WorldWideScience

Sample records for air truck transportation

  1. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  2. Truck platooning : Driving the future of transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, G.R.; Zwijnenberg, J; Blankers, I.J.; Kruijff, J.S. de

    2015-01-01

    Truck Platooning is the future of transportation in which trucks drive cooperatively at less than 1 second apart made possible by automated driving technology. Transportation companies benefit from lower fuel consumption and improvements in (driver) productivity, while society benefits from fewer accidents, safer traffic and less congested roads, and lower carbon emissions.

  3. LNG truck, rail, and barge transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, N.P.

    1972-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas has recently assumed an important role both as a supplemental source of natural gas to the United States and as a means of meeting winter peak demands. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of truck, rail, and barge transport of LNG and summarizes the relative costs and investment requirements of each method.

  4. Pickup truck use in the National Personal Transportation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P F; Winn, D G

    2001-07-01

    To guide interventions to prevent injuries to pickup-truck occupants, we characterized pickup truck ownership, drivers and use in the 1995 National Personal Transportation Survey, which collects travel data from the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the US. SUDAAN software was used to account for the complex nature of the sample. Pickup truck ownership was more common in households with more vehicles, in rural households, in households living in single family homes and mobile homes, and in middle-income households. Among US regions, pickup truck ownership was highest among households in the mountain west. Pickup truck ownership was greater in households with two adults, whether or not children or youths were present, but this was largely due to the number of vehicles in these households. Driving a pickup on the sample day was more frequent among men, among drivers with less education and among full-time workers. A higher proportion of trips to work, work-related trips, longer trips and trips with fewer people were by pickup truck. Seat belt use was lower among pickup truck drivers than drivers of other vehicles. For only 0.5% of households (those with three or more members and a pickup truck as their only vehicle), restrictions on travel in cargo areas might be burdensome. Restrictions on cargo area travel, strengthening existing seat belt laws and social marketing strategies might increase the safety of pickup truck occupants. PMID:11426680

  5. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kornilovich, E. [Construction Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment, Mytischy (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99.

  6. Transport experience of recovered uranium by truck and tractor trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has been carrying get UF6, conversion tests of the recovered uranium at Ningyo Toge Works. PNC in Okayama prefecture. The chemical formula of recovered uranium using these tests is uranium trioxide (UO3). Uranium is recovered from spent fuel used in domestic light water reactors by PNC Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Ibaraki Prefecture. About 230 kg of the recovered uranium is places in each storage vessel at the reprocessing plant. Recovered uranium is transported by the trucks or trailers. It takes about 18 hours for transport and its distance from Tokai Reprocessing Plant to Ningyo Toge Works is approximately 900 km. The transport control center is set up at Tokai Works. The transport starts from Tokai Works. During the transport, contacts from the control center to the convoy, Ningyo Toge Works and Tokyo heat office are maintained. And the radioactive material handling expert accompanying the convoy from Tokai Works to Ningyo Toge Works. Further safety measures are undertaken with the cooperation of related authorities along the transportation route. Approximately 220 metric tons of recovered uranium were transported in 30 separate trips from June 1994, when conversion test timescales was extended to October 1997. Safe transport was undertaken without any accident or disturbance. The transport package used for recovered uranium was type IP62 F which was Japan's first licensed package. These packages underwent the falling test (9m), and fire resist test (800 deg. C) x 30 min) etc. before use for transport of radioactive materials. The package is cylindrical in shape with a diameter of 1.2 m, height 1.6 m and weights 1300 kg. It is designed to carry up to 260 kg of uranium with a maximum U235 concentration of 1.6%. (authors)

  7. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  8. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  9. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  10. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  11. Exploratory and Empirical Analysis of E-Marketplaces for Truck Transportation Services Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Collignon, Stephane Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, early 2000s, academic literature considered electronic marketplaces as a game changer in truck transportation services procurement. Early enthusiasm was followed by skepticism regarding e-marketplaces' usefulness and the popularity of e-marketplaces appeared to wane both in industry and in academic literature. However, recent sources argue that almost half of the freight currently transported by truck in the USA is subject to transactions conducted in e-marketplaces. This d...

  12. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  13. AIR TRANSPORTS – COMPONENT OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Loredana LĂPĂDUŞI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air transports activity has known an important development caused by the economic increase, by Romania’s involvement in the international products trade, in international tourism. They are completed by the specific characteristics of air transports, which, together with the characteristics of the other ways of transport, has certain transport objectives with a higher and higher significance. Air traffic has a national commercial value and thus practices have been established in approaching national policies regarding: internal traffic protection through national air transporters, granting access to foreign transporters to national traffic in international transports.

  14. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  15. Developing a model law restricting the transporting of passengers in the cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffel, T; Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C; Del Valle, C

    2000-01-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States, accounting for about one in five vehicles involved in fatal motor-vehicle crashes. A critical factor in these deaths is the practice of carrying passengers in truck cargo areas, which are not designed for this purpose. Each year approximately 200 deaths occur to occupants riding in the back of pickup trucks. Over half the states have laws dealing with preventable injury problem, but these laws vary widely and most are too limited to be effective. We have reviewed existing laws, as well as crash injury data, and we have developed and recommend a model bill. The bill focuses on intended use, restricting passengers to only those portions of a vehicle designed for human transport. We have also conducted and report on a survey of legislative sponsors of pickup truck legislation. PMID:10754798

  16. 9 CFR 316.14 - Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. 316.14 Section 316.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... CONTAINERS § 316.14 Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. Each...

