogen that is in solution is estimated by assuming that the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to dissolved oxygen is equal to the ratio of the gas solubility of nitrogen to oxygen at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The technique was performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The technique could be theoretically carried out at higher pressures and elevated

  1. Measurement of the local void fraction in two-phase air-water flow with a hot-film anemometer; Mesure du taux de vide local en ecoulement diphasique eau-air par un anemometre a film chaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The experimental knowledge of the local void-fraction is basic for the derivation of the constitutive equations of two-phase flows. This report deals with measurements of the local void-fraction based on the use of a constant temperature hot-film anemometer associated with a multichannel analyser. After determining the void-fraction profile along a diameter of a vertical pipe (40 mm I.D.), in which air and water flow upwards, we compare the void-fraction averaged over the diameter with the average value measured directly by a {gamma}-ray method. Two runs were made in bubble flow and a third in slug flow. The two methods give results in a good agreement especially for bubble flow. The void-fraction averaged over the cross-section was also calculated from the different profiles and compared in a good manner with the experimental results of R. ROUMY. For bubble flow we verified the theory of S.G. BANKOFF about the shape of the void-fraction profiles. (author) [French] Nous proposons une methode de mesure du taux de vide local a en ecoulement diphasique, basee sur l'emploi d'un anemometre a film chaud a temperature constante dont on etudie la repartition du signal en amplitude dans un analyseur multicanaux. Ayant trace un profil de taux de vide local suivant un diametre d'une conduite verticale de section circulaire parcourue par un ecoulement ascendant d'eau et d'air, nous avons compare la moyenne de {alpha} sur ce diametre a la valeur obtenue par une methode d'absorption de rayons {gamma}. Les essais ont ete faits en ecoulements a bulles et a bouchons. Les deux methodes donnent des resultats concordants en particulier pour les ecoulements a bulles. Le taux de vide moyenne dans la section, calcule a partir des differents profils, a egalement ete compare avec succes aux resultats experimentaux de R. ROUMY. Dans l'etude de la structure radiale des ecoulements a bulles, nous avons verifie l'hypothese de S.G. BAJMKOFF. (auteur)

  2. Bubble Content in Air/Hydro System--Part 2:Factors Influencing Bubble Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method for measuring bubble content of two-phase fluids in complex systems such as air/hydro systems has been designed and verified. Some new results of the study on the factors influencing bubble content using this new method are given in this paper, including the results of the experiments in the SKIP-valve system and long-tube system. Results indicate that the operating time, opening of the control-valve, air supply pressure, mass of the load, speed ratio, and the length of the tube all affect bubble content.

  3. Development of the impedance void meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  4. Bubble Content in Air/Hydro System--Part 1:Measurement of Bubble Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of bubble formation in air/hydro systems is investigated. Results presented in this paper include further insight into the mechanism of bubble formation and the measurement of bubble content. The regularity of bubble transport in the system is found, with an idea for a new method for separating gas from oil. The method has been verified experimentally with favorable results.

  5. The nature of voids - II. Tracing underdensities with biased galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadathur, S.; Hotchkiss, S.

    2015-11-01

    We study how the properties of cosmic voids depend on those of the tracer galaxy populations in which they are identified. We use a suite of halo occupation distribution mocks in a simulation, identify voids in these populations using the ZOBOV void finder and measure their abundances, sizes, tracer densities and dark matter content. To separate the effects of bias from those of sampling density, we do the same for voids traced by randomly downsampled subsets of the simulation dark matter particles. At the same sampling density, galaxy bias reduces the total number of voids by ˜50 per cent and can dramatically change their size distribution. The matter content of voids in biased and unbiased tracers also differs. Deducing void properties from simulation therefore requires the use of realistic galaxy mocks. We discuss how the void observables can be related to their matter content. In particular we consider the compensation of the total mass deficit in voids and find that the distinction between over- and undercompensated voids is not a function of void size alone, as has previously been suggested. However, we find a simple linear relationship between the average density of tracers in the void and the total mass compensation on much larger scales. The existence of this linear relationship holds independent of the bias and sampling density of the tracers. This provides a universal tool to classify void environments and will be important for the use of voids in observational cosmology.

  6. The Development of Voiding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Henning

    2011-01-01

    The thesis addresses some new aspeccts in the development of voiding function from midgestation into early childhood.......The thesis addresses some new aspeccts in the development of voiding function from midgestation into early childhood....

  7. Supplemental topics on voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, H.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several topics concerning voids are presented, supplementing the report of Rood (1988). The discovery of the Coma supercluster and void and the recognition of the cosmological significance of superclusters and voids are reviewed. Galaxy redshift surveys and redshift surveys for the Abell clusters and very distant objects are discussed. Solar system and extragalactic dynamics are examined. Also, topics for future observational research on voids are recommended. 50 references.

  8. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange;

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...

  9. Voiding dysfunction - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a child who is toilet trained the sudden onset of daytime wetting with frequency or urgency is alarming to the parents. Initially this subject was subdivided into a number of descriptive clinical conditions which led to a lot of confusion in recognition and management. Subsequently, the term elimination dysfunction was coined by Stephen Koff to emphasise the association between recurrent urinary infection, wetting, constipation and bladder overactivity. From a urodynamic point of view, in voiding dysfunction, there is either detrusor overactivity during bladder filling or dyssynergic action between the detrusor and the external sphincter during voiding. Identifying a given condition as a ′filling phase dysfunction′ or ′voiding phase dysfunction′ helps to provide appropriate therapy. Objective clinical criteria should be used to define voiding dysfunction. These include bladder wall thickening, large capacity bladder and infrequent voiding, bladder trabeculation and spinning top deformity of the urethra and a clinically demonstrated Vincent′s curtsy. The recognition and treatment of constipation is central to the adequate treatment of voiding dysfunction. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimuation for the treatment of detrusor overactivity, biofeedback with uroflow EMG to correct dyssynergic voiding, and behavioral therapy all serve to correct voiding dysfunction in its early stages. In established neurogenic bladder disease the use of Botulinum Toxin A injections into the detrusor or the external sphincter may help in restoring continence especially in those refractory to drug therapy. However in those children in whom the upper tracts are threatened, augmentation of the bladder may still be needed.

  10. Modeling cosmic void statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the internal structure and spatial distribution of cosmic voids is crucial when considering them as probes of cosmology. We present recent advances in modeling void density- and velocity-profiles in real space, as well as void two-point statistics in redshift space, by examining voids identified via the watershed transform in state-of-the-art ΛCDM n-body simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The simple and universal characteristics that emerge from these statistics indicate the self-similarity of large-scale structure and suggest cosmic voids to be among the most pristine objects to consider for future studies on the nature of dark energy, dark matter and modified gravity.

  11. Modeling cosmic void statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the internal structure and spatial distribution of cosmic voids is crucial when considering them as probes of cosmology. We present recent advances in modeling void density- and velocity-profiles in real space, as well as void two-point statistics in redshift space, by examining voids identified via the watershed transform in state-of-the-art $\\Lambda$CDM n-body simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The simple and universal characteristics that emerge from these statistics indicate the self-similarity of large-scale structure and suggest cosmic voids to be among the most pristine objects to consider for future studies on the nature of dark energy, dark matter and modified gravity.

  12. Study and Application of Asphalt Medium Method for Measuring Pavement Air Void%沥青介质法实测路面空隙率研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫峰; 李源渊; 陈华鑫

    2016-01-01

    In order to overcome the disadvantages of poor representation and the accuracy in current air voids of asphalt pavement testing, we researched and developed the asphalt medium method for direct measuring asphalt pavement core samples’ largest theory relative density and calculating air voids, and applied it for quality inspection and evaluation of practical projects. The research result shows that ( 1 ) Compared with traditional method, the asphalt medium method overcame the drawbacks of solvent method and vacuum method, using heat asphalt as medium, it can more accurately measure the largest theory relative density of asphalt core samples, so the accuracy is higher. ( 2 ) The asphalt medium method directly uses the core samples’ bulk density and largest theory relative density for core samples’ air voids calculation, it has stronger representation. (3) As long as there is core samples from asphalt pavement, the asphalt medium method can be used for measuring its air voids, and it does not need to consult the maximum theoretical density of mixture for construction, so the application is more convenient. The variability of the measured largest theory relative density of core samples using the asphalt medium method can accurately evaluate the variability of the asphalt pavement. (4) There is a good relationship between the measured pavement air voids and the water seepage coefficient measured by the asphalt medium method. In practical projects, the method can be easily used for measuring the air voids of asphalt core samples, the result can be used for pavement quality evaluation and quality control.%为克服目前沥青路面空隙率检测代表性及准确性差的缺点,研究开发直接实测沥青路面芯样最大理论相对密度及计算空隙率的沥青介质法,并应用于实际工程的质量检测与评定。研究结果表明,与传统方法相比,沥青介质法克服了溶剂法与真空法的缺点,以热沥青为介质,更

  13. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  14. A study of process induced voids in resistance welding of thermoplastic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, H.; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Bersee, H.E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Void formation in resistance welding of woven fabric reinforced thermoplastic composites was investigated. Void contents were measured using optical microscopy and digital image process. Un-even void distributions were observed in the joints, and more voids were found in the middle of the joints tha

  15. A Simple Experiment To Measure the Content of Oxygen in the Air Using Heated Steel Wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The typical experiment to measure the oxygen content in the atmosphere uses the rusting of steel wool inside a closed volume of air. Two key aspects of this experiment that make possible a successful measurement of the content of oxygen in the air are the use of a closed atmosphere and the use of a chemical reaction that involves the oxidation of…

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of voids distribution in VPI for ITER correction coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juping, E-mail: ljping@ipp.ac.cn; Wu, Jiefeng; Yu, Xiaowu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A sample of correction coil was treated by vacuum pressure impregnation. • The voids in sample were observed by computed tomography. • The voids distributions were simulated in 2-D and 3-D model. • The calculated voids locations had a good agreement with experiment. • The simulation was not accurate in calculating the voids content. - Abstract: The experimental and numerical investigations were conducted to study the voids distribution in VPI (Vacuum Pressure Impregnation) process for correction coil. A sample of correction coil was manufactured by VPI. The voids in sample were observed with computed tomography and the average voids content was tested. The voids content is closely related to infiltration velocity and fluid properties. In former researches, the parameters affecting voids content were combined into a single parameter, namely capillary number. By calculating the capillary numbers in different areas of the sample, the voids distribution could be acquired. The corresponding numerical analyses based on Darcy law were conducted in 2-D and 3-D models. The 2-D case was used to simulate the voids distribution on the section as a simplified model, while the 3-D case demonstrated the spatial distribution of voids. The voids locations were similar in 2-D and 3-D cases, but the voids contents were different. The numerical results were compared with the actual voids distribution in sample. It was found the voids locations were close in numerical and experimental results, but the voids content did not match. The numerical simulations are available for predicting the voids locations in VPI, but not accurate in calculating the voids content.

  17. Controlling Air Content in Concrete That is Being Pumped, A Synthesis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scholer, Charles F.; Grossman, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the air content of fresh concrete that is being pumped can occur at a number of places. These locations include the initial loading of the concrete into the pump hopper, as it passes through the pump line, and when it exits the line. This synthesis reviews the findings of recent research studies which deal with air content change in pumped concrete and summarizes methods of reducing air loss caused by handling. Three main mechanisms by which air content is lost in fresh concrete th...

  18. Content and Advertising in the Media: Pay-TV versus Free-To-Air

    OpenAIRE

    Peitz, Martin; Valletti, Tommaso

    2004-01-01

    We compare the advertising intensity and content of programming in a market with competing media platforms. With pay-tv media platforms have two sources of revenues, advertising revenues and revenues from viewers. With free-to-air media platforms receive all revenues from advertising. We show that if viewers strongly dislike advertising, the advertising intensity is greater under free-to-air television. We also show that free-to-air television tends to provide more similar content whereas pay...

  19. Void Hierarchy and Cosmic Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, R. van de; Sheth, R.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of {em two} processes, the {em void-in-void} process and the {it void-in-cloud} process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a {i

  20. Void hierarchy and cosmic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, R; Sheth, R; Pilonis, M

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of two processes, the void-in-void process and the void-in-cloud process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a two-barrier excursion probl

  1. Void Hierarchy and Cosmic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Weygaert, R; Weygaert, Rien van de; Sheth, Ravi

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of {\\em two} processes, the {\\em void-in-void} process and the {\\it void-in-cloud} process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a {\\it two-barrier} excursion problem leads to a self-similarly evolving peaked void size distribution.

  2. Engineering Design and Void Characterisation of Thick Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Voids are defects that are difficult to completely eliminate during the manufacturing process of composite materials. With the increase of void content (i.e. porosity), the mechanical properties and service life of the composite materials will be significantly affected. It is thus of vital importance to improve the quality of composite materials and avoid the formation of voids. In this project, military-use Twaron®-epoxy thick composite panels have been manufactured and non-destructive testi...

  3. Void effects on BWR Doppler and void reactivity feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of steam voids and control rods on the Doppler feedback in a gadolinia shimmed BWR is demonstrated. The importance of bypass voids when determining void feedback is also shown. Calculations were done using a point model, i.e., feedback was expressed in terms of reactivity coefficients which were determined for individual four-bundle configurations and then appropriately combined to yield reactor results. For overpower transients the inclusion of the void effect of control rods is to reduce Doppler feedback. For overpressurization transients the inclusion of the effect of bypass void wil increase the reactivity due to void collapse. (author)

  4. The Void Phenomenon Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    The Void Phenomenon consists in the apparent discrepancy between the number of observed dwarf halos in cosmic voids and that expected from CDM simulations. We approach the problem considering the challenging prospects of detecting field dwarf systems with halo masses < 10^9 solar, via their possible HI emission. A brief review of recent work is followed by preliminary results from the ALFALFA survey, which suggest the possibility, but not yet the proof, that such objects may have been already detected towards the outskirts of the Local Group.

  5. Effects of Cure Pressure Induced Voids on the Mechanical Strength of Carbon/Epoxy Laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling LIU; Boming ZHANG; Zhanjun WU; Dianfu WANG

    2005-01-01

    This work aims at designing a set of curing pressure routes to produce laminates with various void contents. The effects of various consolidation pressures resulting in different void contents on mechanical strength of carbon/epoxy laminates have been examined. Characterization of the voids, in terms of void volume fraction, void distribution,size, and shape, was performed by standard test, ultrasonic inspection and metallographic analysis. The interlaminar shear strength was measured by the short-beam method. An empirical model was used to predict the strength vs porosity. The predicted strengths conform well with the experimental data and voids were found to be uniformly distributed throughout the laminate.

  6. Void Reactivity Coefficient Analysis during Void Fraction Changes in Innovative BWR Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Slavickas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the void reactivity variation in innovative BWR fuel assemblies is presented in this paper. The innovative assemblies are loaded with high enrichment fresh UO2 and MOX fuels. UO2 fuel enrichment is increased above existing design limitations for LWR fuels (>5%. MOX fuel enrichment with fissile Pu content is established to achieve the same burnup level as that of high enrichment UO2 fuel. For the numerical analysis, the TRITON functional module of SCALE 6.1 code with the 238-group ENDF/B-VI cross section data library was applied. The investigation of the void reactivity feedback is performed in the entire 0–100% void fraction range. Higher values of void reactivity coefficient for assembly loaded with MOX fuel are found in comparison with values for assembly loaded with UO2 fuel. Moreover, coefficient values for MOX fuel are positive over 75% void fraction. The variation of the void reactivity coefficient is explained by the results of the decomposition analysis based on four-factor formula and neutron absorption reactions for main isotopes. Additionally, the impact of the moderation enhancement on the void reactivity coefficient was investigated for the innovative assembly with MOX fuel.

  7. Point defect annealing near voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic calculations were carried out for the annealing of vacancies and interstitials at voids under irradiation conditions. The case in which there is a small energy barrier between a defect and a void (such as might arise from strain effects or solute segregation at void surfaces) has been investigated in detail. With irradiation conditions which yield void swelling, it is found that a small barrier produces a significant bias parameter for preferential annealing. The bias parameter is relatively insensitive to temperature and irradiation rate, but varies with void radius, decreasing as the void size increases

  8. Unfolding the Hierarchy of Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Calvo, M A; Araya-Melo, P; Platen, E; Szalay, A S

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for the hierarchical identification and characterization of voids based on the Watershed Void Finder. The Hierarchical Void Finder is based on a generalization of the scale space of a density field invoked in order to trace the hierarchical nature and structure of cosmological voids. At each level of the hierarchy, the watershed transform is used to identify the voids at that particular scale. By identifying the overlapping regions between watershed basins in adjacent levels, the hierarchical void tree is constructed. Applications on a hierarchical Voronoi model and on a set of cosmological simulations illustrate its potential.

  9. Evaluation of the maximum content of a MOX-fueled pressurized water reactor versus isotopic composition with respect to the void coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is within the framework of the feasibility of 100% MOX recycling in a Pressurized Water Reactor. The objective is to determine the limit content of total plutonium in a MOX fuel with respect to the serious accident of core total draining, during which the reactivity effects must remain negative. Six isotopic vectors, from a very degraded plutonium to a plutonium with a high content of fissile nuclei, are studied. The very conservative result of 12% for the whole vectors allows to confirm, a posteriori, the dimensioning of recent factories intended for the production of MOX fuel. (author). 3 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Void shape effects and voids starting from cracked inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    Numerical, axisymmetric cell model analyses are used to study the growth of voids in ductile metals, until the mechanism of coalescence with neighbouring voids sets in. A special feature of the present analyses is that extremely small values of the initial void volume fraction are considered, dow...

  11. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  12. Void structure of concrete with superabsorbent polymers and its relation to frost resistance of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Laustsen, Sara

    2013-01-01

    the difference between poor and satisfactory frost-resistance. Furthermore, the results indicate that voids created directly by SAP protect concrete against frost deterioration just like other air voids; if the concrete contains enough SAP voids, these alone can provide sufficient frost resistance. © 2013 RILEM....

  13. Natural radioactivity content in soil and indoor air of Chellanam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, S; Rajagopalan, M; Abraham, J P; Balakrishnan, D; Umadevi, A G

    2012-11-01

    Contribution of terrestrial radiation due to the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil and air constitutes a significant component of the background radiation exposure to the population. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil and indoor air of Chellanam were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity level and radiation hazard to the population. Chellanam is in the suburbs of Cochin, with the Arabian Sea in the west and the Cochin backwaters in the east. Chellanam is situated at ∼25 km from the sites of these factories. The data obtained serve as a reference in documenting changes to the environmental radioactivity due to technical activities. Soil samples were collected from 30 locations of the study area. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in the samples were analysed using gamma spectrometry. The gamma dose rates were calculated using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR (2000)]. The ambient radiation exposure rates measured in the area ranged from 74 to 195 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1). The significant radionuclides being (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, their activities were used to arrive at the absorbed gamma dose rate with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1) and the radium equivalent activity with a mean value of 162 Bq kg(-1). The radon progeny levels varied from 0.21 to 1.4 mWL with a mean value of 0.6 mWL. The thoron progeny varied from 0.34 to 2.9 mWL with a mean value of 0.85 mWL. The ratio between thoron and radon progenies varied from 1.4 to 2.3 with a mean of 1.6. The details of the study, analysis and results are discussed.

  14. The nature of voids: II. Tracing underdensities with biased galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, Seshadri

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic voids may be very useful in testing fundamental aspects of cosmology. Yet observationally voids can only be seen as regions with a deficit of bright galaxies. To study how biased galaxies trace matter underdensities and how the properties of voids depend on those of the tracer galaxy population, we use a $\\Lambda$CDM N-body simulation populated with mock galaxies based on the halo occupation distribution (HOD) model. We identify voids in these mocks using the ZOBOV void finder and measure their abundances, sizes, tracer densities, and dark matter content. To separate the effects of bias from those of sampling density, we do the same for voids traced by randomly down-sampled subsets of the dark matter particles in the simulation. We find that galaxy bias reduces the total number of voids by $\\sim50\\%$ and can dramatically change their size distribution. The matter content of voids in biased and unbiased tracers also differs. Using simulations to accurately estimate the cosmological constraints that can ...

  15. Effect of carbon on void formation in neutron-irradiated nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of neutron irradiation at 1100C producing octahedral voids in high purity nickel samples containing up to 84 wt ppm carbon. The kinetics of void size, formation, and density with increasing carbon content is discussed. It was found that the effect of carbon was mainly to suppress void nucleation, with little or no effect on void growth. Also a trapping mechanism is proposed. There are 64 references

  16. 复合材料孔隙含量超声检测系统的设计研究%DESIGN AND STUDY OF ULTRASONIC TEST SYSTEM FOR VOID CONTENT IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志峰; 吴瑞明; 吴作伦; 宋立军

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of ultrasonic test theory model, the ultrasonic testing data acquisition and data processing methods were described. Computer control system for ultrasonic testing technology researched time-domain waveform signal processing based on ultrasonic board. The C-scan image and column chart of CFRP surface were obtained. The result showed that the test system based on automation can accurately test the void content of carbon fiber reinforced plastics on the spot.%本文结合碳纤维复合材料内部孔隙含量的超声检测理论模型,阐述了计算机控制超声检测系统数据采集和数据处理的原理和实施方法.重点对数字超声卡的操作、时域波形信号的处理、复合材料孔隙率的C扫描成像显示以及直方图分析等关键问题进行分析研究,开发相应的软件应用模块,构建合适的自动化超声检测系统,以满足实际工程中超声检测的要求.

  17. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  18. Effect of artificial UV irradiation on spore content of stall air and fattening pig breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a continuous UV irradiation (emitter NN 33/89 original Hanau) during the fattening periods primarily in the bactericide region of 253.7 nm of various intensities on the spore content of air, on the state of health and on the fattening breeding of pigs was tested in two fattening procedures. The high spore number per m3 air of over 700 000 upon occupying the stall in the first fattening procedure was reduced by 90.5% to about 70 000 after 1 week of UV irradiation, and in the second procedure, from 111 500 to 16 000, i.e. a reduction of 85.5%. The spore content of the stall air then exhibited large deviations reducing and increasing. The same deviations were recorded for dust content. There was no absolute correlation between dust and spore content of the air until the 11th week after starting UV irradiation in either test. The spore content sank in the reference stalls also without UV irradiation, by 29.9% in the first fattening procedure 1 week after occupying the stall and even by 75% in the second procedure. The spore content of the air in the reference stalls also then exhibited deviations sinking and rising as in the test stalls with UV irradiation. Here too, there was no correlation between dust and spore content of the air. The spore content in the air was 2 to 7 times higher in the reference stalls than in the test stalls. One may conclude from the tests that the promoting irradiation strength is between 15 and 20 μW/cm2 and that short-term stool production in danish stalling, 60 μW/cm2 are not harmful. Air disinfection with UV irradiation, can only be part of the total hygiene measures taken in veterinary medicine and may only be considered as an important link in the chain of the health promoting and increased efficient hygiene measures in the intensification of aggriculturally useful animals. (orig./AJ)

  19. Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Imran; Tylkowski, Maxi; Müller, Steffen; Janicki, Tomasz; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Air abrasion is used in minimally invasive dentistry for preparing cavities, while removing no or little sound dentine or enamel, and the use of bioactive glass (rather than alumina) as an abrasive could aid in tooth remineralization. Melt-derived bioactive glasses (SiO2-P2O5-CaO-CaF2-Na2O) with low sodium content (0 to 10 mol% Na2O in exchange for CaO) for increased hardness, high phosphate content for high bioactivity and fluoride content for release of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite were produced, and particles between 38 and 80 µm in size were used for cutting soda-lime silicate glass microscope slides and human enamel. Vickers hardness increased with decreasing Na2O content, owing to a more compact silicate network in low sodium content glasses, resulting in shorter cutting times. Cutting times using bioactive glass were significantly longer than using the alumina control (29 µm) when tested on microscope slides; however, glasses showed more comparable results when cutting human enamel. The bioactive glasses formed apatite in Tris buffer within 6 h, which was significantly faster than Bioglass® 45S5 (24 h), suggesting that the hardness of the glasses makes them suitable for air abrasion application, while their high bioactivity and fluoride content make them of interest for tooth remineralization. PMID:24287337

  20. Heavy metal content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos from main production areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the influence of growing conditions on heavy metal content in virginia (flue cured and burley (air cured tobacco type. Moreover, some of these metals could appear in the tobacco cigarette smoke. This fact may cause negative consequences for cigarette consumers. Examinations were carried out in five various production areas, for each tobacco type, during two years, 1998 and 1999; those were extreme years for production.Considering the results, it can be concluded: The most important factor for heavy metal content in tobacco leaves are weather conditions especially the amount of rainfall, since there is a direct correlation between the rainfall and size of roots, a dominant vegetation organ. It is inevitable that the metals content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos grown at different experimental lots, is still below the legally prescribed values. Tobacco leaves from Šabac production area have a little higher metal content than tobacco grown in other production areas, because a larger amount of copper was found. The metal content in plants can increase because of its absorption from soil, atmosphere, or mineral fertilizers and pesticides, and, what is very important, the content of metals can be high due to the vicinity of large industrial centers.

  1. Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air abrasion is used in minimally invasive dentistry for preparing cavities, while removing no or little sound dentine or enamel, and the use of bioactive glass (rather than alumina) as an abrasive could aid in tooth remineralization. Melt-derived bioactive glasses (SiO2–P2O5–CaO–CaF2–Na2O) with low sodium content (0 to 10 mol% Na2O in exchange for CaO) for increased hardness, high phosphate content for high bioactivity and fluoride content for release of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite were produced, and particles between 38 and 80 µm in size were used for cutting soda-lime silicate glass microscope slides and human enamel. Vickers hardness increased with decreasing Na2O content, owing to a more compact silicate network in low sodium content glasses, resulting in shorter cutting times. Cutting times using bioactive glass were significantly longer than using the alumina control (29 µm) when tested on microscope slides; however, glasses showed more comparable results when cutting human enamel. The bioactive glasses formed apatite in Tris buffer within 6 h, which was significantly faster than Bioglass® 45S5 (24 h), suggesting that the hardness of the glasses makes them suitable for air abrasion application, while their high bioactivity and fluoride content make them of interest for tooth remineralization. (paper)

  2. Dark energy with rigid voids versus relativistic voids alone

    CERN Document Server

    Roukema, Boudewijn F

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of cosmology is dominated - at the present epoch - by dark energy. Its voids are rigid and Newtonian within a relativistic background. The model prevents them from becoming hyperbolic. Observations of rapid velocity flows out of voids are normally interpreted within the standard model that is rigid in comoving coordinates, instead of allowing the voids' density parameter to drop below critical and their curvature to become negative. Isn't it time to advance beyond nineteenth century physics and relegate dark energy back to the "no significant evidence" box?

  3. Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, A. I.; Laakso, A.; Schmidt, A.; Kokkola, H.; Kuokkanen, T.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laakso, L.; Korhonen, H.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol particles from shipping emissions both cool the climate and cause adverse health effects. The cooling effect is, however, declining because of shipping emission controls aiming to improve air quality. We used an aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to test whether by altering ship fuel sulfur content, the present-day aerosol-induced cooling effect from shipping could be preserved, while at the same time reducing premature mortality rates related to shipping emissions. We compared the climate and health effects of a present-day shipping emission scenario (ship fuel sulfur content of 2.7%) with (1) a simulation with strict emission controls in the coastal waters (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1%) and twofold the present-day fuel sulfur content (i.e. 5.4%) elsewhere; and (2) a scenario with global strict shipping emission controls (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% in coastal waters and 0.5% elsewhere) roughly corresponding to international agreements to be enforced by the year 2020. Scenario 1 had a slightly stronger aerosol-induced effective radiative forcing (ERF) from shipping than the present-day scenario (-0.43 W m-2 vs. -0.39 W m-2) while reducing premature mortality from shipping by 69% (globally 34 900 deaths avoided per year). Scenario 2 decreased the ERF to -0.06 W m-2 and annual deaths by 96% (globally 48 200 deaths avoided per year) compared to present-day. Our results show that the cooling effect of present-day emissions could be retained with simultaneous notable improvements in air quality, even though the shipping emissions from the open ocean clearly have a significant effect on continental air quality. However, increasing ship fuel sulfur content in the open ocean would violate existing international treaties, could cause detrimental side-effects, and could be classified as geoengineering.

  4. Testing Gravity using Void Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan-Chuan; Padilla, Nelson; Li, Baojiu

    2016-10-01

    We investigate void properties in f(R) models using N-body simulations, focusing on their differences from General Relativity (GR) and their detectability. In the Hu-Sawicki f(R) modified gravity (MG) models, the halo number density profiles of voids are not distinguishable from GR. In contrast, the same f(R) voids are more empty of dark matter, and their profiles are steeper. This can in principle be observed by weak gravitational lensing of voids, for which the combination of a spectroscopic redshift and a lensing photometric redshift survey over the same sky is required. Neglecting the lensing shape noise, the f(R) model parameter amplitudes fR0=10-5 and 10-4 may be distinguished from GR using the lensing tangential shear signal around voids by 4 and 8 σ for a volume of 1 (Gpc/h)3. The line-of-sight projection of large-scale structure is the main systematics that limits the significance of this signal for the near future wide angle and deep lensing surveys. For this reason, it is challenging to distinguish fR0=10-6 from GR. We expect that this can be overcome with larger volume. The halo void abundance being smaller and the steepening of dark matter void profiles in f(R) models are unique features that can be combined to break the degeneracy between fR0 and σ8.

  5. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2016-10-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Hα, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key results on the HI content and individually interesting systems. In general, we find that the void galaxies are gas rich, low luminosity, blue disk galaxies, with optical and HI properties that are not unusual for their luminosity and morphology. We see evidence of both ongoing assembly, through the gas dynamics between interacting systems, and significant gas accretion, seen in extended gas disks and kinematic misalignments. The VGS establishes a local reference sample to be used in future HI surveys (CHILES, DINGO, LADUMA) that will directly observe the HI evolution of void galaxies over cosmic time.

  6. Numerical Simulations of Void Transport in Unidirectional Fiber Arrays in Resin Transfer Molding Process%RTM工艺中单向纤维排列中的缺陷迁移的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-long; Wook Ryol Hwang

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the amount of residual voids during the resin infiltration into fibrous porous media is an important aspect in manufacturing high performance composite materials.In order to better understand void transports and flow behaviors in filling process,which affects immediately the final void content,a finite-element scheme for transient simulations of the void migration in a transverse flow through the uniaxial micro-structured fibrous media is developed in this work.A volume-of-fluid (VOF) method has been incorporated in the Eulerian frame to capture the free surface of the resin flow.The implementation of periodic boundary condition to the vertical direction avoids unwanted wall effect.The void migration in a dual-scale fiber tow model was investigated.The voids are observed to be transported through the inter-tow region as well as entrapped into fiber tow.It is that the motion of void lagged behind macro flow front which implies that the adequate resin bleeding after mold filling is crucial to remove the entrapped air.

  7. Voids in Modified Gravity Reloaded: Eulerian Void Assignment

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Tsz Yan; Cai, Yan-Chuan; Li, Baojiu

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the excursion set approach to calculate void abundances in chameleon-type modified gravity theories, which was previously studied by Clampitt, Cai and Li (2013). We focus on properly accounting for the void-in-cloud effect, i.e., the growth of those voids sitting in over-dense regions may be restricted by the evolution of their surroundings. This effect may change the distribution function of voids hence affect predictions on the differences between modified gravity and GR. We show that the thin-shell approximation usually used to calculate the fifth force is qualitatively good but quantitatively inaccurate. Therefore, it is necessary to numerically solve the fifth force in both over-dense and under-dense regions. We then generalise the Eulerian void assignment method of Paranjape, Lam and Sheth (2012) to our modified gravity model. We implement this method in our Monte Carlo simulations and compare its results with the original Lagrangian methods. We find that the abundances of small voids are sig...

  8. Testing Gravity using Cosmic Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Though general relativity is well-tested on small (Solar System) scales, the late-time acceleration of the Universe provides strong motivation to test GR on cosmological scales. The difference between the small and large scale behavior of gravity is determined by the screening mechanism in modified gravity theories. Dark matter halos are often screened in these models, especially in models with Vainshtein screening, motivating a search for signatures of modified gravity in cosmic voids. We explore density, force, and velocity profiles of voids found in N-body simulations, using both dark matter particles and dark matter halos to identify the voids. The prospect of testing gravity using cosmic voids may be limited by the sparsity of halos as tracers of the density field.

  9. Geometry and scaling of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, Jose

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Cosmic voids are observed in the distribution of galaxies and, to some extent, in the dark matter distribution. If these distributions have fractal geometry, it must be reflected in the geometry of voids; in particular, we expect scaling sizes of voids. However, this scaling is not well demonstrated in galaxy surveys yet. AIMS: Our objective is to understand the geometry of cosmic voids in relation to a fractal structure of matter. We intend to distinguish monofractal voids from multifractal voids, regarding their scaling properties. We plan to analyse voids in the distributions of mass concentrations (halos) in a multifractal and their relation to galaxy voids. METHODS: We make a statistical analysis of point distributions based on the void probability function and correlation functions. We assume that voids are spherical and devise a simple spherical void finder. For continuous mass distributions, we employ the methods of fractal geometry. We confirm the analytical predictions with numerical simula...

  10. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Iono, D; Honey, M; Ramya, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1-0) line emission and follow up Halpha imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1-0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most under dense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Halpha line luminosities. CO(1--0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)E+9 Msun. The H$\\alpha$ imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star forma...

  11. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberič, Darko

    2016-07-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  12. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veberič Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  13. Alignment of voids in the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large-scale matter distribution of a Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel watershed void finder (WVF) technique. The identified voids are quite non-spherical and slightly pro

  14. Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.

    2009-07-01

    Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity.

  15. Testing Gravity using Void Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yan-Chuan; Li, Baojiu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate void properties in $f(R)$ models using N-body simulations, focusing on their differences from General Relativity (GR) and their detectability. In the Hu-Sawicki $f(R)$ modified gravity (MG) models, the halo number density profiles of voids are not distinguishable from GR. In contrast, the same $f(R)$ voids are more empty of dark matter, and their profiles are steeper. This can in principle be observed by weak gravitational lensing of voids, for which the combination of a spectroscopic redshift and a lensing photometric redshift survey over the same sky is required. Neglecting the lensing shape noise, the $f(R)$ model parameter amplitudes $|f_{R0}|=10^{-5}$ and $10^{-4}$ may be distinguished from GR using the lensing tangential shear signal around voids by 4 and 8$\\sigma$ for a volume of 1~(Gpc/$h$)$^3$. The line-of-sight projection of large-scale structure is the main systematics that limits the significance of this signal for the near future wide angle and deep lensing surveys. For this reason...

  16. Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-I. Partanen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles from shipping emissions both cool the climate and cause adverse health effects. The cooling effect is, however, declining because of shipping emission controls aiming to improve air quality. We used an aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to test whether by altering ship fuel sulfur content, the present-day aerosol-induced cooling effect from shipping could be preserved while at the same time reducing premature mortality rates related to shipping emissions. We compared the climate and health effects of a present-day shipping emission scenario with (1 a simulation with strict emission controls in the coastal waters (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% and twofold ship fuel sulfur content compared to current global average of 2.7% elsewhere; and (2 a scenario with global strict shipping emission controls (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% in coastal waters and 0.5% elsewhere roughly corresponding to international agreements to be enforced by the year 2020. Scenario 1 had a slightly stronger aerosol-induced radiative flux perturbation (RFP from shipping than the present-day scenario (−0.43 W m−2 vs. −0.39 W m−2 while reducing premature mortality from shipping by 69% (globally 34 900 deaths avoided per year. Scenario 2 decreased the RFP to −0.06 W m−2 and annual deaths by 96% (globally 48 200 deaths avoided per year compared to present-day. A small difference in radiative effect (global mean of 0.04 W m−2 in the coastal regions between Scenario 1 and the present-day scenario imply that shipping emission regulation in the existing emission control areas should not be removed in hope of climate cooling. Our results show that the cooling effect of present-day emissions could be retained with simultaneous notable improvements in air quality, even though the shipping emissions from the open ocean clearly have a significant effect on continental air quality. However, increasing ship fuel sulfur content in the open ocean would

  17. Effects of Stress and Void-Void Interactions on Current-Driven Void Surface Evolution in Metallic Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeseol; Gungor, M. Rauf; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2006-03-01

    We report results of electromigration- and stress-induced migration and morphological evolution of voids in metallic thin films based on self-consistent numerical simulations. The analysis reveals the complex nature of void-void interactions and their implications for the evolution of metallic thin-film electrical resistance, providing interpretation for experimental measurements in interconnect lines. Interestingly, for two voids migrating in the same direction under certain conditions, we find that a smaller void does not always approach and coalesce with a larger one, while a larger void may approach and coalesce with a smaller one. In addition, we find that under certain electromechanical conditions, biaxially applied mechanical stress can cause substantial retardation of void motion, as measured by the constant speed of electromigration-induced translation of morphologically stable voids. This effect suggests the possibility for complete inhibition of current-driven void motion under stress.

  18. Constraints on Cosmology and Gravity from the Dynamics of Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Pisani, Alice; Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Weller, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    The Universe is mostly composed of large and relatively empty domains known as cosmic voids, whereas its matter content is predominantly distributed along their boundaries. The remaining material inside them, either dark or luminous matter, is attracted to these boundaries and causes voids to expand faster and to grow emptier over time. Using the distribution of galaxies centered on voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and adopting minimal assumptions on the statistical motion of these galaxies, we constrain the average matter content Ωm=0.281 ±0.031 in the Universe today, as well as the linear growth rate of structure f /b =0.417 ±0.089 at median redshift z ¯=0.57 , where b is the galaxy bias (68% C.L.). These values originate from a percent-level measurement of the anisotropic distortion in the void-galaxy cross-correlation function, ɛ =1.003 ±0.012 , and are robust to consistency tests with bootstraps of the data and simulated mock catalogs within an additional systematic uncertainty of half that size. They surpass (and are complementary to) existing constraints by unlocking cosmological information on smaller scales through an accurate model of nonlinear clustering and dynamics in void environments. As such, our analysis furnishes a powerful probe of deviations from Einstein's general relativity in the low-density regime which has largely remained untested so far. We find no evidence for such deviations in the data at hand.

  19. 3D Property Modeling of Void Ratio by Cokriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lingqing; Pan Mao; Cheng Qiuming

    2008-01-01

    Void ratio measures compactness of ground soil in geotechnical engineering. When samples are collected in certain area for mapping void ratios, other relevant types of properties such as water content may be also analyzed. To map the spatial distribution of void ratio in the area based on these types of point, observation data interpolation is often needed. Owing to the variance of sampling density along the horizontal and vertical directions, special consideration is required to handle anisotropy of estimator. 3D property modeling aims at predicting the overall distribution of property values from limited samples, and geostatistical method can he employed naturally here because they help to minimize the mean square error of estimation. To construct 3D property model of void ratio, cokriging was used considering its mutual correlation with water content, which is another important soil parameter. Moreover, K-D tree was adopted to organize the samples to accelerate neighbor query in 3D space during the above modeling process. At last, spatial configuration of void ratio distribution in an engineering body was modeled through 3D visualization, which provides important information for civil engineering purpose.

  20. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S., E-mail: floliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

  1. On cavitation instabilities with interacting voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    When a single void grows in an elastic–plastic material a cavitation instability may occur, if the stress triaxiality is sufficiently high. The effect of neighbouring voids on such unstable cavity growth is studied here by comparing two different models. The first model considers a periodic array...... voids so far apart that the radius of the plastic zone around each void is less than 1% of the current spacing between the voids, can still affect each others at the occurrence of a cavitation instability such that one void stops growing while the other grows in an unstable manner. On the other hand...

  2. Coupling effects of void size and void shape on the growth of prolate ellipsoidal microvoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsheng Huang; Zhenhuan Li; Cheng Wang

    2005-01-01

    The combined effects of void size and void shape on the void growth are studied by using the classical spectrum method. An infinite solid containing an isolated prolate spheroidal void is considered to depict the void shape effect and the Fleck-Hutchinson phenomenological strain gradient plasticity theory is employed to capture the size effects. It is found that the combined effects of void size and void shape are mainly controlled by the remote stress triaxiality. Based on this, a new size-dependent void growth model similar to the Rice-Tracey model is proposed and an important conclusion about the size-dependent void growth is drawn: the growth rate of the void with radius smaller than a critical radius rc may be ignored. It is interesting that rc is a material constant independent of the initial void shape and the remote stress triaxiality.

  3. Testing the spherical evolution of cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, Vasiliy; Cai, Yan-Chuan; Heymans, Catherine; Peacock, John A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the spherical evolution model for voids in ΛCDM, where the evolution of voids is governed by dark energy at an earlier time than that for the whole universe or in overdensities. We show that the presence of dark energy suppresses the growth of peculiar velocities, causing void shell-crossing to occur at progressively later epochs as ΩΛ increases. We apply the spherical model to evolve the initial conditions of N-body simulated voids and compare the resulting final void profiles. We find that the model is successful in tracking the evolution of voids with radii greater than 30 h-1Mpc, implying that void profiles could be used to constrain dark energy. We find that the initial peculiar velocities of voids play a significant role in shaping their evolution. Excluding the peculiar velocity in the evolution model delays the time of shell crossing.

  4. Contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves of woody plants under conditions of air contamination with industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarabrin, V.P.; Shatskaya, R.M.; Chernyshova, L.V.

    1971-01-01

    A study of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in leaves of woody plants was conducted against a background of different air and soil contamination with wastes of metallurgic and coke-chemical plants. It is found that content of total protein nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves of woody plants decreases with aging of the leaves (from spring to autumn) in all the plants under study. Air contamination causes at the beginning of the vegetation period an increase and then, under conditions of great contamination a drop in the content of total nitrogen in comparison with control. The drought resistant plants - Quercus robur L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. under conditions of air contamination with industrial wastes preserve exchange of nitrogen protein and phosphorus at a higher level in comparison with less resistant Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia parviflora Ehrh.

  5. Size effects on void growth in single crystals with distributed voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of void size on void growth in single crystals with uniformly distributed cylindrical voids is studied numerically using a finite deformation strain gradient crystal plasticity theory with an intrinsic length parameter. A plane strain cell model is analyzed for a single crystal...... with three in-plane slip systems. It is observed that small voids allow much larger overall stress levels than larger voids for all the stress triaxialities considered. The amount of void growth is found to be suppressed for smaller voids at low stress triaxialities. Significant differences are observed...... in the distribution of slips and on the shape of the deformed voids for different void sizes. Furthermore, the orientation of the crystalline lattice is found to have a pronounced effect on the results, especially for the smaller void sizes....

  6. AirPrint Forensics: Recovering the Contents and Metadata of Printed Documents from iOS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez-Miralles

    2015-01-01

    data they may store, opens new opportunities in the field of computer forensics. In 2010, version 4 of the iOS operating system introduced AirPrint, a simple and driverless wireless printing functionality supported by hundreds of printer models from all major vendors. This paper describes the traces left in the iOS device when AirPrint is used and presents a method for recovering content and metadata of documents that have been printed.

  7. The life and death of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Falck, Bridget; Onions, Julian; Hamaus, Nico; Knebe, Alexander; Srisawat, Chaichalit; Schneider, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the formation, growth, merger history, movement, and destruction of cosmic voids detected via the watershed transform in a cosmological N-body dark matter {\\Lambda}CDM simulation. By adapting a method used to construct halo merger trees, we are able to trace individual voids back to their initial appearance and record the merging and evolution of their progenitors at high redshift. For the scales of void sizes captured in our simulation, we find that the void formation rate peaks at scale factor 0.3, which coincides with a growth in the void hierarchy and the emergence of dark energy. Voids of all sizes appear at all scale factors, though the median initial void size decreases with time. When voids become detectable they have nearly their present-day volumes. Almost all voids have relatively stable growth rates and suffer only infrequent minor mergers. Dissolution of a void via merging is very rare. Instead, most voids maintain their distinct identity as annexed subvoids of a larger parent. The...

  8. The star formation activity in cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Varela, Jesus; Quilis, Vicent

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of cosmic voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we study the star formation activity of void galaxies. The properties of galaxies living in voids are compared with those of galaxies living in the void shells and with a control sample, representing the general galaxy population. Void galaxies appear to form stars more efficiently than shell galaxies and the control sample. This result can not be interpreted as a consequence of the bias towards low masses in underdense regions, as void galaxy subsamples with the same mass distribution as the control sample also show statistically different specific star formation rates. This highlights the fact that galaxy evolution in voids is slower with respect to the evolution of the general population. Nevertheless, when only the star forming galaxies are considered, we find that the star formation rate is insensitive to the environment, as the main sequence is remarkably constant in the three samples under consideration. This fact...