  17. Air quality benefits of universal particle filter and NOx controls on diesel trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Harley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of black carbon/particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions on urban and regional scales. These emissions are relevant to both air quality and climate change. Since 2010 in the US, new engines are required to be equipped with emission control systems that greatly reduce both PM and NOx emissions, by ~98% relative to 1988 levels. To reduce emissions from the legacy fleet of older trucks that still remain on the road, regulations have been adopted in Califonia to accelerate the replacement of older trucks and thereby reduce associated emissions of PM and NOx. Use of diesel particle filters will be widespread by 2016, and universal use of catalytic converters for NOx control is required by 2023. We assess the air quality consequences of this clean-up effort in Southern California, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ), and comparing three scenarios: historical (2005), present day (2016), and future year (2023). Emissions from the motor vehicle sector are mapped at high spatial resolution based on traffic count and fuel sales data. NOx emissions from diesel engines in 2023 are expected to decrease by ~80% compared to 2005, while the fraction of NOx emitted as NO2 is expected to increase from 5 to 18%. Air quality model simulations will be analyzed to quantify changes in NO2, black carbon, particulate matter, and ozone, both basin-wide and near hot spots such as ports and major highways.

  18. Loading of the truck for transport from Meyrin to IP8

    CERN Multimedia

    Jans, E

    2007-01-01

    Preparations for unloading of the A-side detector at the pit of LHCb. Unloading of the A-side detector from the truck.Lowering of the detector through the shaft.Reappearance of the detector from the shaft in the pit.Both detector halves have arrived in the pit and are parked safely awaiting further transport and installation.

  19. IMPACTS OF THE 1983 TRUCK STRIKE ON THE FLORIDA PRODUCE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Beilock, Richard P.; Comer, Dorothy A.

    1984-01-01

    The Florida produce industry demonstrated a surprising ability to make adjustments and thus the strike by truck drivers did not seriously disrupt produce shipments. Although, there may be long-term changes in the modes of transportation utilized by the industry in the future.

  20. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  1. Buildup and simulation of a truck model with rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of commercial truck is presented, which has rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod instead of original leaf spring. ADAMS/Car is used as a tool to build the whole truck model. The designed truck's constant-radius cornering analysis and its ride performance simulation analysis under B class random road condition are carried out according to national experimental method standards. Compared the simulation results with the field test results indicate that performance index of the designed air suspension truck's constant-radius cornering and its ride performance meets the design requirements and reaches its prospective target. And results from simulation are similar to those from tests in value and trend, which indicates the virtual prototype is correct. The model can be used further to optinize suspension parameters and do some design work on the control system of air suspension.

  2. Risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk methodology used to evaluate the risk in shipping spent fuel includes: 1) a description of the spent fuel transport system, 2) identification of potential release sequences, 3) evaluation of the probabilities and consequences of the releases, and 4) calculation and assessment of the risk. The system description includes projected industry characteristics, amounts to be shipped, shipping package descriptions, material characteristics, transport mode, transport routes used and weather and population distribution information. Release sequences are identified by fault tree analysis tehniques. Releases are evaluated using package failure data, normal transport and transport accident environment data and mathematical models for material dispersion and resultant health effects. This information is combined to calculate the shipping system risk which is compared to other known risks. The data may be further analyzed to determine the primary contributors to the risk and identify possible methods for reducing the risk, if the current risk level is judged by society to be unacceptable

  3. Shock and vibration environments for a large shipping container during truck transport (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this study was to obtain vibration and shock data during truck shipment of heavy cargo. These data were for use in determining any trends of vibration and shock environments with increased cargo weight. The new data were obtained on a ''piggyback'' basis during truck transport of 249 100N (56,000-pound) cargo which consisted of a spent fuel container and its supporting structure. The truck was driven from Mercury, Nevada, to Albuquerque, New Mexico. The routes traveled were US 95 from Mercury, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada; US 93 from Las Vegas to Kingman, Arizona; and I-40/US 66 from Kingman to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Speeds varied from very slow to 88 km/hr (55 mph). A comparison of data from similar experiments with cargo weights varying from no-load to this load shows that the zero-to-peak acceleration amplitude levels of vibration are highest when trucks carry relatively light loads. This is true for the longitudinal and vertical axes of the vehicles in most frequency bands and for the transverse axis above 700 Hz. The shock response acceleration amplitudes for heavier cargo weights were less severe above 3 Hz in the vertical axis and higher between 8 and 20 Hz in the transverse axis. The highest acceleration amplitude of shock response in the longitudinal axis below about 20 Hz was produced in a trailer having a spring suspension system and carrying the 249 100N (56,000 pounds) load

  4. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  5. Shock and vibration environments for large shipping container during truck transport (Part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to obtain vibration and shock data during truck shipment of heavy cargo. Currently available data were taken on trucks bearing lighter loads than the loads of current interest. In addition, the new data are expected to be useful in the determination of any trends of vibration and shock environments with increased cargo weight. These new data were obtained on a ''piggyback'' basis during truck transport of 195 700 N (44,000 lb) cargo which consisted of a spent fuel container and its supporting structure from Mercury, Nevada, to Albuquerque, New Mexico. The routes traveled were US 95 from Mercury, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada; US 93 from Las Vegas to Kingman, Arizona; and I-40/US66 from Kingman to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Speeds varied from very slow during hill climbs to 101 km/hr (63 mph). A comparison of these data with a collectively reduced set of data for cargo weights varying from no-load to 133 400 N (30,000 lb) showed that the zero to peak amplitude levels of vibration were significantly lower for frequencies less than 40 Hz in the vertical axis and that there was a reduction in the vibration amplitude levels in all axes for frequencies greater than 500 Hz.The shock response amplitude was less severe for the entire frequency spectrum in the vertical axis, but it was not significantly different in the other axes. Data measurements were made on a truck shipment of a 249 100 N (56,000 lb) container over the same routes as were used for the shipment discussed in this report. These data will be presented in a subsequent report along with any additional data trends that result from studies of trucks carrying increased cargo weight

  6. Assessment of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.K.

    1978-11-01

    The assessment includes the risks from release of spent fuel materials and radioactive cask cavity cooling water due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of package misclosure and degradation during normal transport was also considered. The results of the risk assessment have been related to a time in the mid-1980's, when it is projected that nuclear plants with an electrical generating capacity of 100 GW will be operating in the U.S. For shipments from reactors to interim storage facilities, it is estimated that a truck carrying spent fuel will be involved in an accident that would not be severe enough to result in a release of spent fuel material about once in 1.1 years. It was estimated that an accident that could result in a small release of radioactive material (primarily contaminated cooling water) would occur once in about 40 years. The frequency of an accident resulting in one or more latent cancer fatalities from release of radioactive materials during a truck shipment of spent fuel to interim storage was estimated to be once in 41,000 years. No accidents were found that would result in acute fatalities from releases of radioactive material. The risk for spent fuel shipments from reactors to reprocessing plants was found to be about 20% less than the risk for shipments to interim storage. Although the average shipment distance for the reprocessing case is larger, the risk is somewhat lower because the shipping routes, on average, are through less populated sections of the country. The total risk from transporting 180-day cooled spent fuel by truck in the reference year is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ fatalities. An individual in the population at risk would have one chance in 6 x 10/sup 11/ of suffering a latent cancer fatality from a release of radioactive material from a truck carrying spent fuel in the reference year. (DLC)

  7. Assessment of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment includes the risks from release of spent fuel materials and radioactive cask cavity cooling water due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of package misclosure and degradation during normal transport was also considered. The results of the risk assessment have been related to a time in the mid-1980's, when it is projected that nuclear plants with an electrical generating capacity of 100 GW will be operating in the U.S. For shipments from reactors to interim storage facilities, it is estimated that a truck carrying spent fuel will be involved in an accident that would not be severe enough to result in a release of spent fuel material about once in 1.1 years. It was estimated that an accident that could result in a small release of radioactive material (primarily contaminated cooling water) would occur once in about 40 years. The frequency of an accident resulting in one or more latent cancer fatalities from release of radioactive materials during a truck shipment of spent fuel to interim storage was estimated to be once in 41,000 years. No accidents were found that would result in acute fatalities from releases of radioactive material. The risk for spent fuel shipments from reactors to reprocessing plants was found to be about 20% less than the risk for shipments to interim storage. Although the average shipment distance for the reprocessing case is larger, the risk is somewhat lower because the shipping routes, on average, are through less populated sections of the country. The total risk from transporting 180-day cooled spent fuel by truck in the reference year is 4.5 x 10-5 fatalities. An individual in the population at risk would have one chance in 6 x 1011 of suffering a latent cancer fatality from a release of radioactive material from a truck carrying spent fuel in the reference year

  8. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393.61 Section 393.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in...

  9. Assessment of the risk of transporting uranium hexafluoride by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.; Johnson, J.F.; Davis, D.K.; Friley, J.R.; Ross, B.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of studies of the risk of transporting potentially hazardous energy materials. The report presents an assessment of the risk of shipping uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) by truck and rail. The general risk assessment methodology, summarized in Section 3, used in this study is that developed for the first study in this series. The assessment includes the risks from release of uranium hexafluoride during truck or rail transport due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of deteriorated or faulty packaging during normal transport was also considered. The report is sectioned to correspond to the specific analysis steps of the risk assessment model. The transportation system and accident environment are described in Sections 4 and 5. Calculation of the response of the shipping system to forces produced in transportation accidents are presented in Section 6 and the results of a survey to determine the condition of the package during transport are presented in Section 7. Sequences of events that could lead to a release of radioactive material from the shipping cask during transportation are postulated in Section 8 using fault tree analysis. These release sequences are evaluated in Sections 9 through 11, to determine both the likelihood and the possible consequences of each release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The results of the risk assessment have been related to the year 1985, when it is projected that 100 GW of electric power will be generated annually by nuclear power plants. It was estimated that approximately 46,000 metric tons (MT) of natural UF/sub 6/ and 14,600 MT of enriched UF/sub 6/ would be shipped in the reference year.

  10. Assessment of the risk of transporting uranium hexafluoride by truck and train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fifth in a series of studies of the risk of transporting potentially hazardous energy materials. The report presents an assessment of the risk of shipping uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by truck and rail. The general risk assessment methodology, summarized in Section 3, used in this study is that developed for the first study in this series. The assessment includes the risks from release of uranium hexafluoride during truck or rail transport due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of deteriorated or faulty packaging during normal transport was also considered. The report is sectioned to correspond to the specific analysis steps of the risk assessment model. The transportation system and accident environment are described in Sections 4 and 5. Calculation of the response of the shipping system to forces produced in transportation accidents are presented in Section 6 and the results of a survey to determine the condition of the package during transport are presented in Section 7. Sequences of events that could lead to a release of radioactive material from the shipping cask during transportation are postulated in Section 8 using fault tree analysis. These release sequences are evaluated in Sections 9 through 11, to determine both the likelihood and the possible consequences of each release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The results of the risk assessment have been related to the year 1985, when it is projected that 100 GW of electric power will be generated annually by nuclear power plants. It was estimated that approximately 46,000 metric tons (MT) of natural UF6 and 14,600 MT of enriched UF6 would be shipped in the reference year

  11. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Other Information Subject to Restricted Access § 103.31a Advance electronic... following types of advance electronic information are per se exempt from disclosure under §...