  9. Fuzzy Reasoning to More Accurately Determine Void Areas on Optical Micrographs of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Tate, Lanetra C.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Accomplishing the best-performing composite matrix (resin) requires that not only the processing method but also the cure cycle generate low-void-content structures. If voids are present, the performance of the composite matrix will be significantly reduced. This is usually noticed by significant reductions in matrix-dominated properties, such as compression and shear strength. Voids in composite materials are areas that are absent of the composite components: matrix and fibers. The characteristics of the voids and their accurate estimation are critical to determine for high performance composite structures. One widely used method of performing void analysis on a composite structure sample is acquiring optical micrographs or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of lateral sides of the sample and retrieving the void areas within the micrographs/images using an image analysis technique. Segmentation for the retrieval and subsequent computation of void areas within the micrographs/images is challenging as the gray-scaled values of the void areas are close to the gray-scaled values of the matrix leading to the need of manually performing the segmentation based on the histogram of the micrographs/images to retrieve the void areas. The use of an algorithm developed by NASA and based on Fuzzy Reasoning (FR) proved to overcome the difficulty of suitably differentiate void and matrix image areas with similar gray-scaled values leading not only to a more accurate estimation of void areas on composite matrix micrographs but also to a faster void analysis process as the algorithm is fully autonomous.

  10. Fuzzy Reasoning to More Accurately Determine Void Areas on Optical Micrographs of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Tate, Lanetra C.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Accomplishing the best-performing composite matrix (resin) requires that not only the processing method but also the cure cycle generate low-void-content structures. If voids are present, the performance of the composite matrix will be significantly reduced. This is usually noticed by significant reductions in matrix-dominated properties, such as compression and shear strength. Voids in composite materials are areas that are absent of the composite components: matrix and fibers. The characteristics of the voids and their accurate estimation are critical to determine for high performance composite structures. One widely used method of performing void analysis on a composite structure sample is acquiring optical micrographs or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of lateral sides of the sample and retrieving the void areas within the micrographs/images using an image analysis technique. Segmentation for the retrieval and subsequent computation of void areas within the micrographs/images is challenging as the gray-scaled values of the void areas are close to the gray-scaled values of the matrix leading to the need of manually performing the segmentation based on the histogram of the micrographs/images to retrieve the void areas. The use of an algorithm developed by NASA and based on Fuzzy Reasoning (FR) proved to overcome the difficulty of suitably differentiate void and matrix image areas with similar gray-scaled values leading not only to a more accurate estimation of void areas on composite matrix micrographs but also to a faster void analysis process as the algorithm is fully autonomous.

  11. Prenatal Ambient Air Pollution, Placental Mitochondrial DNA Content, and Birth Weight in the INMA (Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (Belgium) Birth Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Diana B.P.; Casas Sanahuja, Maribel; Vilahur Chiaraviglio, Nadia, 1982-; Bustamante Pineda, Mariona; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Pedersen, Marie; Santa Marina, Loreto; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer Deu, Jordi; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondria are sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content may represent a biologically relevant intermediate outcome in mechanisms linking air pollution and fetal growth restriction. Objective: We investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and birth weight. Methods: We used data from two independent European coh...

  12. A study of void effects on the interlaminar shear strength of unidirectional graphite fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Frimpong, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of voids on the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of a polyimide matrix composite system. The graphite/PRM-15 composite was chosen for study because of the extensive amount of experience that has been amassed in the processing of this material. Composite densities and fiber contents of more than thirty different laminates were measured along with ILSS. Void contents were calculated and the void geometry and distribution were noted using microscopic techniques such as those used in metallography. It was found that there was a good empirical correlation between ILSS and composite density. The most acceptable relationship between the ILSS and density was found to be a power equation which closely resembles theoretically derived expressions. An increase in scatter in the strength data was observed as the void content increased. In laminates with low void content, the void appears to be more segregated in one area of the laminate. It was found that void free composites could be processed in matched metal die molds at pressures greater than 1.4 and less than 6.9 MPa.

  13. Constraints on cosmology and gravity from the dynamics of voids

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, Paul M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Weller, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The universe is mostly composed of large and relatively empty domains known as cosmic voids, whereas its matter content is predominantly distributed along their boundaries. The remaining material inside them, either dark or luminous matter, is attracted to these boundaries and causes voids to expand faster and to grow emptier over cosmic time. Using clustering statistics centered on voids identified in the CMASS galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we constrain the matter density and gravitational growth of cosmic structure at a median redshift $\\bar{z}=0.57$. Our analysis models the detailed anisotropic shape of stacked voids in redshift space which arises from the dynamics of galaxies in their interior and vicinity. Adopting minimal assumptions on the statistical distribution and motion of these galaxies, we constrain the average matter content in the universe, as well as the linear growth rate of structure to be $\\Omega_\\mathrm{m}=0.281\\pm0.031$ and $f/b=0.417\\pm0.089$ (68% c.l.), where ...

  14. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  15. The nitrate contents in the groundwater in the south end of Buenos Aires conurbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area is in the south end of Buenos Aires outskirts. The population is of 42000 inhabitants, from which 69% is supplied of water by means of domiciliary wells. The water for human consumption is located in Pampeano and Puelches aquifers, which form a series of semi-free aquifers of the multi-layer type that are hydraulically connected. The aim of this work was to analyze the nitrate content in the groundwater (Pampeano and Puelches aquifers) and to evaluate the pollution type. The percentage of wells that overcome the range 40-50 mg/l of nitrates was 34% for Pampeano aquifer and 36% for Puelches aquifer. Results obtained for the Pampeano aquifer suggest that the pollution would be produced by a pseudo diffuse process associated to septic wells. Meanwhile, in the Puelches aquifer, the same process of pseudo diffuse pollution would be produced but in this case its origin would be caused by the water migration with nitrates from the Pampeano aquifer. Results mentioned in this work make evident the deterioration process of groundwater, where the pollution would be related to the anthropic activity, coming principally from the urban zone

  16. Measurements of the muon content of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiño, I.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory offers a unique window to study cosmic rays and particle physics at energies above 3 EeV (corresponding to a centre-of-mass energy of 75 TeV in proton-proton collisions) inaccessible to accelerator experiments. We discuss the different methods of estimating the number of muons in showers recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, which is an observable sensitive to primary mass composition and to properties of the hadronic interactions in the shower. The muon content, derived from data with these methods, is presented and compared to predictions from the post-LHC hadronic interaction models for different primary composition. We find that models do not reproduce well the Auger observations, displaying a deficit of muons at the ground. In the light of these results, a better understanding of ultra-high energy extensive air showers and hadronic interactions is crucial to determine the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We report on the upgrade plans of the Pierre Auger Observatory to achieve this science goal.

  17. What Health-Related Information Flows through You Every Day? A Content Analysis of Microblog Messages on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the information about haze, a term used in China to describe the air pollution problem, is portrayed on Chinese social media by different types of organizations using the theoretical framework of the health belief model (HBM). Design/methodology/approach: A content analysis was conducted…

  18. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  19. Void damage model and service life prediction for solid high polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of three void damage variety models, this note presents ( i ) a method that regards the void content as a damage variation of the grain and ( ii ) a geometric model for micro-unit of void damage. Equations of the void damage variety containing void content are analyzed. This work is focused on the measurement of internal damage level and the damage variety estimation is directly related to the life predication in the practical engineering applications. Nowadays, the critical service life of the solid grain/polymers is usually presumed at domestic and international level. The strength or strain reduction of 20%or the stabilizer consumption of 50% is generally regarded as a critical storage life of the solid grain/polymers, and the service life is predicted by the extrapolation method on Anhenius formula. The applications, however, show that the above method is unreliable and has significant errors. With the aid of the discontiguous automatic measuring device of real time volume deformation and void content, the master curve of void damage variety, the storage service life and the surplus life of a solid rocket grain are obtained. Since the critical storage life has been measured, and the accuracy of the service life prediction has been greatly increased. It is a novel ideal and a break-through technique.

  20. The size and shape of Local Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Plionis, M; Plionis, Manolis; Basilakos, Spyros

    2002-01-01

    We study the size and shape of low density regions in the local universe which we identify in the smoothed density field of the PSCz flux limited IRAS galaxy catalogue. After quantifying the systematic biases that enter in the detection of voids using our data set and method, we identify 14 voids within 80 $h^{-1}$ Mpc and with volumes $\\ge 10^{3}$ $h^{-3}$ Mpc and 8 voids within 130 $h^{-1}$ Mpc and with volumes $\\ge 8 \\times 10^{3}$ $h^{-3}$ Mpc. We study the void size distribution and morphologies and find that there is roughly an equal number of prolate and oblate-like spheroidal voids. We compare the measured PSCz void shape and size distributions with those expected in six different CDM models and find that only the latter distribution can discriminate between models. The models preferred by the PSCz data are those with intermediate values of $\\sigma_{8} (\\simeq 0.83)$.

  1. Universal density profile for cosmic voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P M; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2014-06-27

    We present a simple empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in ΛCDM N-body simulations. This function is universal across void size and redshift, accurately describing a large radial range of scales around void centers with only two free parameters. In analogy to halo density profiles, these parameters describe the scale radius and the central density of voids. While we initially start with a more general four-parameter model, we find two of its parameters to be redundant, as they follow linear trends with the scale radius in two distinct regimes of the void sample, separated by its compensation scale. Assuming linear theory, we derive an analytic formula for the velocity profile of voids and find an excellent agreement with the numerical data as well. In our companion paper [Sutter et al., arXiv:1309.5087 [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published)

  2. Constraints on Cosmology and Gravity from the Dynamics of Voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Pisani, Alice; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Weller, Jochen

    2016-08-26

    The Universe is mostly composed of large and relatively empty domains known as cosmic voids, whereas its matter content is predominantly distributed along their boundaries. The remaining material inside them, either dark or luminous matter, is attracted to these boundaries and causes voids to expand faster and to grow emptier over time. Using the distribution of galaxies centered on voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and adopting minimal assumptions on the statistical motion of these galaxies, we constrain the average matter content Ω_{m}=0.281±0.031 in the Universe today, as well as the linear growth rate of structure f/b=0.417±0.089 at median redshift z[over ¯]=0.57, where b is the galaxy bias (68% C.L.). These values originate from a percent-level measurement of the anisotropic distortion in the void-galaxy cross-correlation function, ϵ=1.003±0.012, and are robust to consistency tests with bootstraps of the data and simulated mock catalogs within an additional systematic uncertainty of half that size. They surpass (and are complementary to) existing constraints by unlocking cosmological information on smaller scales through an accurate model of nonlinear clustering and dynamics in void environments. As such, our analysis furnishes a powerful probe of deviations from Einstein's general relativity in the low-density regime which has largely remained untested so far. We find no evidence for such deviations in the data at hand. PMID:27610841

  3. 初始气孔率热老化试验研究与应用--预测固体推进剂贮存寿命的一种新方法%HEAT AGEING EXPERIMENT ON INITIAL VOID CONTENT RATE AND IT'S APPLICATION--A NEW METHOD FOR PREDICTING STORAGE LIFE OF SOLID PROPELLANT GRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鸣; 蔡体敏

    1999-01-01

    通过对固体推进剂药柱进行初始气孔率热老化试验研究,探讨了用累积损伤方法来预测药柱贮存寿命,提出了一种准确、经济、方便地提前预测药柱贮存寿命的新方法和新技术.%A method for predicting the storage life of solid propellant grain by cumulative damage was developed based on heat ageing experiment on initial void content rate of propellant grain,and its application was discussed.A new method which can accurately,economically and conveniently predict the storage life of solid propillant grain was prosoed.

  4. Voids in cosmological simulations over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Powell, Devon; Abel, Tom

    2016-06-01

    We study evolution of voids in cosmological simulations using a new method for tracing voids over cosmic time. The method is based on tracking watershed basins (contiguous regions around density minima) of well-developed voids at low redshift, on a regular grid of density field. It enables us to construct a robust and continuous mapping between voids at different redshifts, from initial conditions to the present time. We discuss how the new approach eliminates strong spurious effects of numerical origin when voids' evolution is traced by matching voids between successive snapshots (by analogy to halo merger trees). We apply the new method to a cosmological simulation of a standard Λ-cold-dark-matter cosmological model and study evolution of basic properties of typical voids (with effective radii 6 h-1 Mpc < Rv < 20 h-1 Mpc at redshift z = 0) such as volumes, shapes, matter density distributions and relative alignments. The final voids at low redshifts appear to retain a significant part of the configuration acquired in initial conditions. Shapes of voids evolve in a collective way which barely modifies the overall distribution of the axial ratios. The evolution appears to have a weak impact on mutual alignments of voids implying that the present state is in large part set up by the primordial density field. We present evolution of dark matter density profiles computed on isodensity surfaces which comply with the actual shapes of voids. Unlike spherical density profiles, this approach enables us to demonstrate development of theoretically predicted bucket-like shape of the final density profiles indicating a wide flat core and a sharp transition to high-density void walls.

  5. Pores and Void in Asclepiades’ Physical Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades’ theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half f...

  6. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  7. Large-Scale Clustering of Cosmic Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Kwan Chuen; Desjacques, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We study the clustering of voids using $N$-body simulations and simple theoretical models. The excursion-set formalism describes fairly well the abundance of voids identified with the watershed algorithm, although the void formation threshold required is quite different from the spherical collapse value. The void cross bias $b_{\\rm c} $ is measured and its large-scale value is found to be consistent with the peak background split results. A simple fitting formula for $b_{\\rm c} $ is found. We model the void auto-power spectrum taking into account the void biasing and exclusion effect. A good fit to the simulation data is obtained for voids with radii $\\gtrsim$ 30 Mpc/$h$, especially when the void biasing model is extended to 1-loop order. However, the best fit bias parameters do not agree well with the peak-background split results. Being able to fit the void auto-power spectrum is particularly important not only because it is the direct observable in galaxy surveys; our method enables us to treat the bias pa...

  8. Effect of water and oxygen contents on the decomposition of gaseous trichloroethylene in air under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron beam (EB) treatment of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE) in air was studied as a purification method of off-gases containing gaseous chloroethylenes. The model air containing TCE at input concentrations of 5-75 ppmv, detected mostly in actual off-gases, was irradiated with 1-MeV EBs in a gas-flow vessel at 10 L/min under the conditions of atmospheric pressure, 298 K, and different H2O contents. The decomposition of 75 ppmv TCE was also examined in humid air under different O2 contents of 1x103 - 2.1x105 ppmv. In the existence of H2O and O2 contents with ≥ 3x102 ppmv and ≥ 5x103 ppmv, respectively, the decomposition ratios of TCE were enhanced and TCE was decomposed into 83.0±1.5% of dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) and 17.5±0.6% of carbonyl chloride (COCl2) independently of the input TCE concentrations based on the carbon balance. Trichloroethylene of 5-75 ppmv was effectively decomposed by the OH radical through Cl-radical chain oxidation under the above-mentioned air conditions. (author)

  9. Coalescence kinetics of vacancy void ensemble with accounting for microscopical processes on void surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the kinetics of Ostwald ripening of voids, taking into account the microscopic processes, which occur on the surfaces of voids and control the absorption and evaporation of point defects. The kinetics of Ostwald ripening of voids is investigated during the high-temperature annealing and in material with dislocations, which is under irradiation. The simultaneous Ostwald ripening of voids and dislocation loop under the conditions of irradiation is also studied. 5 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Piezoelectric performance of fluor polymer sandwiches with different void structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Kexing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Zhongfu

    2012-06-01

    Film sandwiches, consisting of two outer layers of fluoroethylenepropylene and one middle layer of patterned porous polytetrafluoroethylene, were prepared by patterning and fusion bonding. Contact charging was conducted to render the films piezoelectric. The critical voltage to trigger air breakdown in the inner voids in the fabricated films was investigated. The piezoelectric d 33 coefficients were measured employing the quasistatic method and dielectric resonance spectrum. The results show that the critical voltage for air breakdown in the inner voids is associated with the void microstructure of the films. For the films with patterning factors of 0%, 25% and 44%, the critical values are 300, 230 and 230 kV/cm, respectively. With an increase in the patterning factor, both the piezoelectric d 33 coefficients determined from the dielectric resonance spectra and those determined from quasistatic measurements increase, which might be due to a decrease in Young's modulus for the films. The nonlinearity of d 33 becomes increasingly obvious as the patterning factor increases.

  11. The darkness that shaped the void : Dark energy and cosmic voids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E. G. Patrick; van de Weygaert, Rien; Dolag, Klaus; Pettorino, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    We assess the sensitivity of void shapes to the nature of dark energy that was pointed out in recent studies and also investigate whether or not void shapes are useable as an observational probe in galaxy redshift surveys. Our focus is on the evolution of the mean void ellipticity and its underlying

  12. Numerical Evolution of General Relativistic Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Vadas, S L

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we study the evolution of a relativistic, superhorizon-sized void embedded in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We numerically solve the spherically symmetric general relativistic equations in comoving, synchronous coordinates. Initially, the fluid inside the void is taken to be homogeneous and nonexpanding. In a radiation- dominated universe, we find that radiation diffuses into the void at approximately the speed of light as a strong shock---the void collapses. We also find the surprising result that the cosmic collapse time (the $1^{\\rm st}$-crossing time) is much smaller than previously thought, because it depends not only on the radius of the void, but also on the ratio of the temperature inside the void to that outside. If the ratio of the initial void radius to the outside Hubble radius is less than the ratio of the outside temperature to that inside, then the collapse occurs in less than the outside Hubble time. Thus, superhorizon-sized relativistic void may thermalize and homogeni...

  13. A new geometrical approach to void statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M C

    2014-01-01

    Modelling cosmic voids as spheres in Euclidean space, the notion of a de-Sitter configuration space is introduced. It is shown that a uniform distribution over this configuration space yields a power-law approximating the void size distribution in an intermediate range of volumes, as well as an estimate for the fractal dimension of the large scale structure.

  14. The Hierarchical Structure and Dynamics of Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Calvo, M A

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the common view voids have very complex internal structure and dynamics. Here we show how the hierarchy of structures in the density field inside voids is reflected by a similar hierarchy of structures in the velocity field. Voids defined by dense filaments and clusters can de described as simple expanding domains with coherent flows everywhere except at their boundaries. At scales smaller that the void radius the velocity field breaks into expanding sub-domains corresponding to sub- voids. These sub-domains break into even smaller sub-sub domains at smaller scales resulting in a nesting hierarchy of locally expanding domains. The ratio between the magnitude of the velocity field responsible for the expansion of the void and the velocity field defining the sub voids is approximately one order of magnitude. The small-scale components of the velocity field play a minor role in the shaping of the voids but they define the local dynamics directly affecting the processes of galaxy formation and evoluti...

  15. Voids in cosmological simulations over cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, Radosław; Abel, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study evolution of voids in cosmological simulations using a new method for tracing voids over cosmic time. The method is based on tracking watershed basins (contiguous regions around density minima) of well developed voids at low redshift, on a regular grid of density field. It enables us to construct a robust and continuous mapping between voids at different redshifts, from initial conditions to the present time. We discuss how the new approach eliminates strong spurious effects of numerical origin when voids evolution is traced by matching voids between successive snapshots (by analogy to halo merger trees). We apply the new method to a cosmological simulation of a standard LambdaCDM cosmological model and study evolution of basic properties of typical voids (with effective radii between 6Mpc/h and 20Mpc/h at redshift z=0) such as volumes, shapes, matter density distributions and relative alignments. The final voids at low redshifts appear to retain a significant part of the configuration acquired in in...

  16. Partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, P. W.; Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying it to a...... spheroidal void located in a simple disk-type spacer...

  17. Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O ampersand MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document

  18. Simulation of dust voids in complex plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. J. Goedheer,; Land, V.

    2008-01-01

    In dusty radio-frequency (RF) discharges under micro-gravity conditions often a void is observed, a dust free region in the discharge center. This void is generated by the drag of the positive ions pulled out of the discharge by the electric field. We have developed a hydrodynamic model for dusty RF

  19. Tracing the gravitational potential using cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, Seshadri; Crittenden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The properties of large underdensities in the distribution of galaxies in the Universe, known as cosmic voids, are potentially sensitive probes of fundamental physics. We use data from the MultiDark suite of N-body simulations and multiple halo occupation distribution mocks to study the relationship between galaxy voids and the gravitational potential $\\Phi$. We find that the majority of galaxy voids correspond to local density minima in larger-scale overdensities, and thus lie in potential wells. However, a subset of voids can be identified that closely trace maxima of the gravitational potential and thus stationary points of the velocity field. We identify a new void observable, $\\lambda_v$, which depends on a combination of the void size and the average galaxy density contrast within the void, and show that it provides a good proxy indicator of the potential at the void location. A simple linear scaling of $\\Phi$ as a function of $\\lambda_v$ is found to hold, independent of the redshift and properties of t...

  20. Assembly of filamentary void galaxy configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieder, Steven; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Beygu, Burcu; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2013-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of filamentary configurations of dark matter haloes in voids. Our investigation uses the high-resolution Lambda cold dark matter simulation CosmoGrid to look for void systems resembling the VGS_31 elongated system of three interacting galaxies that was recently d

  1. Study on Plantago major L. dan Phaseolus vulgaris L. chlorophyll and carotenoid content using as bioincator for air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG ANGGARWULAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study using chlorophyll and carotenoid as bioindicator air quality. This research used completely randomized design 2 x 4 factorial with 5 replicates. The first factor was distance from source of exhaust automobile emissions, consists of 4 levels: 0,50, 100, and 200 m. The second factor was plant spesies, consist 2 level: Plantago major and Phaseolus vulgaris. Data collected were analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test in 5% confidence level. The result indicated that increasing distance from source exhaust automobile emission, increased growth and chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll content in Phaseolus is more sensitive as bioindicator for air pollution.

  2. VIDE: The Void IDentification and Examination toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Hamaus, Nico; Pisani, Alice; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Warren, Michael S; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Zivick, Paul; Mao, Qingqing; Thompson, Benjamin B

    2014-01-01

    We present VIDE, the Void IDentification and Examination toolkit, an open-source Python/C++ code for finding cosmic voids in galaxy redshift surveys and N-body simulations, characterizing their properties, and providing a platform for more detailed analysis. At its core, VIDE uses a greatly enhanced version of ZOBOV (Neyinck 2008) to calculate a Voronoi tessellation for estimating the density field and a watershed transform to construct voids. The watershed levels are used to place voids in a hierarchical tree. VIDE provides significant additional functionality for both pre- and post-processing: for example, VIDE can work with volume- or magnitude-limited galaxy samples with arbitrary survey geometries, or dark matter particles or halo catalogs in a variety of common formats. It can also randomly subsample inputs and includes a Halo Occupation Distribution model for constructing mock galaxy populations. VIDE outputs a summary of void properties in plain ASCII, and provides a Python API to perform many analysi...

  3. Pores and Void in Asclepiades' Physical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades' theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus' theory. PMID:22984299

  4. A void perspective of the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platen, Erwin

    2009-11-01

    Voids are nearly empty regions in the Universe that can extend to millions of lightyears in size. They are a characteristic part of a complex bubble-like foam called the Large Scale Structure. It consists of dense nodes that are interconnected by a network of filaments and sheets, hence the origin of the alternative name, the Cosmic Web. We have developed an accurate method to find such voids. The method can even provide a classification of the overdense structures that surround the voids. This allows us to describe in one consistent way the building blocks of the Cosmic Web: voids, filaments and walls. Using our methods we are able to make accurate cosmographical maps of the Large Scale Structures in the nearby Universe. We show that the voids are an integral part of these mapped structures. For example their shape is deformed by strong tidal forces extorted by massive clusters that surround the voids. Such clusters are usually clustered into larger agglomerates called superclusters. Also the voids cluster, forming even more extended objects called supervoids. Such superclusters and supervoids align themselves to form larger entities called Great Walls, they appear to be common elements in the nearby Universe. On smaller scales we can also locate the lonely galaxies that reside in the midst of large and almost empty voids. Free from all the complexities in denser regions, the properties of such isolated galaxies tells us a lot about the general formation scenario of galaxies. For example one of our studied voidgalaxies is embedded within a voidwall and has an oddly configured gas-disk. The disk is not regularly oriented with its stars, but is aligned perpendicular to it, suggesting that cold gas has been accreted from out of the voids. The voids thus provides us with an unique and distinct perspective on the the Universe. Zie: Summary.

  5. Testing spherical evolution for modelling void abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achitouv, Ixandra; Neyrinck, Mark; Paranjape, Aseem

    2015-08-01

    We compare analytical predictions of void volume functions to those measured from N-body simulations, detecting voids with the ZOBOV void finder. We push to very small, non-linear voids, below few Mpc radius, by considering the unsampled dark matter density field. We also study the case where voids are identified using haloes. We develop analytical formula for the void abundance of both the excursion set approach and the peaks formalism. These formulas are valid for random walks smoothed with a top-hat filter in real space, with a large class of realistic barrier models. We test the extent to which the spherical evolution approximation, which forms the basis of the analytical predictions, models the highly aspherical voids that occur in the cosmic web, and are found by a watershed-based algorithm such as ZOBOV. We show that the volume function returned by ZOBOV is quite sensitive to the choice of treatment of subvoids, a fact that has not been appreciated previously. For reasonable choices of subvoid exclusion, we find that the Lagrangian density δv of the ZOBOV voids - which is predicted to be a constant δv ≈ -2.7 in the spherical evolution model - is different from the predicted value, showing substantial scatter and scale dependence. This result applies to voids identified at z = 0 with effective radius between 1 and 10 h-1 Mpc. Our analytical approximations are flexible enough to give a good description of the resulting volume function; however, this happens for choices of parameter values that are different from those suggested by the spherical evolution assumption. We conclude that analytical models for voids must move away from the spherical approximation in order to be applied successfully to observations, and we discuss some possible ways forward.

  6. Interfacial area, velocity and void fraction in two-phase slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojasoy, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Riznic, J.R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The internal flow structure of air-water plug/slug flow in a 50.3 mm dia transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a four-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 0.55 to 2.20 m/s and 0.27 to 2.20 m/s, respectively, and area-averaged void fractions ranged from about 10 to 70%. The local distributions of void fractions, interfacial area concentration and interface velocity were measured. Contributions from small spherical bubbles and large elongated slug bubbles toward the total void fraction and interfacial area concentration were differentiated. It was observed that the small bubble void contribution to the overall void fraction was small indicating that the large slug bubble void fraction was a dominant factor in determining the total void fraction. However, the small bubble interfacial area contribution was significant in the lower and upper portions of the pipe cross sections.

  7. An analysis of the lateral void transfer mechanisms in the ASSERT subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current aim of this research is to conduct the verification of the hydraulic aspect of subchannel codes. The experiments were conducted on two laterally interconnected horizontal bundle type subchannels under adiabatic two-phase flow conditions. The two phase flow was a mixture of air and water initially having a different void fraction in each subchannel. The main parameters measured in the channels were: void fraction; liquid and gas mass flow rates; and, pressures. Since, in horizontal two-phase flow the mass exchanges between interconnected subchannels are greatly influenced by the relative position of the high void channel (denoted LV) with respect to the low void channel (denoted LV), the former channel has been rotated to different positions about the latter one. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of the ASSERT-4 (Version 1.5) subchannel code to ascertain how well they can be predicted. (8 refs., 8 figs.)

  8. Modelling Void Abundance in Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F

    2016-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f(R) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surv...

  9. Voids in Modified Gravity: Excursion Set Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Clampitt, Joseph; Li, Baojiu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the fifth force in voids in chameleon models using the spherical collapse method. Contrary to Newtonian gravity, we find the fifth force is repulsive in voids. The strength of the fifth force depends on the density inside and outside the void region as well as its radius. It can be many times larger than the Newtonian force and their ratio is in principle unbound. This is very different from the case in halos, where the fifth force is no more than 1/3 of gravity. The evolution of voids is governed by the Newtonian gravity, the effective dark energy force and the fifth force. While the first two forces are common in both LCDM and chameleon universes, the fifth force is unique to the latter. Driven by the outward-pointing fifth force, individual voids in chameleon models expand faster and grow larger than in a LCDM universe. The expansion velocity of the void shell can be 20% to 30% larger for voids of a few Mpc/h in radius, while their sizes can be larger by ~10%. These differenc...

  10. Antilensing: the bright side of voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-11

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters. PMID:23383886

  11. A Universal Density Profile for Cosmic Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in {\\Lambda}CDM N-body simulations. This function is universal across void size and redshift, accurately describing the entire radial range of scales around void centers with only two free parameters. In analogy to halo density profiles, these parameters describe the scale radius and the central density of voids. While we initially start with a more general four-parameter model, we find two of its parameters to be redundant, as they follow linear trends with the scale radius in two distinct regimes of the void sample, separated by its compensation scale. Assuming linear theory, we derive an analytic formula for the velocity profile of voids and find an excellent agreement with the numerical data as well. In our companion paper, Sutter al. (2014), the presented density profile is shown to be universal even across tracer type, properly describing voids defined in halo- and galaxy distri...

  12. Redshift-space distortions around voids

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yan-Chuan; Peacock, John A; Padilla, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    We have derived estimators for the linear growth rate of density fluctuations using the cross-correlation function of voids and haloes in redshift space, both directly and in Fourier form. In linear theory, this cross-correlation contains only monopole and quadrupole terms. At scales greater than the void radius, linear theory is a good match to voids traced out by haloes in N-body simulations; small-scale random velocities are unimportant at these radii, only tending to cause small and often negligible elongation of the redshift-space cross-correlation function near its origin. By extracting the monopole and quadrupole from the cross-correlation function, we measure the linear growth rate without prior knowledge of the void profile or velocity dispersion. We recover the linear growth parameter $\\beta$ to 9% precision from an effective volume of 3(Gpc/h)^3 using voids with radius greater than 25Mpc/h. Smaller voids are predominantly sub-voids, which may be more sensitive to the random velocity dispersion; the...

  13. Testing spherical evolution for modelling void abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Achitouv, Ixandra; Paranjape, Aseem

    2013-01-01

    We compute analytical predictions for the volume function of voids based on the excursion set approach and the peaks formalism for random walks smoothed with a top-hat filter in real space and a large class of realistic barrier models. We test our prediction by comparing with voids identified in the dark matter density field in N-body simulations using the ZOBOV void finder. This tests the extent to which the spherical evolution approximation, which forms the basis of the analytical predictions, models the highly aspherical voids that occur in the cosmic web, and are found by a watershed-based algorithm such as ZOBOV. We show that the volume function returned by ZOBOV is quite sensitive to the choice of treatment of sub-voids, a fact that has not been appreciated previously. For reasonable choices of sub-void exclusion, we find that the Lagrangian density deltav of the ZOBOV voids -- which is predicted to be a constant deltav=-2.7 in the spherical evolution model -- is quite different from the predicted value...

  14. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  15. Voids' System in the Woven Composite Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavla VOZKOVA

    2006-01-01

    Composites are common material constructions for high-tech use now. Mechanical properties of woven reinforced composites are influenced by voids inside the structure.Voids could be classified to the two sections. Long and thin cracks are more dangerous than pores. It is important to find relations between preparation and place of occurrence of voids. This paper classifies defects according to rise mechanism, point of occurrence, orientation, size and affect to the properties. Image analysis was used for observing samples. Future work would be oriented not only to observing real samples, but also to calculate mechanical properties from real and ideal structures in 3D woven reinforced composites.

  16. The nature of voids: I. Watershed void finders and their connection with theoretical models

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, Seshadri

    2015-01-01

    The statistical study of voids in the matter distribution promises to be an important tool for precision cosmology, but there are known discrepancies between theoretical models of voids and the voids actually found in large simulations or galaxy surveys. The empirical properties of observed voids are also not well understood. In this paper we study voids in an N-body simulation, using the ZOBOV watershed algorithm. As in other studies, we use sets of subsampled dark matter particles as tracers to identify voids, but we use the full-resolution simulation output to measure dark matter densities at the identified locations. Voids span a wide range of sizes and densities, but there is a clear trend towards larger voids containing deeper density minima, a trend which is expected for all watershed void finders. We also find that the tracer density at void locations is smaller than the true density, and that this relationship depends on the sampling density of tracers. We show that fitting functions given in the lit...

  17. The darkness that shaped the void: dark energy and cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, E G Patrick; Dolag, Klaus; Pettorino, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We assess the sensitivity of void shapes to the nature of dark energy that was pointed out in recent studies. We investigate whether or not void shapes are useable as an observational probe in galaxy redshift surveys. We focus on the evolution of the mean void ellipticity and its underlying physical cause. Methods: We analyse the morphological properties of voids in five sets of cosmological N-body simulations, each with a different nature of dark energy. Comparing voids in the dark matter distribution to those in the halo population, we address the question of whether galaxy redshift surveys yield sufficiently accurate void morphologies. Voids are identified using the parameter free Watershed Void Finder. The effect of redshift distortions is investigated as well. Results: We confirm the statistically significant sensitivity of voids in the dark matter distribution. We identify the level of clustering as measured by \\sigma_8(z) as the main cause of differences in mean void shape . We find that in the h...

  18. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  19. Clues on void evolution III: Structure and dynamics in void shells

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, A N; Lares, M; Luparello, H E; Ceccarelli, L; Lambas, D G

    2015-01-01

    Inspired on the well known dynamical dichotomy predicted in voids, where some underdense regions expand whereas others collapse due to overdense surrounding regions, we explored the interplay between the void inner dynamics and its large scale environment. The environment is classified depending on its density as in previous works. We analyse the dynamical properties of void-centered spherical shells at different void-centric distances depending on this classification. The above dynamical properties are given by the angular distribution of the radial velocity field, its smoothness, the field dependence on the tracer density and shape, and the field departures from linear theory. We found that the velocity field in expanding voids follows more closely the linear prediction, with a more smooth velocity field. However when using velocity tracers with large densities such deviations increase. Voids with sizes around $18\\,h^{-1}\\,Mpc$ are in a transition regime between regions with expansion overpredicted and unde...

  20. Zipf's law for fractal voids and a new void-finder

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, J

    2005-01-01

    Voids are a prominent feature of fractal point distributions but there is no precise definition of what is a void (except in one dimension). Here we propose a definition of voids that uses methods of discrete stochastic geometry, in particular, Delaunay and Voronoi tessellations, and we construct a new algorithm to search for voids in a point set. We find and rank-order the voids of suitable examples of fractal point sets in one and two dimensions to test whether Zipf's power-law holds. We conclude affirmatively and, furthermore, that the rank-ordering of voids conveys similar information to the number-radius function, as regards the scaling regime and the transition to homogeneity. So it is an alternative tool in the analysis of fractal point distributions with crossover to homogeneity and, in particular, of the distribution of galaxies.

  1. Void growth in metals: Atomistic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traiviratana, Sirirat [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bringa, Eduardo M. [Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Benson, David J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, Marc A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: mameyers@ucsd.edu

    2008-09-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations in monocrystalline and bicrystalline copper were carried out with LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) to reveal void growth mechanisms. The specimens were subjected to tensile uniaxial strains; the results confirm that the emission of (shear) loops is the primary mechanism of void growth. It is observed that many of these shear loops develop along two slip planes (and not one, as previously thought), in a heretofore unidentified mechanism of cooperative growth. The emission of dislocations from voids is the first stage, and their reaction and interaction is the second stage. These loops, forming initially on different {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes, join at the intersection, if the Burgers vector of the dislocations is parallel to the intersection of two {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes: a <1 1 0> direction. Thus, the two dislocations cancel at the intersection and a biplanar shear loop is formed. The expansion of the loops and their cross slip leads to the severely work-hardened region surrounding a growing void. Calculations were carried out on voids with different sizes, and a size dependence of the stress threshold to emit dislocations was obtained by MD, in disagreement with the Gurson model which is scale independent. This disagreement is most marked for the nanometer sized voids. The scale dependence of the stress required to grow voids is interpreted in terms of the decreasing availability of optimally oriented shear planes and increased stress required to nucleate shear loops as the void size is reduced. The growth of voids simulated by MD is compared with the Cocks-Ashby constitutive model and significant agreement is found. The density of geometrically necessary dislocations as a function of void size is calculated based on the emission of shear loops and their outward propagation. Calculations are also carried out for a void at the interface between two grains to simulate polycrystalline

  2. Void formation in diffusive lattice gases

    OpenAIRE

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2012-01-01

    What is the probability that a macroscopic void will spontaneously arise, at a specified time T, in an initially homogeneous gas? We address this question for diffusive lattice gases, and also determine the most probable density history leading to the void formation. We employ the macroscopic fluctuation theory by Bertini et al and consider both annealed and quenched averaging procedures (the initial condition is allowed to fluctuate in the annealed setting). We show that in the annealed case...

  3. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Bore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  4. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors--Air Gap Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Lesoille, Sylvie Delepine; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling. PMID:27096865

  5. Extended Void Merging Tree Algorithm for Self-Similar Models

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Esra

    2013-01-01

    In hierarchical evolution, voids exhibit two different behaviors related with their surroundings and environments, they can merge or collapse. These two different types of void processes can be described by the two-barrier excursion set formalism based on Brownian random walks. In this study, the analytical approximate description of the growing void merging algorithm is extended by taking into account the contributions of voids that are embedded into overdense region(s) which are destined to vanish due to gravitational collapse. Following this, to construct a realistic void merging model that consists of both collapse and merging processes, the two-barrier excursion set formalism of the void population is used. Assuming spherical voids in the Einstein de Sitter Universe, the void merging algorithm which allows us to consider the two main processes of void hierarchy in one formalism is constructed. In addition to this, the merger rates, void survival probabilities, void size distributions in terms of the coll...

  6. Void formation and roughening in slow fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, Itai; Bouchbinder, Eran; Katzav, Eytan; Mathiesen, Joachim; Procaccia, Itamar

    2005-06-01

    Slow crack propagation in ductile, and in certain brittle materials, appears to take place via the nucleation of voids ahead of the crack tip due to plastic yields, followed by the coalescence of these voids. Postmortem analysis of the resulting fracture surfaces of ductile and brittle materials on the microm-mm and the nm scales, respectively, reveals self-affine cracks with anomalous scaling exponent zeta approximately = 0.8 in 3 dimensions and zeta approximately = 0.65 in 2 dimensions. In this paper we present an analytic theory based on the method of iterated conformal maps aimed at modelling the void formation and the fracture growth, culminating in estimates of the roughening exponents in 2 dimensions. In the simplest realization of the model we allow one void ahead of the crack, and address the robustness of the roughening exponent. Next we develop the theory further, to include two voids ahead of the crack. This development necessitates generalizing the method of iterated conformal maps to include doubly connected regions (maps from the annulus rather than the unit circle). While mathematically and numerically feasible, we find that the employment of the stress field as computed from elasticity theory becomes questionable when more than one void is explicitly inserted into the material. Thus further progress in this line of research calls for improved treatment of the plastic dynamics. PMID:16089840

  7. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of air-dried cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana l.) at different ripeness stages

    OpenAIRE

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos Eduardo; Mateus-Gómez, Ángela; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Because the use of drying at high temperatures might negatively affect the functional properties of fruits, the effect of air-drying at 60°C on the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AOC) of cape gooseberry fruit was evaluated at three ripeness stages. The AOC was evaluated with 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and β-carotene-linoleate assays. The TPC and AOC incre...

  8. Void Statistics and Void Galaxies in the 2dFGRS

    CERN Document Server

    von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    For the 2dFGRS we study the properties of voids and of fainter galaxies within voids that are defined by brighter galaxies. Our results are compared with simulated galaxy catalogues from the Millenium simulation coupled with a semianalytical galaxy formation recipe. We derive the void size distribution and discuss its dependence on the faint magnitude limit of the galaxies defining the voids. While voids among faint galaxies are typically smaller than those among bright galaxies, the ratio of the void sizes to the mean galaxy separation reaches larger values. This is well reproduced in the mock galaxy samples studied. We provide analytic fitting functions for the void size distribution. Furthermore, we study the galaxy population inside voids defined by objects with $B_J -5\\log{h}< -20$ and diameter larger than 10 \\hMpc. We find a clear bimodality of the void galaxies similar to the average comparison sample. We confirm the enhanced abundance of galaxies in the blue cloud and a depression of the number of ...

  9. Arteriolar oxygenation in tumour and subcutaneous arterioles: effects of inspired air oxygen content.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhirst, M W; Ong, E. T.; Rosner, G L; Rehmus, S. W.; Shan, S.; Braun, R D; Brizel, D. M.; Secomb, T W

    1996-01-01

    Carbogen is thought to be more effective than normobaric oxygen in reducing tumour hypoxia because it may reduce hyperoxic vasoconstriction. In this study, tumour and normal arteriolar diameters were measured simultaneously with perivascular pO2 during air breathing followed by either carbogen or 100% oxygen to determine whether the action of carbogen is the result of alterations in feeding vessel diameter. Fischer-344 rats bearing dorsal flap window chambers, with or without implanted R3230A...

  10. Effects of reduced surface tension on void drift between triangle tight lattice subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Void drift between triangle tight lattice subchannels has been studied experimentally and analytically. In the experiment, a channel having two subchannels simplifying the triangle tight lattice subchannels was used. Experimental data were obtained for both air-water and air-water with a surfactant flows to know the effects of the reduced surface tension on flow and void redistributions due to the void drift. In the analysis, the experimental data were compared with the calculation by a subchannel analysis code based on a one-dimensional two-fluid model in which various constitutive equations of wall and interfacial friction forces were tested. The results of such experiment and test of analysis will be reported. (author)

  11. 38 CFR 3.207 - Void or annulled marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Void or annulled marriage... Void or annulled marriage. Proof that a marriage was void or has been annulled should consist of: (a... marriage void, together with such other evidence as may be required for a determination. (b) Annulled....

  12. Effects of void band orientation and crystallographic anisotropy on void growth and coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcko, Michael J.; Li, Jing; Wilkinson, David S.

    2016-10-01

    The effects of void band orientation and crystallographic anisotropy on void growth and linkage have been investigated. 2D model materials were fabricated by laser drilling a band of holes into the gage section of sheet tensile samples using various orientation angles with respect to the tensile axis normal. Both copper and magnesium sheets have been studied in order to examine the role of crystallographic anisotropy on the void growth and linkage processes. The samples were pulled in uniaxial tension inside the chamber of an SEM, enabling a quantitative assessment of the growth and linkage processes. The void band orientation angle has a significant impact on the growth and linkage of the holes in copper. As the void band orientation angle is increased from 0° to 45°, the processes of coalescence and linkage are delayed to higher strain values. Furthermore, the mechanism of linkage changes from internal necking to one dominated by shear localization. In contrast, the void band orientation does not have a significant impact on the void growth and linkage processes in magnesium. Void growth in these materials occurs non-uniformly due to interactions between the holes and the microstructure. The heterogeneous nature of deformation in magnesium makes it difficult to apply a coalescence criterion based on the void dimensions. Furthermore, the strain at failure does not show a relationship with the void band orientation angle. Failure associated with twin and grain boundaries interrupts the plastic growth of the holes and causes rapid fracture. Therefore, the impact of the local microstructure outweighs the effects of the void band orientation angle in this material.

  13. Experimental and statistical study of the influence of broken up particles and air content on the compressive strength of concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Companies in Algeria have restricted budgets devoted to the formulation of concrete. Therefore, very few research studies are interested by the concrete composition in accordance to its purpose. Hence, this work is a part of an approved research program assigned to clarify the impact of certain parameters on the quality of concrete. This experimental program consists of more than 700 cylindrical specimens of 16x32 cm that were made using local materials. Excluding the durability indicators towards the concrete, the compressive strength is the most significant property to be considered (Mounanga et al., 2006). The obtained results concern consistency and content air propertiesof the concrete at fresh state and compressive strength of hardened concrete at 28 days. Thus, the influence of the air content percentage on the concrete consistency is studied. Moreover, the influence of these two parameters on the compressive strength of the hardened concrete is also presented. The experimental results obtained constitute a data bank, which allows comparing through a statistical analysis, the model established by Feret (Baron and Ollivier, 1996) and the results of the tests. (author)

  14. Decreased placental mitochondrial DNA-content in response to air pollution during in utero life

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Bram; Pieters, Nicky; Munters, Elke; Smeets, Karen; Cuypers, Ann; Penders, Joris; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Nawrot, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the importance of PM, and its associated metal components, in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation. Mitochondria are the major intracellular sources and primary targets of ROS. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is particularly vulnerable to ROS-induced damage, resulting in a higher mutation rate that impacts mitochondrial function. Given its multiple essential roles in metabolic pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e. change in mtDNA-content...

  15. Universal void density profiles from simulation and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, S; Diego, J M; Iliev, I T; Gottlöber, S; Watson, W A; Yepes, G

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the universality and self-similarity of void density profiles, for voids in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. Voids are identified using a modified version of the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm, with additional selection cuts. We find that voids in simulation are self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size, or -- within the range of the simulated catalogue -- on the redshift. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  16. Universal void density profiles from simulation and SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadathur, S.; Hotchkiss, S.; Diego, J. M.; Iliev, I. T.; Gottlöber, S.; Watson, W. A.; Yepes, G.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the universality and self-similarity of void density profiles, for voids in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. Voids are identified using a modified version of the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm, with additional selection cuts. We find that voids in simulation are self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size, or - within the range of the simulated catalogue - on the redshift. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  17. CFD application to PWR subchannel void distribution benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CFD study is performed to simulate the steady-state void distribution benchmark based on the NUPEC PWR Subchannel and Bundle Tests (PSBT). The CFD calculation predicted the void distributions in central typical and thimble subchannels, side subchannel and corner subchannel. The CFD prediction shows a higher void fraction near the heated wall and a migration of void in the subchannel gap region. A measured image of void distribution indicated a locally higher void fraction near the heated wall. The CFD predictions of void fraction and fluid density agree well with the measured ones for the low void test condition. However, the CFD calculations tend to underpredict the void fraction and overpredict the fluid density as the void fraction increases. (author)

  18. Post-void residual urine under 150 ml does not exclude voiding dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: It has been claimed that post-void residual urine (PVR) below 150 ml rules out voiding dysfunction in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and provides license to perform sling surgery. The cut-off of 150 ml seems arbitrary, not evidence-based, and so we sough...