  12. UF{sub 6} tiedowns for truck transport - right way/wrong way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, F.W. Jr. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Tiedown systems for truck transport of UF{sub 6} must be defined and controlled to assure the least risk for hauling the material over the highways. This paper and an associated poster display will present the current status of regulatory criteria for tiedowns, analyze the structural stresses involved in tiedowns for two major UF{sub 6} packaging systems, the 21PF series of overpacks and the 48 in. diameter shipping cylinders, and will present photographs showing some {open_quote}right ways{close_quotes} and some {open_quotes}wrong (or risky) ways{close_quotes} currently used for tiedown systems. Risky tiedown methods must be replaced with safer less risky methods to insure the safe transport of UF{sub 6}.

  13. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criteria for determining when U.S. flag air carriers are unavailable. See 48 CFR 47.403-1, or USAID... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation...

  14. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  15. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or exiting the cab or accessing the rear portion of a high profile COE truck or truck-tractor shall...

  16. Transporte de frangos: caracterização do microclima na carga durante o inverno Poultry transport: microclimate characterization of the truck during the winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Delfino Barbosa Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de caracterizar o perfil microclimático da carga de caminhões de transporte de frangos de corte sob condições comerciais durante o inverno, por meio do monitoramento constante das variáveis ambientais (temperatura e umidade relativa do ar e das perdas na chegada na linha de abate. Foram monitorados três carregamentos, da saída das aves da granja até a chegada ao abatedouro, considerando fatores como a distância (perto, média e longa e os turnos (manhã, tarde e noite. Para obtenção do perfil das variáveis ambientais durante a carga dos caminhões, foram instaladas miniestações meteorológicas (Loggers que permitiram determinar o microclima a que as aves foram submetidas e visualizar o perfil do índice entalpia de conforto, que possibilitou a classificação das regiões da carga de acordo com os limites de conforto térmico para frangos de corte na sexta semana. Os dados de temperatura, umidade relativa do ar e do índice entalpia de conforto na carga foram analisados utilizando-se a geoestatística pelo método de krigagem ordinária. O turno da tarde foi o mais crítico do ponto de vista ambiental, e as partes central e traseira da carga do caminhão foram as mais problemáticas para as aves, do ponto de vista microclimático, portanto, as mais propícias à ocorrência de perdas.The objective of this study was to characterize the the microclimatic profile of broiler chicken transport trucks under commercial conditions, in the winter by continuous monitoring of environmental variables (temperature and relative air humidity and deaths on arrival (DOA's. Three loads were monitored, from farm to slaughterhouse, considering factors such as distance (short, medium and long and periods of the day (morning, afternoon and night. To obtain the environmental variables profile in the trucks during the journey, data loggers were installed in the trucks that determined the microclimate to which the

  17. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  18. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  19. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the truck. Although the problem can be decomposed into two phases, pallet loading and truck loading, we have taken a combined approach, building and placing pallets at the same time. For each position in the truck, a pallet is built and tailored for that position according to the constraints of height and weight. We have developed a GRASP algorithm, in which the constructive algorithm is randomized and an improvement phase is added to obtain high-quality solutions. The algorithm has been tested on two sets of real instances with different characteristics, involving up to 44 trucks. The results show that solutions with an optimal or near optimal number of trucks are obtained in very short computing times.

  20. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  1. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  2. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Alonso; Ramon Alvarez-Valdes; Francisco Parreño; Jose Manuel Tamarit

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the tru...

  3. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  4. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  5. Effects of particulate matter exposure on blood 5-hydroxymethylation: results from the Beijing truck driver air pollution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Zheng, Yinan; Osorio-Yanez, Citlalli; Zhong, Jia; Chervona, Yana; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Dou; McCracken, John P; Díaz, Anaite; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Koutrakis, Petros; Kang, Choong-Min; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Byun, Hyang-Min; Schwartz, Joel; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported epigenetic changes induced by environmental exposures. However, previous investigations did not distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) from a similar oxidative form with opposite functions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we measured blood DNA global 5mC and 5hmC by ELISA and used adjusted mixed-effects regression models to evaluate the effects of ambient PM10 and personal PM2.5 and its elemental components-black carbon (BC), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), iron (Fe), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and zinc (Zn)-on blood global 5mC and 5hmC levels. The study was conducted in 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers in Beijing, China from The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study at 2 exams separated by one to 2 weeks. Blood 5hmC level (0.08%) was ∼83-fold lower than 5mC (6.61%). An inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in same-day PM10 was associated with increases in 5hmC of 26.1% in office workers (P = 0.004), 20.2% in truck drivers (P = 0.014), and 21.9% in all participants combined (P 0.05). 5mC showed no correlations with PM10, PM2.5, and elemental components measures (FWER > 0.05). Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM10 affects 5hmC over time, but not 5mC. This finding demonstrates the need to differentiate 5hmC and 5mC in environmental studies of DNA methylation.

  6. A tough truck for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    One of the mobile support structures that will be used to manoeuvre and assemble components of the ATLAS detector in its cavern was put through its paces at the end of July and passed its load tests with flying colours. The tests, which involved the surveyors taking measurements to detect any load-induced mechanical deformations, were carried out in Building 191. "The "truck" has been subjected to static tests with loads of up to 1250 tonnes and can carry and transport on air cushions a nominal load of up to 1000 tonnes at a top speed of 30 cm per minute," explains project leader Tommi Nyman. "It took two weeks to assemble the truck's components, the last of which arrived at CERN on 24 June. It then took a further 20 days to load the truck up for the test." The 8.5 metre-high truck will be used for final assembly of some of the ATLAS components, including the calorimeters, in cavern UX15. This powerful device is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear ...

  7. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  8. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel. PMID:20669640

  9. 49 CFR 238.419 - Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment. 238.419 Section 238.419 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... attachment. (a) The ultimate strength of the truck-to-car-body attachment for each unit in a train shall...

  10. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  11. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2) package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities, especially as used in international safeguards activities, and especially as transported by air. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The accident environments may be imposed upon the package singly or seqentially. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. Packaging, operational features, and contents of package, are discussed

  12. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  13. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqian Qu; Jinfu Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the dif...

  14. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  15. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  16. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  17. Frequency analysis of electroencephalogram recorded from a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with a novel method during transportation by truck

    OpenAIRE

    Hashio, Fuyuko; Tamura, Shinichi; Okada, Yasunori; Morimoto, Shigeru; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain information regarding the correlation between an electroencephalogram (EEG) and the state of a dolphin, we developed a noninvasive recording method of EEG of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and an extraction method of true-EEG (EEG) from recorded-EEG (R-EEG) based on a human EEG recording method, and then carried out frequency analysis during transportation by truck. The frequency detected in the EEG of dolphin during apparent awakening was divided conveniently in...

  18. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  19. Consumer protections and limited liability: Global order for air transport?

    OpenAIRE

    Truxal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of air passenger rights regimes around the globe, at least half of which were introduced in the past seven years, presents a real challenge for many stakeholders in air transport. On the one hand, national rules often vary from state to state; they overlap and are often complex or conflicting, which can be seen as creating rather ambiguous liability for the air transport sector, in particular for airlines and airports. On the other hand, the inherent nature of air transport ...

  20. Income and Exchange Rate Sensitivities of Cross-Border Freight Flows: Evidence from U.S.-Canada Exports and Imports by Truck, Rail, Air, and Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Junwook

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to improve understanding of the long-run impacts of the gross domestic product (GDP), real exchange rate, and the producer price index (PPI) on U.S.-Canada bilateral freight flows in a dynamic framework. Special attention is given to cross-border exports and imports by truck, rail, pipeline, and air. Using the fully modified ordinary least squares (FM-OLS) approach, the paper finds that the GDP of the importing country is a pronounced factor influencing U.S.- Canada cross-bord...

  1. [Long-haul intensive care transports by air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC. PMID:23504461

  2. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  3. Air Transport and Operations. Proceedings of the Third International Air Transport and Operations Symposium 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Fischer, L.; Pérez, D.; Klein, K.; Hoekstra, J.; Roling, P.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Air transport must evolve if it is to optimize its value in the 21st century. The mood in the aerospace industry is positive with regard to economic recovery, but the focus in this transitional time must be on sustaining value, without losing sight of environmental and safety priorities

  4. 49 CFR 1510.7 - Air transportation advertisements and solicitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transportation advertisements and... PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.7 Air transportation advertisements and solicitations... part as “September 11th Security Fee” in all its advertisements and solicitations for...

  5. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5 Section 221.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff...

  6. Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng

    In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the

  7. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqian Qu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the difference of the factors for different city. By comparing demand distribution with airports’ throughput, we can analyze the demand flow. There are some conclusions. The factors have different contribution rate to different city for demand generation. Aircraft movement is the most important factor influencing demand flow. It provides more accurate basis for market positioning and developing, airport layout in a multi-airport system.

  8. Weighted multiplex network of air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Imre

    2016-06-01

    In several real networks large heterogeneity of links is present either in intensity or in the nature of relationships. Therefore, recent studies in network science indicate that more detailed topological information are available if weighted or multi-layer aspect is applied. In the age of globalization air transportation is a representative example of huge complex infrastructure systems, which has been analyzed from different points of view. In this paper a novel approach is applied to study the airport network as a weighted multiplex taking into account the fact that the rules and fashion of domestic and international flights differ. Restricting study to only topological features and their correlations in the system (disregarding traffic) one can see reasons why simple network approximation is not adequate.

  9. Globalisation and Air Transportation Industry: A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin, Shahrul Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Air transportation remains a large and growing industry that is central to the globalisation process. The globalisation impact on the air transportation industry remains largely focused on the airlines, while the impact on airports is rarely defined. The objective of this research is to identify the processes of globalisation that impact the air transportation industry specifically on airport development and operations that will greatly influence the changing nature of airports. A survey ques...

  10. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  11. Modelling the Air Transport with Complex Networks: a short review

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Air transport is a key infrastructure of modern societies. In this paper we review some recent approaches to air transport, which make extensive use of theory of complex networks. We discuss possible networks that can be defined for the air transport and we focus our attention to networks of airports connected by flights. We review several papers investigating the topology of these networks and their dynamics for time scales ranging from years to intraday intervals, and consider also the resilience properties of air networks to extreme events. Finally we discuss the results of some recent papers investigating the dynamics on air transport network, with emphasis on passengers traveling in the network and epidemic spreading mediated by air transport.