  19. Neutron tomography for void distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron tomography has previously been performed using large, stationary neutron sources such as reactors and spallation sources for applications where the object under study can be transported to the source. This paper accounts for the challenges met when applying neutron tomography using a portable accelerator driven neutron generator, which is required when studying non-transportable objects. In general, portable sources offer significantly lower neutron yields than stationary sources, implying the need for either longer measurement times or highly efficient measurement and/or analysis procedures. The particular application investigated here is the mapping of steam distributions in water (void distribution), which is of high importance for the performance of nuclear fuel assemblies in boiling water reactors (BWR). The void distribution cannot be measured directly in a reactor core, so instead various electrically-heated thermal-hydraulic test loops are used. In these loops, void correlations can be determined in full-size fuel assembly models, such as FRIGG in Sweden and DESIRE in Holland, but measurements are also performed in smaller, less complicated geometries. Previously, gamma tomography has been used to measure the void distribution in the FRIGG loop. However, improved capabilities to map the void distribution can be expected using neutrons because of their higher sensitivity to water relative to metal structures, as compared to gamma rays. At the same time, neutrons as probe also give rise to some challenges, such as high background from scattering. This paper investigates the possibility to use neutron tomography at axially symmetric objects such as the HWAT test loop in Sweden, where an annular two-phase flow of water/void is confined and heated by a steel cylinder. Monte Carlo simulations of the HWAT geometry and a suggested measurement setup have been carried out, using the particle transport code MCNPX. A reconstruction technique which exploits the

  20. Dimensional and ice content changes of hardened concrete at different freezing and thawing temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Samples of concrete at different water-to-cement ratios and air contents subjected to freeze/thaw cycles with the lowest temperature at about -80 degrees C are investigated. By adopting a novel technique, a scanning calorimeter is used to obtain data from which the ice contents at different freeze...... and the corresponding measured length changes. The development of cracks in the material structure was indicated by an ultra-sonic technique by measuring on the samples before and after the freeze-thaw tests. Further the air void structure was investigated using a microscopic technique in which air'bubble' size...... distributions and the so-called spacing factor, indicating the mean distance between air bubbles, were measured. By analyzing the experimental result, it is concluded that damages occur in the temperature range of about -10 degrees C to -55 degrees C, when the air content is lower than about 4% of the total...

  1. Void Ellipticity Distribution as a Probe of Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Daeseong; Lee, Jounghun

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic voids refer to the large empty regions in the universe with a very low number density of galaxies. Voids are likely to be severely disturbed by the tidal effect from the surrounding dark matter. We derive a completely analytic model for the void ellipticity distribution from physical principles. We use the spatial distribution of galaxies in a void as a measure of its shape, tracking the trajectory of the void galaxies under the influence of the tidal field using the Lagrangian perturb...

  2. Void wave dispersion in bubbly flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linear dispersion relationship is derived using a one-dimensional two-fluid model to investigate void wave dispersion in bubbly flows. This dispersion relationship includes generalized forms of the kinematic wave speed, the characteristics of the system of equations and the relaxation time. The relaxation time turns out to be a key parameter for the void wave dispersion. By using appropriate constitutive relations for bubbly flow, the kinematic wave speed and the characteristics are found. The Froude number is found to be the crucial parameter for void wave dispersion. That is, for two-phase flows with large slip between the phases (the small Froude number case) the dispersion effect is negligible and thus the kinematic wave approximation is valid. However, as the relative velocity decreases (the large Froude number case), void wave dispersion becomes pronounced. In the limit for zero relative velocity, void waves propagate at the same celerity as the characteristics for homogeneous conditions. The model presented herein also shows the existence of a complementary kinematic wave which is related to the kinematic wave speed and the characteristics. (orig.)

  3. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  4. Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

  5. Precision cosmology defeats void models for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suggestion that we occupy a privileged position near the center of a large, nonlinear, and nearly spherical void has recently attracted much attention as an alternative to dark energy. Putting aside the philosophical problems with this scenario, we perform the most complete and up-to-date comparison with cosmological data. We use supernovae and the full cosmic microwave background spectrum as the basis of our analysis. We also include constraints from radial baryonic acoustic oscillations, the local Hubble rate, age, big bang nucleosynthesis, the Compton y distortion, and for the first time include the local amplitude of matter fluctuations, σ8. These all paint a consistent picture in which voids are in severe tension with the data. In particular, void models predict a very low local Hubble rate, suffer from an ''old age problem,'' and predict much less local structure than is observed.

  6. Void coalescence within periodic clusters of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. I. A.; Worswick, M. J.; Pilkey, A. K.; Lloyd, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of particle clustering on void damage rates in a ductile material under triaxial loading conditions is examined using three-dimensional finite element analysis. An infinite material containing a regular distribution of clustered particles is modelled using a unit cell approach. Three discrete particles are introduced into each unit cell while a secondary population of small particles within the surrounding matrix is represented using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) constitutive equations. Deformation strain states characteristic of sheet metal forming are considered; that is, deep drawing, plane strain and biaxial stretching. Uniaxial tensile stress states with varying levels of superimposed hydrostatic tension are also examined. The orientation of a particle cluster with respect to the direction of major principal loading is shown to significantly influence failure strains. Coalescence of voids within a first-order particle cluster (consisting of three particles) is a stable event while collapse of inter-cluster ligaments leads to imminent material collapse through void-sheeting.

  7. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof;

    2008-01-01

    The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation, the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled...... and strain gradient plasticity formulations predict a negligible size effect under shear loading. By contrast, under equi-biaxial loading both plasticity formulations predict a strong size dependence with the flow strength approximately scaling inversely with the void spacing. Excellent agreement is obtained...... between predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model is chosen to be 0.325 mu m (about 10 times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  8. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof;

    The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled as line...... gradient plasticity formulations predict a negligible size effect under shear loading. By contrast, under equi-biaxial loading both plasticity formulations predict a strong size dependence with the flow strength scaling approximately inversely with the void-spacing. Excellent agreement is obtained between...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  9. Void Formation and Roughening in Slow Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Afek, Itai; Bouchbinder, Eran; Katzav, Eytan; Mathiesen, Joachim; Procaccia, Itamar

    2004-01-01

    Slow crack propagation in ductile, and in certain brittle materials, appears to take place via the nucleation of voids ahead of the crack tip due to plastic yields, followed by the coalescence of these voids. Post mortem analysis of the resulting fracture surfaces of ductile and brittle materials on the $\\mu$m-mm and the nm scales respectively, reveals self-affine cracks with anomalous scaling exponent $\\zeta\\approx 0.8$ in 3-dimensions and $\\zeta\\approx 0.65$ in 2-dimensions. In this paper w...

  10. The Local Void: for or against LCDM?

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Lizhi; Gao, Liang; Guo, Qi

    2014-01-01

    The emptiness of the Local Void has been put forward as a serious challenge to the current standard paradigm of structure formation in LCDM. We use a high resolution cosmological N-body simulation, the Millennium-II run, combined with a sophisticated semi-analytic galaxy formation model, to explore statistically whether the local void is allowed within our current knowledge of galaxy formation in LCDM. We find that about 15 percent of the Local Group analogue systems (11 of 77) in our simulat...

  11. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  12. [Flora, distribution of vegetation and pollen content of the air: significance for allergics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanova, G; Laaidi, M

    2004-09-01

    The wealth of the flora of a given region cannot be seen in its airborne pollen list. Actually, for some plants there is a low probability that their pollens are recorded in the pollen counts (entomogamous plants, in particular). Moreover, the light microscopy reduces the possibilities of determination. In France, The Aerobiological Network of Surveillance (RNSA) retains 92 taxa at different levels (gender, family, group of families), and among them allergenic as well as non allergenic taxa. From the 130 families of the France flora, 63 are taken into account in the pollen studies, 57 taxa being determined at the gender level. The comparison between the surface occupied by the tree species in the French departments of Côte-d'Or and Saône-et-Loire, and the average airborne pollen concentrations showed that usually there is no correspondence between the abundance of a plant and the number of its pollen in the records. So the flora of a region does not give enough information allowing to know the taxonomic composition and the pollen quantities in the air, which is of particular importance for allergic people.

  13. The Cosmically Depressed: Life, Sociology and Identity of Voids

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, Rien; Tigrak, Esra; Hidding, Johan; van der Hulst, Thijs; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Stanonik, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    We review and discuss aspects of Cosmic Voids that form the background for our Void Galaxy Survey (see accompanying paper by Stanonik et al.). Following a sketch of the general characteristics of void formation and evolution, we describe the influence of the environment on their development and structure and the characteristic hierarchical buildup of the cosmic void population. In order to be able to study the resulting tenuous void substructure and the galaxies populating the interior of voids, we subsequently set out to describe our parameter free tessellation-based watershed void finding technique. It allows us to trace the outline, shape and size of voids in galaxy redshift surveys. The application of this technique enables us to find galaxies in the deepest troughs of the cosmic galaxy distribution, and has formed the basis of our void galaxy program.

  14. Cosmic Voids and Void Lensing in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, C; Kovacs, A; Jain, B; García-Bellido, J; Nadathur, S; Gruen, D; Hamaus, N; Huterer, D; Vielzeuf, P; Amara, A; Bonnett, C; DeRose, J; Hartley, W G; Jarvis, M; Lahav, O; Miquel, R; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E S; Sheldon, E; Wechsler, R H; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Annis, J; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bernstein, R A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Krause, E; Kuehn, K; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; Marshall, J L; Melchior, P; Plazas, A A; Reil, K; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Walker, A R; Weller, J

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies and their dark matter halos populate a complicated filamentary network around large, nearly empty regions known as cosmic voids. Cosmic voids are usually identified in spectroscopic galaxy surveys, where 3D information about the large-scale structure of the Universe is available. Although an increasing amount of photometric data is being produced, its potential for void studies is limited since photometric redshifts induce line-of-sight position errors of $\\sim50$ Mpc/$h$ or more that can render many voids undetectable. In this paper we present a new void finder designed for photometric surveys, validate it using simulations, and apply it to the high-quality photo-$z$ redMaGiC galaxy sample of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. The algorithm works by projecting galaxies into 2D slices and finding voids in the smoothed 2D galaxy density field of the slice. Fixing the line-of-sight size of the slices to be at least twice the photo-$z$ scatter, the number of voids found in these ...

  15. The sparkling Universe: a scenario for cosmic void motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Laura; Ruiz, Andrés N.; Lares, Marcelo; Paz, Dante J.; Maldonado, Victoria E.; Luparello, Heliana E.; Garcia Lambas, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Cosmic voids are prominent features of the Universe, encoding relevant information of the growth and evolution of structure through their dynamics. Here, we perform a statistical study of the global motion of cosmic voids using both a numerical simulation and observational data. Their relation to large-scale mass flows and the physical effects that drive those motions. We analyse the bulk motions of voids, finding void mean bulk velocities in the range 300-400 km s-1, depending on void size and the large-scale environment. Statistically, small voids move faster, and voids in relatively higher density environments have higher bulk velocities. Also, we find large-scale overdensities (underdensities) along (opposite to) the void motion direction, suggesting that void motions respond to a pull-push mechanism. Our analysis suggests that their relative motions are generated by large-scale density fluctuations. In agreement with linear theory, voids embedded in low (high) density regions mutually recede (attract) each other, providing the general mechanism to understand the bimodal behaviour of void motions. We have also inferred void motions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using linear theory, finding that their estimated motions are in qualitatively agreement with the results of the simulation. Our results suggest a scenario of galaxies and galaxy systems flowing away from void centres with the additional, and more relevant, contribution of the void bulk motion to the total velocity.

  16. Finding high-redshift voids using Lyman α forest tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Casey W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; White, Martin; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method of finding cosmic voids using tomographic maps of Lyα forest flux. We identify cosmological voids with radii of 2-12 h-1 Mpc in a large N-body simulation at z = 2.5, and characterize the signal of the high-redshift voids in density and Lyα forest flux. The void properties are similar to what has been found at lower redshifts, but they are smaller and have steeper radial density profiles. Similarly to what has been found for low-redshift voids, the radial velocity profiles have little scatter and agree very well with the linear theory prediction. We run the same void finder on an ideal Lyα flux field and tomographic reconstructions at various spatial samplings. We compare the tomographic map void catalogues to the density void catalogue and find good agreement even with modest-sized voids (r > 6 h-1 Mpc). Using our simple void-finding method, the configuration of the ongoing COSMOS Lyman Alpha Mapping And Tomography Observations (CLAMATO) survey covering 1 deg2 would provide a sample of about 100 high-redshift voids. We also provide void-finding forecasts for larger area surveys, and discuss how these void samples can be used to test modified gravity models, study high-redshift void galaxies, and to make an Alcock-Paczynski measurement. To aid future work in this area, we provide public access to our simulation products, catalogues, and sample tomographic flux maps.

  17. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliñir, Cesar

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying.

  18. Climatic and insolation control on the high-resolution total air content in the NGRIP ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Olivier; Baumgartner, Matthias; Schilt, Adrian; Schmitt, Jochen; Schwander, Jakob; Stocker, Thomas F.; Fischer, Hubertus

    2016-10-01

    Because the total air content (TAC) of polar ice is directly affected by the atmospheric pressure and temperature, its record in polar ice cores was initially considered as a proxy for past ice sheet elevation changes. However, the Antarctic ice core TAC record is known to also contain an insolation signature, although the underlying physical mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Here we present a high-resolution TAC record over the whole North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core, covering the last 120 000 years, which independently supports an insolation signature in Greenland. Wavelet analysis reveals a clear precession and obliquity signal similar to previous findings on Antarctic TAC, with a different insolation history. In our high-resolution record we also find a decrease of 4-6 % (4-5 mL kg-1) in TAC as a response to Dansgaard-Oeschger events (DO events). TAC starts to decrease in parallel to increasing Greenland surface temperature and slightly before CH4 reacts to the warming but also shows a two-step decline that lasts for several centuries into the warm interstadial. The TAC response is larger than expected considering only changes in air density by local temperature and atmospheric pressure as a driver, pointing to a transient firnification response caused by the accumulation-induced increase in the load on the firn at bubble close-off, while temperature changes deeper in the firn are still small.

  19. Dynamic Void Growth and Shrinkage in Mg under Electron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W. Z. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Zhang, Y. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cheng, G. M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Jian, W. W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Millett, P. C. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Mecanical Engineering; Koch, C. C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Mathaudhu, S. N. [U.S. Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Materials Science Division; Zhu, Y. T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-04-30

    We report in-situ atomic-scale investigation of void evolution, including growth, coalescence and shrinkage, under electron irradiation. With increasing irradiation dose, the total volume of voids increased linearly, while nucleation rate of new voids decreased slightly, and the total number of voids decreased. Some voids continued to grow while others shrank to disappear, depending on the nature of their interactions with nearby self-interstitial loops. For the first time, surface diffusion of adatoms was observed largely responsible for the void coalescence and thickening. These findings provide fundamental understanding to help with the design and modeling of irradiation-resistant materials.

  20. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1994-09-15

    This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed.

  1. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed

  2. Making Ceramic Reference Specimens Containing Seeded Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Klima, Stanley J.; Roth, Don J.

    1994-01-01

    Internal and surface voids of known sizes incorporated into silicon carbide and silicon nitride ceramic reference specimens at prescribed locations. Specimens used to demonstrate sensitivity and resolution in nondestructive examination techniques like scanning laser acoustic microscopy and x-radiography, and to assist in establishing proper examination procedures.

  3. "Dark energy" in the Local Void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.

    2012-05-01

    The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter (˜5×1015 M ⊙) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require void evacuation and structure formation much faster than expected from the standard model. At the global cosmological level, gravitational repulsion from antimatter hidden in voids can provide more than enough potential energy to drive both the cosmic expansion and its acceleration, with no need for an initial "explosion" and dark energy. Moreover, the discrete distribution of these dark repulsors, in contrast to the uniformly permeating dark energy, can also explain dark flows and other recently observed excessive inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the Universe.

  4. Voids in Sonic Fill(TM) restorations compared to traditional incrementally-filled composite restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourezq, Ibraheem A.

    SonicFill(TM) is a new composite resin and delivery system designed to provide rapid filling of cavity preparations by decreasing viscosity through application of sonic energy. However, it may produce unwanted air voids in the final restoration due to the short filling time. Air voids compromise long-term performance by providing weak foci, discontinuity at cavosurface margins and at internal cavity walls, and potential crack propagation. This study assessed the locations, sizes, and numbers of voids in SonicFill restorations compared with traditional composite resin restorations in a set of extracted molars with mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity preparations. Fifty noncarious intact extracted third molars were collected randomly from a large collection of discarded anonymous tooth specimens. Standardized MOD cavity preparations were cut, and teeth were assigned randomly to one of two groups ( n = 25). The first group was restored with SonicFill composite in two steps. The second group was restored with Herculite Ultra(TM) using an multiple increment layering technique (1-2 mm per layer). Cross-sectional images of the filling were taken by digital microscope. A total of 196 voids were found in the 50 specimens: 97 in SonicFill restorations and 99 in conventional restorations. Mean number of voids in SonicFill restorations was 3.88 versus 3.96 for conventional restorations. Mean percentage of void area in SonicFill restorations was 0.588% versus 0.508% for conventional restorations. Unpaired t tests for these differences indicated no statistically significant differences (p =.931 and p =.629, respectively). One-way ANOVA tests for mean void count and mean void area percentage differences by three location zones for conventional and SonicFill restorations also indicated no significant differences among the groups. The bulk-fill SonicFill system does not result in increased or decreased numbers or ii area of voids within Class II MOD restorations compared with a

  5. Void trapping of hydrogen in sintered iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.C.

    1976-09-01

    The effect of void trapping of hydrogen in iron was studied using the gas-phase permeation technique. Iron membranes of controlled void density, varying from 92% to 98% were prepared by press and sintering of electrolytic iron powder. The presence of internal voids showed no effect on the steady state flux of hydrogen through the membrane. The effective diffusivity, obtained by the time lag method, increased with the increase of input hydrogen partial pressure. This disagreement with the prediction of the theory in literature was explained by the existence of hydrogen in both the diatomic gaseous form and as adsorbed hydrogen. This explanation was further confirmed by examining the dependence of trapped hydrogen concentration with pressure. The linear dependence of trapped hydrogen concentration in voids with external hydrogen partial pressure for samples of 96%, 94% and 92% dense were given respectively by C/sub g/ = (1.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 15/ P + (3.2 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 14/ atoms of H/c.c. C/sub g/ = (2.1 +- 0.6) x 10/sup 15/ P + (1.7 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 15/ atoms of H/c.c. C/sub g/ = (4.5 +- 0.3) x 10/sup 15/ P + (6.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 15/ atoms of H/c.c. The discrepancy between the reported values and the values predicted by theory was explained by the poisoning of some of the voids by surface oxides.

  6. Using Neutron Radiography to Quantify Water Transport and the Degree of Saturation in Entrained Air Cement Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Catherine L.; Bentz, Dale P.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; Weiss, W. Jason

    Air entrainment is commonly added to concrete to help in reducing the potential for freeze thaw damage. It is hypothesized that the entrained air voids remain unsaturated or partially saturated long after the smaller pores fill with water. Small gel and capillary pores in the cement matrix fill quickly on exposure to water, but larger pores (entrapped and entrained air voids) require longer times or other methods to achieve saturation. As such, it is important to quantitatively determine the water content and degree of saturation in air entrained cementitious materials. In order to further investigate properties of cement-based mortar, a model based on Beer's Law has been developed to interpret neutron radiographs. This model is a powerful tool for analyzing images acquired from neutron radiography. A mortar with a known volume of aggregate, water to cement ratio and degree of hydration can be imaged and the degree of saturation can be estimated.

  7. Estimation of the near surface soil water content during evaporation using air-launched ground-penetrating radar

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation is an important process in the global water cycle and its variation affects the near sur-face soil water content, which is crucial for surface hydrology and climate modelling. Soil evaporation rate is often characterized by two distinct phases, namely, the energy limited phase (stage-I) and the soil hydraulic limited period (stage-II). In this paper, a laboratory experiment was conducted using a sand box filled with fine sand, which was subject to evaporation for a period of twenty three days. The setup was equipped with a weighting system to record automatically the weight of the sand box with a constant time-step. Furthermore, time-lapse air-launched ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements were performed to monitor the evaporation process. The GPR model involves a full-waveform frequency-domain solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. The accuracy of the full-waveform GPR forward modelling with respect to three different petrophysical models was investigated. Moreover, full-waveform inversion of the GPR data was used to estimate the quantitative information, such as near surface soil water content. The two stages of evaporation can be clearly observed in the radargram, which indicates qualitatively that enough information is contained in the GPR data. The full-waveform GPR inversion allows for accurate estimation of the near surface soil water content during extended evaporation phases, when a wide frequency range of GPR (0.8-5.0 GHz) is taken into account. In addition, the results indicate that the CRIM model may constitute a relevant alternative in solving the frequency-dependency issue for full waveform GPR modelling.

  8. Measurement and Analysis of Void Fraction in a Multiple-Channel Simplifying Triangle Tight Lattice Rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the effects of reduced surface tension on void fraction, adiabatic experiments were conducted for both air-water and air-water with surfactant systems at room temperature and pressure. Void fraction data were obtained for bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows in a vertical channel with two subchannels simplifying a triangle tight lattice rod bundle. The void fraction was found to be lower in air-water system than air-water with surfactant one. In addition, the void fractions for both systems were found to be lower than those calculated by various correlations in literatures for circular pipe flow. In order to study the cause of the above data trend, for annular flows as a first step, the void fraction has been calculated by a subchannel analysis using wall and interfacial friction correlations in literatures as constitutive equations, and by assuming the liquid film to be uniform over the wall perimeter. The best agreement between the calculation and the experiment has been obtained when NASCA correlation for wall friction force and modified RELAP5/MOD2 correlation incorporating reduced surface tension effects for interfacial friction force were used. (authors)

  9. The mechanism and kinetics of void formation and growth in particulate filled PE composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Volume strain measurements were carried out on PE/CaCO3 composites prepared with three different matrix polymers, containing various amounts of filler. The analysis of the debonding process and the various stages of void formation proved that the model developed for the prediction of the initiation of debonding is valid also for the studied PE/CaCO3 composites. Debonding stress is determined by the strength of interfacial adhesion, particle size and the stiffness of the matrix. In thermoplastic matrices usually two competitive processes take place: debonding and the plastic deformation of the polymer. The relative magnitude of the two processes strongly influences the number and size of the voids formed. Because of this competition and due to the wide particle size distribution of commercial fillers, only a certain fraction of the particles initiate the formation of voids. The number of voids formed is inversely proportional to the stiffness of the matrix polymer. In stiff matrices almost the entire amount of filler separates from the matrix under the effect of external load, while less than 30% debond in a PE which has an initial modulus of 0.4 GPa. Further decrease of matrix stiffness may lead to the complete absence of debonding and the composite would deform exclusively by shear yielding. Voids initiated by debonding grow during the further deformation of the composite. The size of the voids also depends on the modulus of the matrix. The rate of volume increase considerably exceeds the value predicted for cross-linked rubbers. At the same deformation and filler content the number of voids is smaller and their size is larger in soft matrices than in polymers with larger inherent modulus.

  10. A Cosmic Watershed: the WVF Void Detection Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Platen, Erwin; Jones, Bernard J T

    2007-01-01

    On megaparsec scales the Universe is permeated by an intricate filigree of clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, the Cosmic Web. For the understanding of its dynamical and hierarchical history it is crucial to identify objectively its complex morphological components. One of the most characteristic aspects is that of the dominant underdense Voids, the product of a hierarchical process driven by the collapse of minor voids in addition to the merging of large ones. In this study we present an objective void finder technique which involves a minimum of assumptions about the scale, structure and shape of voids. Our void finding method, the Watershed Void Finder (WVF), is based upon the Watershed Transform, a well-known technique for the segmentation of images. Importantly, the technique has the potential to trace the existing manifestations of a void hierarchy. The basic watershed transform is augmented by a variety of correction procedures to remove spurious structure resulting from sampling noise. This study c...

  11. Numerical study of the effect of water content on OH production in a pulsed-dc atmospheric pressure helium-air plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu-Yang, Qian; Cong-Ying, Yang; Zhen-dong, Wang; Xiao-Chang, Chen; San-Qiu, Liu; De-Zhen, Wang

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study of the effect of water content on OH production in a pulsed-dc atmospheric pressure helium-air plasma jet is presented. The generation and loss mechanisms of the OH radicals in a positive half-cycle of the applied voltage are studied and discussed. It is found that the peak OH density increases with water content in air (varying from 0% to 1%) and reaches 6.3×1018 m-3 when the water content is 1%. Besides, as the water content increases from 0.01% to 1%, the space-averaged reaction rate of three-body recombination increases dramatically and is comparable to those of main OH generation reactions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11465013), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20151BAB212012), and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2015DFA61800).

  12. Content of the Nitrogen Oxide Metabolites in a Condensate of Exhaling Air in Children with a Bronchial Asthma Control Different Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseeva T.I.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of investigation is establishment of regularity of the nitrogen oxide metabolite content change in the exhaling air condensate (EAC in children with a bronchial asthma control different level, assessed with a use of the ACQ day and week scales (Asthma Control Questionnaire. Materials and Methods. A summarized content of nitrites and nitrates in the exhaling air condensate in 61 infants with a bronchial asthma control different level is analyzed; it is analyzed in a disease dynamics in a part of them. Results. A summarized content of the nitrogen oxide metabolites in the EAC in patients with an absolute and full control of a bronchial asthma, not receiving the glucocorticosteroid therapy, was trustworthy higher than in patients, receiving that therapy. A trustworthy dependence between a summarized content of the nitrogen oxide metabolites in the EAC and a level of a bronchial asthma control in patients, receiving a similar therapy (with the glucocorticosteroid inclusion, is established.

  13. Cumulative ventilation air drying potential as an indication of dry mass content in wastewater sludge in a thin-layer solar drying facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Controlling low-temperature drying facilities which utilise nonprepared air is quite difficult, due to very large variability of ventilation air parameters - both in daily and seasonal cycles. The paper defines the concept of cumulative drying potential of ventilation air and presents experimental evidence that there is a relation between this parameter and condition of the dried matter (sewage sludge). Knowledge on current dry mass content in the dried matter (sewage sludge) provides new possibilities for controlling such systems. Experimental data analysed in the paper was collected in early 2012 during operation of a test solar drying facility in a sewage treatment plant in Błonie near Warsaw, Poland.

  14. Evolution of density perturbations in large void universe

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, Ryusuke; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of linear density perturbations in a large spherical void universe which accounts for the acceleration of the cosmic volume expansion without introducing dark energy. The density contrast of this void is not large within the light cone of an observer at the center of the void. Therefore, we describe the void structure as a perturbation with a dimensionless small parameter $\\kappa$ in a homogeneous and isotropic universe within the region observable for the observer. We ...

  15. Dislocation and void segregation in copper during neutron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Horsewell, Andy

    1986-01-01

    were distributed between these walls. The dislocation walls were practically free of voids and generally had a void-denuded zone along them. The density of dislocations (loops and segments) was very low in the region containing voids (i. e. between the dislocation walls). Even with this low dislocation...

  16. Decay of charge deposited on the wall of gaseous void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1992-01-01

    After partial discharge activity within a gaseous void, charges accumulate on the wall of the void. The decay of such charges due to surface currents at the void wall is studied analytically, and the factors affecting this decay are indicated. The results show that in terms of the basic time...

  17. POLAR DISK GALAXY FOUND IN WALL BETWEEN VOIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanonik, K.; Platen, E.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; van de Weygaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have found an isolated polar disk galaxy in what appears to be a cosmological wall situated between two voids. This void galaxy is unique as its polar disk was discovered serendipitously in an Hi survey of SDSS void galaxies, with no optical counterpart to the Hi polar disk. Yet the Hi mass in th

  18. Void Coalescence Processes Quantified Through Atomistic and Multiscale Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, R E; Seppala, E T; Dupuy, L M; Belak, J

    2007-01-12

    Simulation of ductile fracture at the atomic scale reveals many aspects of the fracture process including specific mechanisms associated with void nucleation and growth as a precursor to fracture and the plastic deformation of the material surrounding the voids and cracks. Recently we have studied void coalescence in ductile metals using large-scale atomistic and continuum simulations. Here we review that work and present some related investigations. The atomistic simulations involve three-dimensional strain-controlled multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations of copper. The correlated growth of two voids during the coalescence process leading to fracture is investigated, both in terms of its onset and the ensuing dynamical interactions. Void interactions are quantified through the rate of reduction of the distance between the voids, through the correlated directional growth of the voids, and through correlated shape evolution of the voids. The critical inter-void ligament distance marking the onset of coalescence is shown to be approximately one void radius based on the quantification measurements used, independent of the initial separation distance between the voids and the strain-rate of the expansion of the system. No pronounced shear flow is found in the coalescence process. We also discuss a technique for optimizing the calculation of fine-scale information on the fly for use in a coarse-scale simulation, and discuss the specific case of a fine-scale model that calculates void growth explicitly feeding into a coarse-scale mechanics model to study damage localization.

  19. A Hierarchy of Voids : much ado about nothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, R. van de; Sheth, R.; Platen, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model for the distribution of void sizes and its evolution in the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation. We find that at any cosmic epoch the voids have a size distribution that is well-peaked about a characteristic void size that evolves self-similarly

  20. An Observational Detection of the Bridge Effect of Void Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Junsup; Lee, Jounghun; Hoyle, Fiona

    2015-12-01

    The bridge effect of void filaments is a phrase coined by Park & Lee to explain the correlations found in a numerical experiment between the luminosity of the void galaxies and the degree of straightness of their host filaments. Their numerical finding implies that a straight void filament provides a narrow channel for the efficient transportation of gas and matter particles from the surroundings into void galaxies. Analyzing the Sloan void catalog constructed by Pan et al., we identify the filamentary structures in void regions and determine the specific size of each void filament as a measure of its straightness. To avoid possible spurious signals caused by Malmquist bias, we consider only those void filaments whose redshifts are in the range 0≤slant z≤slant 0.02 and find a clear tendency that the void galaxies located in the straighter filaments are on average more luminous, which is in qualitative agreement with the numerical prediction. It is also shown that the strength of correlation increases with the number of member galaxies in the void filaments, which can be understood physically on the grounds that the more stretched filaments can connect the dense surroundings even to galaxies located deep in the central parts of the voids. This observational evidence may provide a key clue to the puzzling issue of why the void galaxies have higher specific star formation rates and bluer colors than their wall counterparts.

  1. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  2. "Dark energy" in the Local Void

    CERN Document Server

    Villata, M

    2012-01-01

    The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter ($\\sim5\\times10^{15}\\,M_\\odot$) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require vo...

  3. Gas-liquid Phase Distribution and Void Fraction Measurements Using the MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidzic, N. E.; Schmidt, E.; Hasan, M. M.; Altobelli, S.

    2004-01-01

    We used a permanent-magnet MRI system to estimate the integral and spatially- and/or temporally-resolved void-fraction distributions and flow patterns in gas-liquid two-phase flows. Air was introduced at the bottom of the stagnant liquid column using an accurate and programmable syringe pump. Air flow rates were varied between 1 and 200 ml/min. The cylindrical non-conducting test tube in which two-phase flow was measured was placed in a 2.67 kGauss MRI with MRT spectrometer/imager. Roughly linear relationship has been obtained for the integral void-fraction, obtained by volume-averaging of the spatially-resolved signals, and the air flow rate in upward direction. The time-averaged spatially-resolved void fraction has also been obtained for the quasi-steady flow of air in a stagnant liquid column. No great accuracy is claimed as this was an exploratory proof-of-concept type of experiment. Preliminary results show that MRI a non-invasive and non-intrusive experimental technique can indeed provide a wealth of different qualitative and quantitative data and is especially well suited for averaged transport processes in adiabatic and diabatic multi-phase and/or multi-component flows.

  4. Void growth and coalescence in metals deformed at elevated temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöcker, H.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    For metals deformed at elevated temperatures the growth of voids to coalescence is studied numerically. The voids are assumed to be present from the beginning of deformation, and the rate of deformation considered is so high that void growth is dominated by power law creep of the material, without...... voids. The focus of the study is on various relatively high stress triaxialties. In order to represent the results in terms of a porous ductile material model a set of constitutive relations are used, which have been proposed for void growth in a material undergoing power law creep....

  5. A hierarchy of voids: More ado about nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Paranjape, Aseem; Sheth, Ravi K

    2011-01-01

    We extend earlier work on the problem of estimating the void-volume function -- the abundance and evolution of large voids which grow gravitationally in an expanding universe -- in two ways. The first removes an ambiguity about how the void-in-cloud process, which erases small voids, should be incorporated into the excursion set approach. The second accounts for correlations between different scales. We provide numerical and analytical arguments showing how and why both changes modify the predicted abundances substantially. In particular, with our new formulation of the void-in-cloud process, accounting for correlations between steps is crucial.

  6. Neural stimulation for chronic voiding dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbady, A A; Hassouna, M M; Elhilali, M M

    1994-12-01

    Neural stimulation of the sacral nerve roots could become an acceptable and promising modality in controlling variable forms of difficult voiding dysfunctions. A total of 50 patients who presented with various forms of voiding dysfunction underwent initial screening by percutaneous nerve evaluation of the S3 nerve root guided by movements of the levator ani and toes. Only 17 patients demonstrated a satisfactory response to percutaneous nerve evaluation and subsequent subchronic wire testing for 4 to 5 days, and they were eligible to enter the study. The studied patients (13 women and 4 men) were classified into 2 groups according to presentation. Group 1 included 8 patients who presented mainly with nonobstructive chronic urinary retention. All 8 patients were on intermittent self-catheterization except 1 with a suprapubic tube. The 9 patients in group 2 mainly presented with other forms of voiding dysfunctions, including pain (suprapubic and perineal), frequency and/or urgency. All patients were neurologically free, and had failed pharmacological and surgical attempts to correct the problems. In both groups radiological and ultrasound evaluations of the urinary tract as well as cystourethroscopy were within normal limits. Urodynamic studies were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Unilateral S3 foramen implantation was performed on the selected side in all patients. Followup ranged from 3 to 52 months. All patients were followed preoperatively and postoperatively by voiding and itemized symptom score diary as well as a quality of life questionnaire. Each symptom and question were given certain grades that reflect the severity or importance to the patient. The symptom scores and the quality of life questionnaires were analyzed preoperatively and postoperatively. In group 1 voided volume (expressed as a percentage of total bladder capacity) was significantly increased at 6 months (23 +/- 7.5% preoperatively versus 81.9 +/- 7.7% postoperatively, p compared

  7. The Void Galaxy Survey: Photometry, structure and identity of void galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beygu, B; van der Hulst, J M; Jarrett, T H; Kreckel, K; van de Weygaert, R; van Gorkom, J H; Aragon-Calvo, M A

    2016-01-01

    We analyze photometry from deep B-band images of 59 void galaxies in the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), together with their near-infrared 3.6$\\mu$m and 4.5$\\mu$m Spitzer photometry. The VGS galaxies constitute a sample of void galaxies that were selected by a geometric-topological procedure from the SDSS DR7 data release, and which populate the deep interior of voids. Our void galaxies span a range of absolute B-magnitude from $\\rm{M_B=-15.5}$ to $\\rm{M_B=-20}$, while at the 3.6$\\mu$m band their magnitudes range from $\\rm{M_{3.6}=-18}$ to $\\rm{M_{3.6}=-24}$. Their B-[3.6] colour and structural parameters indicate these are star forming galaxies. A good reflection of the old stellar population, the near-infrared band photometry also provide a robust estimate of the stellar mass, which for the VGS galaxies we confirm to be smaller than $3 \\times 10^{10}$ M$_\\odot$. In terms of the structural parameters and morphology, our findings align with other studies in that our VGS galaxy sample consists mostly of small late-t...

  8. Theoretical study of void closure in nonlinear plastic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xun ZHANG; Zhen-shan CUI

    2009-01-01

    Void closing from a spherical shape to a crack is investigated quantitatively in the present study. The constitutive relation of the void-free matrix is assumed to obey the Norton power law. A representative volume element (RVE) which includes matrix and void is employed and a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is developed to study the deformation-rates of a spherical void and a penny-shaped crack. Based on an approximate interpolation scheme,an analytical model for void closure in nonlinear plastic materials is established. It is found that the local plastic flows of the matrix material are the main mechanism of void deformation. It is also shown that the relative void volume during the deformation depends on the Norton exponent,on the far-field stress triaxiality,as well as on the far-field effective strain. The predictions of void closure using the present model are compared with the corresponding results in the literature,showing good agreement.The model for void closure provides a novel way for process design and optimization in terms of elimination of voids in billets because the model for void closure can easily be applied in the CAE analysis.

  9. Void Coalescence Processes Quantified through Atomistic and Multiscale Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, R E; Seppala, E T; Dupuy, L M; Belak, J

    2005-12-31

    Simulation of ductile fracture at the atomic scale reveals many aspects of the fracture process including specific mechanisms associated with void nucleation and growth as a precursor to fracture and the plastic deformation of the material surrounding the voids and cracks. Recently we have studied void coalescence in ductile metals using large-scale atomistic and continuum simulations. Here we review that work and present some related investigations. The atomistic simulations involve three-dimensional strain-controlled multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations of copper. The correlated growth of two voids during the coalescence process leading to fracture is investigated, both in terms of its onset and the ensuing dynamical interactions. Void interactions are quantified through the rate of reduction of the distance between the voids, through the correlated directional growth of the voids, and through correlated shape evolution of the voids. The critical inter-void ligament distance marking the onset of coalescence is shown to be approximately one void radius based on the quantification measurements used, independent of the initial separation distance between the voids and the strain-rate of the expansion of the system. No pronounced shear flow is found in the coalescence process.

  10. The sparkling Universe: the coherent motions of cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambas, Diego García; Lares, Marcelo; Ceccarelli, Laura; Ruiz, Andrés N.; Paz, Dante J.; Maldonado, Victoria E.; Luparello, Heliana E.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the bulk motions of cosmic voids, using a Λ cold dark matter numerical simulation considering the mean velocities of the dark matter inside the void itself and that of the haloes in the surrounding shell. We find coincident values of these two measures in the range ˜300-400 km s-1, not far from the expected mean peculiar velocities of groups and galaxy clusters. When analysing the distribution of the pairwise relative velocities of voids, we find a remarkable bimodal behaviour consistent with an excess of both systematically approaching and receding voids. We determine that the origin of this bimodality resides in the void large-scale environment, since once voids are classified into void-in-void (R-type) or void-in-cloud (S-type), R-types are found mutually receding away, while S-types approach each other. The magnitude of these systematic relative velocities account for more than 100 km s-1, reaching large coherence lengths of up to 200 h-1 Mpc . We have used samples of voids from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and the peculiar velocity field inferred from linear theory, finding fully consistent results with the simulation predictions. Thus, their relative motion suggests a scenario of a sparkling universe, with approaching and receding voids according to their local environment.

  11. Nonlocal plasticity effects on interaction of different size voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2004-01-01

    A nonlocal elastic-plastic material model is used to show that the rate of void growth is significantly reduced when the voids are small enough to be comparable with a characteristic material length. For a very small void in the material between much larger voids the competition between an increa......A nonlocal elastic-plastic material model is used to show that the rate of void growth is significantly reduced when the voids are small enough to be comparable with a characteristic material length. For a very small void in the material between much larger voids the competition between...... an increased growth rate due to the stress concentrations around the larger voids and a reduced growth rate due to the nonlocal effects is studied. The analyses are based on an axisymmetric unit cell model with special boundary conditions, which allow for a relatively simple investigation of a full three...... dimensional array of spherical voids. It is shown that the high growth rate of very small voids predicted by conventional plasticity theory is not realistic when the effect of a characteristic length, dependent on the dislocation structure, is accounted for. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. On the observability of coupled dark energy with cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Knebe, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Taking N-body simulations with volumes and particle densities tuned to match the SDSS DR7 spectroscopic main sample, we asses the ability of current void catalogs (e.g., Sutter et al. 2012b) to distinguish a model of coupled dark matter-dark energy from {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology using properties of cosmic voids. Identifying voids with the VIDE toolkit, we find no statistically significant differences in the ellipticities, but find that coupling produces a population of significantly larger voids, possibly explaining the recent result of Tavasoli et al. (2013). In addition, we use the universal density profile of Hamaus et al. (2014) to quantify the relationship between coupling and density profile shape, finding that the coupling leads to deeper underdensities for medium-scale voids and broader, shallower, undercompensated profiles for large voids. We find that these differences are potentially measurable with existing void catalogs once effects from survey geometries and peculiar velocities are taken into accou...

  13. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  14. First measurement of gravitational lensing by cosmic voids in SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, Peter; Sheldon, Erin S; Krause, Elisabeth; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the diminutive lensing signal arising from matter underdensities associated with cosmic voids. While undetectable individually, by stacking the weak gravitational shear estimates around 901 voids detected in SDSS DR7 by Sutter et al. (2012b), we find substantial evidence for a depression of the lensing signal compared to the cosmic mean. This depression is most pronounced at the void radius, in agreement with analytical models of void matter profiles. Even with the largest void sample and imaging survey available today, we cannot put useful constraints on the radial dark-matter void profile. We invite independent investigations of our findings by releasing data and analysis code to the public at https://github.com/pmelchior/void-lensing.

  15. On the observability of coupled dark energy with cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Carlesi, Edoardo; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Knebe, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Taking N-body simulations with volumes and particle densities tuned to match the sloan digital sky survey DR7 spectroscopic main sample, we assess the ability of current void catalogues to distinguish a model of coupled dark matter-dark energy from Λ cold dark matter cosmology using properties of cosmic voids. Identifying voids with the VIDE toolkit, we find no statistically significant differences in the ellipticities, but find that coupling produces a population of significantly larger voids, possibly explaining the recent result of Tavasoli et al. In addition, we use the universal density profile of Hamaus et al. to quantify the relationship between coupling and density profile shape, finding that the coupling produces broader, shallower, undercompensated profiles for large voids by thinning the walls between adjacent medium-scale voids. We find that these differences are potentially measurable with existing void catalogues once effects from survey geometries and peculiar velocities are taken into account.

  16. The Void Galaxy Survey: photometry, structure and identity of void galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beygu, B.; Peletier, R. F.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kreckel, K.; van de Weygaert, R.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze photometry from deep B-band images of 59 void galaxies in the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), together with their near-infrared 3.6μm and 4.5μm Spitzer photometry. The VGS galaxies constitute a sample of void galaxies that were selected by a geometric-topological procedure from the SDSS DR7 data release, and which populate the deep interior of voids. Our void galaxies span a range of absolute B-magnitude from {M_B=-15.5} to {M_B=-20}, while at the 3.6μm band their magnitudes range from {M_{3.6}=-18} to {M_{3.6}=-24}. Their B-[3.6] colour and structural parameters indicate these are star forming galaxies. A good reflection of the old stellar population, the near-infrared band photometry also provide a robust estimate of the stellar mass, which for the VGS galaxies we confirm to be smaller than 3 × 1010 M⊙. In terms of the structural parameters and morphology, our findings align with other studies in that our VGS galaxy sample consists mostly of small late-type galaxies. Most of them are similar to Sd-Sm galaxies, although a few are irregularly shaped galaxies. The sample even includes two early-type galaxies, one of which is an AGN. Their Sérsic indices are nearly all smaller than n = 2 in both bands and they also have small half-light radii. In all, we conclude that the principal impact of the void environment on the galaxies populating them mostly concerns their low stellar mass and small size.

  17. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void

  18. Void fraction prediction in saturated flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco J Collado [Dpto de Ingenieria Mecanica-Motores Termicos, CPS-B, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: An essential element in thermal-hydraulics is the accurate prediction of the vapor void fraction, or fraction of the flow cross-sectional area occupied by steam. Recently, the author has suggested to calculate void fraction working exclusively with thermodynamic properties. It is well known that the usual 'flow' quality, merely a mass flow rate ratio, is not at all a thermodynamic property because its expression in function of thermodynamic properties includes the slip ratio, which is a parameter of the process not a function of state. By the other hand, in the classic and well known expression of the void fraction - in function of the true mass fraction of vapor (also called 'static' quality), and the vapor and liquid densities - does not appear the slip ratio. Of course, this would suggest a direct procedure for calculating the void fraction, provided we had an accurate value of the true mass fraction of vapor, clearly from the heat balance. However the classic heat balance is usually stated in function of the 'flow' quality, what sounds really contradictory because this parameter, as we have noted above, is not at all a thermodynamic property. Then we should check against real data the actual relationship between the thermodynamic properties and the applied heat. For saturated flow boiling just from the inlet of the heated tube, and not having into account the kinetic and potential terms, the uniform applied heat per unit mass of inlet water and per unit length (in short, specific linear heat) should be closely related to a (constant) slope of the mixture enthalpy. In this work, we have checked the relation between the specific linear heat and the thermodynamic enthalpy of the liquid-vapor mixture using the actual mass fraction. This true mass fraction is calculated using the accurate measurements of the outlet void fraction taken during the Cambridge project by Knights and Thom in the sixties for

  19. Voids by Mechanical Entrapment in Liquid Molding Processes: Mechanism of Formation, Influence in the Mechanical Response and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Vanegas-Jaramillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The voids by mechanical entrapment become as one of the most common type of defects in the liquid molding processing of composites. Because of the strong influence of those kind of voids in the general performance of the manufactured part, an important amount of researches have focused on the study of the mechanisms of formation of those voids, of the influence of the those ones on the mechanical properties of the composite and of the strategies for their reduction during the process. The present paper aims to do a review of some relevant investigations that have been done in the topic of voids caused by mechanical entrapment of air in the processing of composites by LCM (Liquid composites molding with the purpose of generate a reference material addressed to researchers that are interested in this important subject matter related to the areas of processing and mechanical behavior of composites materials. They will be addressed some topics like: the mechanism of void formation by imbalance among macroflow and microflow and its relationship with the modified capillary number and the sink effect; the phenomena of compressibility, dissolution and mobilization of bubbles in dual-scale preforms; the influence of voids on the mechanical properties of the composites and on the damage mechanisms; and the most common strategies that can be implemented in the industry for the reduction of this sort of defects.

  20. A new technology for air-entrainment of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new technology for air-entrainment of concrete. The technology is based on the addition of dry superabsorbent polymers (SAP) to the concrete. A large amount of small internal water reservoirs are formed during mixing when SAP absorbs water and swells. The internal water......-entrainment include stability of the air void system and improved control of both the amount of added air and the air void size. The new technology based on SAP has been tested in freeze-thaw experiments, where the amount of surface scaling was measured. The results clearly show that SAP is beneficial for frost...... reservoirs are distributed throughout the concrete. During the hydration process the cement paste imbibes water from the water-filled SAP voids. Thereby the water-filled SAP voids turn into partly air-filled voids. The advantages of the SAP-based technology compared to traditional chemical air...

  1. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels;

    2012-01-01

    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all...... times and radii, but it also gives interesting clues about the impact of the background shear on the growth of perturbations. Our results give hints about the possibility of constraining the background shear via cluster number counts, which could then give rise to strong constraints on general...

  2. The view from the boundary: a new void stacking method

    CERN Document Server

    Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new method for stacking voids and deriving their profile that greatly increases the potential of voids as a tool for precision cosmology. Given that voids are highly non-spherical and have most of their mass at their edge, voids are better described relative to their boundary rather than relative to their centre, as in the conventional spherical stacking approach. The boundary profile is obtained by computing the distance of each volume element from the void boundary. Voids can then be stacked and their profiles computed as a function of this boundary distance. This approach enhances the weak lensing signal of voids, both shear and convergence, by a factor of two when compared to the spherical stacking method. It also results in steeper void density profiles that are characterised by a very slow rise inside the void and a pronounced density ridge at the void boundary, in qualitative agreement with theoretical models of expanding spherical underdensities. The resulting boundary density profile i...

  3. The sparkling Universe: the coherent motions of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Lambas, Diego G; Ceccarelli, Laura; Ruiz, Andrés N; Paz, Dante J; Maldonado, Victoria E; Luparello, Heliana E

    2015-01-01

    We compute the bulk motions of cosmic voids, using a $\\Lambda$CDM numerical simulation considering the mean velocities of the dark matter inside the void itself and that of the haloes in the surrounding shell. We find coincident values of these two measures in the range $\\sim$ 300-400 km/s, not far from the expected mean peculiar velocities of groups and galaxy clusters. When analysing the distribution of the pairwise relative velocities of voids, we find a remarkable bimodal behaviour consistent with an excess of both systematically approaching and receding voids. We determine that the origin of this bimodality resides in the void large scale environment, since once voids are classified into void-in-void (R-type) or void-in-cloud (S-type), R-types are found mutually receding away, while S-types approach each other. The magnitude of these systematic relative velocities account for more than 100 km/s, reaching large coherence lengths of up to 200 h$^{-1}$ Mpc . We have used samples of voids from the Sloan Digi...

  4. Voids in Ly{\\alpha} Forest Tomographic Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Casey W; White, Martin; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method of finding cosmic voids using tomographic maps of Ly{\\alpha} forest flux. We identify cosmological voids with radii of 2 - 12 $h^{-1}$Mpc in a large N-body simulation at $z = 2.5$, and characterize the signal of the high-redshift voids in density and Ly{\\alpha} forest flux. The void properties are similar to what has been found at lower redshifts, but they are smaller and have steeper radial density profiles. Similarly to what has been found for low-redshift voids, the radial velocity profiles have little scatter and agree very well with the linear theory prediction. We run the same void finder on an ideal Ly{\\alpha} flux field and tomographic reconstructions at various spatial samplings. We compare the tomographic map void catalogs to the density void catalog and find good agreement even with modest-sized voids ($r > 6 \\, h^{-1}$Mpc). Using our simple void-finding method, the configuration of the ongoing CLAMATO survey covering 1 deg$^2$ would provide a sample of about 100 high-redshi...

  5. Experimental investigation and numerical simulations of void profile development in a vertical cylindrical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here an experimental investigation and some numerical simulations of void profile development in a vertical cylindrical pipe. This study is motivated by the lack of information dealing with the influence of entrance effects and bubble size evolution upon the multidimensional development of upward bubbly flow in pipe. The axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly and bubbly-to-slug transition flows in a vertical pipe is investigated experimentally first. Profiles of liquid mean velocity, liquid axial turbulent intensity, void fraction, bubble frequency, bubble velocity, mean equivalent bubble diameter and volumetric interfacial area are determined along the same test section at three axial locations. It is found that the bubbly-to-slug transition can be deduced from the simultaneous analysis of the different measured profiles. Local analysis of the studied bubbly flows shows that their development does not depend on the shape of the void distribution at the inlet. However, it is found that the bubble size evolution strongly affects the void distribution. Secondly, multidimensional numerical simulations of bubbly flows with very different gas injection modes are made with the help of the tridimensional two-fluid ASTRID code. It is shown that the classical models used to close the transverse momentum equations of the two-fluid model (lift and dispersion forces) do not capture the physical phenomena of bubble migration in pipe flows

  6. Effect of ultrasound and blanching pretreatments on polyacetylene and carotenoid content of hot air and freeze dried carrot discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, A; Tiwari, B K; Tuohy, M G; O'Donnell, C P; Brunton, N

    2011-09-01

    The effect of ultrasound and blanching pretreatments on polyacetylene (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) and carotenoid compounds of hot air and freeze dried carrot discs was investigated. Ultrasound pretreatment followed by hot air drying (UPHD) at the highest amplitude and treatment time investigated resulted in higher retention of polyacetylenes and carotenoids in dried carrot discs than blanching followed by hot air drying. Freeze dried samples had a higher retention of polyacetylene and carotenoid compounds compared to hot air dried samples. Color parameters were strongly correlated with carotenoids (pblanching treatment in the drying of carrots.

  7. Failure by void coalescence in metallic materials containing primary and secondary voids subject to intense shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    , subject to shear dominated loading. To account for both length scales involved in this study, a continuum model that includes the softening effect of damage evolution in shear is used to represent the matrix material surrounding the primary voids. Here, a recently extended Gurson-type model is used, which...

  8. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J M; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Peletier, Reynier F

    2014-01-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Halpha, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key re...

  9. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weijgaert, Marinus; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2014-01-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral h

  10. Early voiding dysfunction associated with prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner; Nag; Young; Bahnson

    2000-12-15

    Introduction: Transperineal prostate brachytherapy is gaining popularity as a treatment for clinically localized carcinoma of the prostate. Very little prospective data exists addressing the issue of complications associated with this procedure. We present an analysis of the early voiding dysfunction associated with prostate brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six consecutive patients who underwent Palladium-103 (Pd-103) seed placement for clinically localized prostate carcinoma were evaluated prospectively for any morbidity associated with the procedure. Twenty-three patients completed an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire preoperatively, at their first postoperative visit, and at their second postoperative visit. The total IPSS, each of the seven individual components, and the "bother" score were evaluated separately for each visit, and statistical significance was determined. Results: Urinary retention occurred in 7/46 patients (15%). Of these, 5 were able to void spontaneously after catheter removal. One patient is maintained with a suprapubic tube, and one patient is currently on continuous intermittent catheterization. Baseline IPSS was 7.1 and this went to 20.0 at the first postoperative visit (p<0.001). By the second postoperative visit, the IPSS was 8.0. Conclusions: In our experience, prostate brachytherapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate is associated with a 15% catheterization rate and a significant increase in the IPSS (7.1 to 20.0). This increase in the IPSS seems to be self-limited. Patients need to be educated on these issues prior to prostate brachytherapy. PMID:11113369

  11. The Void Galaxy Survey: Star Formation Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Beygu, B; van der Hulst, J M; Jarrett, T H; Peletier, R; van de Weygaert, R; van Gorkom, J H; Aragon-Calvo, M A

    2016-01-01

    We study the star formation properties of 59 void galaxies as part of the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS). Current star formation rates are derived from $\\rm{H\\alpha}$ and recent star formation rates from near-UV imaging. In addition, infrared 3.4 $\\rm{\\mu m}$, 4.6 $\\rm{\\mu m}$, 12 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ and 22 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ WISE emission is used as star formation and mass indicator. Infrared and optical colours show that the VGS sample displays a wide range of dust and metallicity properties. We combine these measurements with stellar and HI masses to measure the specific SFRs ($\\rm{SFR/M_{*}}$) and star formation efficiencies ($\\rm{SFR/M_{HI}}$). We compare the star formation properties of our sample with galaxies in the more moderate density regions of the cosmic web, 'the field'. We find that specific SFRs of the VGS galaxies as a function of stellar and HI mass are similar to those of the galaxies in these field regions. Their $\\rm{SFR\\alpha}$ is slightly elevated than the galaxies in the field for a given total HI mass. ...

  12. Gravitational entropy of local cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Roberto A

    2015-01-01

    We undertake a non-perturbative study of the evolution of the "gravitational entropy" proposed by Clifton, Ellis and Tavakol (CET) on local expanding cosmic CDM voids of $\\sim 50-100$ Mpc size described as spherical under-dense regions with negative spatial curvature, whose dynamics is determined by Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models asymptotic to three different types of FLRW background: $\\Lambda$CDM, Einstein de Sitter and "open" FLRW with $\\Lambda=0$ and negative spatial curvature. By assuming generic nearly spatially flat and linear initial conditions at the last scattering time, we examine analytically and numerically the CET entropy evolution into a fully non-linear regime in our present cosmic time and beyond. Both analytic and numerical analysis reveal that the late time CET entropy growth is determined by the amplitude of initial fluctuations of spatial curvature at the last scattering time. This entropy growth decays to zero in the late asymptotic time range for all voids, but at a faster rate ...

  13. Experimental study of void behavior in a suppression pool of a boiling water reactor during the blowdown period of a loss of coolant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassame, Somboon

    The possible failure of an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) train due to a large amount of entrained gas in the ECCS pump suction piping in a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is one of the potential engineering problems faced in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) power plant. To analyze potential gas intrusion into the ECCS pump suction piping, the study of void behavior in the Suppression Pool (SP) during the LOCA is necessary. The void fraction distribution and void penetration are considered as the key parameters in the problem analysis. Two sets of experiments, namely, steady-state tests and transient tests were conducted using the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR application (PUMA-E) to study void behavior in the SP during the blowdown. The design of the test apparatus used is based on the scaling analysis from a prototypical BWR containment (MARK-I) with consideration of the downcomer size, the SP water level, and the downcomer water submergence depth. Several instruments were installed to obtain the required experimental data, such as inlet gas volumetric flow, void fraction, pressure, and temperature. For the steady-state tests, the air was injected through a downcomer pipe in the SP in order to simulate the physical phenomena in the SP during the initial blowdown of LOCA. Thirty tests were performed with two different downcomer sizes (0.076 and 0.102 m), various air volumetric flow rates or flux (0.003 to 0.153 m3/s or 0.5 to 24.7 m/s), initial downcomer void conditions (fully filled with water, partially void, and completely void) and air velocity ramp rates (one to two seconds). Two phases of the experiment were observed, namely, the initial phase and the quasi-steady phase. The initial phase produced the maximum void penetration depth; and the quasi-steady phase showed less void penetration with oscillation in the void penetration. The air volumetric flow rate was found to have a minor effect on the void fraction

  14. Ductile damage of porous materials with two populations of voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Pierre-Guy; Monerie, Yann; Suquet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This study is devoted to the modelling of ductile damage in uranium dioxide. This polycrystalline material contains two populations of voids of well separated size. The problem addressed here is the prediction of the effective flow surface of a Gurson material containing randomly oriented oblate voids. The case of spherical voids is considered first and the variational approach of Gurson is generalized by adding a compressible component to his original velocity field. The case of aligned oblate voids is then considered and a suitable generalization of a velocity field due to Gologanu et al. (ASME J. Engrg. Mater. Technol. 116 (1994) 290-297) is proposed. The extension to randomly oriented voids is achieved by averaging over all orientations. In each case, rigorous upper bounds and approximate estimates are derived and compared (in the case of spherical voids) with Finite Element simulations. To cite this article: P.-G. Vincent et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  15. Void growth to coalescence in a non-local material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    The size-effect in metals containing distributed spherical voids is analyzed numerically using a finite strain generalization of a length scale dependent plasticity theory. Results are obtained for stress-triaxialities relevant in front of a crack tip in an elastic-plastic metal. The influence...... of different material length parameters in a multi-parameter theory is studied, and it is shown that the important length parameter is the same as under purely hydrostatic loading. It is quantified how micron scale voids grow less rapidly than larger voids, and the implications of this in the overall strength...... of the material is emphasized. The size effect on the onset of coalescence is studied, and results for the void volume fraction and the strain at the onset of coalescence are presented. It is concluded that for cracked specimens not only the void volume fraction, but also the typical void size is of importance...

  16. Void alignment and density profile applied to measuring cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We study the orientation and density profiles of the cosmological voids with SDSS10 data. Using voids to test Alcock-Paczynski effect has been proposed and tested in both simulations and actual SDSS data. Previous observations imply that there exist an empirical stretching factor which plays an important role in the voids' orientation. Simulations indicate that this empirical stretching factor is caused by the void galaxies' peculiar velocities. Recently Hamaus et al. found that voids' density profiles are universal and their average velocities satisfy linear theory very well. In this article we first confirm that the stretching effect exists using independent analysis. We then apply the universal density profile to measure the cosmological parameters. We find that the void density profile can be a tool to measure the cosmological parameters.

  17. Void alignment and density profile applied to measuring cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang

    2015-12-01

    We study the orientation and density profiles of the cosmological voids with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; Ahn et al.) 10 data. Using voids to test Alcock-Paczynski effect has been proposed and tested in both simulations and actual SDSS data. Previous observations imply that there exist an empirical stretching factor which plays an important role in the voids' orientation. Simulations indicate that this empirical stretching factor is caused by the void galaxies' peculiar velocities. Recently Hamaus et al. found that voids' density profiles are universal and their average velocities satisfy linear theory very well. In this paper, we first confirm that the stretching effect exists using independent analysis. We then apply the universal density profile to measure the cosmological parameters. We find that the void density profile can be a tool to measure the cosmological parameters.

  18. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depressions & spatial complexity

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do they represent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probes and measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive to the nature of dark energy, while their substructure and galaxy population provides a direct key to the nature of dark matter. Also, the pristine environment of void interiors is an important testing ground for our understanding of environmental influences on galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we review the key aspects of the structure and dynamics of voids, with a particular focus on the hierarchical evolution of the void population. We demonstrate how the rich structural pattern of the Cosmic Web is related to the complex evolution and buildup of voids.

  19. Influence of Various Air Temperature on Duration of Drying Pumpkin Seed with Higher Water Content After Washing (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sito

    1998-12-01

    The samples dried at air temperature of 80 and 100°C were partly roasted, the seeds were dark coloured (burned, inferior taste, and problematic storage quality. Consequently air temperature above 60°C could not be recommended for pumpkin seed drying.

  20. An Efficient Bypassing Void Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Since the sensor node’s distribution in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is irregular, geographic routing protocols using the greedy algorithm can cause local minima problem. This problem may fail due to routing voids and lead to failure of data transmission. Based on the virtual coordinate mapping, this paper proposes an efficient bypassing void routing protocol to solve the control packet overhead and transmission delay in routing void of WSN, which is called EBVRPVCM. The basic idea is to t...

  1. Cosmological Model with a Local Void: New Supernova Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Le Tuan Anh; Ng, Shao Chin Cindy

    2009-01-01

    A simple inhomogeneous cosmological model with a local void is constrained with the latest Union supernova compilation. To fit the supernova data, a large local void on the scales of 1 Gpc is found, contrary to the small scales of 200 Mpc in the previous finding. A more realistic inhomogeneous cosmological model may be required to fit the supernova data. Alternatively, a clumpy universe with clumpiness parameter < 1 can fit the supernova data with reduced local void scales.

  2. Irradiation of pre-existing voids in nanocrystalline iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the role of voids is an important issue in lifetime predictions of materials which are exposed to irradiation. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a pre-existing void structure embedded in a grain boundary in computer generated nanocrystalline Fe samples in terms of nearby primary cascade evolution using molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate that the void and grain boundaries act as sinks to self interstitial atoms formed from nearby displacement cascades

  3. On de-Sitter Geometry in Cosmic Void Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Gary W; Yoshida, Naoki; Chon, Sunmyon

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the geometrical concept of a 4-dimensional de-Sitter configuration of spheres in Euclidean 3-space and modelling voids in the Universe as spheres, we show that a uniform distribution over this configuration space implies a power-law for the void number density which is consistent with results from the excursion set formalism and from data, for an intermediate range of void volumes. We also discuss the effect of restricting the survey geometry on the void statistics. This work is a new application of de-Sitter geometry to cosmology and also provides a new geometrical perspective on self-similarity in cosmology.

  4. An observational detection of the bridge effect of void filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, Junsup; Hoyle, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The bridge effect of void filaments is a phrase coined by Park & Lee (2009b) to explain the correlations found in a numerical experiment between the luminosity of the void galaxies and the degree of the straightness of their host filaments. Their numerical finding implies that a straight void filament provides a narrow channel for the efficient transportation of gas and matter particles from the surroundings into the void galaxies. To observationally confirm the presence of the bridge effect of void filaments, we identify the filamentary structures from the Sloan void catalog and determine the specific size of each void filament as a measure of its straightness. Using both classical and Bayesian statistics, we indeed detect a strong tendency that the void galaxies located in the more straight filaments are on average more luminous, which is in agreement with the numerical prediction. It is also shown that the strength of correlation increases with the spatial extent of the void filaments, which can be phy...

  5. The sparkling Universe: a scenario for cosmic void motions

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccarelli, Laura; Lares, Marcelo; Paz, Dante J; Maldonado, Victoria E; Luparello, Heliana E; Lambas, Diego Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We perform a statistical study of the global motion of cosmic voids using both a numerical simulation and observational data. We analyse their relation to large--scale mass flows and the physical effects that drive those motions. We analyse the bulk motions of voids, defined by the mean velocity of haloes in the surrounding shells in the numerical simulation, and by galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We find void mean bulk velocities close to 400 km/s, comparable to those of haloes (~ 500-600 km/s), depending on void size and the large--scale environment. Statistically, small voids move faster than large ones, and voids in relatively higher density environments have higher bulk velocities than those placed in large underdense regions. Also, we analyze the mean mass density around voids finding, as expected, large--scale overdensities (underdensities) along (opposite to) the void motion direction, suggesting that void motions respond to a pull--push mechanism. This contrasts with massive ...

  6. A Simple Gravitational Lens Model For Cosmic Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple gravitational lens model for cosmic voids using the recently developed embedded lensing theory. We use this simple void model to estimate the magnitude fluctuation and the weak lensing shear of background sources lensed by large cosmic voids. Sources behind large cosmic voids can be magnified or demagnified with magnitude fluctuations of order ~0.05 mag. The weak-lensing shear of a large void is at the few percent level, and is only significant in the outer region of the void. We investigate the "wiggling" of the primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies caused by intervening individual large cosmic voids using this new void lens model. The wiggling of primary CMB temperature gradients is of the opposite sign to that caused by intervening mass condensations such as galaxy clusters, and is of smaller amplitude, ~15 \\mu K for a void of radius ~4 deg at redshift 0.5 assuming a background gradient of magnitude ~10 \\mu K/arcmin. Our theory can be used to study gravitati...

  7. Detection of Molecular Gas in Void Galaxies : Implications for Star Formation in Isolated Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Iono, D; Honey, M; Ramya, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the detection of molecular gas from galaxies located in nearby voids using the CO line emission as a tracer. The observations were done using the 45m Nobeyama Radio Telescope. Void galaxies lie in the most under dense parts of our universe and a significant fraction of them are gas rich, late type spiral galaxies. Although isolated, they have ongoing star formation but appear to be slowly evolving compared to galaxies in denser environments. Not much is known about their star formation properties or cold gas content. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively high IRAS fluxes or Ha line luminosities, both of which signify ongoing star formation. All five galaxies appear to be isolated and two lie within the Bootes void. We detected CO line emission from four of the five galaxies in our sample and the molecular gas masses lie between 10^8 to 10^9 Msolar. We did follow-up Ha imaging observations of three detected galaxies us...

  8. Effect of air flow rate on the polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of convective dried cactus pear cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Infante, José-Alberto; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria-Elizabeth; González-Laredo, Ruben-Francisco; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Medina-Torres, Luis; Cervantes-Cardozo, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The interest in nopal has encouraged the use of dehydration; there are few studies about the effect of process parameters on the nopal polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of air-drying flow rates on the amount and antioxidant capacity of extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes. Nopal was dried at 45 degrees C and air flow rates of 3 and 5 m/sec. Samples were analyzed for moisture, total polyphenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents, chain-breaking activity, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein and deoxyribose oxidation. Nopal drying at an air flow rate of 3 m/sec showed higher values of phenols, flavonoids and flavonols. The best value of low-density lipoprotein inhibition and deoxyribose was found at 1,000 microg/ml. The air flow rate affected the amount of polyphenols and the OH( . ) radical scavenging, but did not modify the chain-breaking activity and the low-density lipoprotein inhibition activity. PMID:19468951

  9. Effect of air flow rate on the polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of convective dried cactus pear cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Infante, José-Alberto; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria-Elizabeth; González-Laredo, Ruben-Francisco; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Medina-Torres, Luis; Cervantes-Cardozo, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The interest in nopal has encouraged the use of dehydration; there are few studies about the effect of process parameters on the nopal polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of air-drying flow rates on the amount and antioxidant capacity of extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes. Nopal was dried at 45 degrees C and air flow rates of 3 and 5 m/sec. Samples were analyzed for moisture, total polyphenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents, chain-breaking activity, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein and deoxyribose oxidation. Nopal drying at an air flow rate of 3 m/sec showed higher values of phenols, flavonoids and flavonols. The best value of low-density lipoprotein inhibition and deoxyribose was found at 1,000 microg/ml. The air flow rate affected the amount of polyphenols and the OH( . ) radical scavenging, but did not modify the chain-breaking activity and the low-density lipoprotein inhibition activity.

  10. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed by the software ATP) of the void fraction instrument (VFI). Acceptance testing of the VFI, control console, and decontamination spray assembly was conducted in the 306E building high bay and area adjacent to the facility. The VFI was tested in the horizontal position supported in multiple locations on rolling tables. The control console was located next to the VFI pneumatic control assembly. The VFI system was operated exactly as is expected in the tank farm, with the following exceptions: power was provided from a building outlet and the VFI was horizontal. The testing described in this document verifies that the mechanical and electrical features are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service

  11. Formation of Voids from Negative Density Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, J. C. N.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se estudia la formaci6n de huecos a partir de un espectro negativo de perturbaciones, tomando en cuenta la expansi6n del Universo, arrastre por fotones, enfriamiento por fotones, fotoionizaci6n, ioniza- ci6n colisional, enfriamiento Lyman a y la formaci6n y enfriamiento de moleculas H2. Nuestros resultados predicen la existencia de regiones 1/10 de Ia densidad promedio para regiones de masa lO - 1O10M . ABSTRACT. In the present paer we study the formation of voids from a negative spectrum of perturbations taking into account the expansion of the Universe, photon-drag, photon-cooling, photoionization, collisional ionization, Lyman a cooling and the formation and cooling of 112 molecules. Our results predict the existence of regions 1/10 the average density for regions of mass 1O - 1O10M@ : CLUSTERS-GALAXIES - COSMOLOGY

  12. Void Formation in Heavily Irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainshtein, D.I.; Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Hartog, H.W. den

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and the oretical results are presented on the formation of voids discovered recently in havily irradiated NaCl. Experimental data show that for NaCl samples with particular dopants, the development of radiation damage, such as Na-colloids, chlorine inclusions and voids does not show a s

  13. A Cosmic Void Catalog of SDSS DR12 BOSS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Qingqing; Scherrer, Robert J; Scoccimarro, Roman; Tinker, Jeremy L; McBride, Cameron K; Neyrinck, Mark C; Schneider, Donald P; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We present a cosmic void catalog using the large-scale structure galaxy catalog from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This galaxy catalog is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 and is the final catalog of SDSS-III. We take into account the survey boundaries, masks, and angular and radial selection functions, and apply the ZOBOV void finding algorithm to the galaxy catalog. After making quality cuts to ensure that the voids represent real underdense regions, we identify 1228 voids with effective radii spanning the range 20-100Mpc/h and with central densities that are, on average, 30% of the mean sample density. We discuss the basic statistics of voids, such as their size and redshift distributions, and measure the radial density profile of the voids via a stacking technique. In addition, we construct mock void catalogs from 1000 mock galaxy catalogs, and find that the properties of BOSS voids are in good agreement with those in the mock catalogs. We compare the stella...

  14. Voiding patterns in men evaluated by a questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P; Nielsen, K K; Bauer, T;

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire on obstructive and irritative voiding symptoms was sent to 572 men aged between 20 and 79 years, selected at random from the National Register; 337 questionnaires were completed. None of the responders had consulted a doctor because of voiding symptoms. There was a significant...

  15. The Aspen-Amsterdam void finder comparison project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colberg, Joerg M.; Pearce, Frazer; Foster, Caroline; Platen, Erwin; Brunino, Riccardo; Neyrinck, Mark; Basilakos, Spyros; Fairall, Anthony; Feldman, Hume; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hahn, Oliver; Hoyle, Fiona; Mueller, Volker; Nelson, Lorne; Plionis, Manolis; Porciani, Cristiano; Shandarin, Sergei; Vogeley, Michael S.; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2008-01-01

    Despite a history that dates back at least a quarter of a century, studies of voids in the large-scale structure of the Universe are bedevilled by a major problem: there exist a large number of quite different void-finding algorithms, a fact that has so far got in the way of groups comparing their r

  16. Electric field theory and the fallacy of void capacitance

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the capacitance of a gaseous void is discussed as applied to electrical insulation science. The most pertinent aspect of the capacitance definition is that of reference to a single-valued potential difference between surfaces. This implies that these surfaces must be surfaces of equipotential. With this essential characteristics the validity of void capacitance is examined

  17. Void nucleation in spheroidized steels during tensile deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Jr, J R

    1980-04-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various mechanical and material parameters on void formation at cementite particles in axisymmetric tensile specimens of spheroidized plain carbon steels. Desired microstructures for each of three steel types were obtained. Observations of void morphology with respect to various microstructural features were made using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. High gain durable anti-reflective coating with oblate voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Colson, Thomas E.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Abrams, Ze' ev

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are single layer transparent coatings with an anti-reflective property, a hydrophobic property, and that are highly abrasion resistant. The single layer transparent coatings contain a plurality of oblate voids. At least 1% of the oblate voids are open to a surface of the single layer transparent coatings.

  19. Warmth elevating the depths: shallower voids with warm dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin F.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Falck, Bridget; Silk, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) has been proposed as an alternative to cold dark matter (CDM), to resolve issues such as the apparent lack of satellites around the Milky Way. Even if WDM is not the answer to observational issues, it is essential to constrain the nature of the dark matter. The effect of WDM on haloes has been extensively studied, but the small-scale initial smoothing in WDM also affects the present-day cosmic web and voids. It suppresses the cosmic `sub-web' inside voids, and the formation of both void haloes and subvoids. In N-body simulations run with different assumed WDM masses, we identify voids with the ZOBOV algorithm, and cosmic-web components with the ORIGAMI algorithm. As dark-matter warmth increases (i.e. particle mass decreases), void density minima grow shallower, while void edges change little. Also, the number of subvoids decreases. The density field in voids is particularly insensitive to baryonic physics, so if void density profiles and minima could be measured observationally, they would offer a valuable probe of the nature of dark matter. Furthermore, filaments and walls become cleaner, as the substructures in between have been smoothed out; this leads to a clear, mid-range peak in the density PDF.

  20. Warmth Elevating the Depths: Shallower Voids with Warm Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lin F; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) has been proposed as an alternative to cold dark matter (CDM), to resolve issues such as the apparent lack of satellites around the Milky Way. Even if WDM is not the answer to observational issues, it is essential to constrain the nature of the dark matter. The effect of WDM on haloes has been extensively studied, but the small-scale initial smoothing in WDM also affects the present-day cosmic web and voids. It suppresses the cosmic "sub-web" inside voids, and the formation of both void haloes and subvoids. In N-body simulations run with different assumed WDM masses, we identify voids with the zobov algorithm, and cosmic-web components with the origami algorithm. As dark-matter warmth increases, the initial-conditions smoothing increases, and the number of voids and subvoids is suppressed. Also, void density profiles change, their shapes become flatter inside the void radius, while edges of the voids remain unchanged. Also, filaments and walls become cleaner, as the sub-structures in be...

  1. Void formation in neutron-irradiated Cu and Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure copper and copper-aluminium alloys were neutron-irradiated at high temperatures in the as-received condition, and after being melted under high vacuum or in argon. Melting under high vacuum was done to reduce the residual gas amount in the specimens. The number density of voids in the vacuum-melted Cu was one tenth of that in as-received Cu after JMTR irradiation to 5.2 x 1024 n/m2 at 603 K. Similarly, voids were also formed in an argon-melted Cu-1at%Al specimen but were not formed in a vacuum-melted one. Following higher dose irradiation in the JOYO reactor, nearly the same number density and size of voids were formed in both argon and vacuum-melted Cu. In Cu-5at%Al, many voids were formed in argon-melted specimens, whereas in vacuum-melted specimens voids were not formed. These results show that voids nucleate at vacancy clusters which trap gas atoms. In the JOYO irradiation, diffused-in gas atoms play an important role in the formation of voids in Cu. In Cu-5at%Al, diffused-in gas atoms were trapped by Al atoms, resulting in a difference of void formation between the two types of specimens. (orig.)

  2. Tensor anisotropy as a tracer of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to find voids in cosmological simulations based on the tidal and the velocity shear tensors definitions of the cosmic web. We use the fractional anisotropy (FA) computed from the eigenvalues of each web scheme as a void tracer. We identify voids using a watershed transform based on the local minima of the FA field without making any assumption on the shape or structure of the voids. We test the method on the Bolshoi simulation and report on the abundance and radial averaged profiles for the density, velocity and fractional anisotropy. We find that voids in the velocity shear web are smaller than voids in the tidal web, with a particular overabundance of very small voids in the inner region of filaments/sheets. We classify voids as subcompensated/overcompansated depending on the absence/presence of an overdense matter ridge in their density profile, finding that close to $65\\%$ and $35\\%$ of the total population are classified into each category, respectively. Finally, we find evidence ...

  3. DETECTION OF MOLECULAR GAS IN VOID GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN ISOLATED ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, M.; Honey, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India); Saito, T. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate school of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Iono, D. [Chile Observatory, NAOJ (Japan); Ramya, S., E-mail: mousumi@iiap.res.in [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-10

    We present the detection of molecular gas from galaxies located in nearby voids using the CO(1–0) line emission as a tracer. The observations were performed using the 45 m single dish radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe and a significant fraction of them are gas rich, late-type spiral galaxies. Although isolated, they have ongoing star formation but appear to be slowly evolving compared to galaxies in denser environments. Not much is known about their star formation properties or cold gas content. In this study, we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively high IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities, both of which signify ongoing star formation. All five galaxies appear to be isolated and two lie within the Bootes void. We detected CO(1–0) emission from four of the five galaxies in our sample and their molecular gas masses lie between 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}. We conducted follow-up Hα imaging observations of three detected galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope and determined their star formation rates (SFRs) from their Hα fluxes. The SFR varies from 0.2 to 1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study indicates that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks contain molecular gas and have SFRs similar to galaxies in denser environments. We discuss the implications of our results.

  4. The cosmic web in CosmoGrid void regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Steven; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Beygu, Burcu; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-10-01

    We study the formation and evolution of the cosmic web, using the high-resolution CosmoGrid ΛCDM simulation. In particular, we investigate the evolution of the large-scale structure around void halo groups, and compare this to observations of the VGS-31 galaxy group, which consists of three interacting galaxies inside a large void. The structure around such haloes shows a great deal of tenuous structure, with most of such systems being embedded in intra-void filaments and walls. We use the Nexus+} algorithm to detect walls and filaments in CosmoGrid, and find them to be present and detectable at every scale. The void regions embed tenuous walls, which in turn embed tenuous filaments. We hypothesize that the void galaxy group of VGS-31 formed in such an environment.

  5. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-10-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe nature of dark energy, while their substructure and galaxy population provides a direct key to thenature of dark matter. Also, the pristine environment of void interiors is an important testing groundfor our understanding of environmental influences on galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we reviewthe key aspects of the structure and dynamics ofvoids, with a particular focus on the hierarchical evolution of the void population. We demonstratehow the rich structural pattern of the Cosmic Web is related to the complex evolution and buildupof voids.

  6. Void growth to coalescence in a non-local material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    The size-effect in metals containing distributed spherical voids is analyzed numerically using a finite strain generalization of a length scale dependent plasticity theory. Results are obtained for stress-triaxialities relevant in front of a crack tip in an elastic-plastic metal. The influence...... of different material length parameters in a multi-parameter theory is studied, and it is shown that the important length parameter is the same as under purely hydrostatic loading. It is quantified how micron scale voids grow less rapidly than larger voids, and the implications of this in the overall strength...... of the material is emphasized. It is concluded that for cracked specimens not only the void volume fraction, but also the typical void size is of importance to the fracture strength of ductile materials....

  7. The cosmic web in CosmoGrid void regions

    CERN Document Server

    Rieder, Steven; Cautun, Marius; Beygu, Burcu; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2014-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of the cosmic web, using the high-resolution CosmoGrid \\$\\Lambda\\$CDM simulation. In particular, we investigate the evolution of the large-scale structure around void halo groups, and compare this to observations of the VGS-31 galaxy group, which consists of three interacting galaxies inside a large void. The structure around such haloes shows a great deal of tenuous structure, with most of such systems being embedded in intra-void filaments and walls. We use the Nexus+ algorithm to detect walls and filaments in CosmoGrid, and find them to be present and detectable at every scale. The void regions embed tenuous walls, which in turn embed tenuous filaments. We hypothesize that the void galaxy group of VGS-31 formed in such an environment.

  8. Effects of voids on delamination behavior under static and fatigue mode I and mode II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelal, Nisrin Rizek

    Composite materials have become materials of choice for wind turbine blade manufacturing due to their high specific stiffness, strength and fatigue life. Glass fiber composites are used extensively in light-weight structural components for wind turbines, aircrafts, marine craft and high performance automobile because glass fiber is inexpensive and usually provides high strength to weight ratio and good in-plane mechanical properties. The high cycle fatigue resistance of composite materials used in wind turbine blades has been recognized as a major uncertainty in predicting the reliability of wind turbines over their design lifetime. Blades are expected to experience 108 to 109 fatigue cycles over a 20 to 30 year lifetime. Delamination or interlaminar failure is a serious failure mode observed in composite structures. Even partial delamination will lead to a loss of local stiffness, which can preclude buckling failure. Manufacturing process defects such as voids and fiber waviness degrade the fatigue life and delamination resistance of the blade's composite. This research describes the effect of voids on static and fatigue interlaminar fracture behavior under mode I and mode II loading of wind turbine glass fiber composites. Samples with different void volume fractions in the 0.5%-7% range were successfully obtained by varying the vacuum in the hand layup vacuum bagging manufacturing process. Void content was characterized using four different methods; ultrasonic scanning, epoxy burn off, serial sectioning and X-Ray computed tomography. The effect of voids on both mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness under static and fatigue loading was investigated. Finally, fractographic analysis (using optical and scanning electron microscopy) was conducted. The results showed that voids leads to slight reduction in static modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness. In addition, voids lead to a decrease in modes I and II maximum cyclic strain energy release

  9. Measuring baryon acoustic oscillations from the clustering of voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Tao, Charling

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the necessary methodology to optimally measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal from voids, based on galaxy redshift catalogues. To this end, we study the dependence of the BAO signal on the population of voids classified by their sizes. We find for the first time the characteristic features of the correlation function of voids including the first robust detection of BAOs in mock galaxy catalogues. These show an anti-correlation around the scale corresponding to the smallest size of voids in the sample (the void exclusion effect), and dips at both sides of the BAO peak, which can be used to determine the significance of the BAO signal without any priori model. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that there is a scale-dependent bias for different populations of voids depending on the radius, with the peculiar property that the void population with the largest BAO significance corresponds to tracers with approximately zero bias on the largest scales. We further investigate the methodology on an additional set of 1000 realistic mock galaxy catalogues reproducing the SDSS-III/BOSS CMASS DR11 data, to control the impact of sky mask and radial selection function. Our solution is based on generating voids from randoms including the same survey geometry and completeness, and a post-processing cleaning procedure in the holes and at the boundaries of the survey. The methodology and optimal selection of void populations validated in this work have been used to perform the first BAO detection from voids in observations, presented in a companion paper.

  10. Seismic Techniques for Subsurface Voids Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, Roland; Korneev, Valeri; Elobaid Elnaiem, Ali; Mohamed, Fathelrahman; Sadooni, Fadhil

    2016-04-01

    A major hazards in Qatar is the presence of karst, which is ubiquitous throughout the country including depressions, sinkholes, and caves. Causes for the development of karst include faulting and fracturing where fluids find pathways through limestone and dissolve the host rock to form caverns. Of particular concern in rapidly growing metropolitan areas that expand in heretofore unexplored regions are the collapse of such caverns. Because Qatar has seen a recent boom in construction, including the planning and development of complete new sub-sections of metropolitan areas, the development areas need to be investigated for the presence of karst to determine their suitability for the planned project. In this paper, we present the results of a study to demonstrate a variety of seismic techniques to detect the presence of a karst analog in form of a vertical water-collection shaft located on the campus of Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. Seismic waves are well suited for karst detection and characterization. Voids represent high-contrast seismic objects that exhibit strong responses due to incident seismic waves. However, the complex geometry of karst, including shape and size, makes their imaging nontrivial. While karst detection can be reduced to the simple problem of detecting an anomaly, karst characterization can be complicated by the 3D nature of the problem of unknown scale, where irregular surfaces can generate diffracted waves of different kind. In our presentation we employ a variety of seismic techniques to demonstrate the detection and characterization of a vertical water collection shaft analyzing the phase, amplitude and spectral information of seismic waves that have been scattered by the object. We used the reduction in seismic wave amplitudes and the delay in phase arrival times in the geometrical shadow of the vertical shaft to independently detect and locate the object in space. Additionally, we use narrow band-pass filtered data combining two

  11. Effects of surface tension on void fraction in a multiple-channel simplifying triangle tight lattice rod bundle. Measurement and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the effects of reduced surface tension on void fraction, adiabatic experiments were conducted for both air-water and air-water with surfactant systems at room temperature and pressure. Void fraction data were obtained for bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows in a vertical channel with two subchannels simplifying a triangle tight lattice rod bundle. The void fraction was found to be lower in air-water system than air-water with surfactant one. In addition, the void fractions for both systems were found to be lower than those calculated by various correlations in literatures for circular pipe flow. In order to study the cause of the above data trend, for annular flows, the void fraction has been calculated by a subchannel analysis using wall and interfacial friction correlations in literatures as constitutive equations, and by assuming the liquid film to be uniform over the wall perimeter. The best agreement between the calculation and the experiment has been obtained when NASCA correlation for wall friction force and modified RELAP5/MOD2 correlation incorporating reduced surface tension effects for interfacial friction force were used. (author)

  12. Evolution of the supercluster-void network

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, P C; Einasto, M; Freudling, W; Fricke, K J; Gramann, M; Toomet, O; Frisch, Patrick; Einasto, J; Einasto, M; Freudling, W; Fricke, K J; Gramann, M; Toomet, O

    1995-01-01

    Recently, the observed cellular nature of the large-scale structure of the Universe with its quasi-regular pattern of superclusters and voids has been pointed out by several authors. In this paper, we investigate properties of the initial power spectrum which lead to prediction of structure consistent with these observations.For this purpose, we analyze the evolution of structure within four sets of 2- and 3-dimensional cosmological models, which differ in their initial power spectrum. The models include HDM and CDM models as well as double power-law models. We discuss in detail the impact of model parameters such as the large scale and small scale power and the position and height of the maxima of the power spectra on the predicted structure. The best agreement with observations was observed in the model with the Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum on large scales, a power index n\\approx -1.5 on small scales, and a maximum of the power spectrum at \\approx 130~\\Mpc. In this model the distribution of masses of cluster...

  13. Baryon effects on void statistics in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Paillas, Enrique; Padilla, Nelson; Tissera, Patricia; Helly, John; Schaller, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic voids are promising tools for cosmological tests due to their sensitivity to dark energy, modified gravity and alternative cosmological scenarios. Most previous studies in the literature of void properties use cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter (DM) particles that ignore the potential effect of baryonic physics. We analyse voids in the mass and subhalo density field in the EAGLE simulations, which follow the evolution of galaxies in a Lambda cold dark matter Universe with state-of-the-art subgrid models for baryonic processes. We study the effect of baryons on void statistics by comparing results with simulations that only follow the evolution of DM, but use the same initial conditions as EAGLE. When using the mass in the simulation, we find that a DM-only simulation produces 24 per cent more voids than a hydrodynamical one, but this difference comes mainly from voids with radii smaller than 5 Mpc. We do not find significant differences in the density profiles between voids in EAGLE and its...

  14. Influence of Grain Boundary Properties and Orientation on Void Nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensin, Saryu Jindal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT)

    2016-03-01

    For ductile metals, dynamic fracture during shock loading is thought to occur through void nucleation, growth, and then coalescence that leads to material failure. Particularly for high purity metals, it has been observed by numerous investigators that, under incipient spall conditions, voids appear to heterogeneously nucleate at some grain boundaries, but not others. Several factors can affect the void nucleation stress at a grain boundary, such as grain boundary structure, orientation with respect to the loading direction, energy and excess volume, in addition to its interactions with dislocations. In this work, we focus on the influence of loading direction with respect to the grain boundary plane and grain boundary properties such as energy and excess volume on the stress required for void nucleation of a grain boundary, in copper from moleculardynamics simulations. Flyer plate simulations were carried out for four boundary types with different energies and excess volumes. These boundaries were chosen as model systems to represent various boundaries observed in “real” materials. Simulations indicate that there is no direct correlation between the void nucleation stress at a boundary and either its energy and excess volume. This result suggests that average properties of grain boundaries alone are not sufficient indicators of the spall strength of a boundary and perhaps local boundary properties need to be taken into account in order to predict its susceptibility to void nucleation for broad ranges of materials. We also present both experimental and simulation results corresponding to the affect of orientation on void nucleation.

  15. Spatial and temporal tuning in void models for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been considerable interest in recent years in cosmological models in which we inhabit a very large, underdense void as an alternative to dark energy. A long-standing objection to this proposal is that observations limit our position to be very close to the void center. By selecting from a family of void profiles that fit supernova luminosity data, we carefully determine how far from the center we could be. To do so, we use the observed dipole component of the cosmic microwave background, as well as an additional stochastic peculiar velocity arising from primordial perturbations. We find that we are constrained to live within 80 Mpc of the center of a void--a somewhat weaker constraint than found in previous studies, but nevertheless a strong violation of the Copernican principle. By considering how such a Gpc-scale void would appear on the microwave sky, we also show that there can be a maximum of one of these voids within our Hubble radius. Hence, the constraint on our position corresponds to a fraction of the Hubble volume of order 10-8. Finally, we use the fact that void models only look temporarily similar to a cosmological-constant-dominated universe to argue that these models are not free of temporal fine-tuning.