  12. Experimental analysis of lead-in-air sources in lead-acid battery manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, K J; Knutson, G W

    1979-07-01

    Plant-scale experimental sampling programs were carried out to determine the contribution to the lead-in-air exposure from (a) fork-truck transport of pasted plates in racks and (b) manual loading and unloading of plates from racks. Fork-truck transport was found not significant under "clean" conditions. Manual loading and unloading was found significant.

  13. HIV infection, genital symptoms and sexual risk behavior among Indian truck drivers from a large transportation company in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Dude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance conducted in the high Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV prevalent state of Andhra Pradesh includes sub-populations thought to be at high-risk for HIV, but has not included truck drivers. Novel HIV prevention programs targeting this population increasingly adopt public - private partnership models. There have been no targeted studies of HIV prevalence and risk behavior among truck drivers belonging to the private sector in India. Methods: A sample of 189 truck drivers, aged between 15 and 56, were recruited from Gati Limited′s large trucking depot in Hyderabad, India. A quantitative survey instrument was conducted along with blood collection for HIV 1/2 testing. Multivariate regression models were utilized to determine predictors of HIV infection and risk behavior. Results: 2.1% of subjects were infected with HIV. Older age was protective against self-reported genital symptoms (OR = 0.77; P = 0.03, but these were more likely among those truck drivers with greater income (OR = 1.05; P = 0.02, and those who spent more time away from home (OR = 25.7; P = 0.001. Men with higher incomes also reported significantly more sex partners (OLS coefficient = 0.016 more partners / 100 rupees in monthly income, P = 0.04, as did men who spent a great deal of time away from home (OLS coefficient = 1.30, P = 0.002. Drivers were more likely to report condom use with regular partners if they had ever visited a female sex worker (OR = 6.26; P = 0.002, but married drivers exhibited decreased use of condoms with regular partners (OR = 0.14, P = 0.008. Men who had higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV and HIV preventative practices were also more likely to use condoms with regular partners (OR = 1.22, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Time away from home, urban residence, income, and marital status were the strongest correlates of genital symptoms for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and risk behaviors, although none were consistent

  14. Análise do custo e do raio econômico de transporte de madeira de reflorestamentos para diferentes tipos de veículos Cost and distance of reforestation wood transport for different types of trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Lopes da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estabelecer a distância máxima de transporte viável para cada tipo de veículo utilizado para transportar a madeira das áreas de colheita até centros de consumo. Para tanto, utilizaram-se dados de custos e receitas de um reflorestamento, bem como a capacidade de carga de diferentes composições veiculares empregadas no transporte. Aplicando-se os critérios econômicos (VPL, TIR, CMP e BCPE, as distâncias variaram entre 155 e 226 km, para o caminhão-truck e o rodotrem, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que o rodotrem pode alcançar distância maior de transporte, sendo o preço da madeira a variável que mais influenciou a distância máxima de transporte.The objective of this study was to establish the viable transport maximum distance for each type of wood transportation vehicle from the harvest areas to the consumption centers. Thus, reforestation cost and revenue data were used, as well as the load capacity of different types of vehicles used for wood transport. The application of economic criteria (VPL, TIR, CMP and BCPE showed that the distances varied between 155 and 226 km, for the small truck and rodotrem (truck with two large trailers, respectively. It was concluded that rodotrem could reach a greater distance, with wood price being the factor most influencing maximum transport distance.

  15. Physiology and behavior of dogs during air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Renée; Scott, Shannon L.; Émond, Jean-Pierre; Mercier, Florent; Nigel J. Cook; Schaefer, Al L.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four beagles were used to measure physiological and behavioral reactions to air transport. Each of 3 groups of 4 sedated (with 0.5 mg/kg body weight of acepromazine maleate) and 4 non-sedated (control) dogs was flown on a separate flight between Montreal, Quebec, and Toronto, Ontario, after being transported by road from Quebec City to Montreal. Saliva and blood samples were taken before ground and air transport and after air transport. The heart rate was monitored during the whole exp...

  16. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE Camelia; SEBEA Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Air transport is an innovative industry that drives economic and social progress. It connects people, countries and cultures; provides access to global markets and generates trade and tourism. It also forges links between developed and developing nations. Like most human activities, air transport has an impact on the environment, mainly through noise and emissions that affect local air quality and the climate. The industry fully recognises its responsibility in this regard and is determined t...

  17. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Transportation and Air Quality Cars and light trucks Clean Diesel Program Clean School Bus USA Diesel Fuel Standards Fuel economy Gasoline Standards Green Vehicle Guide Heavy trucks and buses Importing vehicles Modeling, testing and research Motorcycles Nonroad (off-road) engines, ...