  16. The Local Void: for or against $\\Lambda$CDM?

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Lizhi; Guo, Qi

    2014-01-01

    The emptiness of the Local Void has been put forward as a serious challenge to the current standard paradigm of structure formation in $\\Lambda$CDM. We use a high resolution cosmological N-body simulation, the Millennium-II run, combined with a sophisticated semi-analytical galaxy formation model, to explore statistically whether the local void is allowed within our current knowledge of galaxy formation in $\\Lambda$CDM. We find that about $15$ percent of the Local Group analogue systems ($11$ of $77$) in our simulation are associated with nearby low density regions having size and 'emptiness' similar to those of the observed Local Void. This suggests that, rather than a crisis of the $\\Lambda$CDM, the emptiness of the Local Void is indeed a success of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM theory. The paucity of faint galaxies in such voids results from a combination of two factors: a lower amplitude of the halo mass function in the voids than in the field, and a lower galaxy formation efficiency in void haloes due to hal...

  17. Influence of crystallographic orientation on growth behavior of spherical voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-ming; LIU Wen-hui; TANG Jian-guo; YE Ling-ying

    2008-01-01

    The influence of crystallographic orientation on the void growth in FCC crystals was numerically simulated with 3D crystal plasticity finite element by using a 3D unit cell including a spherical void, and the rate-dependent crystal plasticity theory was implemented as a user material subroutine. The results of the simulations show that crystallographic orientation has significant influence on the growth behavior of the void. Different active slip systems of the regions around the void cause the discontinuity in lattice rotation around the void, and the corner-like region is formed. In the case of the void located at grain boundary, large heterogeneous deformation occurs between the two grains, and the equivalent plastic deformation along grain boundary near the void in the case of θ=45°(θ is the angle between grain boundary direction and X-axis) is larger than the others. Large difference of orientation factor of the two grains leads to large equivalent plastic deformation along grain boundary, and the unit cell is more likely to fail by intergranular fracture.

  18. Partial discharges within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, H. A.; Chen, G.; Bakar, A. H. A.; Mokhlis, H.; Tunio, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    A void in a dielectric insulation material may exist due to imperfection in the insulation manufacturing or long term stressing. Voids have been identified as one of the common sources of partial discharge (PD) activity within an insulation system, such as in cable insulation and power transformers. Therefore, it is important to study PD phenomenon within void cavities in insulation. In this work, a model of PD activity within two spherical voids in a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed using finite element analysis software to study the parameters affecting PD behaviour. The parameters that have been taken into account are the void surface conductivity, electron generation rate and the inception and extinction fields. Measurements of PD activity within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin under ac sinusoidal applied voltage have also been performed. The simulation results have been compared with the measurement data to validate the model and to identify the parameters affecting PD behaviour. Comparison between measurements of PD activity within single and two voids in a dielectric material have also been made to observe the difference of the results under both conditions.

  19. Scaling of voids and fractality in the galaxy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, J; Gaite, Jose; Manrubia, Susanna C.

    2002-01-01

    We study here, from first principles, what properties of voids are to be expected in a fractal point distribution and how the void distribution is related to its morphology. We show this relation in various examples and apply our results to the distribution of galaxies. If the distribution of galaxies forms a fractal set, then this property results in a number of scaling laws to be fulfilled by voids. Consider a fractal set of dimension $D$ and its set of voids. If voids are ordered according to decreasing sizes (largest void has rank R=1, second largest R=2 and so on), then a relation between size $\\Lambda$ and rank of the form $\\Lambda (R) \\propto R^{-z}$ must hold, with $z = d/D$, and where $d$ is the euclidean dimension of the space where the fractal is embedded. The physical restriction $D 1$ in a fractal set. The average size $\\bar \\Lambda$ of voids depends on the upper ($\\Lambda_u$) and the lower ($\\Lambda_l$) cut-off as ${\\bar \\Lambda} \\propto \\Lambda_u^{1-D/d} \\Lambda_l^{D/d}$. Current analysis of v...

  20. The Effect Of Void Formation On The Reliability Of ED-XRF Measurements In Lead-Free Reflow Soldering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koncz-Horváth D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In lead-free reflow soldering, the presence of voids should be taken into account. For this reason, the effect of the applied heating profiles was examined via the characterization of voids in galvanic and immersion Sn coatings. According to EU Directive 2002/95/EC, the screening of Pb element of reflow soldering (i.e. of electrical and electronic equipment is necessary; and the practical implementation of this measurement is largely affected by the characteristics of the solder (i.e. the presence of voids and the inhomogeneity of the solder. Comparing the results of the above two coating methods, it was found that by chemical coating more voids were formed and the detected lead content was higher than for galvanic Sn. The standard deviation of Ag and Cu concentrations was mainly influenced by the appearance of large compounds in the second case, while with chemical coating, no large compounds were formed due to the elevated number of voids.

  1. THE MICRO-VOID GROWTH MODEL IN DUCTILE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Changsuo

    2000-01-01

    Based on the unbounded matrix, a void growth model is proposed in this paper. In this mod el, extending the Griffith criterion of energy conservation during the expanding of cracks to the case of impact loading, we propose an assumption that the strain energy in matrix can transform into its surface energy and kinetic energy during the micro-void growth. The void growth velocities of the OFHC copper and LY12 alu minium are calculated, and the result of which agrees with that of Seaman.

  2. The sparkling Universe: a scenario for cosmic void motions

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccarelli, Laura; Ruiz, Andrés N.; Lares, Marcelo; Paz, Dante J.; Maldonado, Victoria E.; Luparello, Heliana E.; Lambas, Diego Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We perform a statistical study of the global motion of cosmic voids using both a numerical simulation and observational data. We analyse their relation to large-scale mass flows and the physical effects that drive those motions. We analyse the bulk motions of voids, defined by the mean velocity of haloes in the surrounding shells in the numerical simulation, and by galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We find void mean bulk velocities close to 400 km/s, comparable to those...

  3. The effect of crumb rubber particle size to the optimum binder content for open graded friction course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC. PMID:24574875

  4. DYNAMICS OF HUMUS CONTENT AND AIR-WATER SOIL PROPERTIES IN INTENSIVE VEGETABLE AND FLOWER GLASSHOUSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted in Magadenovac glasshouses, eastern Croatia during seventeen years (1985. - 2002.. In that period, the glasshouse production of vegetables and flowers was intensive during the whole year. The trial was set up on 500 m2. Because of often crop rotation during the same year, soil tillage must be done fast and soil must be homogenized till depth of about 40 cm. Often in practice it is not possible to plough because of numerous reasons and then main mechanization is roto-digging machine. The aim of this investigation was to determine the consequences of long-term application of the special roto-digging machine and dynamics of organic matter and humus content during 17 years. For this purpose, multiple chemical and physical analyses were done. It was determined that, by intensive production during 17 years, organic matter content in soil surface layer significantly decreased (1995 year - 8.60% and 2002 year - 5.00%. In subsurface layer (35-50 cm organic matter content decreased by about 50%. At the same time, by decreasing organic matter content soil became more acid, because pH value measured in 1M KCl after 17 years was by 1.4 units lower in the surface layer, and by about 0.5 units lower in subsurface layer. Finally, soil became acid (pHKCl = 4.8. Decreasing in organic matter and humus content led to soil compaction, decreased soil porosity and degradation of other physical and chemical properties. It can be concluded, that it is necessary to import complete agricultural operations relative to soil tillage for soil preserving.

  5. Small-angle reflectometry of milk protein (β -casein) at the air/serum interface and its conformational changes due to fat content and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The surface structure of dispersed emulsions play a key role in stability of the system. Proteins being one of the most important surface-active components in foods stabilise interfaces by self-interaction, resulting in a stiff visco-elastic adsorbed layer. These interactions are sensitive to disruptive effects of lipids. Previous kinetics studies by the group 1 using the X-ray reflectivity method to investigate the surface adsorption of milk proteins indicate that β -casein had a stronger affinity for the air-liquid interface compared to whey proteins. It has been shown that initially a dense protein layer, with the thickness of 20 Angstroms is formed then a second more diffuse layer with lower volume density of protein follows. Here we report the conformational changes (with particular emphasise on the β -casein tail) occurred at the air-milk serum interface due to the effects of milk fat content, temperature and the milk preparation technique (ie homogenisation vs microfluidisation). In the effect of fat content on the adsorption of protein into the interface the key conclusion is that at lower temperatures the surface composition remains unchanged. The compositional changes, however, become significant at room temperature indicating adsorption of less reflective-water-soluble components into the surface layer. Repulsive interactions between casein aggregates are also involved. Microfluidised samples having the advantage of smaller particle size prove to be more stable to fat or temperature effects compared to the corresponding homogenised milks

  6. Mechanisms of void coarsening in helium implanted silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, J H

    2002-01-01

    There has been recent discussion of the mechanisms that give rise to the observed coarsening of void populations introduced into silicon by implanting helium and then annealing to remove the helium. Over the temperature range from approximately 700 to 1000 degree sign C and beyond, further annealing leads to an increase of the average void size and decrease in void density. This paper sets out to calculate the coarsening expected from the two primary potential mechanisms, migration and coalescence (M and C) and Ostwald ripening (OR). The methodology of the calculations is carefully set out together with the surface diffusion and vacancy diffusion parameters on which the mechanisms depend. For moderate anneal temperatures, up to 1000 degree sign C, it would seem unlikely that OR can play any part in void coarsening. On the other hand, M and C calculations show that this mechanism gives results consistent with the size range found in experimental results.

  7. Measurement and Analysis of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE) is one of the important parameters in the design and safety analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In some serious accident conditions, for example the total instantaneous blockage (TIB) accident,

  8. Stability of void fraction waves and bubble-slug transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of natural void fraction disturbances in a nitrogen-water flow has been studied, through the statistical analysis of conductivity probe signals, for void fractions ranging from .1 to .5 and including the bubble slug transition. The power spectral density function and the standard deviation of the void fraction signal have been computed for each probe, as well as the phase factor (wave velocity), the coherence function and the gain factor between each pair of consecutive probes as a function of frequency. For bubble flows, the results are in agreement with the results obtained by other authors. The transition from bubble to slug flow is related to void fraction wave instabilities, two kinds of instabilities occurring simultaneously: amplitude increase (gain factor > 1) and wave-breaking. A criterion for the flow-pattern transition between bubble and slug flow (maximum of standard deviation) is proposed

  9. Can decaying modes save void models for acceleration?

    CERN Document Server

    Zibin, James P

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the unexpected dimness of Type Ia supernovae (SNe), apparently due to accelerated expansion driven by some form of dark energy or modified gravity, has led to attempts to explain the observations using only general relativity with baryonic and cold dark matter, but by dropping the standard assumption of homogeneity on Hubble scales. In particular, the SN data can be explained if we live near the centre of a Hubble-scale void. However, such void models have been shown to be inconsistent with various observations, assuming the void consists of a pure growing mode. Here it is shown that models with significant decaying mode contribution today can be ruled out on the basis of the expected cosmic microwave background spectral distortion. This esentially closes one of very few remaining loopholes in attempts to rule out void models, and strengthens the evidence for Hubble-scale homogeneity.

  10. Answers from the void: VIDE and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Pisani, A; Lavaux, G; Wandelt, B D

    2014-01-01

    We discuss various applications of VIDE, the Void IDentification and Examination toolkit, an open-source Python/C++ code for finding cosmic voids in galaxy redshift surveys and N-body simulations. Based on a substantially enhanced version of ZOBOV, VIDE not only finds voids, but also summarizes their properties, extracts statistical information, and provides a Python-based platform for more detailed analysis, such as manipulating void catalogs and particle members, filtering, plotting, computing clustering statistics, stacking, comparing catalogs, and fitting density profiles. VIDE also provides significant additional functionality for pre-processing inputs: for example, VIDE can work with volume- or magnitude-limited galaxy samples with arbitrary survey geometries, or dark matter particles or halo catalogs in a variety of common formats. It can also randomly subsample inputs and includes a Halo Occupation Distribution model for constructing mock galaxy populations. VIDE has been used for a wide variety of ap...

  11. A variational void coalescence model for ductile metals

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2011-08-17

    We present a variational void coalescence model that includes all the essential ingredients of failure in ductile porous metals. The model is an extension of the variational void growth model by Weinberg et al. (Comput Mech 37:142-152, 2006). The extended model contains all the deformation phases in ductile porous materials, i.e. elastic deformation, plastic deformation including deviatoric and volumetric (void growth) plasticity followed by damage initiation and evolution due to void coalescence. Parametric studies have been performed to assess the model\\'s dependence on the different input parameters. The model is then validated against uniaxial loading experiments for different materials. We finally show the model\\'s ability to predict the damage mechanisms and fracture surface profile of a notched round bar under tension as observed in experiments. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  12. Uroflowmetry in neurologically normal children with voiding disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Nielsen, K.K.; Kristensen, E S;

    1985-01-01

    of neurological deficits underwent a complete diagnostic program including intravenous urography, voiding cystography and cystoscopy as well as spontaneous uroflowmetry, cystometry-emg and pressure-flow-emg study. The incidence of dyssynergia was 22%. However, neither the flow curve pattern nor single flow...... variables were able to identify children with dyssynergia. Consequently uroflowmetry seems inefficient in the screening for dyssynergia in neurological normal children with voiding disorders in the absence of anatomical bladder outlet obstruction....

  13. Irradiation creep relaxation of void swelling-driven stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Swelling-driven-creep test specimens are used to measure the compressive stresses that develop due to constraint of irradiation void swelling. These specimens use a previously non-irradiated 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel holder to axially restrain two Type 304 stainless steel tubular specimens that were previously irradiated in the US Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at 490 °C. One specimen was previously irradiated to fluence levels in the void nucleation regime (9 dpa) and the other in the quasi-steady void growth regime (28 dpa). A lift-off compliance measurement technique was used post-irradiation to determine compressive stresses developed during reirradiation of the two specimen assemblies in Row 7 of EBR-II at temperatures of 547 °C and 504 °C, respectively, to additional damage levels each of about 5 dpa. Results obtained on the higher fluence swelling-driven-creep specimen show that compressive stress due to constraint of swelling retards void swelling to a degree that is consistent with active load uniaxial compression specimens that were irradiated as part of a previously reported multiaxial in-reactor creep experiment. Swelling results obtained on the lower fluence swelling-driven creep specimen show a much larger effect of compressive stress in reducing swelling, demonstrating that the larger effect of stress on swelling is on void nucleation as compared to void growth. Test results are analyzed using a recently proposed multiaxial creep-swelling model.

  14. Void Growth in Single and Bicrystalline Metals: Atomistic Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traiviratana, Sirirat; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Benson, David J.; Meyers, Marc A.

    2007-12-01

    MD simulations in monocrystalline and bicrystalline copper were carried out with LAMMPS to reveal void growth mechanisms. The specimens were subjected to both tensile uniaxial and hydrostatic strains; the results confirm that the emission of (shear) loops is the primary mechanism of void growth. However, these shear loops develop along two slip planes (and not one, as previously thought), in a heretofore unidentified mechanism of cooperative growth. The emission of dislocations from voids is the first stage, and their reaction and interaction is the second stage. These loops, forming initially on different {111} planes, join at the intersection, the Burgers vector of the dislocations being parallel to the intersection of two {111} planes: a direction. Thus, the two dislocations cancel at the intersection and a biplanar shear loop is formed. The expansion of the loops and their cross slip leads to the severely work hardened layer surrounding a growing void. Calculations were carried out on voids with different sizes, and a size dependence of the stress response to emitted dislocations was observed, in disagreement with the Gurson model[1] which is scale independent. Calculations were also carried out for a void at the interface between two grains.

  15. The Effect of Nearby Voids on Galaxy Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Bucklein, Brian K; Hintz, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    The size, shape and degree of emptiness of void interiors sheds light on the details of galaxy formation. A particularly interesting question is whether void interiors are completely empty or contain a dwarf population. However the nearby voids that are most conducive for dwarf searches have large angular diameters, on the order of a steradian, making it difficult to redshift-map a statistically significant portion of their volume to the magnitude limit of dwarf galaxies. As part of addressing this problem, we investigate here the usefulness of number counts in establishing the best locations to search inside nearby (d < 300 Mpc) galaxy voids, utilizing Wolf plots of log(n < m) vs. m as the basic diagnostic. To illustrate expected signatures, we consider the signature of three void profiles, "cut out", "built up", and "universal profile" carved into Monte-Carlo Schechter function models. We then investigate the signatures of voids in the Millennium Run dark matter simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Su...

  16. The non-destructive measurement of soil water content of upper part of the cave using soft component of air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, A.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Okubo, S.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a new radiographic method to measure the time variation of the water content of the soil with soft component of air shower. Air shower produced by a primary cosmic ray consists of hard component and soft component. Hard component is mainly consists of muon, and soft components is consists of electron, positron and photon. The penetration power of soft component is weaker than that of hard component, so soft component is suitable for small scale structure thinner than 2 kg/cm2 equivalent to 20m thick water, like buildings and small hills. But it requires particle identification which means distinguishing hard component and soft component. Particle identification can be done with strong magnets and dense detectors, but it is very hard to use that kind of detector for radiography because of their weight and cost. We established the cheap and effective method to distinguish soft component and hard component statistically. We also performed measurements in Arimura observation pit of Mt. Sakurajima, Japan. As a result of this observation, we found there is an anti-correlation between soft component flux and rainfall. If the water content of the soil became larger, the amount of absorption increases. So this result can be interpreted as detecting the increase of the water content by soft component flux. This method can be applied for the quantitive compensation of the measurement data like absolute gravitymeter data and tiltmeter data which is easy to receive turbulence by rain. It is also expected that the quantitive compensation leads to the improvement in accuracy of diastrophism measurement and the improvement in presumed accuracy of magma movement inside a volcano. We will report this newly developed radiography method using soft component for small scale structure in detail and the result of measurement. Further improvement and possible application are also discussed.

  17. Development and validation of a technique of measurement of the void fraction by X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to develop an instrumentation to measure the local void fraction map in an air - water flow by X-ray tomography. After an exhaustive literature survey, the selected reconstruction algorithms are compared to choose the most effective. Several improvements are added and tested to enhance the reconstruction accuracy in the vicinity of the pipe walls. An experimental parallel beam tomographic bench has been developed and its operating parameters have been optimized. The acquisition system and the reconstruction algorithm are used to map phantoms, homogeneous or non - homogeneous air - water bubbly flows and bundle flows with regular or interlaced sampling scheme. The method is validated by comparing with the void fraction maps measured with an optical probe. At the end, the method is extended to the fan-beam geometry. (author)

  18. Analysis of diesel particulate: influence of air-fuel ratio and fuel composition on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombaert, K.; le Moyne, L.; Maleissye, Tardieu de [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Mecanique Physique, Saint Cyr l' Ecole (France); Amouroux, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Lab. de Genie des Procedes Plasmas, Paris (France)

    2002-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are pollutants produced during the combustion process and are considered as soot precursors. PAH emissions are not presently regulated although they may have dangerous effects on human health. A comparison is presented here of the influence of engine parameters (air-fuel ratio and brake mean effective pressure) on the composition of particulates. The effects of a water-fuel emulsion on PAH (commonly examined in large engines) are also studied in a 1.9 L commonrail diesel engine: 13 per cent of water added to the fuel decreases the PAH concentration in diesel soot by half. The PAH emissions during cold-start of an automotive diesel engine are also presented. (Author)

  19. Void probability as a function of the void's shape and scale-invariant models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, E.; Gaztanaga, E.

    1991-01-01

    The dependence of counts in cells on the shape of the cell for the large scale galaxy distribution is studied. A very concrete prediction can be done concerning the void distribution for scale invariant models. The prediction is tested on a sample of the CfA catalog, and good agreement is found. It is observed that the probability of a cell to be occupied is bigger for some elongated cells. A phenomenological scale invariant model for the observed distribution of the counts in cells, an extension of the negative binomial distribution, is presented in order to illustrate how this dependence can be quantitatively determined. An original, intuitive derivation of this model is presented.

  20. Evidence of void lattice formation in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainshtein, DI; Altena, C; denHartog, HW; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe new observations on the production of voids and void-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl under electron irradiation. Until now there is no information about voids in NaCl in the literature. In many irradiated samples voids with sizes between 0.05 and 0.7 mu m have been ob

  1. THE INSTABILITY OF THE DIFFUSION-CONTROLLED GRAIN-BOUNDARY VOID IN STRESSED SOLID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 李中华

    2003-01-01

    As atoms migrate along a void surface and grain-boundary, driven by various thermodynamic forces, the grain-boundary void changes its shape and volume. When the void changes its configuration, the free energy of the system also changes. In this article, the free energy is calculated for an evolving grain-boundary void filled with gas in a stressed solid. Then the instability conditions and the equilibrium shape of the void are determined as a function of the grain-boundary and surface energies, the void volume, the externally applied stresses, as well as the internal pressure built up by the gas filled in the void.

  2. Discrete modelling of ductile crack growth by void growth to coalescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    of the ligaments between the crack-tip and a void or between voids involves the development of very large strains, which are included in the model by using remeshing at several stages of the plastic deformation. The material is here described by standard isotropic hardening Mises theory. For a very small void......Ductile crack growth is analyzed by discrete representation of the voids growing near a blunting crack-tip. Coalescence of the nearest void with the crack-tip is modeled, followed by the subsequent coalescence of other discretely represented voids with the newly formed crack-tip. Necking...... volume fraction the crack-tip tends to interact with one void at a time, while larger void volume fractions lead to simultaneous interaction of multiple voids on the plane ahead of the crack-tip. In some cases a change from one of these mechanisms to the other is seen during growth through the many voids...

  3. Measurements of gas pressure in voids in epoxy castings for high voltage equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Esben; Henriksen, Mogens; Nielsen, E

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of samples of epoxy each containing one void, which were produced at different pressures, is reported. The samples were of the disk type with the void located in the center. The gas in the voids has a pressure somewhat related to the curing pressure, thereby directly influencing the partial-discharge inception voltage. Data show that gas pressure in voids in epoxy castings can be determined by use of an ultrasound test method. A relationship between the void gas pressure and ...

  4. Transient boiling and void formation during postulated reactivity-initiated accident in BWR: Experimental simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current safety analysis of the postulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) in the boiling water reactor (BWR) neglects the favorable effect of voids because of the difficulties in predicting void formation in transient boiling. This paper presents experimental results on the transient void formation in response to a step heating of a surface facing to low-pressure subcooled water. The void fractions are measured by measuring optically the water surface movement or water velocity induced by the void formation. (author)

  5. The Aspen--Amsterdam Void Finder Comparison Project

    CERN Document Server

    Colberg, Joerg M; Foster, Caroline; Platen, Erwin; Brunino, Riccardo; Neyrinck, Mark; Basilakos, Spyros; Fairall, Anthony; Feldman, Hume; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hahn, Oliver; Hoyle, Fiona; Mueller, Volker; Nelson, Lorne; Plionis, Manolis; Porciaini, Cristiano; Shandarin, Sergei; Vogeley, Michael S; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2008-01-01

    Despite a history that dates back at least a quarter of a century studies of voids in the large--scale structure of the Universe are bedevilled by a major problem: there exist a large number of quite different void--finding algorithms, a fact that has so far got in the way of groups comparing their results without worrying about whether such a comparison in fact makes sense. Because of the recent increased interest in voids, both in very large galaxy surveys and in detailed simulations of cosmic structure formation, this situation is very unfortunate. We here present the first systematic comparison study of thirteen different void finders constructed using particles, haloes, and semi--analytical model galaxies extracted from a subvolume of the Millennium simulation. The study includes many groups that have studied voids over the past decade. We show their results and discuss their differences and agreements. As it turns out, the basic results of the various methods agree very well with each other in that they...

  6. Electromigration of intergranular voids in metal films for microelectronic interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Averbuch, A; Ravve, I

    2003-01-01

    Voids and cracks often occur in the interconnect lines of microelectronic devices. They increase the resistance of the circuits and may even lead to a fatal failure. Voids may occur inside a single grain, but often they appear on the boundary between two grains. In this work, we model and analyze numerically the migration and evolution of an intergranular void subjected to surface diffusion forces and external voltage applied to the interconnect. The grain-void interface is considered one-dimensional, and the physical formulation of the electromigration and diffusion model results in two coupled fourth-order one-dimensional time-dependent PDEs. The boundary conditions are specified at the triple points, which are common to both neighboring grains and the void. The solution of these equations uses a finite difference scheme in space and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme in time, and is also coupled to the solution of a static Laplace equation describing the voltage distribution throughout the grain. Since the v...

  7. Computer codes validation for conditions of core voiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Void generation during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a core of a CANDU reactor is of specific importance because of its strong coupling with reactor neutronics. The use of dynamic behaviour and computer code capability to predict void generation accurately in the temporal and spatial domain of the reactor core is fundamental for the determination of CANDU safety. The Canadian industry has used the RD-14M test facilities for its code validation. The validation exercises for the Canadian computer codes TUF and CATHENA were performed some years ago. Recently, the CNSC has gained access to the USNRC computer code TRACE. This has provided an opportunity to explore the use of this code in CANDU related applications. As a part of regulatory assessment and resolving identified Generic Issues (GI), and in an effort to build independent thermal hydraulic computer codes assessment capability within the CNSC, preliminary validation exercises were performed using the TRACE computer code for an evaluation of the void generation phenomena. The paper presents a preliminary assessment of the TRACE computer code for an RD-14M channel voiding test. It is also a validation exercise of void generation for the TRACE computer code. The accuracy of the obtained results is discussed and compared with previous validation assessments that were done using the CATHENA and TUF codes. (author)

  8. Weak lensing by voids in modified lensing potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Baugh, Carlton; Pascoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We study lensing by voids in Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity cosmologies, which are examples of theories of gravity that modify the lensing potential. We find voids in the dark matter and halo density fields of N-body simulations and compute their lensing signal analytically from the void density profiles, which we show are well fit by a simple analytical formula. In the Cubic Galileon model, the modifications to gravity inside voids are not screened and they approximately double the size of the lensing effects compared to GR. The difference is largely determined by the direct effects of the fifth force on lensing and less so by the modified density profiles. For this model, we also discuss the subtle impact on the force and lensing calculations caused by the screening effects of haloes that exist in and around voids. In the Nonlocal model, the impact of the modified density profiles and the direct modifications to lensing are comparable, but they boost the lensing signal by only $\\approx 10\\%$, compared ...

  9. An analytical model for porous single crystals with ellipsoidal voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbiakop, A.; Constantinescu, A.; Danas, K.

    2015-11-01

    A rate-(in)dependent constitutive model for porous single crystals with arbitrary crystal anisotropy (e.g., FCC, BCC, HCP, etc.) containing general ellipsoidal voids is developed. The proposed model, denoted as modified variational model (MVAR), is based on the nonlinear variational homogenization method, which makes use of a linear comparison porous material to estimate the response of the nonlinear porous single crystal. Periodic multi-void finite element simulations are used in order to validate the MVAR for a large number of parameters including cubic (FCC, BCC) and hexagonal (HCP) crystal anisotropy, various creep exponents (i.e., nonlinearity), several stress triaxiality ratios, general void shapes and orientations and various porosity levels. The MVAR model, which involves a priori no calibration parameters, is found to be in good agreement with the finite element results for all cases considered in the rate-dependent context. The model is then used in a predictive manner to investigate the complex response of porous single crystals in several cases with strong coupling between the anisotropy of the crystal and the (morphological) anisotropy induced by the shape and orientation of the voids. Finally, a simple way of calibrating the MVAR with just two adjustable parameters is depicted in the rate-independent context so that an excellent agreement with the FE simulation results is obtained. In this last case, this proposed model can be thought as a generalization of the Gurson model in the context of porous single crystals and general ellipsoidal void shapes and orientations.

  10. Surveying for Dwarf Galaxies Within Void FN8

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Stephen R.

    2016-06-01

    The dwarf galaxy population in low density volumes, or voids, is a test of galaxy formation models and how they treat dark matter; some models say dwarf galaxies cannot be in void centers while others say they can. Since it appears many dwarf galaxies are H-alpha emitters, a well-designed deep survey through a nearby void center will either find nothing, and thus constrain the population there to be at some percentage below the mean, or it will find H-alpha emitters and significantly challenge several otherwise successful theories. Either result is a significant step in better understanding galaxy formation and large-scale structure. In 2013, a redshifted H-alpha imaging survey was begun for dwarf galaxies with ‑14.0 ≤ Mr ≤ ‑12.0 in the heart and back of the void FN8. Our first results have been surprising, furnishing significantly more candidate objects than anticipated. Through the Gemini Fast Turnaround Program, seven spectrum have been obtained, with one spectrum being a strong candidate for habitation within the center of the void.

  11. The Star Formation Properties of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Crystal; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    We measure the star formation properties of two large samples of galaxies from the SDSS in large-scale cosmic voids on time scales of 10 Myr and 100 Myr, using Ha emission line strengths and GALEX FUV fluxes, respectively. The first sample consists of 109,818 optically selected galaxies. We find that void galaxies in this sample have higher specific star formation rates (SSFRs; star formation rates per unit stellar mass) than similar stellar mass galaxies in denser regions. The second sample is a subset of the optically selected sample containing 8070 galaxies with reliable S/N HI detections from ALFALFA. For the HI detected sample, SSFRs are similar regardless of large-scale environment. Investigating only the HI detected dwarf galaxies reveals a trend towards higher SSFRs in voids. Furthermore, we estimate the star formation rate per unit HI mass, known as the star formation efficiency (SFE) of a galaxy, as a function of environment. For the overall HI detected population, we notice no environmental dependence. Limiting the sample to dwarf galaxies again reveals a trend towards higher SFEs in voids. These results suggest that void environments provide a nurturing environment for dwarf galaxy evolution.

  12. Only the Lonely: H I Imaging of Void Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, K; Aragón-Calvo, M A; van Gorkom, J H; van de Weygaert, R; van der Hulst, J M; Kovač, K; Yip, C -W; Peebles, P J E

    2010-01-01

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, as well as provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We have completed a pilot survey for the HI imaging aspects of a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), imaging 15 void galaxies in HI in local (d < 100 Mpc) voids. HI masses range from 3.5 x 10^8 to 3.8 x 10^9 M_sun, with one nondetection with an upper limit of 2.1 x 10^8 M_sun. Our galaxies were selected using a structural and geometric technique to produce a sample that is purely environmentally selected and uniformly represents the void galaxy population. In addition, we use a powerful new backend of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that allows us to probe a large volume around each targeted galaxy, simultaneously providing an environmentally constrained sample of for...

  13. Simulation studies of the information content of muon arrival time observations of high energy extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By extensive Monte Carlo calculations, using the air shower simulation code CORSIKA, EAS muon arrival time distributions and EAS time profiles up to 320 m distances from the shower centre have been generated, for proton, oxygen and iron induced showers using different hadronic interaction models as Monte Carlo generators. The model dependence and mass discriminating features have been scrutinised for three energies ranges, (1.0-1.78) 1015 eV, (1.0-1.78) 1016 eV and (1.78-3.16) 1016 eV. The present studies have been focussed to the exploration of the information carried by EAS time observables and their correlations in view of features discriminating the mass of the cosmic primary and different hadronic interaction models. Advanced non-parametric statistical methods based on Bayesian decision rules have been applied to scrutinise the EAS observables and to specify quantitatively the results. A first inspection allows some tentative conclusions: 1. The correlations of the local muon arrival time variables with the local muon density improves the true classification rate and discrimination features. It turns out that the correlation can be replaced by a single parameter: Δτq/ρμ. The classification gets improved by correlating the muon arrival times with the shower age, the shower size Ne and Nμtr; 2. Correlating the observation of Δτq/ρμ for two radial distances, the mass discrimination of the primaries get only slightly improved, different from our previous results analysing the (global) arrival times of the foremost muon correlated at two different radial distances; 3. Comparing the classification rates for different muon arrival time quantities: the first quartile, the median and the third quartile, by both considered models QGSJET and VENUS similar results have been obtained.The analysis of the median Δτ0.50 and of the slow component of the arrival time distribution, represented by Δτ0.75, improves the true-classification rate of the oxygen component

  14. A Novel Low-Cost Open-Hardware Platform for Monitoring Soil Water Content and Multiple Soil-Air-Vegetation Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitella, Giovanni; Rossi, Roberta; Bochicchio, Rocco; Perniola, Michele; Amato, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring soil water content at high spatio-temporal resolution and coupled to other sensor data is crucial for applications oriented towards water sustainability in agriculture, such as precision irrigation or phenotyping root traits for drought tolerance. The cost of instrumentation, however, limits measurement frequency and number of sensors. The objective of this work was to design a low cost “open hardware” platform for multi-sensor measurements including water content at different depths, air and soil temperatures. The system is based on an open-source ARDUINO microcontroller-board, programmed in a simple integrated development environment (IDE). Low cost high-frequency dielectric probes were used in the platform and lab tested on three non-saline soils (ECe1: 2.5 soil, 0.07 for the clay loam and 0.08 for the sandy loam. The overall model (pooled soil data) fitted the data very well (R2 = 0.89) showing a high stability, being able to generate very similar RMSEs during training and validation (RMSEtraining = 2.63; RMSEvalidation = 2.61). Data recorded on the card were automatically sent to a remote server allowing repeated field-data quality checks. This work provides a framework for the replication and upgrading of a customized low cost platform, consistent with the open source approach whereby sharing information on equipment design and software facilitates the adoption and continuous improvement of existing technologies. PMID:25337742

  15. On the void explanations of the Cold Spot

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos-Caballero, A; Martínez-González, E; Vielva, P

    2015-01-01

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) contribution induced on the cosmic microwave background by the presence of a supervoid as the one detected by Szapudi et al. (2015) is reviewed in this letter in order to check whether it could explain the Cold Spot (CS) anomaly. Two different models, previously used for the same purpose, are considered to describe the matter density profile of the void: a top hat function and a compensated profile produced by a Gaussian potential. The analysis shows that, even enabling ellipticity changes or different values for the dark-energy equation of state parameter $\\omega$, the ISW contribution due to the presence of the void does not reproduce the properties of the CS. Finally, the probability of alignment between the void and the CS is also questioned as an argument in favor of a physical connection between these two phenomena.

  16. Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs

  17. Structural control of void formation in dual phase steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, Masafumi

    The objective of this study is to explore the void formation mechanisms and to clarify the influence of the hardness and structural parameters (volume fraction, size and morphology) of martensite particles on the void formation and mechanical properties in dual phase steels composed of ferrite...... and martensite. Two dual phase steels (Fe-0.099mass%C-1.63mass%Mn and Fe-0.148mass%-1.60mass%Mn) with martensite particles of different hardness values, volume fractions, sizes and shapes were produced by hot rolling and annealing. Mechanical properties were characterised by Vickers hardness and nanohardness...... measurements, tensile tests and hole-expansion tests. The initial microstructure and the deformed microstructure were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In situ tensile tests in a SEM were applied for direct observation of the void formation...

  18. Metallicities of galaxies in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A; Tepliakova, A; Burenkov, A

    2010-01-01

    Does the void environment have a sizable effect on the evolution of dwarf galaxies? If yes, the best probes should be the most fragile least massive dwarfs. We compiled a sample of about one hundred dwarfs with M_B in the range -12 to -18 mag, falling within the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. The goal is to study their evolutionary parameters -- gas metallicity and gas mass-fraction, and to address the epoch of the first substantial episode of Star Formation. Here we present and discuss the results of O/H measurements in 38 void galaxies, among which several the most metal-poor galaxies are found with the oxygen abundances of 12+log(O/H)=7.12-7.3 dex.

  19. Effects of Void Uncertainties on Pin Power Distributions and the Void Reactivity Coefficient for a 10X10 BWR Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, F.; Krouthen, J.; Helmersson, S.; Chawla, R

    2004-03-01

    A significant source of uncertainty in Boiling Water Reactor physics is associated with the precise characterisation of the axially-dependent neutron moderation properties of the coolant inside the fuel assembly channel, and the corresponding effects on reactor physics parameters such as the lattice neutron multiplication, the neutron migration length, and the pin-by-pin power distribution. In this paper, the effects of particularly relevant void fraction uncertainties on reactor physics parameters have been studied for a BWR assembly of type Westinghouse SVEA-96 using the CASMO-4, HELIOS/PRESTO-2 and MCNP4C codes. The SVEA-96 geometry is characterised by the sub-division of the assembly into four different sub-bundles by means of an inner bypass with a cruciform shape. The study has covered the following issues: (a) the effects of different cross-section data libraries on the void coefficient of reactivity, for a wide range of void fractions; (b) the effects due to a heterogeneous vs. homogeneous void distribution inside the sub-bundles; and (c) the consequences of partly inserted absorber blades producing different void fractions in different sub-bundles. (author)

  20. Voiding trial outcome following pelvic floor repair without incontinence procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Won, Sara; Haviland, Miriam J.; Bargen, Emily Von; Hacker, Michele R.; Li, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Our aim was to identify predictors of postoperative voiding trial failure among patients who had a pelvic floor repair without a concurrent incontinence procedure in order to identify low-risk patients in whom postoperative voiding trials may be modified. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent pelvic floor repair without concurrent incontinence procedures at two institutions from 1 November 2011 through 13 October 2013 after abstracting demographic and clinical data from medical records. The primary outcome was postoperative retrograde voiding trial failure. We used modified Poisson regression to calculate the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI). Results Of the 371 women who met eligibility criteria, 294 (79.2 %) had complete data on the variables of interest. Forty nine (16.7%) failed the trial, and those women were less likely to be white (p = 0.04), more likely to have had an anterior colporrhaphy (p = 0.001), and more likely to have had a preoperative postvoid residual (PVR) ≥150 ml (p = 0.001). After adjusting for race, women were more likely to fail their voiding trial if they had a preoperative PVR of ≥150 ml (RR: 1.9; 95 % CI: 1.1–3.2); institution also was associated with voiding trial failure (RR: 3.0; 95 % CI: 1.6–5.4). Conclusions Among our cohort, postoperative voiding trial failure was associated with a PVR of ≥150 ml and institution at which the surgery was performed. PMID:26886553

  1. Warmth Elevating the Depths: Shallower Voids with Warm Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lin F.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Falck, Bridget; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) has been proposed as an alternative to cold dark matter (CDM), to resolve issues such as the apparent lack of satellites around the Milky Way. Even if WDM is not the answer to observational issues, it is essential to constrain the nature of the dark matter. The effect of WDM on haloes has been extensively studied, but the small-scale initial smoothing in WDM also affects the present-day cosmic web and voids. It suppresses the cosmic "sub-web" inside voids, and the forma...

  2. Structural control of void formation in dual phase steels

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma, Masafumi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Winther, Grethe

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the void formation mechanisms and to clarify the influence of the hardness and structural parameters (volume fraction, size and morphology) of martensite particles on the void formation and mechanical properties in dual phase steels composed of ferrite and martensite. Two dual phase steels (Fe-0.099mass%C-1.63mass%Mn and Fe-0.148mass%-1.60mass%Mn) with martensite particles of different hardness values, volume fractions, sizes and shapes were produced ...

  3. TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC HYPER-ELASTIC MATERIAL RECTANGULAR PLATE WITH VOIDS UNDER A UNIAXIAL EXTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昌钧; 任九生

    2003-01-01

    The finite deformation and stress analyses for a transversely isotropic rectangularplate with voids and made of hyper-elastic material with the generalized neo-Hookean strainenergy function under a uniaxial extension are studied. The deformation functions of plateswith voids that are symmetrically distributed in a certain manner are given and the functionsare expressed by two parameters by solving the differential equations. The solution may beapproximately obtained from the minimum potential energy principle. Thus, the analyticsolutions of the deformation and stress of the plate are obtained. The growth of the void.s andthe distribution of stresses along the voids are analyzed and the influences of the degree ofanisotropy, the size of the voids and the distance between the voids are discussed. Thecharacteristics of the growth of the voids and the distribution of stresses of the plates with onevoid, three or five voids are obtained and compared.

  4. Simulation of lattice orientation effects on void growth and coalescence by crystal plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei YANG; Xianghuai DONG

    2009-01-01

    A three dimensional rate-dependent crystal plasticity model is applied to study the influence of crystal orientation and grain boundary on the void growth and coales- cence. The 3D computational model is a unit cell including one sphere void or two sphere voids. The results of three different orientations for single crystal and bicrystals are compared. It is found that crystallographic orientation has noticeable influences on the void growth directionvoid shape, and void coalescence of single crystal. The void growth rate of bicrystals depends on the crystallographic orientations and grain bounldary direction.

  5. The Instability of Void Fraction Waves in Vertical Gas—Liquid Two—Phase Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaojiangSUN; DachunYAN; 等

    1999-01-01

    The measuring and analyzing results of void fraction waves in different flow regimes show that the propagating velocity of void fraction waves depends on flow regimes and mean void fraction.The disturbance at some frequencies can enhance the void fraction wave velocity.Non-linear analysis show that the instability process of bubble flow is a chaotic process.Before the bubbly flow transits to cap-bubbly flow the growth rate of void fraction waves becomes the maximum value when the disturbance frequency is around the main frequency of void fraction waves.

  6. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of void lattice formation during irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, H. L.; Singh, B. N.

    2003-11-01

    Over the last decade, molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades have revealed that glissile clusters of self-interstitial crowdions are formed directly in cascades and that they migrate one-dimensionally along close-packed directions with extremely low activation energies. Occasionally, under various conditions, a crowdion cluster can change its Burgers vector and glide along a different close-packed direction. The recently developed production bias model (PBM) of microstructure evolution under irradiation has been structured specifically to take into account the unique properties of the vacancy and interstitial clusters produced in the cascades. Atomic-scale kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have played a useful role in understanding the defect reaction kinetics of one-dimensionally migrating crowdion clusters as a function of the frequency of direction changes. This has made it possible to incorporate the migration properties of crowdion clusters and changes in reaction kinetics into the PBM. In the present paper we utilize similar KMC simulations to investigate the significant role that crowdion clusters can play in the formation and stability of void lattices. The creation of stable void lattices, starting from a random distribution of voids, is simulated by a KMC model in which vacancies migrate three-dimensionally and self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters migrate one-dimensionally, interrupted by directional changes. The necessity of both one-dimensional migration and Burgers vectors changes of SIA clusters for the production of stable void lattices is demonstrated, and the effects of the frequency of Burgers vector changes are described.

  7. Unusual Case of Voiding Symptoms and Constipation: Retrorectal Cystic Hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Abad, Pablo; Sinués-Ojas, Bryan A; Fernández-Arjona, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Retrorectal cystic hamartoma (tailgut cyst) is a rare congenital lesion. This study is one of the few reports of this rare clinical entity causing irritative voiding symptoms and constipation in a male patient. Although most cases are asymptomatic, patients may present with symptoms resulting from local mass effect or complication. PMID:26902834

  8. The Effect of Random Voids in the Modified Gurson Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Huiyang; Yazzie, Kyle; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jiang, Hanqing

    2012-02-01

    The porous plasticity model (usually referred to as the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model or modified Gurson model) has been widely used in the study of microvoid-induced ductile fracture. In this paper, we studied the effects of random voids on the porous plasticity model. Finite-element simulations were conducted to study a copper/tin/copper joint bar under uniaxial tension using the commercial finite-element package ABAQUS. A randomly distributed initial void volume fraction with different types of distribution was introduced, and the effects of this randomness on the crack path and macroscopic stress-strain behavior were studied. It was found that consideration of the random voids is able to capture more detailed and localized deformation features, such as different crack paths and different ultimate tensile strengths, and meanwhile does not change the macroscopic stress-strain behavior. It seems that the random voids are able to qualitatively explain the scattered observations in experiments while keeping the macroscopic measurements consistent.

  9. A cosmic watershed : the WVF void detection technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2007-01-01

    On megaparsec scales the Universe is permeated by an intricate filigree of clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, the cosmic web. For the understanding of its dynamical and hierarchical history it is crucial to identify objectively its complex morphological components. One of the most characteristic

  10. Answers from the Void: VIDE and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Hamaus, N.; Pisani, A.; Lavaux, G.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss various applications ofvide, the Void IDentification and Examination toolkit, anopen-source Python/C++ code for finding cosmic voids in galaxy redshift surveysand $N$-body simulations.Based on a substantially enhanced version of ZOBOV, vide not only finds voids, but alsosummarizes their properties, extracts statisticalinformation, and providesa Python-based platform for more detailed analysis, such asmanipulating void catalogs and particle members, filtering, plotting,computing clustering statistics, stacking, comparing catalogs, andfitting density profiles.vide also provides significant additional functionality forpre-processing inputs: for example, vide can work with volume- ormagnitude-limited galaxy samples with arbitrary survey geometries,or darkmatter particles or halo catalogs in a variety of common formats.It can also randomly subsample inputsand includes a Halo Occupation Distribution model forconstructing mock galaxy populations.vide has been used for a wide variety of applications, fromdiscovering a universal density profile to estimatingprimordial magnetic fields, andis publicly available athttp://bitbucket.org/cosmicvoids/vide\\_publicandhttp://www.cosmicvoids.net.

  11. Electric field theory and the fallacy of void capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the capacitance of a gaseous void is discussed as applied to electrical insulation science. The most pertinent aspect of the capacitance definition is that of reference to a single-valued potential difference between surfaces. This implies that these surfaces must be surfaces...

  12. Approximate expressions for the logarithmic mean void fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The logarithmic mean void fraction (LMe was introduced in literature by El Hajal et al. (El Hajal, J., Thome, J. R., Cavallini, A., Condensation in Horizontal Tubes, Part 1: Two-Phase Flow Pattern Map, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 46 (2003 18, pp. 3349-3363. In the present study, approximate expressions for the logarithmic mean void fraction (LMe will be presented because the original formula for the computation of the logarithmic mean void fraction in finite precision floating-point arithmetic may suffer from serious round-off problems when both differences (eh and era are very close to each other. This situation corresponds to very low values or very high values of mass quality (x. The analogy between the logarithmic mean temperature difference (DTLM or LMTD in heat exchangers and the logarithmic mean void fraction (LMe in two-phase flow will be used. These approximations of the LMe can be applied in the computational studies.

  13. A Novel Low-Cost Open-Hardware Platform for Monitoring Soil Water Content and Multiple Soil-Air-Vegetation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bitella

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring soil water content at high spatio-temporal resolution and coupled to other sensor data is crucial for applications oriented towards water sustainability in agriculture, such as precision irrigation or phenotyping root traits for drought tolerance. The cost of instrumentation, however, limits measurement frequency and number of sensors. The objective of this work was to design a low cost “open hardware” platform for multi-sensor measurements including water content at different depths, air and soil temperatures. The system is based on an open-source ARDUINO microcontroller-board, programmed in a simple integrated development environment (IDE. Low cost high-frequency dielectric probes were used in the platform and lab tested on three non-saline soils (ECe1: 2.5 < 0.1 mS/cm. Empirical calibration curves were subjected to cross-validation (leave-one-out method, and normalized root mean square error (NRMSE were respectively 0.09 for the overall model, 0.09 for the sandy soil, 0.07 for the clay loam and 0.08 for the sandy loam. The overall model (pooled soil data fitted the data very well (R2 = 0.89 showing a high stability, being able to generate very similar RMSEs during training and validation (RMSEtraining = 2.63; RMSEvalidation = 2.61. Data recorded on the card were automatically sent to a remote server allowing repeated field-data quality checks. This work provides a framework for the replication and upgrading of a customized low cost platform, consistent with the open source approach whereby sharing information on equipment design and software facilitates the adoption and continuous improvement of existing technologies.

  14. Local Void Fraction Distribution and Flow Visualization in Core Catcher Coolant Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K. W.; Hung, N. T.; Park, H. S.; Revankara, S. T. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Ha, K. S.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Due to thermal induced density differences of working fluids, natural circulation two-phase flow passively removes heat from the captured corium. To have a better knowledge of cooling performance inside of the channel, it is important to know two-phase structure inside of the cooling channel. The prediction of the two-phase flow behavior has a limitation in such a complex geometry with large hydraulic diameter. Therefore, in this study, testing of two-phase natural circulation using air-water in a full height facility is conducted specifically to visualize and study the two-phase flow structure near the channel surface. By using conductivity probe, time-averaged local void fraction distribution along the channel is obtained. At the same time, mixing and bubble breakup process at the elbow-bend is observed using high speed camera videos. The impact of the two phase flow behavior near the core plate on the cooling performance is analyzed based on the results. Time-averaged local void fraction is measured and analyzed especially near the top surface of channel to predict cooling performance of core catcher system. Bubble breakup due to water ingression and the mixing phenomena are observed by high speed camera view.

  15. A constitutive model for elastoplastic solids containing primary and secondary voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrègue, D.; Pardoen, T.

    In many ductile metallic alloys, the damage process controlled by the growth and coalescence of primary voids nucleated on particles with a size varying typically between 1 and 100 μm, is affected by the growth of much smaller secondary voids nucleated on inclusions with a size varying typically between 0.1 and 3 μm. The goal of this work is first to quantify the potential effect of the growth of these secondary voids on the coalescence of primary voids using finite element (FE) unit cell calculations and second to formulate a new constitutive model incorporating this effect. The nucleation and growth of secondary voids do essentially not affect the growth of the primary voids but mainly accelerate the void coalescence process. The drop of the ductility caused by the presence of secondary voids increases if the nucleation strain decreases and/or if their volume fraction increases and/or if the primary voids are flat. A strong coupling is indeed observed between the shape of the primary voids and the growth of the second population enhancing the anisotropy of the ductility induced by void shape effects. The new micromechanics-based coalescence condition for internal necking introduces the softening induced by secondary voids growing in the ligament between two primary voids. The FE cell calculations were used to guide and assess the development of this model. The use of the coalescence condition relies on a closed-form model for estimating the evolution of the secondary voids in the vicinity of a primary cavity. This coalescence criterion is connected to an extended Gurson model for the first population including the effect of the void aspect ratio. With respect to classical models for single void population, this new constitutive model improves the predictive potential of damage constitutive models devoted to ductile metal while requiring only two new parameters, i.e. the initial porosity of second population and a void nucleation stress, without any additional

  16. Three-Dimensional Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Void Coalescence during Dynamic Fracture of Ductile Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppala, E T; Belak, J; Rudd, R E

    2004-09-02

    Void coalescence and interaction in dynamic fracture of ductile metals have been investigated using three-dimensional strain-controlled multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations of copper. The correlated growth of two voids during the coalescence process leading to fracture is investigated, both in terms of its onset and the ensuing dynamical interactions. Void interactions are quantified through the rate of reduction of the distance between the voids, through the correlated directional growth of the voids, and through correlated shape evolution of the voids. The critical inter-void ligament distance marking the onset of coalescence is shown to be approximately one void radius based on the quantification measurements used, independent of the initial separation distance between the voids and the strain-rate of the expansion of the system. The interaction of the voids is not reflected in the volumetric asymptotic growth rate of the voids, as demonstrated here. Finally, the practice of using a single void and periodic boundary conditions to study coalescence is examined critically and shown to produce results markedly different than the coalescence of a pair of isolated voids.

  17. Rapid assessment of methanotrophic capacity of compost-based materials considering the effects of air-filled porosity, water content and dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Uriel; Hettiaratchi, J Patrick A

    2015-02-01

    Since the global warming potential of CH4 is 25 times that of CO2 on a 100-year time horizon, the development of methanotrophic applications for the conversion of CH4 to CO2 is emerging as an area of interest for researchers and practicing engineers. Compost exhibits most of the characteristics required for methanotroph growth media and has been used in several projects. This paper presents results from a study that was undertaken to assess the influence of physical and chemical characteristics of compost-based materials on the biological oxidation of CH4 when used in methane biofilters. The results showed that easily-measurable parameters, such as air filled porosity, water content and dissolved organic carbon, are correlated with maximum CH4 removal rates. The results obtained were used to develop an empirical relationship that could be regarded as a rapid assessment tool for the estimation of the performance of compost-based materials in engineered methanotrophic applications. PMID:25484123

  18. On the Correlation between Air Content and Air Bubble Parameters Frost Resistance Performance of High Fly Ash Content Concrete%关于大掺量粉煤灰混凝土含气量、气泡参数表征抗冻能力相关性的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾红梅; 戴碧琳; 郭建华; 杨晨光

    2015-01-01

    鉴于冻融作用对大掺量粉煤灰混凝土( High Fly ash Content Concrete,HFCC)造成的破坏较为严重,对国内外的研究情况进行了分析,总结了现阶段大掺量粉煤灰混凝土抗冻性能的研究进展。主要对混凝土拌合物含气量和硬化混凝土气泡参数表征HFCC抗冻性的科学性和可行性进行了分析,并且对二者的相关性进行探讨。%Given the freeze-thaw effect on high fly ash content concrete ( HFCC ) is relatively serious,the paper analyzes the domestic and foreign research and summarizes the present research progress of antifreeze performance of concrete with high volume of fly ash. This paper mainly analyzes the science and feasibility of concrete mixture air content and hardened concrete bubble parameters HFCC frost resistance and explores the correlation between the two.

  19. Quantification of void network architectures of suspension plasma-sprayed (SPS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings using Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is able to process a stabilized suspension of nanometer-sized feedstock particles to form thin (from 20 to 100 μm) coatings with unique microstructures. The void (pore) network structure of these ceramic coatings is challenging to characterize and quantify using commonly used techniques due to small sizes involved. Nevertheless, the discrimination of these pores in terms of their size and shape distribution, anisotropy, specific surface area, etc., is critical for the understanding of processing, microstructure, and properties relationships. We will show that one of suitable combinations of techniques providing sufficient detail is ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and helium pycnometry, combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were manufactured by plasma processing of suspension of particles with average diameter of ∼50 nm. Several sets of spray parameters (plasma gas mixture, spray distance, electric arc intensity, etc.) were used to generate plasma jets with different mass enthalpies and coefficients of thermal transfer and different heat fluxes transferred to the substrate. Free-standing coatings were studied as-sprayed and annealed at 800 and 1100 deg. C for 10 and 100 h (non-constrained sintering). Results indicate that the SPS coatings exhibit nanosized pore microstructure: average void size was about the same size scale as the feedstock size; i.e., nanometer sizes with multimodal void size distribution. About 80% of the pores (by number) exhibited characteristic dimensions smaller than 30 nm. Total void content of as-sprayed SPS coatings varies between 13% and 20%. Most of the voids were found to be opened with only between one-tenth to one-third of voids volume being inaccessible by intrusion (not connected to either surface). During annealing, even at temperatures as low than 800 deg. C, the microstructure transformed: while the total void content did

  20. Modelling the void deformation and closure by hot forging of ingot castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Kotas, Petr;

    2012-01-01

    . The analysis concernsboth the void density change and the location of the voids in the part after deformation. The latter can be important for the subsequent reliability of the parts, for instance regarding fatigue properties. The analysis incorporates the Gurson yield criterion for metals containing voids...

  1. The influence of lattice structure and composition on the coolant void reactivity in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic mechanisms responsible for the production of positive void reactivity in CANDU lattices are presented. Based on an understanding of these, a method of void reactivity reduction is developed. Calculations show that a zero void reactivity lattice, which requires neutron poison in the fuel and fuel enrichment, is possible. (Author) 1 ref., 8 tabs

  2. 42 CFR 457.216 - Treatment of uncashed or canceled (voided) CHIP checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of uncashed or canceled (voided) CHIP... canceled (voided) CHIP checks. (a) Purpose. This section provides rules to ensure that States refund the... section— Canceled (voided) check means an CHIP check issued by a State or fiscal agent that prior to...

  3. Elastic–plastic void expansion in near-self-similar shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    For void growth in an elastic–plastic strain hardening material the preferred shape of the void is calculated, dependent on the macroscopic stress state. Axisymmetric cell model analyses are carried out with a very small initial void size relative to the cell dimensions. Large deformations of the...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  5. Effect of initial void shape on ductile failure in a shear field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2015-01-01

    For voids in a shear field unit cell model analyses have been used to show that ductile failure is predicted even though the stress triaxiality is low or perhaps negative, so that the void volume fraction does not grow during deformation. Here, the effect of the void shape is studied by analyzing...

  6. The ISW imprints of voids and superclusters on the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, S.; Nadathur, S.; Gottlöber, S.; Iliev, I. T.; Knebe, A.; Watson, W. A.; Yepes, G.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the stacked integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) imprints on the CMB along the lines of sight of voids and superclusters in galaxy surveys, using the Jubilee ISW simulation and mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues. We show that the expected signal in the concordance \\Lam CDM model is much smaller than the primary anisotropies arising at the last scattering surface and therefore any currently claimed detections of such an imprint cannot be caused by the ISW effect in \\Lam CDM. We look for the existence of such a signal in the Planck CMB using a catalogue of voids and superclusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), but find a result completely consistent with \\Lam CDM - i.e., a null detection.

  7. Generalized statistical models of voids and hierarchical structure in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Mekjian, Aram Z

    2007-01-01

    Generalized statistical models of voids and hierarchical structure in cosmology are developed. The often quoted negative binomial model and frequently used thermodynamic model are shown to be special cases of a more general distribution which contains a parameter "a". The parameter is related to the Levy index alpha and the Fisher critical exponent tau, the latter describing the power law fall off of clumps of matter around a phase transition. The parameter"a", exponent tau, or index alpha can be obtained from properties of a void scaling function. A stochastic probability variable "p" is introduced into a statistical model which represent the adhesive growth of galaxy structure. For p1/2, an adhesive growth can go on indefinitely thereby forming an infinite supercluster. At p=1/2 a scale free power law distribution for the galaxy count distribution is present. The stochastic description also leads to consequences that have some parallels with cosmic string results, percolation theory and phase transitions.

  8. Ultrasonic technique for void fraction measurement in a bubbly column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the void fraction in a bubbly flow is important for modeling two-phase gas-liquid flow for the safety of nuclear reactors and thermal-hydraulics analysis. In this work, a non-invasive ultrasonic technique was developed for the measurement of the void fraction by correlating it with the amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the opposite wall of the tube. The technique was applied in a test section made of 52.9 mm internal diameter glass column which makes possible the visualization of the bubble flow. A special ultrasonic methodology was developed for the processing of the ultrasonic signals generated by a transducer of 10 MHz frequency and 1/2 inch diameter. (author)

  9. Concerning the location of void detachment in annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the location of void detachment (or the onset of significant voidage) has been well predicted by the Levy, Saha-Zuber and other models for some time, a paper by Rogers based on the McLeod thesis challenged the adequacy and analytical trends of these correlations at low pressure and velocity. We show by direct calculation that the Rogers conclusions are incorrect, that the McLeod experimental void fraction results are predictable by the Chexal-Lellouche-Zolotar model, and that this model produces a location of detachment not very different from that of Levy or Saha-Zuber at these low pressures and velocities. Thus, the standard models remain, in our estimation, adequate. ((orig.))

  10. Fluctuation of Voids in Hadronization at Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C; Hwa, Rudolph C.; Zhang, Qing-hui

    2000-01-01

    Starting from the recognition that hadrons are not produced smoothly at phase transition, the fluctuation of spatial patterns is investigated by finding a measure of the voids that exhibits scaling behavior. The Ising model is used to simulate a cross-over in quark-hadron phase transition. A threshold in hadron density is used to define a void. The dependence of the scaling exponents on that threshold is found to provide useful information on some properties of the hadronization process. The complication in heavy-ion collision introduces the possibility of configuration mixing, which can also be studied in this approach. Numerical criteria on the scaling exponents have been found that can be used to discriminate phase-transition processes from other hadronization processes having nothing to do with critical phenomena.

  11. Validation uncertainty of MATRA code for subchannel void distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae-Hyun; Kim, S. J.; Kwon, H.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To extend code capability to the whole core subchannel analysis, pre-conditioned Krylov matrix solvers such as BiCGSTAB and GMRES are implemented in MATRA code as well as parallel computing algorithms using MPI and OPENMP. It is coded by fortran 90, and has some user friendly features such as graphic user interface. MATRA code was approved by Korean regulation body for design calculation of integral-type PWR named SMART. The major role subchannel code is to evaluate core thermal margin through the hot channel analysis and uncertainty evaluation for CHF predictions. In addition, it is potentially used for the best estimation of core thermal hydraulic field by incorporating into multiphysics and/or multi-scale code systems. In this study we examined a validation process for the subchannel code MATRA specifically in the prediction of subchannel void distributions. The primary objective of validation is to estimate a range within which the simulation modeling error lies. The experimental data for subchannel void distributions at steady state and transient conditions was provided on the framework of OECD/NEA UAM benchmark program. The validation uncertainty of MATRA code was evaluated for a specific experimental condition by comparing the simulation result and experimental data. A validation process should be preceded by code and solution verification. However, quantification of verification uncertainty was not addressed in this study. The validation uncertainty of the MATRA code for predicting subchannel void distribution was evaluated for a single data point of void fraction measurement at a 5x5 PWR test bundle on the framework of OECD UAM benchmark program. The validation standard uncertainties were evaluated as 4.2%, 3.9%, and 2.8% with the Monte-Carlo approach at the axial levels of 2216 mm, 2669 mm, and 3177 mm, respectively. The sensitivity coefficient approach revealed similar results of uncertainties but did not account for the nonlinear effects on the

  12. Tracing the Provenance of Linked Data using voiD

    OpenAIRE

    Omitola, Temitope; Zuo, Landong; Gutteridge, Christopher; Millard, Ian; Glaser, Hugh; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    In the open world of the (Semantic) web, a world where increasingly diverse materials from disparate sources of different qualities are being made available, an automatic mechanism of the provision of provenance information of these sources is needed. This paper describes voidp, a provenance extension of the void vocabulary, that allows data publishers to specify the provenance relationships of their data. We enumerate voidp's classes and properties, and describe a use case scenario. A wider ...

  13. Much ado about nothing: response matrices for void regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, E.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)]. E-mail: e-lewis@northwestern.edu

    2004-11-01

    Weak form Galerkin approaches are examined for obtaining response matrices for void regions - that is regions where nothing is present. The need arises in spherical harmonics methods based on second-order forms of the neutron transport equation; the methods fail in voids because the cross-section appearing in the equation's denominator then vanishes. The diffusion approximation, being the lowest-order spherical harmonic method, is first employed as a vehicle for examining response matrices derived from both primal and dual weak forms of the mixed-first-order and second-order transport equations. Those for which discretization results in singular matrix equations as the cross-section goes to zero are rejected. First-order- mixed formulations with modified natural boundary conditions are shown to lead to nonsingular response matrices for voids. The primal method is chosen as the better of the two candidates for generalization from the diffusion to the transport equations, and the transport formulation is presented.

  14. On the Star Formation Properties of Void Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moorman, Crystal M; White, Amanda; Vogeley, Michael S; Hoyle, Fiona; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2016-01-01

    We measure the star formation properties of two large samples of galaxies from the SDSS in large-scale cosmic voids on time scales of 10 Myr and 100 Myr, using H$\\alpha$ emission line strengths and GALEX FUV fluxes, respectively. The first sample consists of 109,818 optically selected galaxies. We find that void galaxies in this sample have higher specific star formation rates (SSFRs; star formation rates per unit stellar mass) than similar stellar mass galaxies in denser regions. The second sample is a subset of the optically selected sample containing 8070 galaxies with reliable HI detections from ALFALFA. For the full HI detected sample, SSFRs do not vary systematically with large-scale environment. However, investigating only the HI detected dwarf galaxies reveals a trend towards higher SSFRs in voids. Furthermore, we estimate the star formation rate per unit HI mass (known as the star formation efficiency; SFE) of a galaxy, as a function of environment. For the overall HI detected population, we notice n...

  15. VOID GROWTH AND CAVITATION IN NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC SOLIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟; 黄筑平

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth of a pre-existing void in a nonlinear viscoelastic material subjected to remote hydrostatic tensions with different loading rates. The constitutive relation of this viscoelastic material is the one recently proposed by the present authors, which may be considered as a generalization of the non-Gaussian statistical theory in rubber elasticity. As the first order approximation, the above constitutive relation can be reduced to the "neo-Hookean" type viscoelastic one.Investigations of the influences of the material viscosity and the loading rate on the void growth, or on the cavitation are carried out. It is found that: (1) for generalized "inverse Langevin approximation"nonlinear viscoelastic materials, the cavitation limit does not exist, but there is a certain (remote)stress level at which the void will grow rapidly; (2) for generalized "Gaussian statistics" (neo-Hookean type) viscoelastic materials, the cavitation limit exists, and is an increasing function of the loading rate.The present discussions may be of importance in understanding the material failure process under high triaxial stress.

  16. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  17. Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Zachary H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Kalukin, Andrew R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kuhn, Markus [Intel Corporation RA1-329, 5200 Northeast Elam Young Parkway, Hillsboro, Oregon 74124 (United States); Frigo, Sean P. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); McNulty, Ian [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Retsch, Cornelia C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang, Yuxin [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Arp, Uwe [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Lucatorto, Thomas B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Ravel, Bruce D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-05-01

    An integrated circuit interconnect was subject to accelerated-life test conditions to induce an electromigration void. The silicon substrate was removed, leaving only the interconnect test structure encased in silica. We imaged the sample with 1750 eV photons using the 2-ID-B scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the Advanced Photon Source, a third-generation synchrotron facility. Fourteen views through the sample were obtained over a 170 degree sign range of angles (with a 40 degree sign gap) about a single rotation axis. Two sampled regions were selected for three-dimensional reconstruction: one of the ragged end of a wire depleted by the void, the other of the adjacent interlevel connection (or ''via''). We applied two reconstruction techniques: the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique and a Bayesian reconstruction technique, the generalized Gaussian Markov random field method. The stated uncertainties are total, with one standard deviation, which resolved the sample to 200{+-}70 and 140{+-}30 nm, respectively. The tungsten via is distinguished from the aluminum wire by higher absorption. Within the void, the aluminum is entirely depleted from under the tungsten via. The reconstructed data show the applicability of this technique to three-dimensional imaging of buried defects in submicrometer structures relevant to the microelectronics industry. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  18. The Persistent Percolation of Single-Stream Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Falck, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    We study the nature of voids defined as single-stream regions that have not undergone shell-crossing. We use ORIGAMI to determine the cosmic web morphology of each dark matter particle in a suite of cosmological $N$-body simulations, which explicitly calculates whether a particle has crossed paths with others along multiple sets of axes and does not depend on a parameter or smoothing scale. The theoretical picture of voids is that of expanding underdensities with borders defined by shell-crossing. We find instead that locally underdense single-stream regions are not bounded on all sides by multi-stream regions, thus they percolate, filling the simulation volume; we show that the set of multi-stream particles also percolates. This percolation persists to high resolution, where the mass fraction of single-stream voids is low, because the volume fraction remains high; we speculate on the fraction of collapsed mass in the continuum limit of infinite resolution. By introducing a volume threshold parameter to defin...

  19. The entrainment of air by water jet impinging on a free surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Wee King [University of Wollongong, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, Northfields Ave, NSW (Australia); Khoo, Boo Cheong [National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Yuen, W.Y. Daniel [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    High-speed cine and video photographs were used to capture the flow patterns of a column of water jet impinging into a pool of water. The impact results in air entrainment into water in the form of a void with no mixing between the water in the jet and the surrounding water. Conservation of fluid momentum shows that the rate of increase of the height of the air void depends on the drag coefficient of the jet front. By neglecting the frictional losses, the application of energy conservation yields an expression that relates the maximum height of the air void with the properties of the water jet. (orig.)

  20. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1, 1976--June 1, 1976. [Tabulated data on content of lead in surface air and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 90/Sr in surface air, milk, drinking water, and foods sampled in USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Tabulated data are presented on: the monthly deposition of /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr at some 100 world land sites; the content of lead and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 144/Ce in samples of surface air from various world sites; and the content of /sup 90/Sr in samples of milk, drinking water, and animal and human diets collected at various locations throughout the USA. (CH)

  1. Effect of non uniform void size and shape distributions on deformation failure in cast aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun Su; Kang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Tae Won; Bae, Dae Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyung Sop [Hyundai Kia Motors R and D Division, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Tensile tests were conducted on several cast aluminum specimens with different degrees of porosity. The effects of non uniform void size and shape distributions, including spherical and non spherical types, on stress-strain behavior resulting from different initiation mechanisms were investigated. A micro mechanics based statistical approach was employed, and the heterogeneous microstructures could therefore be modeled during the deformation process. The predicted changes of the distributions of void size and void shape generally agreed with experimental results. Void spatial variation was also quantified, and its effects on the level of failure were analyzed. The void spatial variation facilitated development of inhomogeneous deformation, which results in failure.

  2. Determination of gas pressure in voids in epoxy casting using an ultrasonic measuring technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben; Petersen, C. Bak; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    Results of measurements performed on a large open void, where pressure can be controlled from the outside, are compared to the theory of ultrasound transmission. The results verify the theory that the attenuation of transmitted ultrasonic signals through a void depends on the gas pressure inside...... the void. The results are based on the use of time delay spectrometry. This method gives a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio for detecting the transmitted part of the ultrasonic signal which has travelled through the void. Because of differences in the density and velocity of ultrasonic signals...... for the materials involved, that part of the signal is dependent on the pressure inside the void...

  3. Measurements of gas pressure in voids in epoxy castings for high voltage equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben; Henriksen, Mogens; Nielsen, E

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of samples of epoxy each containing one void, which were produced at different pressures, is reported. The samples were of the disk type with the void located in the center. The gas in the voids has a pressure somewhat related to the curing pressure, thereby directly influencing...... the partial-discharge inception voltage. Data show that gas pressure in voids in epoxy castings can be determined by use of an ultrasound test method. A relationship between the void gas pressure and the epoxy curing pressure is also found. This investigation is part of an effort to predict the...

  4. Radiation induced void in the spectrum of TOL 1038-2712

    CERN Document Server

    Srianand, R

    1996-01-01

    Detection of a large void (\\sim 7 Mpc) is reported between the redshifts 2.16286 and 2.20748 in the Ly~\\alpha forest of TOL 1038-2712. This void is centered near a foreground QSO TOL 1037-2704 which is at a distance \\sim4.4 Mpc away from the void. The estimated probability for the void to occure by chance in front of the foreground QSO is few times 10^{-3}. Various implications of the void being produced by excess ionization due to foreground QSO are discussed.

  5. Reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy for detecting internal voids in structural ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D.J.; Baaklini, G.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of 100 MHz scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting internal voids in sintered specimens of silicon nitride and silicon carbide was evaluated. The specimens contained artificially implanted voids and were positioned at depths ranging up to 2 mm below the specimen surface. Detection probability of 0.90 at a 0.95 confidence level was determined as a function of material, void diameter, and void depth. The statistical results presented for void detectability indicate some of the strengths and limitations of SLAM as a nondestructive evaluation technique for structural ceramics.

  6. Quantitative void characterization in structural ceramics using scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D.J.; Generazio, E.R.; Baaklini, G.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) to characterize artificially seeded voids in sintered silicon nitride structural ceramic specimens was investigated. Using trigonometric relationships and Airy's diffraction theory, predictions of internal void depth and size were obtained from acoustic diffraction patterns produced by the voids. Agreement was observed between actual and predicted void depths. However, predicted void diameters were generally much greater than actual diameters. Precise diameter predictions are difficult to obtain due to measurement uncertainty and the limitations of 100 MHz SLAM applied to typical ceramic specimens.

  7. Reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy for detecting internal voids in structural ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D.J.; Baaklini, G.Y.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability of 100 MHz scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting internal voids in sintered specimens of silicon nitride and silicon carbide was evaluated. The specimens contained artificially implanted voids and were positioned at depths ranging up to 2 mm below the specimen surface. Detection probability of 0.90 at a 0.95 confidence level was determined as a function of material, void diameter, and void depth. The statistical results presented for void detectability indicate some of the strengths and limitations of SLAM as a nondestructive evaluation technique for structural ceramics. 28 references.

  8. Effect of Contact Conditions on Void Coalescence at Low Stress Triaxiality Shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    as contact comes into play during the void collapse. In the early studies of this shear failure mechanism, Tvergaard (2009, "Behaviour of Voids in a Shear Field," Int. J. Fract., 158, pp. 41-49) suggested a pseudo-contact algorithm, using an internal pressure inside the void to resemble frictionless contact...... deformation, (ii) to quantify the accuracy of the pseudo-contact approach used in previous studies, and (iii) to analyze the effect of including friction at the void surface with the main focus on its effect on the critical strain at coalescence. When accounting for full contact at the void surface...

  9. Visualization study of the shrinkage void distribution in thermal energy storage capsules of different geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revankar, Shripad T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Croy, Travis [INEEL, Idaho Falls, ID 83404-5558 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The presence of concentrated shrinkage voids in thermal energy storage systems employing encapsulated phase change material can cause serious problems when one attempts to melt the solidified phase change material for the next thermal cycle. Experiments were performed and void-formation phenomena with rectangular flat plate, spherical, and torus shape capsules were investigated. The initial void growth, distribution and the total void in the capsule were photographically studied from transparent capsules using cyclohexane, hexadecane, butanediol and octadecane as phase change materials. The observations on freezing process and the shrinkage void distribution are presented. (author)

  10. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake). PMID:10702992

  11. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake).

  12. Implementing a Systematic Voiding Program for Patients With Urinary Incontinence After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Beverley; Thomas, Lois H; Harrison, Joanna; Burton, Christopher R; Forshaw, Denise; Booth, Joanne; Britt, David; Cheater, Francine M; Roe, Brenda; Watkins, Caroline L

    2016-08-01

    We explored health professionals' views of implementing a systematic voiding program (SVP) in a multi-site qualitative process evaluation in stroke services recruited to the intervention arms of a cluster randomized controlled feasibility trial during 2011-2013. We conducted semi-structured group or individual interviews with 38 purposively selected nursing, managerial, and care staff involved in delivering the SVP. Content analysis of transcripts used normalization process theory (NPT) as a pre-specified organization-level exploratory framework. Barriers to implementing the SVP included perceived lack of suitability for some patient groups, patient fear of extending hospital stay, and difficulties with SVP enactment, scheduling, timing, recording, and monitoring. Enablers included the guidance provided by the SVP, patient and relative involvement, extra staff, improved nursing skill and confidence, and experience of success. Three potential mechanisms of consistency, visibility, and individualization linked the SVP process with improvements in outcome, and should be emphasized in SVP implementation. PMID:26935722

  13. Effect of Temperature on the Void Growth in Pure Aluminium at High Strain-Rate Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Mei-Lan; HE Hong-Liang; YAN Shi-Lin

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the environment temperature varying from 273K to 773K, the dynamic process of void growth in pure aluminium at high strain-rate loading is calculated based on the dynamic growth equation of a void with internal pressure. The result shows that the effect of temperature on the growth of void should be emphasized. Because the initial pressure of void with gas will increase and the viscosity of materials will decrease with the rising of temperature, the growth of void is accelerated. Furthermore, material inertia restrains the growth of void evidently when the diameter exceeds 10μm. The effect of surface tension is very weak in the whole process of void growth.

  14. The Weight of Emptiness: The Gravitational Lensing Signal of Stacked Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Elisabeth; Doré, Olivier; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    The upcoming new generation of spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys will provide large samples of cosmic voids, the distinct, large underdense structures in the universe. Combining these with future galaxy imaging surveys, we study the prospects of probing the underlying matter distribution in and around cosmic voids via the weak gravitational lensing effects of stacked voids, utilizing both shear and magnification information. The statistical precision is greatly improved by stacking together a large number of voids along different lines of sight, even when taking into account the impact of inherent miscentering and projection effects. We show that Dark Energy Task Force Stage IV surveys, such as the Euclid satellite and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, should be able to detect the void lensing signal with sufficient precision from stacking abundant medium-sized voids, thus providing direct constraints on the matter density profile of voids independent of assumptions on galaxy bias.

  15. Self-similarity and universality of void density profiles in simulation and SDSS data

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, S; Diego, J M; Iliev, I T; Gottlöber, S; Watson, W A; Yepes, G

    2014-01-01

    The stacked density profile of cosmic voids in the galaxy distribution provides an important tool for the use of voids for precision cosmology. We study the density profiles of voids identified using the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. We compare different methods for reconstructing density profiles scaled by the void radius and show that the most commonly used method based on counts in shells and simple averaging is statistically flawed as it underestimates the density in void interiors. We provide two alternative methods that do not suffer from this effect; one based on Voronoi tessellations is also easily able to account from artefacts due to finite survey boundaries and so is more suitable when comparing simulation data to observation. Using this method we show that voids in simulation are exactly self-similar, meaning that their avera...

  16. Effect of low atmospheric pressure of plateau environment on air content and bubble stability of air-entrained concrete%高原低气压环境对引气混凝土含气量及气泡稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪峰; 付智

    2015-01-01

    该文利用低气压试验箱模拟高原气压环境,试验研究了不同配合比及初始含气量水平下环境气压的降低对引气混凝土含气量及其气泡稳定性的影响。结果表明:与常压相比,环境气压的降低能够显著削弱引气剂的引气能力,当混凝土配合比及引气剂掺量一定时,混凝土含气量随环境气压降低呈线性减少,当环境气压降低至50 kPa时,混凝土含气量降低约20%~49%。另外,低气压条件下混凝土气泡稳定性变差,具体表现为混凝土含气量经时损失变大,延长振捣时间导致低压混凝土损失更多气泡,二者均使低压下硬化混凝土的气泡间距系数增大,影响混凝土抗冻性。因此,在高原地区应通过采取优选引气剂类型、增大引气剂掺量以及避免过振等技术措施,以确保高原地区引气混凝土含气量能够达到抗冻设计要求。%The effect of atmospheric pressure reduction of environment on air content and bubble stability of air-entrained concrete were experimentally studied using low-pressure test chamber to stimulate the plateau environment. Three different mixing proportions and three different levels of the initial air content of concretes were prepared for study, and four different common types of air-entraining admixture, saponin, alkyl sulfonate, abietic soap and polyether, were used in the experiments. The results indicated that the change of atmospheric pressure of environment had a significant impact on the performance of air-entraining admixtures. When the mix proportions of concrete and the amount of air-entraining admixtures took a certain value respectively, the air content of fresh concrete decreased linearly with the drop of atmospheric pressure. When the atmospheric pressure was 50 kPa, the air content of fresh concrete fell by roughly 20% to 49%. The higher the air content of fresh concrete mixed in normal atmospheric pressure, the faster the air

  17. Void Shapes Controlled by Using Interruption-Free Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN Films on Patterned SiO2 AlN/Sapphire Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN epitaxial layers with embedded air voids grown on patterned SiO2 AlN/sapphire templates were proposed. Using interruption-free epitaxial lateral overgrowth technology, we realized uninterrupted growth and controlled the shape of embedded air voids. These layers showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and measurement of etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped-GaN film, the full width at half-maximum of the GaN (0 0 2 and (1 0 2 peaks decreased from 485 arcsec to 376 arcsec and from 600 arcsec to 322 arcsec, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the coalesced GaN growth led to bending threading dislocation. We also proposed a growth model based on results of scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Effect of temperature and air velocity on drying kinetics, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, colour, texture and microstructure of apple (var. Granny Smith) slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Ah-Hen, Kong; Chacana, Marcelo; Vergara, Judith; Martínez-Monzó, Javier; García-Segovia, Purificación; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Di Scala, Karina

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of temperature and air velocity on the drying kinetics and quality attributes of apple (var. Granny Smith) slices during drying. Experiments were conducted at 40, 60 and 80°C, as well as at air velocities of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5ms(-1). Effective moisture diffusivity increased with temperature and air velocity, reaching a value of 15.30×10(-9)m(2)s(-1) at maximum temperature and air velocity under study. The rehydration ratio changed with varying both air velocity and temperature indicating tissue damage due to processing. The colour difference, ΔE, showed the best results at 80°C. The DPPH-radical scavenging activity at 40°C and 0.5ms(-1) showed the highest antioxidant activity, closest to that of the fresh sample. Although ΔE decreased with temperature, antioxidant activity barely varied and even increased at high air velocities, revealing an antioxidant capacity of the browning products. The total phenolics decreased with temperature, but at high air velocity retardation of thermal degradation was observed. Firmness was also determined and explained using glass transition concept and microstructure analysis. PMID:26434262

  19. Topology and Dark Energy: Testing Gravity in Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolyar, Douglas; Sahlén, Martin; Silk, Joe

    2013-12-01

    Modified gravity has garnered interest as a backstop against dark matter and dark energy (DE). As one possible modification, the graviton can become massive, which introduces a new scalar field—here with a Galileon-type symmetry. The field can lead to a nontrivial equation of state of DE which is density and scale dependent. Tension between type Ia supernovae and Planck could be reduced. In voids, the scalar field dramatically alters the equation of state of DE, induces a soon-observable gravitational slip between the two metric potentials, and develops a topological defect (domain wall) due to a nontrivial vacuum structure for the field.

  20. Topology and Dark Energy: Testing Gravity in Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Spolyar, Douglas; Silk, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Modified gravity has garnered interest as a backstop against dark matter and dark energy (DE). As one possible modification, the graviton can become massive, which introduces a new scalar field. The new field can lead to a nontrivial equation of state (EOS) of DE which is density-and-scale-dependent. Tension between Type Ia supernovae and Planck can possibly be reduced. In voids the new scalar field dramatically alters the EOS of DE, gives rise to a significant gravitational slip between the two metric potentials, and also develops a topological defect (a domain wall) due to a nontrivial scalar field vacuum structure.

  1. Dependence on supernovae light-curve processing in void models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Rossi, Maria E., E-mail: derossi@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-02

    In this work, we show that when supernova Ia (SN Ia) data sets are used to put constraints on the free parameters of inhomogeneous models, certain extra information regarding the light-curve fitter used in the supernovae Ia luminosity fluxes processing should be taken into account. We found that the size of the void as well as other parameters of these models might be suffering extra degenerations or additional systematic errors due to the fitter. A recent proposal to relieve the tension between the results from Planck satellite and SNe Ia is re-analyzed in the framework of these subjects.

  2. Evaluation and Targeted Therapy of Voiding Dysfunction in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lane S

    2016-06-01

    Significant strides have been made over the past two decades in more precisely evaluating and managing children with voiding complaints. A thorough history should offer insight into the possible causes for the presenting complaints and this should be supplemented by physical examination, urine studies, and select imaging. Uroflowmetry and external sphincter electromyography with measurement of postvoid residual urine should allow for accurate diagnosis using categories offered by the International Children's Continence Society. This ability to make an accurate diagnosis should naturally lead to the use of treatment options (urotherapy, pharmacotherapy, biofeedback, and neuromodulation) that specifically target the responsible cause of the complaints rather than simply their symptoms.

  3. Design of capacitance sensor system for void fraction measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-ping; NIU Gang; WANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Simulation and optimization were applied to a capacitive sensor system based on electrical tomography technology.Sensors, consisting of Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) axial synchro driving guard electrodes and two sets of detecting electrodes, make it possible to obtain simultaneously two groups of signals of the void fraction in oil-gas two-phase flow.The computational and experimental results showed that available sensors, charactered by high resolution and fast real-time response can be used for real-time liquid-gas two-phase flow pattern determination.

  4. Urethane foam void filling. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) Implementation Plan of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), non-recyclable process components and debris that are removed from buildings undergoing D and D are disposed of in an on-site disposal facility (OSDF). Critical to the design and operation of the FEMP's OSDF are provisions to protect against subsidence of the OSDF's cap. Subsidence of the cap could occur if void spaces within the OSDF were to collapse under the overburden of debris and the OSDF cap. Subsidence may create depressions in the OSDF's cap in which rainwater could collect and eventually seep into the OSDF. To minimize voids in the FEMP's OSDF, large metallic components are cut into smaller segments that can be arranged more compactly when placed in the OSDF. Component segmentation using an oxy-acetylene torch was the baseline approach used by the FEMP's D and D contractor on Plant 1, B and W Services, Inc., for the dismantlement and size-reduction of large metal components. Although this technology has performed satisfactorily, it is time-consuming, labor-intensive and costly. Use of the oxy-acetylene torch exposes workers to health and safety hazards including the risk of burns, carbon monoxide, and airborne contamination of residual lead-based paints and other contaminants on the surface of the components being segmented. In addition, solvents used to remove paint from the components before segmenting them emit flammable, noxious fumes. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of placing large vessels intact in the OSDF without segmenting them. To prevent the walls of the vessels from collapsing under the overburden or from degradation, an innovative approach was employed which involved filling the voids in the vessels with a fluid material that hardened on standing. The hardened filling would support the walls of the vessels, and prevent them from collapsing. This report

  5. Testing the imprint of non-standard cosmologies on void profiles using Monte Carlo random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Achitouv, Ixandra

    2016-01-01

    Using a Monte Carlo random walks of a log-normal distribution, we show how to qualitatively study void properties for non-standard cosmologies. We apply this method to an f(R) modified gravity model and recover the N-body simulation results of (Achitouv et al. 2016) for the void profiles and their deviation from GR. This method can potentially be extended to study other properties of the large scale structures such as the abundance of voids or overdense environments. We also introduce a new way to identify voids in the cosmic web, using only a few measurements of the density fluctuations around random positions. This algorithm allows to select voids with specific profiles and radii. As a consequence, we can target classes of voids with higher differences between f(R) and standard gravity void profiles. Finally we apply our void criteria to galaxy mock catalogues and discuss how the flexibility of our void finder can be used to reduce systematics errors when probing the growth rate in the galaxy-void correlati...

  6. A study of void size growth in nonequilibrium stochastic systems of point defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Bashtova, Anna I.

    2016-05-01

    We study properties of voids growth dynamics in a stochastic system of point defects in solids under nonequilibrium conditions (sustained irradiation). It is shown that fluctuations of defect production rate (external noise) increase the critical void radius comparing to a deterministic system. An automodel regime of void size growth in a stochastic system is studied in detail. Considering a homogeneous system, it is found that external noise does not change the universality of the void size distribution function; the mean void size evolves according to classical nucleation theory. The noise increases the mean void size and spreads the void size distribution. Studying dynamics of spatially extended systems it was shown that vacancies remaining in a matrix phase are able to organize into vacancy enriched domains due to an instability caused by an elastic lattice deformation. It is shown that dynamics of voids growth is defined by void sinks strength with void size growth exponent varying from 1/3 up to 1/2.

  7. Predicting Young’s Modulus of Glass/Ceramic Sealant for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Considering the Combined Effects of Aging, Micro-Voids and Self-Healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the temperature dependent Young’s modulus for the glass/ceramic seal material used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). With longer heat treatment or aging time during operation, further devitrification may reduce the residual glass content in the seal material while boosting the ceramic crystalline content. In the meantime, micro-voids induced by the cooling process from the high operating temperature to room temperature can potentially degrade the mechanical properties of the glass/ceramic sealant. Upon reheating to the SOFC operating temperature, possible self-healing phenomenon may occur in the glass/ceramic sealant which can potentially restore some of its mechanical properties. A phenomenological model is developed to model the temperature dependent Young’s modulus of glass/ceramic seal considering the combined effects of aging, micro-voids, and possible self-healing. An aging-time-dependent crystalline content model is first developed to describe the increase of the crystalline content due to the continuing devitrification under high operating temperature. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model is then adapted to model the effects of both cooling induced micro-voids and reheating induced self-healing. This model is applied to model the glass-ceramic G18, a candidate SOFC seal material previously developed at PNNL. Experimentally determined temperature dependent Young’s modulus is used to validate the model predictions

  8. Monitoring Detrusor Oxygenation and Hemodynamics Noninvasively during Dysfunctional Voiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Macnab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature indicates that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH have a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Pressure flow studies (UDSs remain the gold standard evaluation methodology for such patients. However, as the function of the detrusor muscle depends on its vasculature and perfusion, the underlying causes of LUTS likely include abnormalities of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics, and available treatment options include agents thought to act on the detrusor smooth muscle and/or vasculature. Hence, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, an established optical methodology for monitoring changes in tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics, has relevance as a means of expanding knowledge related to the pathophysiology of BPH and potential treatment options. This methodological report describes how to conduct simultaneous NIRS monitoring of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics during UDS, outlines the clinical implications and practical applications of NIRS, explains the principles of physiologic interpretation of NIRS voiding data, and proposes an exploratory hypothesis that the pathophysiological causes underlying LUTS include detrusor dysfunction due to an abnormal hemodynamic response or the onset of oxygen debt during voiding.

  9. On the linearity of tracer bias around voids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollina, Giorgia; Dolag, Klaus; Weller, Jochen; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe can only be observed directly via luminous tracers of the underlying distribution of dark matter. However, the clustering statistics of tracers are biased and depend on various properties of the tracers themselves, such as their host-halo mass and formation and assembly history. On very large scales, where density fluctuations are within the linear regime, this tracer bias results in a constant offset in the clustering amplitude, which is known as linear bias. Towards smaller non-linear scales, this is no longer the case and tracer bias becomes a complicated function of scale and time. We focus on tracer bias centered on cosmic voids, depressions of the density field that spatially dominate the universe. We consider three different types of tracers: galaxies, galaxy clusters and AGNs, extracted from the hydrodynamical simulation suite Magneticum Pathfinder. In contrast to common clustering statistics that focus on the auto-correlation of tracers, we find that void-tra...

  10. Modeling the Void H I Column Density Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, C V

    2003-01-01

    The equivalent width distribution function (EWDF) of \\hone absorbers specific to the void environment has been recently derived (Manning 2002), revealing a large line density of clouds (dN/dz ~500 per unit z for Log (N_HI)> 12.4). I show that the void absorbers cannot be diffuse (or so-called filamentary) clouds, expanding with the Hubble flow, as suggested by N-body/hydro simulations. Absorbers are here modeled as the baryonic remnants of sub-galactic perturbations that have expanded away from their dark halos in response to reionization at z ~ 6.5. A 1-D Lagrangian hydro/gravity code is used to follow the dynamic evolution and ionization structure of the baryonic clouds for a range of halo circular velocities. The simulation products at z=0 can be combined according to various models of the halo velocity distribution function to form a column density spectrum that can be compared with the observed. I find that such clouds may explain the observed EWDF if the halo velocity distribution function is as steep a...