  18. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  19. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  20. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  1. Implementation of exclusive truck facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekpe, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States). Transportation Market Sector

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed the issue of highway congestion, safety, and efficiency in freight movement on highways, with particular reference to the challenge of supporting increasing capacity demand from truck traffic. Innovative and practical solutions are needed to address the growing need for more efficient freight movement while maintaining acceptable levels of safety on highways. The concept of exclusive truck facilities (ETFs) is becoming an attractive option as a feasible strategy to help stabilize traffic flow, reduce congestion, improve safety, enhance transportation system management, improve access to freight facilities, and improve efficiency in freight movement along corridors of national importance. ETFs can either be truck only lanes or truckways. Passenger cars may not use ETFs. However, the use of ETFs could involve high costs of construction, maintenance, and acquisition of additional right of way. A cost-benefit analysis was performed for alternative ETF configurations under different traffic and site characteristics. A set of criteria was then proposed for identifying suitable locations for exclusive truck lanes. It was proposed that ETFs are economically feasible at locations with traffic volume of 100,000 vehicles per day or more and with a truck volume of at least 25 per cent of the traffic. In addition, the rate of truck-involved fatal crashes and level of service should be used to prioritize preliminary candidate locations that satisfy the traffic criteria. Consideration should also be given to the existence of freight terminals, ports, processing centers or regional distribution centres that are close to highways. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  3. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  4. 浙江省道路运输行业“黄标车”的现状与治理措施研究%Study on Actuality and Administration Measures of Yellow-label Trucks of the Road Transport Industry in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓春; 陈绍双; 吴志军; 张开开; 方栋华

    2015-01-01

    经统计,浙江省道路运输行业的“黄标车”有9.8万辆,而“黄标车”的治理淘汰对于降低我省机动车污染排放和空气质量的改善具有重大意义。因此,研究出台有效的治理措施和长效机制显得十分必要。通过分析和调研周边省份和我省“黄标车”的治理现状,归纳出了浙江省道路运输行业“黄标车”淘汰工作存在的问题,提出了“黄标车”的治理淘汰措施,同时探索了对老旧及高污染车辆治理的长效机制。%Yellow-label truck of the road transport industry in Zhejiang province possesses 98 , 000 through statis-tics.The governance and elimination of Yellow-label truck has the great significance to reduce the motor vehicle emis-sions and improve air quality in our province.Therefore ,the study of the introduction of effective governance measures and long-term mechanism is very necessary.Through analyzing the actuality of surrounding provinces and the Zhejiang province ,this paper discovered problems of elimination work of Yellow -label truck of the road transport industry in Zhe-jiang province ,proposed governance and elimination measures for Yellow-label truck in Zhejiang province.Meanwhile , the long-term mechanism of governance for the old and high-polluting vehicles is explored.

  5. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  6. First International Forum on Management of Air Transport & Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne Napoli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Sabatier University is the only French University that offers a Master’s Degree in both Air Transport and International Tourism Management and in January 21-23, 2016 launched the first "business-research" Forum to capitalize on the combination of international professional and academic experts and to confirm its role as a major player in two inseparable areas: research and study development within Air Transport and Tourism.

  7. First International Forum on Management of Air Transport & Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Jocelyne Napoli

    2016-01-01

    The Paul Sabatier University is the only French University that offers a Master’s Degree in both Air Transport and International Tourism Management and in January 21-23, 2016 launched the first "business-research" Forum to capitalize on the combination of international professional and academic experts and to confirm its role as a major player in two inseparable areas: research and study development within Air Transport and Tourism.

  8. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, Nicole; Nash, Chris; Pels, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers,

  9. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  10. International antiterrorist conventions concerning the safety of air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek BARCIK; Piotr CZECH

    2008-01-01

    In this article the international law regulations are presented concerning the civilian safety of the air transport. The history concerning air terrorism and international antiterrorist conventions was described in detail, involving The Chicago Convention, The Tokyo Convention, The Hague Convention and Montreal Convention.

  11. Risk of African swine fever introduction into the European Union through transport-associated routes: returning trucks and waste from international ships and planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mur Lina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uncontrolled presence of African swine fever (ASF in Russian Federation (RF poses a serious risk to the whole European Union (EU pig industry. Although trade of pigs and their products is banned since the official notification in June 2007, the potential introduction of ASF virus (ASFV may occur by other routes, which are very frequent in ASF, and more difficult to control, such as contaminated waste or infected vehicles. This study was intended to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction into the EU through three types of transport routes: returning trucks, waste from international ships and waste from international planes, which will be referred here as transport-associated routes (TAR. Since no detailed and official information was available for these routes, a semi-quantitative model based on the weighted combination of risk factors was developed to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction by TAR. Relative weights for combination of different risk factors as well as validation of the model results were obtained by an expert opinion elicitation. Results Model results indicate that the relative risk for ASFV introduction through TAR in most of the EU countries (16 is low, although some countries, specifically Poland and Lithuania, concentrate high levels of risk, the returning trucks route being the analyzed TAR that currently poses the highest risk for ASFV introduction into the EU. The spatial distribution of the risk of ASFV introduction varies importantly between the analyzed introduction routes. Results also highlight the need to increase the awareness and precautions for ASF prevention, particularly ensuring truck disinfection, to minimize the potential risk of entrance into the EU. Conclusions This study presents the first assessment of ASF introduction into the EU through TAR. The innovative model developed here could be used in data scarce situations for estimating the relative risk associated to each EU country

  12. Transportation and Air Quality in California: A Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in air pollution emissions control have occurred over the past twenty years. Emissions have been substantially reduced by both industrial and transportation sources; over the ten year period 1977-86, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports improvements in each of the six air pollutants for which health-based national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exist -- lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. Yet ma...