  11. Are we living near the center of a local void?

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarisation anisotropies measured by a static, off-centered observer located in a local spherically symmetric void, are described. In particular in this paper we compute, together with the standard 2- point angular correlation functions, the off-diagonal correlators, which are no more vanishing by symmetry. While the energy shift induced by the off-centered position of the observer can be suppressed by a proper choice of the observer velocity, a lensing-like effect on the CMB emission point remains. This latter effect is genuinely geometrical (e.g. non-degenerate with a boost) and reflects in the structure of the off-diagonal correlators. At lowest order in this effect, the temperature and polarisation correlation matrices have non-vanishing diagonal elements, as usual, and all the off-diagonal terms are excited. This particular signature of a local void model allows one, in principle, to disentangle geometrical effects from local kinema...

  12. Generalized Statistical Models of Voids and Hierarchical Structure in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjian, Aram Z.

    2007-01-01

    Generalized statistical models of voids and hierarchical structure in cosmology are developed. The often quoted negative binomial model and the frequently used thermodynamic model are shown to be special cases of a more general distribution that contains a parameter a. This parameter is related to the Lévy index α and the Fisher critical exponent τ, the latter of which describes the power-law falloff of clumps of matter around a phase transition. The parameter a, exponent τ, or index α can be obtained from properties of a void scaling function. A stochastic probability variable p is introduced into a statistical model, which represents the adhesive growth of galaxy structure. The galaxy count distribution decays exponentially quickly with size for p1/2, adhesive growth can go on indefinitely, thereby forming an infinite supercluster. At p=1/2, a scale-free power-law distribution for the galaxy count distribution is present. The stochastic description also leads to consequences that have some parallels with cosmic string results, percolation theory, and phase transitions.

  13. Benchmark of Subchannel Code VIPRE-W with PSBT Void and Temperature Test Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes comparisons of VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulic subchannel code predictions with measurements of fluid temperature and void from pressurized water reactor subchannel and bundle tests. Using an existing turbulent mixing model, the empirical coefficient derived from code predictions in comparison to the fluid temperature measurement is similar to those from previous mixing tests of similar bundle configurations. The predicted steady-state axial void distributions and time-dependent void profiles based on the Lellouche and Zolotar model generally agree well with the test data. The void model tends to predict lower void at the upper elevation under bulk boiling. The void predictions are in closer agreement with the measurements from the power increase, temperature increase, and flow reduction transients than the depressurization transient. Additional model sensitivity studies showed no significant improvement in the code predictions as compared to the published test data.

  14. The Influence of the Presence of Multiple Voids on the Discharge Patterns in Solid Epoxy Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Larsen, Esben

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, partial discharge test results from initial long term testing on samples which contain more voids, when exposed to a high electric stress will be presented. The influence on the discharge patterns, phase- and height-analyses, of such parameter as the number of voids and the void di...... diameters will be given. A first evaluation/opinion of the impact this could have on the estimation of the insulation condition of electrical equipment, based on the identification of PD-patterns, will also be given.......In this paper, partial discharge test results from initial long term testing on samples which contain more voids, when exposed to a high electric stress will be presented. The influence on the discharge patterns, phase- and height-analyses, of such parameter as the number of voids and the void...

  15. Molecular dynamics study of void effect on nanoimprint of single crystal aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-existing defects can alter mechanical behavior of materials significantly under applied load. In current study molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to reveal pre-existing void effect on nanoimprint of single crystal Al thin films, such as deformation mechanism and spring back phenomenon. Current simulation results show void acts as strong barrier to dislocation motion, although plastic deformation is dominantly controlled by dislocation activities. It indicates the void volume fraction has strong influence on nanoimprint: the larger the void volume fraction, the smaller the maximum force required for initial dislocation nucleation, and the stronger the interaction between extended dislocation and void. It also demonstrates that there is a critical void volume fraction for minimum spring back, which is resulted from competition between two roles affecting dislocation annihilation.

  16. Benchmark of Subchannel Code VIPRE-W with PSBT Void and Temperature Test Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes comparisons of VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulic subchannel code predictions with measurements of fluid temperature and void from pressurized water reactor subchannel and bundle tests. Using an existing turbulent mixing model, the empirical coefficient derived from code predictions in comparison to the fluid temperature measurement is similar to those from previous mixing tests of similar bundle configurations. The predicted steady-state axial void distributions and time-dependent void profiles based on the Lellouche and Zolotar model generally agree well with the test data. The void model tends to predict lower void at the upper elevation under bulk boiling. The void predictions are in closer agreement with the measurements from the power increase, temperature increase, and flow reduction transients than the depressurization transient. Additional model sensitivity studies showed no significant improvement in the code predictions as compared to the published test data.

  17. VIPRE-W benchmark with PSBT void and temperature test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes comparisons of VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulic subchannel code predictions with measurements of fluid temperature and void from Pressurized Water Reactor subchannel and bundle tests. Using an existing turbulent mixing model, the empirical coefficient derived from code predictions in comparison to the fluid temperature measurement is similar to those from previous mixing tests of similar bundle configurations. The predicted steady state axial void distributions and time-dependent void profiles based on the Lellouche and Zolotar model generally agree well with the test data. The void model tends to predict lower void at the upper elevation under bulk boiling. The void predictions are in closer agreement with the measurements from the power increase, temperature increase and flow reduction transients than the depressurization transient. (author)

  18. Conversion of stacking fault tetrahedra to voids in electron irradiated Fe-Cr-Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, S.; Sano, Y.; Yoshiie, T.; Yoshida, N.; Kiritani, M.

    1986-11-01

    Electron irradiations of the austenitic Fe-13Cr-14Ni alloy were performed with a high voltage electron microscope at temperatures between room temperature and 650 K. Formation of stacking fault tetrahedra, voids and dislocation loops was observed as vacancy clusters. At the lower temperatures, the dominant vacancy clusters were tetrahedra and at the higher temperatures, voids were dominant. In the temperature range at which both tetrahedra and voids were coexistent, conversion of tetrahedra to voids were observed. These results are interpreted as the preferable nucleation of voids at the site of tetrahedra. Local effects of dilatation field at the corner of tetrahedra and the segregation of solute atoms are considered to enhance the nucleation. Clustered defects which are considered to be stacking fault tetrahedra that are formed with D-T fusion neutrons in SUS 316 stainless steel are suggested as the preferable site for void nucleation.

  19. Equality Across the Legal Orders; Or Voiding EU Citizenship of Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochenov, Dimitry; Guild, Elspeth; Kostakopoulou, Dora

    2014-01-01

    This chapter makes a simple claim. The direct by-product of a purely formalistic application of the national and supranational principles of ‘equality’ strictly within the confines of the different legal orders in, which is the case in the Union today, leads to injustice and is not sustainable. In t

  20. It Shall Not Return to Me Void: Teaching Religious Content to Individuals with Cognitive Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Carolyn M.

    2010-01-01

    This research is an exploratory qualitative investigation into the challenges of teaching religious material to individuals with cognitive disabilities. The study setting was a single large evangelical Christian church known for excellence in ministry to individuals with disabilities and their families. The following issues were explored: (a)…

  1. 重庆地区主要森林类型的空气负离子水平及其评价1)%Air Anions Content and Its Evaluation for Main Forest Types in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶浩; 刘访兵; 周小舟; 刘茜; 李彬

    2014-01-01

    With AIC1000 portable air anions tester, the air anion concentration of six main forest types had been measured in 41 monitoring plots of Chongqing in 2012.All forest types significantly can improve air anion content (Pdeciduous broad-leaved forest>evergreen broad-leaved forest>coniferous forest>bamboo forest>mixed conifer-broadleaved forest>CK(Jiefangbei Business District).For evergreen broad-leaved forest and mixed conifer forest, the air anions content in sunny day is higher than that in cloudy day and rain day (P0.05).Air anions of every forest types presents an obviously seasonal variation (P<0.01).The air anions content is the most in spring for mixed conifer-broadleaved forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest and mixed conifer forest, but it is the most in autumn for deciduous broad-leaved forest.Except bamboo forest and mixed conifer forest, air anions of other forest types are the least in winter.The air anions content mainly located in the grade of V level ( 400-1 000 air anions/cm-3 ) in the monitoring spots, and the air quality of Simian Mountains Nature Reserve is the best in all monitoring spots.%利用便携式空气负离子测定仪( AIC1000),对重庆地区6种主要森林类型的41个监测点进行为期1 a的空气负离子监测和研究。结果表明:各森林类型均能显著提高空气负离子水平(P<0.01),从大到小依次为针叶混交林、落叶阔叶林、常绿阔叶林、针叶纯林、竹林、针阔混交林、对照(解放碑商务区);常绿阔叶林和针叶混交林在晴天时的空气负离子水平显著高于阴天和雨天的(P<0.01),而落叶阔叶林却相反;天气阴晴对其它森林类型的空气负离子影响则不显著(P>0.05)。各森林类型的空气负离子呈明显的季节变化(P<0.01),针阔混交林、常绿阔叶林和针叶混交林均以春季最大,落叶阔叶林则以秋季最大;除竹林和针叶混交林外,其它森

  2. Research and development of a super fast reactor. (2) Core design improvement on local void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 700MWe Supercritical-pressure water-cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) was designed with negative overall void reactivity. As there is no cross flow between the fuel assemblies, the local void reactivity, defined as the reactivity change when the coolant of one assembly disappears, also need to be kept negative throughout the cycle. In this study, we found out the mechanism of the local void reactivity and improved the core design to keep the local void reactivity negative for all the seed fuel assemblies. According to the theory analysis, several core configurations, including the thickness of ZrH layer, the layout of the seed fuel assembly, the layout of the core and the loading pattern, will affect the local void reactivity distribution. Sensitivity of those configurations on the local void reactivity was analyzed. 1.15cm of ZrH layer thickness is the best choice for reducing the local void reactivity for the current core design. The assembly layout has no obvious effect on the local void reactivity. It is necessary to load more blanket assemblies in the inner region of the core in order to reduce the local void reactivity of the inner seed fuel assemblies. Loading pattern is also important for flattening the local void reactivity distribution. A hybrid loading method can be employed to make the distribution of the local void reactivity more uniform. Based on those conclusions, a Super Fast Reactor is successfully designed with satisfying all of the design criteria and design goals as well as keeping the local void reactivity of all the seed fuel assemblies less than -30pcm. (author)

  3. 2D-ACAR measurements in tungsten with voids decorated with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) in W containing small voids filled with deuterium. A comparison of the trapping fraction of positrons in voids derived from the 2D-ACAR spectra and from lifetime measurements shows large differences due to the fact that the 2D-ACAR spectrum from positrons annihilating at the surface of the void contains a sizable W-like component. The trapping fraction increases with temperature

  4. Diffusion plus Explosion Mechanism of Void-Crack Transition in Irradiated NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Dubinko, V.I.; A.A.Turkin; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den

    2001-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented on the formation of large vacancy voids and cracks in NaCl under irradiation. The crack length increases gradually with increasing stored energy, which is explained by a new mechanism of diffusion accumulation and explosive release of energy in voids and cracks. It is shown that the colloid number density, which determines the critical void radius that triggers the explosion process, has a drastic effect on the ultimate mechanical stability o...

  5. Glass composition and process for sealing void spaces in electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Kirby, Brent W.

    2012-05-01

    A glass foaming material and method are disclosed for filling void spaces in electrochemical devices. The glass material includes a reagent that foams at a temperature above the softening point of the glass. Expansion of the glass fills void spaces including by-pass and tolerance channels of electrochemical devices. In addition, cassette to cassette seals can also be formed while channels and other void spaces are filled, reducing the number of processing steps needed.

  6. Origin and stability of defect structures: the void lattice and similar phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The void lattice is an impressive example of the many solid-state systems which show periodicity. The reasons for ordering and the factors determining the scale of the order are compared, giving a context within which the void lattice can be discussed. The reasons for the stability of the void lattice are summarized. Available information about the mechanism of formation is analyzed, with emphasis on electron diffraction results

  7. Measurement of film thickness and void fraction in stratified horizontal gas-liquid flow using an advanced ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to present the development and assembling of a new ultrasonic system for the dynamic measurements of liquid film thickness, void fraction and liquid speed of air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal circular pipe test section by using an advanced time averaging ultrasonic technique. Together we present the experimental results of the system tests and its performance on different static and dynamic conditions of stratified air-water flow. In a stratified air-water flow through the horizontal circular pipe, one part of ultrasound pulse discharged from an emitter-receiver transducer, placed at bottom of tube, will be transmitted through the water and then reflected back to the same transducer from air-water or tube wall-water interfaces. These signals can be acquired by an oscilloscope over a period of time, stored on a computer and then plotted as the waveforms. The transit time of a pulse is calculated and converted to the distance between the interfaces, as the sound velocity in water is known at a given temperature. In this way it is possible to determine both water film thickness and void fraction. Other parameters could be deduced too as the wall thickness and the inner diameter of pipe. To determine the liquid speed a pair of ultrasonic transducers were placed respectively upstream and downstream outside tube wall on the same side. The difference in the transit time between the pair of the transducers can be measured and is used to calculate the water speed in the tube. (author)

  8. Strain gradient crystal plasticity analysis of a single crystal containing a cylindrical void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Kysar, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of void size and hardening in a hexagonal close-packed single crystal containing a cylindrical void loaded by a far-field equibiaxial tensile stress under plane strain conditions are studied. The crystal has three in-plane slip systems oriented at the angle 60 degrees with respect......, it is shown that a local theory with hardening has only minor effects on the deformation field around the void, whereas a significant difference is obtained with the non-local constitutive relation. Finally, it is shown that the applied stress state required to activate plastic deformation at the void is up...

  9. Numerical Simulation of Dust Void Evolution in Complex Plasmas with Ionization Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yue; WANG Zheng-Xiong; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2006-01-01

    We develop the nonlinear theory of dust voids [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 075001], focusing particularly on effects of the ionization, to investigate numerically the void evolution under cylindrical coordinates [Phys. Plasmas 13(2006) 064502]. The ion velocity profile is solved by a more accurate ion motion equation with the ion convection and ionization terms. It is shown that the differences between the previous result and the one obtained with ionizations are significant for the distributions of the ion and dust velocities, the dust density, and etc., in the void formation process. Furthermore, the ionization can slow down the void formation process effectively.

  10. Investigation of void effects in boiling water reactor fuels using neutron tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Loberg, John

    2006-01-01

    In a boiling water reactor (BWR), the void is correlated to dry out and the power level of the reactor. However, measuring the void is very difficult so it is therefore calculated with an accuracy that leaves room for improvements. Typically the uncertainty is ± 3% for 40% average void in the reactor. If the void could be determined with improved accuracy, both safety and economical features could be improved. X-ray tomography has previously been done on BWR fuel models in order to determine ...

  11. THE VOID-SIZE EFFECT ON PLASTIC FLOW LOCALIZATION IN THE GURSON MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jie; HUANG Yonggang; HWANG Keh-Chih

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the size of microvoids has a significant effect on the void growth rate. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the void size effect can influence the plastic flow localization in ductile materials. We have used the extended Gurson's dilatational plasticity theory, which accounts for the void size effect, to study the plastic flow localization in porous solids with long cylindrical voids. The localization model of Rice is adopted, in which the material inside the band may display a different response from that outside the band at the incipient plastic flow localization. The present study shows that it has little effect on the shear band angle.

  12. The void-size effect on plastic flow localization in the Gurson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wen; Yonggang, Huang; Keh-Chih, Hwang

    2004-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that the size of microvoids has a significant effect on the void growth rate. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the void size effect can influence the plastic flow localization in ductile materials. We have used the extended Gurson's dilatational plasticity theory, which accounts for the void size effect, to study the plastic flow localization in porous solids with long cylindrical voids. The localization model of Rice is adopted, in which the material inside the band may display a different response from that outside the band at the incipient plastic flow localization. The present study shows that it has little effect on the shear band angle.

  13. Extension of the gurson model accounting for the void size effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wen; Keh-Chih Hwang; Yonggang Huang

    2005-01-01

    A continuum model of solids with cylindrical microvoids is proposed based on the Taylor dislocation model.The model is an extension of Gurson model in the sense that the void size effect is accounted for. Beside the void volume fraction f, the intrinsic material length l becomes a parameter representing voids since the void size comes into play in the Gurson model. Approximate yield functions in analytic forms are suggested for both solids with cylindrical microvoids and with spherical microvoids. The application to uniaxial tension curves shows a precise agreement between the approximate analytic yield function and the "exact" parametric form of integrals.

  14. Influence of ageing, inclusions and voids on ductile fracture mechanism in commercial Al-alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Chennakesava Reddy; S Sundar Rajan

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the paper is to study the effect of ageing, inclusions and voids on the mechanism of fracture and resultant toughness. It has been found that the voids are initiated at only a fraction of the larger inclusions present. The initiation of voids at small particles in the ductile fracture process appears to have little effect on fracture toughness. The strain hardening capacity has a marked effect on void size, and is an indicator of fracture toughness in the commercial Al alloy.

  15. The effect of voids on the hardening of body-centered cubic Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Ryosuke; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Nogami, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical properties of metals are affected by various types of defects. Hardening is usually described through the interaction between dislocations and obstacles, in the so-called line tension theory. The strength factor in the line tension theory represents the resistance of a defect against the dislocation motion. In order to understand hardening from the viewpoint of the microstructure, an accurate determination of the strength factor of different types of defects is essential. In the present study, the strength factor of voids in body-centered cubic (BCC) Fe was investigated by two different approaches: one based on the Orowan equation to link the measured hardness with the average size and density of voids, and the other involving direct observation of the interaction between dislocations and voids by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The strength factor of voids induced by ion irradiation estimated by the Orowan equation was 0.6, whereas the strength factor estimated by the direct TEM approach was 0.8. The difference in the strength factors measured by the two approaches is due to the positional relationship between dislocations and voids: the central region of a void is stronger than the tip. Moreover, the gliding plane and the direction of dislocation may also affect the strength factor of voids. This study determined the strength factor of voids in BCC Fe accurately, and suggested that the contribution of voids to the irradiation hardening is larger than that of dislocation loops and Cu-rich precipitates.

  16. Voids in the Local Volume: a limit on appearance of a galaxy in a DM halo

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhonov, Anton V.; Klypin, Anatoly A.

    2007-01-01

    Current explanation of the overabundance of dark matter subhalos in the Local Group (LG) indicates that there maybe a limit on mass of a halo, which can host a galaxy. This idea can be tested using voids in the distribution of galaxies: at some level small voids should not contain any (even dwarf) galaxies. We use observational samples complete to M_B = -12 with distances less than 8 Mpc to construct the void function (VF): the distribution of sizes of voids empty of any galaxies. There are ~...

  17. Void Fraction in a Four by Four Rod Bundle under a Stagnant Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Akihiro; Hosokawa, Shigeo; Tomiyama, Akio; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Murase, Michio

    In the case of a hypothetical failure of a residual heat removal (RHR) systems under mid-loop operation, vapor generated in a reactor core forms two-phase flow in a stagnant liquid and rises the water level in the core. The vapor flows into a steam generator through a hot leg, and condenses in the steam generator. Since the flow rate of vapor from the reactor core to the hot leg depends on the water level and the void fraction α in the reactor core, the reliable analysis of the RHR failure cannot be carried out without accurately estimating the void fraction in the reactor core. Although a number of studies on void fractions in two-phase flows in rod bundles have been carried out, there are few experimental data on void fractions in rod bundles under the stagnant condition. Void fractions in four by four rod bundles under the stagnant condition were measured for a wide range of gas volume fluxes to examine the validity of available void correlations. Flow patterns were visualized by using a high-speed video camera to examine the effects of flow pattern on the void fraction. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: (1) Dependence of the void fraction on the gas volume flux JG changed at JG ≅ 1.5 m/s due to the flow pattern transition. (2) Murase's correlation agreed well with the void fraction in the two kinds of rod bundles having different dimensions under the stagnant condition.

  18. Interrelations between the pollution with sulfur dioxide and the movements of stomata in Pelargonium X hortorum: effect of the relative humidity and the air content in carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, J.; Louguet, P.

    1975-01-01

    The 10/sup -6/ (V/V) concentration of sulphur dioxide, maintained during a sufficient time, causes necrosis on the Pelargonium X hortorum leaves, the importance of which is related to the initial degree of stomatal opening. At light, exposure to SO/sub 2/ is followed by a temporary stomatal closing in dry as in moist air. Nevertheless, damages are greatly enhanced in moist air because the rate of stomatal closing is much slower. If SO/sub 2/ is given in darkness to stomata opened in air without CO/sub 2/, the closing reaction is also observed. At light the sensitivity of the leaves to pollution is greatly increased without CO/sub 2/. The authors consider the possible ways of SO/sub 2/ action upon the mechanisms of stomatal movement and discuss the hypothesis of the protecting role of CO/sub 2/.

  19. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    areas.' Project 2.4 focuses on the development of 'Innovative procedures for effective GPR inspection of construction materials and structures.' The WG2 also includes Project 2.5 on the 'Determination, by using GPR, of the volumetric water content in structures, sub-structures, foundations and soil,' this is a topic of great interest in civil engineering, as water infiltration is often a relevant cause of degradation of structures, such as roads of bridges, and of rebar corrosion. During the first year of the Action, information was collected and shared about state-of-the-art, ongoing studies, problems and future research needs, in the topics covered by the five above-mentioned Projects [1-3]. Based on the experience and knowledge gained from the in-depth review work carried out by WG2, several case studies were then conducted; they were presented during the Second General Meeting and the GPR 2014 conference [5, 6]. Furthermore, the extension of GPR application to railways track ballast assessment was demonstrated [7]. The WG2 identified reference test-sites, suitable to compare inspection procedures or to test GPR equipment. The IFSTTAR geophysical test site is an open-air laboratory including a large and deep area, filled with various materials arranged in horisontal compacted slices, separated by vertical interfaces and water-tighted in surface; several objects as pipes, polystyrene hollows, boulders and masonry are embedded in the field [4]. The IFSTTAR full-scale APT facility is an outdoor circular carousel dedicated to full-scale pavement experiments, consisting of a central tower and four long arms equipped with wheels, running on a circular test track [4]. Furthermore, the WG2 is building a database of available experimental results, which are at the disposal of WG3 Members to test their electromagnetic modeling/inversion/data-processing methods. Another interesting and promising WG2 initiative that has to be mentioned is the development of a Catalogue of

  20. Evaluation of radiation doses in paediatric patients undergoing voiding cystourethrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate dose-area product, skin entrance dose and doses from fluoroscopy and radiography in voiding cystourethrography studies of pediatric patients. Procedures performed in 37 patients by four physicians of the institution were evaluated. Measurements were performed with an equipment including an ionization chamber directly coupled to the x-ray tube window and an electrometer (Diamentor) connected to a computer for data collection. Some procedures heterogeneity was observed and guidelines for good radiographic techniques were not followed. On average, 11 radiographs are performed for each study, with extended fluoroscopy time delivering a higher average final dose than those reported in the literature. The adoption of radiography with high kilo voltage technique and restricted utilization of fluoroscopy can result in a significant reduction of doses during this procedure, considering that the major contribution to the final dose comes from fluoroscopy. (author)

  1. Dynamic void distribution in myoglobin and five mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Sanchez, Isaac C

    2014-01-01

    Globular proteins contain cavities/voids that play specific roles in controlling protein function. Elongated cavities provide migration channels for the transport of ions and small molecules to the active center of a protein or enzyme. Using Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics on fully atomistic protein/water models, a new computational methodology is introduced that takes into account the protein's dynamic structure and maps all the cavities in and on the surface. To demonstrate its utility, the methodology is applied to study cavity structure in myoglobin and five of its mutants. Computed cavity and channel size distributions reveal significant differences relative to the wild type myoglobin. Computer visualization of the channels leading to the heme center indicates restricted ligand access for the mutants consistent with the existing interpretations. The new methodology provides a quantitative measure of cavity structure and distributions and can become a valuable tool for the structural characterization of proteins. PMID:24500195

  2. Dynamical 3-Space: Cosmic Filaments, Sheets and Voids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of weak gravitational lensing combined with statistical tomographic techniques have revealed that galaxies have formed along filaments, essentially one- dimensional lines or strings, which form sheets and voids. These have, in the main, been interpreted as “dark matter” effects. To the contrary here we report the discovery that the dynamical 3-space theory possesses such filamentary solutions. These solutions are purely space self-interaction effects, and are attractive to matter, and as well gener- ate electromagnetic lensing. This theory of space has explained bore hole anomalies, supermassive black hole masses in spherical galaxies and globular clusters, flat rota- tion curves of spiral galaxies, and other gravitational anomalies. The theory has two constants, G and , where the bore hole experiments show that 1 = 137 is the fine structure constant.

  3. Results and applications in thermoelasticity of materials with voids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ciarletta

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the linear theory of a thermoelastic porous solid in which the skeletal or matrix is a thermoelastic material and the interstices are void of material. We assume that the initial body is free from stresses. The concept of a distributed body asserts that the mass density at time t has the decomposition γν, where γ is the density of the matrix material and ν (0 In the first part, in order to derive some applications of the reciprocity theorem, we recall some results established by same authors in [3]. Then we obtain integral representations of the solution and prove that the solving of the boundary-initial value problem can be reduced to the solving of an associated uncoupled problem and to an integral equation for the volume fraction field.

  4. Dynamical 3-Space: Cosmic Filaments, Sheets and Voids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of weak gravitational lensing combined with statistical tomographic techniques have revealed that galaxies have formed along filaments, essentially one-dimensional lines or strings, which form sheets and voids. These have, in the main, been interpreted as "dark matter" effects. To the contrary here we report the discovery that the dynamical 3-space theory possesses such filamentary solutions. These solutions are purely space self-interaction effects, and are attractive to matter, and as well generate electromagnetic lensing. This theory of space has explained bore hole anomalies, supermassive black hole masses in spherical galaxies and globular clusters, flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies, and other gravitational anomalies. The theory has two constants, $G$ and $alpha$, where the bore hole experiments show that $alpha approx 1/137$ is the fine structure constant.

  5. A void coalescence model for combined tension and shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, C.; Chen, Z. T.

    2009-03-01

    The influence of shear loading on damage development in Gurson-based models has long been neglected resulting in inadequate fracture strain predictions at low triaxiality where shear effects become significant. The plastic limit-load fracture criterion used in advanced Gurson models neglects the influence of shear loading and overestimates the fracture strain and porosity at low triaxiality. In this paper, we extend the recently proposed shear damage model of Xue [1] to provide a stronger physical foundation by removing the simplifying assumptions. Then we directly modify the plastic limit-load fracture criterion by coupling with the extended shear damage model to account for shear weakening and failure of the intervoid ligament in void coalescence. We apply the modified plastic limit-load criterion to predict the necking of sheet tensile specimens and find very good agreement with the available experimental results.

  6. Void fraction prediction of NUPEC PSBT tests by CATHARE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current generation of thermal-hydraulic system codes benefits of about sixty years of experiments and forty years of development and are considered mature tools to provide best estimate description of phenomena and detailed reactor system representations. However, there are continuous needs for checking the code capabilities in representing nuclear system, for drawing attention to their weak points, for identifying models which need to be refined for best-estimate calculations. Prediction of void fraction and Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) in system thermal-hydraulics is currently based on empirical approaches. The database carried out by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), Japan addresses these issues. It is suitable for supporting the development of new computational tools based on more mechanistic approaches (i.e. three-field codes, two-phase CFD, etc.) as well as for validating current generation of thermal-hydraulic system codes. Selected experiments belonging to this database are used for the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark. The paper reviews the activity carried out by CATHARE2 code on the basis of the subchannel (four test sections) and presents rod bundle (different axial power profile and test sections) experiments available in the database in steady state and transient conditions. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the code in predicting the void fraction in different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The tests are performed varying the pressure, coolant temperature, mass flow and power. Sensitivity analyses are carried out addressing nodalization effect and the influence of the initial and boundary conditions of the tests. (author)

  7. Experimental study of the voids in the electroless copper deposits and the direct measurement of the void fraction based on the scanning electron microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroless copper deposits were plated on epoxy substrates in various plating solutions at either a high operating temperature (60 deg. C) or a low one (45 deg. C). Cross section samples were made using epoxy resin cured in room temperature, and then ground, polished and over-etched. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the over-etched cross section samples show voids in low temperature deposits and solid structure in high temperature ones. The surface morphology images also indicated such structures in low temperature samples. The SEM image of the cross section of a stand-alone deposit prepared on stainless steel substrate shows similar voids observed on etched cross section samples on epoxy board substrates. An image processing program was written using MATLAB to identify the voids in the over-etched cross sections of the deposits from low temperature solutions and thus the void fraction can be directly measured and compared with the previously published simulation results.

  8. 水泥砂孔隙特征对抗冻性影响的研究%Research of cement mortar air content on the effects of pore characterstics and frost resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松; 李建新; 王起才; 李伟龙

    2015-01-01

    Through the frost resistance test,mercury intrusion test,hole spacing coefficient test to determine the cement mortar pore structure characteristics and the frost resistance under different air content,study the relationship between frost resistance and cement mortar pore structure characteristics,in addition,also analyzed the compressive strength of cement mortar under different air content. Ex-perimental results show that the as increase of air content the pore porosity of cement mortar,total pore volume,total hole area,average pore diameter are all increased,hole spacing coefficient decreases,and improved pore structure internal of cement mortar ,and pore size distribution more uniform and reasonable,although the strength decreases a bit,but the frost resistance was improved greatly.%通过抗冻性试验、压汞试验、孔间距系数试验测定了不同含气量下水泥砂的浆孔结构特征及其抗冻性,研究了抗冻性与孔结构之间的关系,此外,还分析了不同含气量水泥砂浆的抗压强度。试验结果表明:含气量的增加使水泥砂浆孔隙率、总孔体积、总孔面积、平均孔径均增加,孔间距系数减小,改善了其内部孔结构,孔径分布也比较均匀合理,虽然其强度有所降低,但大大提高了抗冻性。

  9. Void probability as a function of the void's shape and scale-invariant models. [in studies of spacial galactic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, E.; Gaztanaga, E.

    1992-01-01

    The dependence of counts in cells on the shape of the cell for the large scale galaxy distribution is studied. A very concrete prediction can be done concerning the void distribution for scale invariant models. The prediction is tested on a sample of the CfA catalog, and good agreement is found. It is observed that the probability of a cell to be occupied is bigger for some elongated cells. A phenomenological scale invariant model for the observed distribution of the counts in cells, an extension of the negative binomial distribution, is presented in order to illustrate how this dependence can be quantitatively determined. An original, intuitive derivation of this model is presented.

  10. Effect of cold work on void swelling in aluminium at high neutron fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminium (99.9995%) was deformed at room temperature to various degrees ranging up to 90%. The void population, produced by subsequent neutron irradiation of annealed and deformed specimens to fluences of 6.6 x 1024. 5.4 x 1025 and 2.2 x 1026 n m-2 (E>0.1 MeV) at 500C, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Between 5.4 x 1025 and 2.2 x 1026 n m-2 void swelling continues by increase of the void size, with the void density actually decreasing slightly. At the highest fluence level, which corresponds to 19 dpa, annealed material swells about 13% due to voids. At this fluence level, the average void size and volume fraction decrease marginally with increasing degree of cold work. Also, dislocation walls forming subgrains in the deformed specimens are still present. Voids are located within the subgrains, with void-free zones of variable thickness lining the subgrain walls and the grain boundaries. (orig.)

  11. Parallel Void Thread in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-06-25

    This work investigates void filling (idle periods) in long-reach Ethernet passive optical networks. We focus on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. We introduce a novel approach called parallel void thread (PVT), which allocates bandwidth grants during voids baseless of bandwidth requests. We introduce three different grant sizing schemes for PVT, namely void extension, count controlled batch void filling, and size controlled batch void filling. The proposed approaches canbe integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. Unlike other void filling schemes, PVT is less sensitive to the differential distance between optical network units and can work very well in the case of limited differential distances. We have analytically investigated the packet delay and derived a bound condition for PVT to outperform the other competitors. We support our work with extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependence for both the single-class and differentiated services (DiffServ) scenarios. Numerical results show delay reduction up to 35% compared with the non-void filling scheme for the single-class scenario. For DiffServ traffic, PVT achieves delay reduction up to 80% for expedited forward traffic, 52% for assured forward traffic, and 56% for best effort traffic. © 2015 OSA.

  12. Effect of hardness of martensite and ferrite on void formation in dual phase steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, M.; Goutianos, Stergios; Hansen, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the hardness of martensite and ferrite phases in dual phase steel on void formation has been investigated by in situ tensile loading in a scanning electron microscope. Microstructural observations have shown that most voids form in martensite by evolving four steps: plastic defor...

  13. Statistics of Voids in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Patiri, S G; Prada, F; Klypin, A; Gottl"ober, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of voids in the 2dF galaxy redshift survey (2dFGRS). In order to detect the voids, we have developed two robust algorithms. We define voids as non-overlapping maximal spheres empty of halos or galaxies with mass or luminosity above a given one. We search for voids in cosmological $N$-Body simulations to test the performance of our void finders. We obtain and analyze the void statistics for several volume-limited samples for the North Galactic Strip (NGP) and the South Galactic Strip (SGP) constructed from the 2dFGRS full data release. We find that the results obtained from the NGP and the SGP are statistically compatible. From the results of several statistical tests we conclude that voids are essentially uncorrelated, with at most a mild anticorrelation and that there is a dependence of the void number density on redshift at least at the 99.5% confidence level. We develop a technique to correct the distortion caused by the fact that we use the redshift as the radial coordina...

  14. Size-effects at a crack-tip interacting with a number of voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    A strain gradient plasticity theory is used to analyse the growth of discretely represented voids in front of a blunting crack tip, in order to study the influence of size effects on two competing mechanisms of crack growth. For a very small void volume fraction the crack tip tends to interact...

  15. On grain size dependent void swelling in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Zinkle, S.J.;

    2001-01-01

    in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons at 623K to a dose level of approx0.3 dpa (displacement peratom). The post-irradiation defect microstructure including voids was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The evolution of void swelling...

  16. On grain-size-dependent void swelling in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Zinkle, S.J.;

    2002-01-01

    in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons at 623 K to a dose level of about 0.3 displacement per atom. The post-irradiation defect microstructure including voids was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The evolution of void swelling...

  17. The Effects of Void on Natural Ventilation Performance in Multi-Storey Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhriah Muhsin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing natural ventilation performance in multi-storey housing is very important for the living environment in terms of health and thermal comfort purposes. One of the most important design strategies to enhance natural ventilation in multi-storey housing is through the provision of voids. A void is a passive architectural feature, which is located in the middle of deep plan buildings. It is very crucial to consider the configurations of voids in the buildings for enhancing natural ventilation, especially for multi-storey housing. In this study, Malaysian Medium Cost Multi-Storey Housing (MMCMSH, which is an example of multi-storey housing located in a suburban area, has been selected in this study. This study aims to investigate the potential of void for enhancing natural ventilation performance in multi-storey housing by the comparison of two different void configurations. Field measurement of MMCMSH has been conducted to validate Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD model and Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL is an important parameter for setting up the CFD Model’s domain. Ventilation rate (Q, which is necessary for comfort and health reasons, is an important parameter for the comparison of the different void configurations. This study revealed that the provision of void can enhance natural ventilation performance in multi-storey housing with an increase in the value of Q, from 3.44% to 40.07%, by enlarging the void’s width by 50% compared to the existing void.

  18. The growth and coalescence of ellipsoidal voids in plane strain under combined shear and tension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheyvaerts, F.; Onck, P. R.; Tekoglu, C.; Pardoen, T.

    2011-01-01

    New extensions of a model for the growth and coalescence of ellipsoidal voids based on the Gurson formalism are proposed in order to treat problems involving shear and/or voids axis not necessarily aligned with the main loading direction, under plane strain loading conditions. These extensions are m

  19. A molecular dynamics study of void initiation and growth in monocrystalline and nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traiviratana, Sirirat

    MD simulations in monocrystalline and nanocrystalline copper were carried out with LAMMPS to reveal void growth mechanisms. The specimens were subjected to both tensile uniaxial and hydrostatic strains; the results confirm that the emission of (shear) loops is the primary mechanism of void growth. The expansion of the loops and their cross slip leads to the severely work hardened layer surrounding a growing void. Calculations were carried out on voids with different sizes, and a size dependence of the stress response to emitted dislocations was observed, in disagreement with the Gurson model [1] which is scale independent. The growth of voids simulated by MD is compared with the Cocks-Ashby constitutive model and significant agreement is found. The density of geometrically-necessary dislocations as a function of void size is calculated based on the emission of shear loops and their outward propagation. Calculations were also carried out for a void at the interface between two grains sharing a tilt boundary. The results show similar dislocation behaviors. A code that uses Voronoi tessellation for constructing nanocrystalline structures was developed and used to prepare the structures for simulations. Nanocrystal simulations reveal grain sliding and grain rotation as the nanocrystal deformed. Voids were nucleated at grain junctions and grew to coalescence as dislocations accommodated the material transfer. A code that can be used during post-processing to extract useful dislocation information from MD simulation data was partially developed and proved the feasibility of automatically analyzing dislocations.

  20. Atomistic insights into dislocation-based mechanisms of void growth and coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Changwen; Buttry, Daniel A.; Sharma, Pradeep; Kouris, Demitris A.

    2011-09-01

    One of the low-temperature failure mechanisms in ductile metallic alloys is the growth of voids and their coalescence. In the present work we attempt to obtain atomistic insights into the mechanisms underpinning cavitation in a representative metal, namely Aluminum. Often the pre-existing voids in metallic alloys such as Al have complex shapes (e.g. corrosion pits) and the defromation/damage mechanisms exhibit a rich size-dependent behavior across various material length scales. We focus on these two issues in this paper through large-scale calculations on specimens of sizes ranging from 18 thousand to 1.08 million atoms. In addition to the elucidation of the dislocation propagation based void growth mechanism we highlight the observed length scale effect reflected in the effective stress-strain response, stress triaxiality and void fraction evolution. Furthermore, as expected, the conventionally used Gurson's model fails to capture the observed size-effects calling for a mechanistic modification that incorporates the mechanisms observed in our (and other researchers') simulation. Finally, in our multi-void simulations, we find that, the splitting of a big void into a distribution of small ones increases the load-carrying capacity of specimens. However, no obvious dependence of the void fraction evolution on void coalescence is observed.

  1. An observational signal of the void shape correlation and its link to the cosmic web

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jounghun

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of cosmic voids are prone to distortions by the external tidal forces since their low-densities imply a lower internal resistance. This susceptibility of the void shapes to the tidal distortions makes them useful as an indicator of the large-scale tidal and density fields, despite the practical difficulty in defining them. Using the void catalog constructed by Pan et al. (2012) from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7), we detect a clear 4 sigma signal of spatial correlations of the void shapes on the scale of 20 Mpc/h and show that the signal is robust against the projection of the void shapes onto the plane of sky. By constructing a simple analytic model for the void shape correlation, within the framework of tidal torque theory, we demonstrate that the void shape correlation function scales linearly with the two-point correlation function of the linear density field. We also find a direct observational evidence for the cross-correlation of the void shapes with the ...

  2. A model for void-induced back reaction between radiolytic products in NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A.A.; Dubinko, V.I.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den

    2002-01-01

    A kinetic model is formulated for the chemical reaction between radiolytic sodium colloids and gas bubbles, which are brought into contact with each other during the exposure to ionising radiation by the growing voids. The reaction starts with the evaporation of Na atoms into the void due to the loc

  3. The lensing and temperature imprints of voids on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yan-Chuan; Mao, Qingqing; Peacock, John A; Szapudi, Istvan; Berlind, Andreas A

    2016-01-01

    We have searched for the signature of cosmic voids in the CMB, in both the Planck temperature and lensing-convergence maps; voids should give decrements in both. We use zobov voids from the DR12 SDSS CMASS galaxy sample. We base our analysis on N-body simulations, to avoid a posteriori bias. For the first time, we detect the signature of voids in CMB lensing: the significance is $4.0\\sigma$, close to $\\Lambda$CDM in both amplitude and projected density-profile shape. A temperature dip is also seen, at modest significance ($1.6\\sigma$), with amplitude about 6 times the prediction. This temperature signal is induced mostly by voids with radius between 100 and 150 Mpc/h, while the lensing signal is mostly contributed by smaller voids -- as expected; lensing relates directly to density, while ISW depends on gravitational potential. The void abundance in observations and simulations agree, as well. We also repeated the analysis excluding lower-significance voids: no lensing signal is detected, with an upper limit ...

  4. Voids in the Local Volume: a limit on appearance of a galaxy in a DM halo

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, Anton V

    2007-01-01

    Current explanation of the overabundance of dark matter subhalos in the Local Group (LG) indicates that there maybe a limit on mass of a halo, which can host a galaxy. This idea can be tested using voids in the distribution of galaxies: at some level small voids should not contain any (even dwarf) galaxies. We use observational samples complete to M_B = -12 with distances less than 8 Mpc to construct the void function (VF): the distribution of sizes of voids empty of any galaxies. There are ~30 voids with sizes ranging from 1 to 5 Mpc. We then study the distribution of dark matter halos in very high resolution simulations of the LCDM model. The theoretical VF matches the observations remarkably well only if we use halos with circular velocities larger than 45 +/- 10 km/s. This agrees with the Local Group predictions. There are smaller halos in the voids, but they should not produce any luminous matter. Small voids look quite similar to their giant cousins: the density has a minimum at the center of a void and...

  5. Diffusion plus Explosion Mechanism of Void-Crack Transition in Irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den

    2001-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented on the formation of large vacancy voids and cracks in NaCl under irradiation. The crack length increases gradually with increasing stored energy, which is explained by a new mechanism of diffusion accumulation and explosive release of energy in void

  6. Testing cosmology with a catalogue of voids in the BOSS galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadathur, Seshadri

    2016-09-01

    We present a public catalogue of voids in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 11 LOWZ and CMASS galaxy surveys. This catalogue contains information on the location, sizes, densities, shapes and bounding surfaces of 8956 independent, disjoint voids, making it the largest public void catalogue to date. Voids are identified using a version of the ZOBOV algorithm, the operation of which has been calibrated though tests on mock galaxy populations in N-body simulations, as well as on a suite of 4096 mock catalogues which fully reproduce the galaxy clustering, survey masks and selection functions. Based on this, we estimate a false positive detection rate of 3 per cent. Comparison with mock catalogues limits deviations of the void size distribution from that predicted in the ΛCDM model to be less than 6 per cent for voids with effective radius 8 < Rv < 60 h-1Mpc and in the redshift range 0.15 < z < 0.7. This could tightly constrain modified gravity scenarios and models with a varying equation of state, but we identify systematic biases which must be accounted for to reduce the theoretical uncertainty in the predictions for these models to the current level of precision attained from the data. We also examine the distribution of void densities and identify a deficit of the deepest voids relative to ΛCDM expectations, which is significant at more than the 3σ equivalent level. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy but at present its cause remains unknown.

  7. Linear redshift space distortions for cosmic voids based on galaxies in redshift space

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Zhao, Cheng; McDonald, Patrick; Tao, Charling

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic voids found in galaxy surveys are defined based on the galaxy distribution in redshift space. We show that the large scale distribution of voids in redshift space traces the fluctuations in the dark matter density field \\delta(k) (in Fourier space with \\mu being the line of sight projected k-vector): \\delta_v^s(k) = (1 + \\beta_v \\mu^2) b^s_v \\delta(k), with a beta factor that will be in general different than the one describing the distribution of galaxies. Only in case voids could be assumed to be quasi-local transformations of the linear (Gaussian) galaxy redshift space field, one gets equal beta factors \\beta_v=\\beta_g=f/b_g with f being the growth rate, and b_g, b^s_v being the galaxy and void bias on large scales defined in redshift space. Indeed, in our mock void catalogs we measure void beta factors being in good agreement with the galaxy one. Further work needs to be done to confirm the level of accuracy of the beta factor equality between voids and galaxies, but in general the void beta factor...

  8. Void Reactivity Effects in the Second Charge of the Halden Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity effect of voids caused by boiling inside the coolant channels in the second fuel charge of the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor has been measured both in void-simulated zero-power experiments and under actual power conditions. The void-simulated experiments consisted of measuring the reactivity effect of introducing void columns inside thin-walled tubes to various depths. The tubes were placed at different positions between die stringers in a single 7-rod cluster element practically identical with the normal second-charge fuel elements. This experiment enables an investigation of the reactivity dependence upon void fraction, and also the reactivity dependence of steam-bubble position in the coolant channel. The experiment was carried out in the Norwegian zero-power facility NORA, with a core consisting of 36 second-charge elements and with a lattice geometry identical to the one in HBWR. The temperature dependence of the void effect was investigated in a zero-power experiment with the 100 fuel-element core of HBWR. In a single fuel element the water level inside the coolant channel was depressed to various depths, and the reactivity effect of this perturbation was measured at different temperatures in the temperature interval 50°C-220°C. The power void reactivity has been measured in HBWR as a function of nuclear power at different moderator temperatures between 150°C and 230°C at powers up to about 16 MW at the highest temperature. The power-void reactivity coefficient is an important quantity in determining the dynamic behaviour of a boiling- water reactor. The theoretical determination of this quantity is, however, complicated by the fact that knowledge about the void distribution in the core is required. The detailed power-void distribution is not easily amenable to experimental determination, and accordingly the void-simulated experiments represent a better case for testing the reactor physics calculation of void effects. Preliminary

  9. Partial Discharge Characteristics of Closed Voids in the Low Vacuum Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shin'ichi; Araki, Tomoo; Konashi, Akio; Hozumi, Naohiro

    The purpose of this paper is to grasp the partial discharge property of closed voids under the low vacuum involved in an epoxy resin. When an epoxy resin insulator is manufactured in a factory, some voids may be involved in it. To prevent the invasion, partial discharge is measured for insulators. However, partial discharge may not be detected due to the low vacuum in voids right after the manufactory. Well-known Paschen curve testifies this phenomenon, which describes the partial discharge property ranging from a high vacuum to the atmospheric pressure. However this Paschen curve is acquired several gases between parallel-plane metallic electrode gaps. There is little clear statement of Paschen carve on the void. Therefore authors of this paper studied the partial discharge characteristics of the void within the epoxy resin under the variable vacuum level.

  10. Active Adoption of Void Formation in Metal-Oxide for All Transparent Super-Performing Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-05-01

    Could ‘defect-considered’ void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85–95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of ‘defect-considered’ Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices.

  11. Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Ren, Shenghan; Qu, Xiaochao; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-20

    A void region exists in some biological tissues, and previous studies have shown that inaccurate images would be obtained if it were not processed. A hybrid radiosity-diffusion method (HRDM) that couples the radiosity theory and the diffusion equation has been proposed to deal with the void problem and has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) simple models. However, the extent of the impact of the void region on the accuracy of modeling light propagation has not been investigated. In this paper, we first implemented and verified the HRDM in 3D models, including both the regular geometries and a digital mouse model, and then investigated the influences of the void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium. Our investigation results show that the influence of the region can be neglected when the size of the void is less than a certain range, and other cases must be taken into account.

  12. Blind void filling in LR-EPONs: How efficient it can be?

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr Elsayed M.

    2015-07-01

    This work proposes a novel blind void (idle periods) filling in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (LR-EPONs) namely Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). We emphasize on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. SCBVF delay reduction is achieved by early flushing data during the idle time periods (voids) between allocated grants. The proposed approach can be integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. SCBVF is less sensitive to differential distance between ONUs and can work well in case of small differential distances compared to previously reported void filling schemes. We support our work by extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependency. Numerical results show a delay reduction up to 35% compared to non-void filling scheme outperforming its main competitors that can achieve up to 7% delay reduction.

  13. Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Ren, Shenghan; Qu, Xiaochao; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-20

    A void region exists in some biological tissues, and previous studies have shown that inaccurate images would be obtained if it were not processed. A hybrid radiosity-diffusion method (HRDM) that couples the radiosity theory and the diffusion equation has been proposed to deal with the void problem and has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) simple models. However, the extent of the impact of the void region on the accuracy of modeling light propagation has not been investigated. In this paper, we first implemented and verified the HRDM in 3D models, including both the regular geometries and a digital mouse model, and then investigated the influences of the void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium. Our investigation results show that the influence of the region can be neglected when the size of the void is less than a certain range, and other cases must be taken into account. PMID:23338186

  14. GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF THE VISCOELASTIC BODY WITH VOIDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛东发; 程昌钧; 扶名福

    2004-01-01

    From the Boltzmann's constitutive law of viscoelastic materials and the linear theory of elastic materials with voids, a constitutive model of generalized force fields for viscoelastic solids with voids was given. By using the variational integral method, the convolution-type functional was given and the corresponding generalized variational principles and potential energy principle of viscoelastic solids with voids were presented. It can be shown that the variational principles correspond to the differential equations and the initial and boundary conditions of viscoelastic body with voids. As an application, a generalized variational principle of viscoelastic Timoshenko beams with damage was obtained which corresponds to the differential equations of generalized motion and the initial and boundary conditions of beams. The variational principles provide a way for solving problems of viscoelastic solids with voids.

  15. Probability of detection of internal voids in structural ceramics using microfocus radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baaklini, G.Y.; Roth, D.J.

    1985-11-01

    The reliability of microfocus x-radiography for detecting subsurface voids in structural ceramic test specimens was statistically evaluated. The microfocus system was operated in the projection mode using low x-ray photon energies (20 keV) and a 10 micro m focal spot. The statistics were developed for implanted subsurface voids in green and sintered silicon carbide and silicon nitride test specimens. These statistics were compared with previously-obtained statistics for implanted surface voids in similar specimens. Problems associated with void implantation are discussed. Statistical results are given as probability-of-detection curves at a 95 percent confidence level for voids ranging in size from 20 to 528 micro m in diameter.

  16. Reliability of void detection in structural ceramics by use of scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D.J.; Klima, S.J.; Kiser, J.D.; Baaklini, G.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting surface voids in structural ceramic test specimens was statistically evaluated. Specimens of sintered silicon nitride and sintered silicon carbide, seeded with surface voids, were examined by SLAM at an ultrasonic frequency of 100 MHz in the as fired condition and after surface polishing. It was observed that polishing substantially increased void detectability. Voids as small as 100 micrometers in diameter were detected in polished specimens with 0.90 probability at a 0.95 confidence level. In addition, inspection times were reduced up to a factor of 10 after polishing. The applicability of the SLAM technique for detection of naturally occurring flaws of similar dimensions to the seeded voids is discussed. A FORTRAN program listing is given for calculating and plotting flaw detection statistics. 20 references.

  17. Quantitative measurement of void fraction in a forced convective flow boiling by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The void fraction in a forced convective flow boiling is very important information for understanding the characteristics of the boiling two-phase flow. Consequently, many experimental investigations have been carried out to obtain the local void fraction so far, but the detail data among the whole of the test-section has not been enough. Especially, the data under subcooled condition are quite limited. In this study, the void fraction distribution in a forced convective boiling was quantitatively measured by using the thermal neutron radiography. These results were compared with several existing void fraction correlations. Although these correlations show a good agreements with experimental results under low heat flux condition, there is no suitable correlation to estimate the void fraction under non-thermal equilibrium condition. (author)

  18. Qualitative Analysis on Void Fraction of TRIGA 2000 Reactor in Bandung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A qualitative analysis concerning the void fraction of TRIGA 2000 reactor has been done. That analysis is performed by studying the void phenomenon theoretically, followed by studying the cooling system performance, measuring the fuel element and cooling temperature, and visually observing the operation of reactor system. TRIGA 2000 reactor is a TRIGA Mark II reactor, which originally has 1000 kW thermal power, and then is upgraded up to 2000 kW. During reactor operation, voids are observed beginning at 1000 kW power and increased at higher power. The are several probability on where the voids come from. They might be caused by boiling process, water radiolysis, pump leakage, or cavitation. From the analysis performed, the voids might be caused by nucleate boiling, which do not affect the safety of reactor operation at certain margin. (author)

  19. Constitutive modeling of rate dependence and microinertia effects in porous-plastic materials with multi-sized voids (MSVs)

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J. X.

    2012-11-27

    Micro-voids of varying sizes exist in most metals and alloys. Both experiments and numerical studies have demonstrated the critical influence of initial void sizes on void growth. The classical Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model summarizes the influence of voids with a single parameter, namely the void-volume fraction, excluding any possible effects of the void-size distribution. We extend our newly proposed model including the multi-sized void (MSV) effect and the void-interaction effect for the capability of working for both moderate and high loading rate cases, where either rate dependence or microinertia becomes considerable or even dominant. Parametric studies show that the MSV-related competitive mechanism among void growth leads to the dependence of the void growth rate on void size, which directly influences the void\\'s contribution to the total energy composition. We finally show that the stress-strain constitutive behavior is also affected by this MSV-related competitive mechanism. The stabilizing effect due to rate sensitivity and microinertia is emphasized. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. The growth and coalescence of ellipsoidal voids in plane strain under combined shear and tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyvaerts, F.; Onck, P. R.; Tekogˇlu, C.; Pardoen, T.

    2011-02-01

    New extensions of a model for the growth and coalescence of ellipsoidal voids based on the Gurson formalism are proposed in order to treat problems involving shear and/or voids axis not necessarily aligned with the main loading direction, under plane strain loading conditions. These extensions are motivated and validated using 3D finite element void cell calculations with overall plane strain enforced in one direction. The starting point is the Gologanu model dealing with spheroidal void shape. A void rotation law based on homogenization theory is coupled to this damage model. The predictions of the model closely agree with the 3D cell calculations, capturing the effect of the initial void shape and orientation on the void rotation rate. An empirical correction is also introduced for the change of the void aspect ratio in the plane transverse to the main axis of the void departing from its initially circular shape. This correction is needed for an accurate prediction of the onset of coalescence. Next, a new approach is proposed to take strain hardening into account within the Thomason criterion for internal necking, avoiding the use of strain hardening-dependent fitting parameters. The coalescence criterion is generalized to any possible direction of the coalescence plane and void orientation. Finally, the model is supplemented by a mathematical description of the final drop of the stress carrying capacity during coalescence. The entire model is developed for plane strain conditions, setting the path to a 3D extension. After validation of the model, a parametric study addresses the effect of shear on the ductility of metallic alloys for a range of microstructural and flow parameters, under different stress states. In general, the presence of shear, for identical stress triaxiality, decreases the ductility, partly explaining recent experimental results obtained in the low stress triaxiality regime.

  1. Variables predictive of voiding disfunction following aponeurotic sling surgery: multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio H.M. de Almeida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aponeurotic sling surgeries can evolve with obstruction or voiding dysfunction in 5 to 20% of patients. There are few studies on factors that could possibly predispose to voiding difficulties or urinary retention. The objective of this work is to identify these potential clinical or urodynamic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 130 patients who underwent aponeurotic sling surgeries were reviewed. All patients underwent a throughout urodynamic study during pre-operative investigation. The variables studied were age above 65 years, previous pelvic surgeries, concomitant surgeries, post-voiding residue higher than 100 mL, vesical obstruction (according to Blaivas-Groutz nomogram and urinary flow under 12 mL/s. Post-voiding residue was assessed on the seventh post-operative day through vesical catheterization. Recovering of spontaneous voiding after 7 post-operative days or with a residue higher than 100 mL, was regarded as voiding dysfunction. Univariate analysis was performed with qui-square test and Fisher's exact test, and multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression with alpha = 5%. RESULTS: Age in the studied group ranged from 41 to 83 years (mean 56.7 years, with 69 (53% patients having urethral hypermobility and 61 (47% having intrinsic urethral lesion. Normal voiding occurred in 97 (75.6 % women with 7 post-operative days. The only significant variable in the univariate (p = 0.014 and multivariate (p = 0.017 analysis was post-voiding residue higher than 100 mL. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative presence of a post-voiding residual urine higher than 100 mL was the only variable predictive of voiding dysfunction.

  2. Heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction in two- phase, two-component flow in a vertical tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujumnong, Manit

    1998-09-01

    There are very few data existing in two-phase, two- component flow where heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction have all been measured under the same conditions. Such data are very valuable for two-phase heat-transfer model development and for testing existing heat-transfer models or correlations requiring frictional pressure drop (or wall shear stress) and/or void fraction. An experiment was performed which adds markedly to the available data of the type described in terms of the range of gas and liquid flow rates and liquid Prandtl number. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were taken in a vertical 11.68-mm i.d. tube for two-phase (gas-liquid) flows covering a wide range of conditions. Mean void fraction measurements were taken, using quick- closing valves, in a 12.7-mm i.d. tube matching very closely pressures, temperatures, gas-phase superficial velocities and liquid-phase superficial velocities to those used in the heat-transfer and pressure-drop experiments. The gas phase was air while water and two aqueous solutions of glycerine (59 and 82% by mass) were used as the liquid phase. In the two-phase experiments the liquid Prandtl number varied from 6 to 766, the superficial liquid velocity from 0.05 to 8.5 m/s, and the superficial gas velocity from 0.02 to 119 m/s. The measured two-phase heat-transfer coefficients varied by a factor of approximately 1000, the two-phase frictional pressure drop ranged from small negative values (in slug flow) to 93 kPa and the void fraction ranged from 0.01 to 0.99; the flow patterns observed included bubble, slug, churn, annular, froth, the various transitions and annular-mist. Existing heat-transfer models or correlations requiring frictional pressure drop (or wall shear stress) and/or void fraction were: tested against the present data for mean heat-transfer coefficients. It was found that the methods with more restrictions (in terms of the applicable range of void fraction, liquid Prandtl number or liquid

  3. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity. PMID:25012854

  4. 大气污染影响下凯里植物、土壤氟含量特征%Characteristics of Fluoride Contents in Plants and Soils in Kaili City Under Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成; 罗绪强; 王娅; 贺华中; 黄亮

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride contents in plants and soils in Kaili City were measured with fluorinion as per electrode method and the related characteristics were analyzed in order to explore effects of air fluoride pollution on plant and soil.The results indicated that fluoride content in plants tended to be volatile in 135.62-1 420.97 μg/g and averaged 513.99 μg/g;fluoride content in soils changed from 240.50-340.36 μg/g and averaged 279.60 μg/g.The contents of plant and soil both exceeded background value,suggesting that plants and soils in the region have been polluted.In addition,fluoride contents differ significantly upon plants.In detail,the maximal content was in Camelliaolelfera Abel and the minimal in Camelliaolelfera Abel.The contents of fluoride in different plant species vary,as follows:shrub vine herbaceous plant arbor;evergreen plants deciduous plant;fluoride contents in plants and soils also differ in varying degrees upon research sites.%为了解大气氟污染对植物、土壤的影响,采用氟离子选择电极法对凯里的植物和土壤的氟含量进行了测定,并对其特征进行了分析。结果表明:该区植物的氟含量在135.62~1420.97μg/g之间,平均含量为513.99μg/g;土壤氟含量在240.50~340.36μg/g之间,平均含量为279.60μg/g。植物、土壤的氟含量都超过了背景值,该区植物和土壤都受到了不同程度的氟污染。不同植物的氟含量存在较大差异,油茶的氟含量最高,马尾松的氟含量最低。不同类型植物的氟含量不同,灌木〉藤本〉草本〉乔木;常绿植物〉落叶植物。不同研究点植物和土壤的氟含量存在差异,但有些植物差异较大,有些差异不明显。

  5. Voiding dysfunction in patients with nasal congestion treated with pseudoephedrine: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, I-Hung; Wu, Chia-Chen; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Lee, Ta-Jen; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Tam, Yuan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug widely used as a nasal decongestant. However, it can cause adverse effects, such as voiding dysfunction. The risk of voiding dysfunction remains uncertain in patients without subjective voiding problems. Methodology We prospectively enrolled patients with nasal congestion who required treatment with pseudoephedrine from May to August 2015. All patients denied concomitant subjective voiding problem. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was used to evaluate voiding function before and 1 week after the pseudoephedrine treatment. The results of the IPSS questionnaire were analyzed as the total (IPSS-T), voiding (IPSS-V), storage (IPSS-S), and quality of life due to urinary symptom scores. Results We enrolled 131 males with a mean age of 42.0±14.3 years. The IPSS-T, IPSS-V, and IPSS-S scores slightly increased after the medication (IPSS-T increased from 6.49 to 6.77, IPSS-V from 3.33 to 3.53, and IPSS-S from 3.17 to 3.24). The quality of life due to urinary symptom score nonsignificantly decreased from 2.02 to 1.87. We observed that older age and a higher premedication IPSS-V score yielded significant differences (P50 years, even without subjective voiding symptoms. PMID:27486310

  6. Stress Voiding in IC Interconnects - Rules of Evidence for Failure Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FILTER, WILLIAM F.

    1999-09-17

    Mention the words ''stress voiding'', and everyone from technology engineer to manager to customer is likely to cringe. This IC failure mechanism elicits fear because it is insidious, capricious, and difficult to identify and arrest. There are reasons to believe that a damascene-copper future might be void-free. Nevertheless, engineers who continue to produce ICs with Al-alloy interconnects, or who assess the reliability of legacy ICs with long service life, need up-to-date insights and techniques to deal with stress voiding problems. Stress voiding need not be fearful. Not always predictable, neither is it inevitable. On the contrary, stress voids are caused by specific, avoidable processing errors. Analytical work, though often painful, can identify these errors when stress voiding occurs, and vigilance in monitoring the improved process can keep it from recurring. In this article, they show that a methodical, forensics approach to failure analysis can solve suspected cases of stress voiding. This approach uses new techniques, and patiently applies familiar ones, to develop evidence meeting strict standards of proof.

  7. Thermal stability of interface voids in Cu grain boundaries with molecular dynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xydou, A.; Parviainen, S.; Aicheler, M.; Djurabekova, F.

    2016-09-01

    By means of molecular dynamic simulations, the stability of cylindrical voids is examined with respect to the diffusion bonding procedure. To do this, the effect of grain boundaries between the grains of different crystallographic orientations on the void closing time was studied at high temperatures from 0.7 up to 0.94 of the bulk melting temperature ({{T}\\text{m}} ). The diameter of the voids varied from 3.5 to 6.5 nm. A thermal instability occurring at high temperatures at the surface of the void placed in a grain boundary triggered the eventual closure of the void at all examined temperatures. The closing time has an exponential dependence on the examined temperature values. A model based on the defect diffusion theory is developed to predict the closing time for voids of macroscopic size. The diffusion coefficient within the grain boundaries is found to be overall higher than the diffusion coefficient in the region around the void surface. The activation energy for the diffusion in the grain boundary is calculated based on molecular dynamic simulations. This value agrees well with the experimental given in the Ashby maps for the creep in copper via Coble GB diffusion.

  8. A constitutive model for plastically anisotropic solids with non-spherical voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keralavarma, S. M.; Benzerga, A. A.

    2010-06-01

    Plastic constitutive relations are derived for a class of anisotropic porous materials consisting of coaxial spheroidal voids, arbitrarily oriented relative to the embedding orthotropic matrix. The derivations are based on nonlinear homogenization, limit analysis and micromechanics. A variational principle is formulated for the yield criterion of the effective medium and specialized to a spheroidal representative volume element containing a confocal spheroidal void and subjected to uniform boundary deformation. To obtain closed form equations for the effective yield locus, approximations are introduced in the limit-analysis based on a restricted set of admissible microscopic velocity fields. Evolution laws are also derived for the microstructure, defined in terms of void volume fraction, aspect ratio and orientation, using material incompressibility and Eshelby-like concentration tensors. The new yield criterion is an extension of the well known isotropic Gurson model. It also extends previous analyses of uncoupled effects of void shape and material anisotropy on the effective plastic behavior of solids containing voids. Preliminary comparisons with finite element calculations of voided cells show that the model captures non-trivial effects of anisotropy heretofore not picked up by void growth models.

  9. Voids at the tunnel-soil interface for calculation of ground vibration from underground railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Hunt, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Voids at the tunnel-soil interface are not normally considered when predicting ground vibration from underground railways. The soil is generally assumed to be continuously bonded to the outer surface of the tunnel to simplify the modelling process. Evidence of voids around underground railways motivated the study presented herein to quantify the level of uncertainty in ground vibration predictions associated with neglecting to include such voids at the tunnel-soil interface. A semi-analytical method is developed which derives discrete transfers for the coupled tunnel-soil model based on the continuous Pipe-in-Pipe method. The void is simulated by uncoupling the appropriate nodes at the interface to prevent force transfer between the systems. The results from this investigation show that relatively small voids ( 4 m×90∘) can significantly affect the rms velocity predictions in the near-field and moderately affect predictions in the far-field. Sensitivity of the predictions to void length and void sector angle are both deemed to be significant. The findings from this study suggest that the uncertainty associated with assuming a perfect bond at the tunnel-soil interface in an area with known voidage can reasonably reach ±5 dB and thus should be considered in the design process.

  10. a New Algorithm for Void Filling in a Dsm from Stereo Satellite Images in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib Bafghi, Z.; Tian, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    Digital Surface Models (DSM) derived from stereo-pair satellite images are the main sources for many Geo-Informatics applications like 3D change detection, object classification and recognition. However since occlusion especially in urban scenes result in some deficiencies in the stereo matching phase, these DSMs contain some voids. In order to fill the voids a range of algorithms have been proposed, mainly including interpolation alone or along with auxiliary DSM. In this paper an algorithm for void filling in DSM from stereo satellite images has been developed. Unlike common previous approaches we didn't use any external DSM to fill the voids. Our proposed algorithm uses only the original images and the unfilled DSM itself. First a neighborhood around every void in the unfilled DSM and its corresponding area in multispectral image is defined. Then it is analysed to extract both spectral and geometric texture and accordingly to assign labels to each cell in the voids. This step contains three phases comprising shadow detection, height thresholding and image segmentation. Thus every cell in void has a label and is filled by the median value of its co-labelled neighbors. The results for datasets from WorldView-2 and IKONOS are shown and discussed.

  11. DIVE in the cosmic web: voids with Delaunay triangulation from discrete matter tracer distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Liang, Yu; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel parameter-free cosmological void finder (DIVE, Delaunay TrIangulation Void findEr) based on Delaunay Triangulation (DT), which efficiently computes the empty spheres constrained by a discrete set of tracers. We define the spheres as DT voids, and describe their properties, including a universal density profile together with an intrinsic scatter. We apply this technique on 100 halo catalogues with volumes of 2.5 h-1Gpc side each, with a bias and number density similar to the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS luminous red galaxies, performed with the PATCHY code. Our results show that there are two main species of DT voids, which can be characterized by the radius: they have different responses to halo redshift space distortions, to number density of tracers, and reside in different dark matter environments. Based on dynamical arguments using the tidal field tensor, we demonstrate that large DT voids are hosted in expanding regions, whereas the haloes used to construct them reside in collapsing ones. Our approach is therefore able to efficiently determine the troughs of the density field from galaxy surveys, and can be used to study their clustering. We further study the power spectra of DT voids, and find that the bias of the two populations are different, demonstrating that the small DT voids are essentially tracers of groups of haloes.

  12. Constitutive modeling of rate dependence and microinertia effects in porous-plastic materials with multi-sized voids (MSVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. X.; El Sayed, T.

    2013-01-01

    Micro-voids of varying sizes exist in most metals and alloys. Both experiments and numerical studies have demonstrated the critical influence of initial void sizes on void growth. The classical Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model summarizes the influence of voids with a single parameter, namely the void-volume fraction, excluding any possible effects of the void-size distribution. We extend our newly proposed model including the multi-sized void (MSV) effect and the void-interaction effect for the capability of working for both moderate and high loading rate cases, where either rate dependence or microinertia becomes considerable or even dominant. Parametric studies show that the MSV-related competitive mechanism among void growth leads to the dependence of the void growth rate on void size, which directly influences the void's contribution to the total energy composition. We finally show that the stress-strain constitutive behavior is also affected by this MSV-related competitive mechanism. The stabilizing effect due to rate sensitivity and microinertia is emphasized.

  13. Estimation of the Void Fraction in the moderator cell of the Cold Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jungwoon; Kim, Young-ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To estimate the average void fraction in the liquid hydrogen, the Kazimi and Chen correlation is used with its modified method suggested by R.E. Williams in NBSR. Since the multiplying number can be changed along the operation condition and working fluid, the different figure is applied to estimate the average void fraction in the different moderator cell shape. This approach is checked with the void fraction measurement results from the HANARO-CNS mock-up test. Owing to national research demands on cold neutron beam utilization, the Cold Neutron Research Facility had been and operated for neuron scientists all over the world. In HANARO, the CNS facility has been operated since 2009. The actual void fraction, which is the one of dominant factors affecting the cold neutron flux, is difficult to know without the real measurement performed at the cryogenic temperature using the same moderator medium. Accordingly, the two-phase mock-up test in the CNS-IPA (In-pool assembly) had been performed using the liquid hydrogen in terms of the fluidity check, void fraction measurement, operation procedure set-up, and so on for the development of the HANARO-CNS. This paper presents the estimated void fraction in the different operating conditions and geometrical shape in the comparison with the measurement data of the void fraction in the full-scale mockup test based on the Kazimi and Chen correlation. This approach is applied to estimate the average void fraction in the newly designed moderator cell using the liquid hydrogen as a working fluid in the two-phase thermosiphon. From this calculation result, the estimated average void fraction will be used to design the optimized cold neutron source to produce the maximum cold neutron flux within the desired wavelength.

  14. A variational constitutive model for the distribution and interactions of multi-sized voids

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J. X.

    2013-07-29

    The evolution of defects or voids, generally recognized as the basic failure mechanism in most metals and alloys, has been intensively studied. Most investigations have been limited to spatially periodic cases with non-random distributions of the radii of the voids. In this study, we use a new form of the incompressibility of the matrix to propose the formula for the volumetric plastic energy of a void inside a porous medium. As a consequence, we are able to account for the weakening effect of the surrounding voids and to propose a general model for the distribution and interactions of multi-sized voids. We found that the single parameter in classical Gurson-type models, namely void volume fraction is not sufficient for the model. The relative growth rates of voids of different sizes, which can in principle be obtained through physical or numerical experiments, are required. To demonstrate the feasibility of the model, we analyze two cases. The first case represents exactly the same assumption hidden in the classical Gurson\\'s model, while the second embodies the competitive mechanism due to void size differences despite in a much simpler manner than the general case. Coalescence is implemented by allowing an accelerated void growth after an empirical critical porosity in a way that is the same as the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model. The constitutive model presented here is validated through good agreements with experimental data. Its capacity for reproducing realistic failure patterns is shown by simulating a tensile test on a notched round bar. © 2013 The Author(s).

  15. Thermal stress induced voids in nanoscale copper interconnects by in-situ TEM heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin Ho

    Stress induced void formation in Cu interconnects, due to thermal stresses generated during the processing of semiconductors, is an increasing reliability issue in the semiconductor industry as Cu interconnects are being downscaled to follow the demand for faster chip speed. In this work, 1.8 micron and 180 nm wide Cu interconnects, fabricated by Freescale Semiconductors, were subjected to thermal cycles, in-situ in the TEM, to investigate the stress relaxation mechanisms as a function of interconnect linewidth. The experiments show that the 1.8 micron Cu interconnect lines relax the thermal stresses through dislocation nucleation and motion while the Cu interconnect 180 nm lines exhibit void formation. Void formation in 180 nm lines occurs predominantly at triple junctions where the Ta diffusion barrier meets a Cu grain boundary. In order to understand void formation in 180 nm lines, the grain orientation and local stresses are determined. In particular, Nanobeam Diffraction (NBD) in the TEM is used to obtain the diffraction pattern of each grain, from which the crystal orientation is evaluated by the ACT (Automated Crystallography for TEM) software. In addition, 2D Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations are performed using the Object Oriented Finite Modeling (OOF2) software to correlate grain orientation with local stresses, and consequently void formation. According to the experimental and simulation results obtained, void formation in 180nm Cu interconnects does not seem to be solely dependent on local stresses, but a combination of diffusion paths available, stress gradients and possibly the presence of defects. In addition, based on the in-situ TEM observations, void growth seems to occur through grain boundary and/or interfacial diffusion. However, in-situ STEM observations of fully opened voids post-failure show pileup of material at the Cu grain surfaces. This means that surface or interface diffusion is also very active during void growth in the presence

  16. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P batters up to 12 and 21 min for 2 and 1% salts, respectively. Upon mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P batter appears to have more open space, less protein aggregation, and more protein-coated fat particles than those of postrigor batters. Based on these results, the combination of HB-¼CFAC and cold-batter-mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity.

  17. The Effect of Crumb Rubber Particle Size to the Optimum Binder Content for Open Graded Friction Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC. Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12% and different percentages of binder content (4%–7%. The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.

  18. Modeling void growth and movement with phase change in thermal energy storage canisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Douglas; Namkoong, David; Skarda, J. R. L.

    1993-01-01

    A scheme was developed to model the thermal hydrodynamic behavior of thermal energy storage salts. The model included buoyancy, surface tension, viscosity, phases change with density difference, and void growth and movement. The energy, momentum, and continuity equations were solved using a finite volume formulation. The momentum equation was divided into two pieces. The void growth and void movement are modeled between the two pieces of the momentum equations. Results showed this scheme was able to predict the behavior of thermal energy storage salts.

  19. Partial discharge patterns related to surface deterioration in voids in epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of the relationship between changes in partial discharge patterns and the surface deterioration process taking place in small naturally formed spherical voids in epoxy plastic. The voids were exposed to a moderate electric stress above inception level......, where partial discharges were present for more than 1500 h. Two types of electrical tree growth were found, the bush like tree and a single channel-like tree, which led to very different partial discharge patterns. It is concluded that the formation of crystals on a void surface leads to an immediate...

  20. Void growth in copper during high-temperature power-law creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzieciol, K. [Centre SMS, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2 (France); Max-Planck Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck Strasse 1, 40237, Duesseldorf (Germany); Borbely, A., E-mail: borbely@emse.fr [Centre SMS, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2 (France); Max-Planck Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck Strasse 1, 40237, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sket, F. [Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); IMDEA Materials Institute, Calle Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Isaac, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Caixa Postal 6192, Campinas SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Di Michiel, M.; Cloetens, P.; Buslaps, Th. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Pyzalla, A.R. [Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Growth of grain boundary voids during high-temperature power-law creep of metals is usually approximated as the growth of a hole in a nonlinearly viscous solid. Using synchrotron tomography, we show that the functional form of the continuum law is valid but that the real growth rates in copper are higher than the prediction of the viscous model by a factor of about 40. Submicrometer resolution tomography showing faceted void shapes as well as the large scatter of individual growth rates suggest that local dislocation glide has significative contribution to void growth.

  1. Effects of void-induced convection on interface morphology and segregation during low-g solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsi, S.; Alexander, J.I.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kassemi, M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). National Center for Microgravity Research

    2004-11-01

    Recent microgravity experiments have been hampered by convection caused by unwanted voids and/or bubbles in the melt. In this work, a numerical model is developed to describe how thermocapillary convection generated by a void can affect a typical Bridgman solidification process in microgravity. The model is based on the quasi-steady Navier-Stokes equations for a Newtonian fluid coupled with the conservation equations for transport of energy and species. Numerical solutions for a variety of operating conditions indicate that void-generated thermocapillary convection can have a drastic effect on both interface morphology and solutal transport. (author)

  2. An observational signal of the void shape correlation and its link to the cosmic web

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jounghun; Hoyle, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of cosmic voids are prone to distortions by the external tidal forces since their low-densities imply a lower internal resistance. This susceptibility of the void shapes to the tidal distortions makes them useful as an indicator of the large-scale tidal and density fields, despite the practical difficulty in defining them. Using the void catalog constructed by Pan et al. (2012) from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7), we detect a clear 4 sigma signa...

  3. Crystal-Orientation Dependent Evolution of Edge Dislocations from a Void in Single Crystal Gu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhen-Fei; ZHU Wen-Jun; DENG Xiao-Liang; HE Hong-Liang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The micro-void growth by dislocation emission under tensile loading is explored with focus on the influence of crystal orientations. Based on the elastic theory, a dislocation emission criterion is formulated. It is predicted that the preferential location of dislocation nucleation and its threshold stress are dependent on the crystal orientation.Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also performed for single crystal copper to illustrate the dislocation evolution pattern associated with a nano-void growth. The results are in line with those given by the theoretical prediction. As revealed by MD simulations, the characteristics of void growth at micro-scale depend greatly on the crystal-orientation.

  4. Improbability of void growth in aluminum via dislocation nucleation under typical laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L D; Warner, D H

    2012-01-20

    The rate at which dislocations nucleate from spherical voids subjected to shear loading is predicted from atomistic simulation. By employing the latest version of the finite temperature string method, a variational transition state theory approach can be utilized, enabling atomistic predictions at ordinary laboratory time scales, loads, and temperatures. The simulation results, in conjunction with a continuum model, show that the deformation and growth of voids in Al are not likely to occur via dislocation nucleation under typical loadings regardless of void size. PMID:22400757

  5. Comparative sodium void effects for different advanced liquid metal reactor fuel and core designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of metal-, oxide-, and nitride-fueled advanced liquid metal reactor cores was performed to investigate the calculated differences in sodium void reactivity, and to determine the relationship between sodium void reactivity and burnup reactivity swing using the three fuel types. The results of this analysis indicate that nitride fuel has the least positive sodium void reactivity for any given burnup reactivity swing. Thus, it appears that a good design compromise between transient overpower and loss of flow response is obtained using nitride fuel. Additional studies were made to understand these and other nitride advantages. (author)

  6. CFD analysis of a void distribution benchmark of the NUPEC PSBT tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents CFD calculations using CFX-12.1 on the void distribution tests of the PSBT benchmark. First, relevant aspects of the implemented wall boiling model are reviewed highlighting the uncertainties in several model parameters. It is then shown that the measured cross sectionally averaged values can be reproduced well with a single set of calibrated model parameters for different tests cases. For the reproduction of void distribution cross sections attention has to be focussed on the modelling of turbulence in the narrow channel. Only a turbulence model which is able to resolve the secondary flows is able to reproduce at least qualitatively the void distribution images. (author)

  7. A theoretical derivation of the transients related to partial discharges in ellipsoidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, A.; Pedersen, Aage

    1988-01-01

    be drawn about the effects of the gas within the void as well as the size, shape, and location of voids. The method is illustrated by applying it to a spheroidal void in a simple disk-type gas-insulated-substation (GIS) spacer. It is found that the nonattaching gas generates an induced charge...... that is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that generated by the attaching gas. Inception voltages, however, are higher in the latter case by a factor of about 1.5 to 3. The induced charge is therefore proportional to the inverse of the distance from the axis of the electrode system to the center...

  8. The reuse of abandoned Acquaresi mine voids for storage of the Masua flotation tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier Paolo Manca; Paolo Desogus; Giampaolo Orru`

    2014-01-01

    Often in abandoned mine sites are present both underground voids produced by mining and the tailings of treatment plant. An interesting solution for the rehabilitation of the sites would be to place the tailings of the process in the underground mining voids, thus obtaining the reclamation of surface areas and the stabilization of abandoned voids to prevent the dangerous phenomena of subsidence. However, these operations require inert waste, which must not be source of pollution, and the choice of a water/solid optimum to ensure good conditions of pumpability.

  9. Comparison of Short-Term Oxidation Behavior of Model and Commercial Chromia-Forming Ferritic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    A high-purity Fe-20Cr and commercial type 430 ferritic stainless steel were exposed at 700 and 800 C in dry air and air with 10% water vapor (wet air) and characterized by SEM, XRD, STEM, SIMS, and EPMA. The Fe-20Cr alloy formed a fast growing Fe-rich oxide scale at 700 C in wet air after 24 h exposure, but formed a thin chromia scale at 700 C in dry air and at 800 C in both dry air and wet air. In contrast, thin spinel + chromia base scales with a discontinuous silica subscale were formed on 430 stainless steel under all conditions studied. Extensive void formation was observed at the alloy-oxide interface for the Fe-20Cr in both dry and wet conditions, but not for the 430 stainless steel. The Fe-20Cr alloy was found to exhibit a greater relative extent of subsurface Cr depletion than the 430 stainless steel, despite the former's higher Cr content. Depletion of Cr in the Fe-20Cr after 24 h exposure was also greater at 700 C than 800 C. The relative differences in oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of the coarse alloy grain size of the high-purity Fe-20Cr material, and the effects of Mn, Si, and C on the oxide scale formed on the 430 stainless steel.

  10. The coolant void reactivity program in ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coolant void reactivity program at Chalk River produces reactor physics data for validating cell codes, in particular WIMS-AECL. One type of data provides detailed spectrum information within the various regions of a lattice cell. Most often however, the experiments are designed to provide the material buckling of a specific fuel type in a specific cell environment. Experiments are performed in the ZED-2 reactor. Fuel rod assemblies are positioned vertically, and the reactor is brought to criticality by reducing the neutron leakage from its top surface. This is done by raising the level of the heavy water moderator. The moderator height at the critical condition represents a key measurement in most experiments. The challenge is to covert this measurement, along with other supporting information such as foil activation data and moderator temperature, into the desired nuclear property of the test fuel - usually its material buckling. Since it's inception, the program has attempted to make measurements at conditions that are as close as possible to those in a power reactor. Most of the previous data available was for natural uranium at room temperature, the so called 'cold-clean' condition, and for the extreme ends of the coolant density range. Extending these conditions necessitated including effects of fuel burnup and the temperature of the fuel and coolant. A major component of the program has been to develop techniques for acquiring as much of that information as possible while operating within the constraints of a limited budget and the capabilities of a zero-energy critical facility. In the following sections, the progress made in developing some of the techniques necessary for generating data at power reactor conditions will be reviewed. A limited comparison with WIMS-AECL calculated values will also be made where appropriate. (author)

  11. Detector response in a CANDU low void reactivity core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of the in-core flux detectors to the CANFLEX Low-Void-Reactivity Fuel (LVRF) [1] bundles for use in the CANDU reactor at Bruce nuclear generation station has been studied. The study was based on 2 detector types - platinum (Pt)-clad Inconel and pure Inconel detectors, and 2 fuel types - LVRF bundles and natural-uranium (NU) bundles. Both detectors show a decrease of thermal-neutron-flux to total-photon-flux ratio when NU fuel bundles are replaced by LVRF bundles in the reactor core (7% for Inconel and 9% for Pt-clad detectors). The ratio of the prompt component of the net electron current to the total net electron current (PFe) of the detectors however shows a different response. The use of LVRF bundles in place of NU fuel bundles in the reactor core did not change the PFe of the Pt-clad Inconel detector but increased the PFe of the pure Inconel detector by less than 2%. The study shows that the Inconel detector has a larger prompt-detector response than that of the platinum-clad detector; it reacts to the change of fluxes in the reactor core more readily. On the other hand, the Pt-clad detector is less sensitive to perturbations of the neutron-to-gamma ratio. Nevertheless the changes in an absolute sense are minimal; one does not anticipate a change of the flux-monitoring system if the NU fuel bundles are replaced with the CANFLEX LVRF bundles in the core of the Bruce nuclear generating station. (authors)

  12. Conceptual Engineering of CARA Fuel Element with Negative Void Coefficient for Atucha II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lestani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally validated void reactivity calculations were used to study the feasibility of a change in the design basis of Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant including the Large LOCA event. The use of CARA fuel element with burnable neutronic absorbers and enriched uranium is proposed instead of the original fuel. The void reactivity, refuelling costs, and power peaking factors are analysed at conceptual level to optimize the burnable neutronic absorber, the enrichment grade, and their distribution inside the fuel. This work concludes that, for the considered plant conditions, either a void reactivity coefficient granting no prompt critical excursion on Large LOCA or negative void reactivity is achievable, with advantages on refuelling cost and linear power density.

  13. Study of Void Probability Scaling of Pions in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collision in Fractal Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaduri, Susmita

    2016-01-01

    Various existing works on multiplicity fluctuation probed about the dynamics of particle production process and eventually signature of phase transition in ultrarelativistic nuclear collision. Fluctuation of spatial pattern has also been analyzed in terms of the scaling behavior of voids. However, analysis of the scaling behavior of the void from fractal scenario has not been explored yet. This work attempts to study the fractality of void probability distribution from a radically different and rigorous method called Visibility Graph analysis, analyzing the data of 32-S-AgBr(200 GeV) interaction. The analysis reveals strong scaling behavior of void probability distribution in all pseurorapidity region. The scaling exponent-PSVG(Power of the Scale-freeness in Visibility Graph), a quantitative parameter related to Hurst exponent, is strongly dependent on rapidity window.

  14. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography as a Method for Finding Die Attach Voids in Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, E. N.; Rolin, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA analyzes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles to understand failure modes of these components. The diode is an EEE part critical to NASA missions that can fail due to excessive voiding in the die attach. Metallography, one established method for studying the die attach, is a time-intensive, destructive, and equivocal process whereby mechanical grinding of the diodes is performed to reveal voiding in the die attach. Problems such as die attach pull-out tend to complicate results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study is to determine if three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), a nondestructive technique, is a viable alternative to metallography for detecting die attach voiding. The die attach voiding in two- dimensional planes created from 3DCT scans was compared to several physical cross sections of the same diode to determine if the 3DCT scan accurately recreates die attach volumetric variability

  15. Approximate yield criteria for anisotropic metals with prolate or oblate voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchiet, Vincent; Gruescu, Cosmin; Charkaluk, Eric; Kondo, Djimedo

    2006-07-01

    Following the study of Gologanu et al. (1997) which has extended the well-known approach of Gurson (1975), we propose approximate yield criteria for anisotropic plastic voided metals containing non spherical cavities. The plastic anisotropy of the matrix is described by means of Hill's quadratic criterion. The procedure to establish the closed form expression of approximate macroscopic criteria, in which void shape and plastic anisotropic effects are included, is detailed. The new criteria allow us to recover existing results in the cases of spherical and cylindrical voids in an Hill type plastic matrix. Moreover, they agree with previous criteria for non spherical voids in an isotropic plastic matrix. Finally, for validation purposes, we provide, in the general case of non spherical cavities in the anisotropic matrix, a comparison with the numerical exact two field criteria. To cite this article: V. Monchiet et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  16. Probing cosmology and gravity with redshift-space distortions around voids

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaus, Nico; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic voids in the large-scale structure of the Universe affect the peculiar motions of objects in their vicinity. Although these motions are difficult to observe directly, the clustering pattern of their surrounding tracers in redshift space is influenced in a unique way. This allows to investigate the interplay between densities and velocities around voids, which is solely dictated by the laws of gravity. With the help of N-body simulations and derived mock-galaxy catalogs we calculate the average density fluctuations inside and outside voids identified with a watershed algorithm in redshift space and compare the results with the expectation from general relativity and the LCDM model of cosmology. We find that simple linear-theory predictions work remarkably well in describing the dynamics of voids even on relatively small scales. Adopting a Bayesian inference framework, we determine the full posterior probability distribution of our model parameters and forecast the achievable accuracy on measurements of ...

  17. Dielectric particle and void resonators for thin film solar cell textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sander A; Grote, Richard R; Osgood, Richard M; Schuller, Jon A

    2011-12-01

    Using Mie theory and Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) we compare the properties of dielectric particle and void resonators. We show that void resonators-low refractive index inclusions within a high index embedding medium-exhibit larger bandwidth resonances, reduced peak scattering intensity, different polarization anisotropies, and enhanced forward scattering when compared to their particle (high index inclusions in a low index medium) counterparts. We evaluate amorphous silicon solar cell textures comprising either arrays of voids or particles. Both designs support substantial absorption enhancements (up to 45%) relative to a flat cell with anti-reflection coating, over a large range of cell thicknesses. By leveraging void-based textures 90% of above-bandgap photons are absorbed in cells with maximal vertical dimension of 100 nm. PMID:22273965

  18. Constitutive modeling of void-growth-based tensile ductile failures with stress triaxiality effects

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Angel

    2014-07-01

    In most metals and alloys, the evolution of voids has been generally recognized as the basic failure mechanism. Furthermore, stress triaxiality has been found to influence void growth dramatically. Besides strain intensity, it is understood to be the most important factor that controls the initiation of ductile fracture. We include sensitivity of stress triaxiality in a variational porous plasticity model, which was originally derived from hydrostatic expansion. Under loading conditions rather than hydrostatic deformation, we allow the critical pressure for voids to be exceeded so that the growth due to plasticity becomes dependent on the stress triaxiality. The limitations of the spherical void growth assumption are investigated. Our improved constitutive model is validated through good agreements with experimental data. Its capacity for reproducing realistic failure patterns is also indicated by a numerical simulation of a compact tensile (CT) test. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Study of Fluctuations of Voids in Relativistic Ion-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Shakeel; Khan, Shaista; Khatun, A; Irfan, M

    2015-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations (ebe) of hadronic patterns are investigated in terms of voids by analyzing the experimental data on 4.5, 14.5 and 60A GeV/c 16O-AgBr collisions. The findings are compared with the predictions of a multi-phase transport AMPT model. Dependence of voids on phase space bin width is examined in terms of two lowest moments of event-by-event fluctuations of voids, and Sq. The findings reveal that scaling exponent estimated from the observed power-law behavior of the voids may be used to characterize the various properties of hadronic phase transition. The results also rule out occurrence of 2nd order quark-hadron phase transition at the projectile energies considered.

  20. The effect of oxygen on void stability in ion-irradiated steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzman, Larry E.; Dodd, R. Arthur; Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    1990-07-01

    The effect of oxygen on void stability in an Fe-17Ni-13Cr austenitic ternary alloy has been investigated using 15 MeV nickel-ion irradiation at elevated temperatures and preimplantation of 6 MeV oxygen at room temperature. The nickel irradiation was performed over a temperature range of 550 °C to 650 °C. Utilizing transverse specimen preparation techniques, the irradiated steel was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As little as 10 appm preimplanted oxygen caused a significant increase in the void number density when the steel was irradiated at 550 °C. A near-surface void-denuded zone occurs in the irradiated steel, while a region depleted of visible voids also occurs in the steel injected with 300 appm oxygen or greater and irradiated at 550 °C.