  13. Children in pickup trucks. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States. A recent study found that in crashes involving fatalities, cargo area passengers were 3 times more likely to die than were occupants in the cab. Compared with restrained cab occupants, the risk of death for those in the cargo area was 8 times higher. Furthermore, the increased use of extended-cab pickup trucks and air bag-equipped front passenger compartments creates concerns about the safe transport of children. The most effective preventive strategies are the legislative prohibition of travel in the cargo area and requirements for age-appropriate restraint use and seat selection in the cab. Parents should select vehicles that are appropriate for the safe transportation needs of the family. Physicians have an important role in counseling families and advocating public policy measures to reduce the number of deaths and injuries to occupants of pickup trucks. PMID:11015537

  14. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  15. The impact of sea-air mode on air cargo transport

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hajri, Ghanem Mohamed

    1997-01-01

    The following research looks into the concept of sea-air intermodality, a combination of two or more modes of transport for the carriage of goods from origin to destination. The study examines why and how this form of transport evolved to become a viable alternative to the conventional single modes of ocean and air transport. The viability of the sea-air mode depends on various equally important factors which are analysed in depth, with a special emphasis on the sea-ai...

  16. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  17. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  18. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre...... neurologist to arrival in the regional stroke centre was significantly shorter in the ground group (55 (34-85) vs 68 (40-85) min, pstroke centre was shorter in the ground group (67 (42-136) km) than in the helicopter group (83 (46-143) km) (p

  19. 集装箱卡车运输问题的基于图的建模方法%Graph-based modeling method for container truck transportation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞友; 汪定伟; 尹原永

    2011-01-01

    对港口和发货人/收货人之间的集装箱卡车运输问题给出了基于图的建模方法.该图不仅可以描述进出口空箱或满箱的运输,而且可以描述空集装箱作为运输资源的属性,这种图将确定的活动描述为顶点,将不确定的活动描述为弧,称为确定活动在顶点上的图(DAOV图).基于这种方法,建立了集装箱卡车运输问题的基本情形、多堆场多港口情形以及堆场上的空箱数目给定情形的数学模型;相应问题被描述为带时间窗的多旅行商问题(m-TSPTW)、多堆场的m-TSPTW以及带资源约束的m-TSPTW.而且这种方法可以扩展到集装箱卡车运输问题的更一般情形,这体现出该建模方法的有效性.%A graph-based modeling method of container truck transportation problems between terminals and final shippers/receivers was proposed in this paper. The graph can formulate not only the transportation of import/export full/empty containers, but also the transportation resource attribute of empty containers. The graph denotes determinate activities with vertexes and denotes indeterminate activities with arcs. Therefore, it is named as determinate-activities-on-vertexes (DAOV) graph. Based on the proposed graph, the basic case, multi-depot multi-terminal case, and the case with given number of empty containers on depots, of the container truck transportation problems were mathematically modeled. They fall into the multiple traveling salesman problem with time windows (m-TSPTW), multi-depot m-TSPTW, and m-TSPTW with resource constraints, respectively. Furthermore, the modeling method can be extended to more general cases of the problems, which indicates the validity of the presented graph-based modeling method.

  20. Computational Modeling of Transport Limitations in Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2013-02-22

    In this paper we investigate transport limitations in the electrodes of lithium-air batteries through computational modeling. We use meso-scale models to consider the effects of dendrites on the current and potential at the anode surface, and to investigate the effects of reaction and transport parameters on the formation of precipitates in the cathode. The formation of dendrites on the anode surface during cycling reduces the transport of ions and can lead to short circuits in the cell. Growth of precipitates in the cathode reduces the specific capacity of the cell due to surface passivation and pore clogging. Both of these degradation mechanisms depend on meso-scale phenomena, such as the pore-scale reactive transport in the cathode. To understand the effects of the meso-scale transport and precipitation on the performance and lifetime of Li-air batteries, meso-scale modeling is needed that is able to resolve the electrodes and their microstructures.

  1. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 29, 2012. See 77 FR 38747. The Department of Transportation is... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department...

  2. Proposed design for the new SNL air-transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a prototype air-transporter suitable for remote operation in a size reduction facility is discussed. The first section describes the design concept selected for the transporter, that of a series of modular units within a simple rigid framework and the detailed design of the individual modules. The design has the following features: electrical drive units, self contained air-skates, electrical logic circuit placed outside the working area, pneumatic and electrical umbilicals and provision for specific items of ancilliary equipment. The second section describes the detailed evaluation of various cable handling systems for the umbilicals from the control console outside the facility to the transporter. It has been established that the optimum system is a single rail festoon complete with transporter mounted pivoting arm. (author)

  3. Selecting appropriate Internet advertising type in air transport services,Case Study: Iran Air Airlines (Homa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Zargham Borojeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is looking for selecting the appropriate form of Internet advertising in the air transport services. The model which is used in this research is a combination of structural models of the interactive advertising, interactive advertising model TOORSON Mr. RAGERS, Mr. Kasipo, and Patty probability model complexity and model of how advertising Mr. Vaqn, obtained, is used. The purpose of this study is to select the appropriate form of Internet advertising in the air transport services, (case study: Iran Air. This study is descriptive - survey. For gathering information, a questionnaire was used. The questionnaire included four parts. With applying exploratory data analysis methods (comparison of the relative frequencies according to the results of Sections 2 and 4 of questionnaires, the Internet advertising Skyscraper as the most desirable form of Internet advertising in air transport services is selected.

  4. Selecting appropriate Internet advertising type in air transport services,Case Study: Iran Air Airlines (Homa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    anna alaei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is looking for selecting the appropriate form of Internet advertising in the air transport services. The model which is used in this research is a combination of structural models of the interactive advertising, interactive advertising model TOORSON Mr. RAGERS, Mr. Kasipo, and Patty probability model complexity and model of how advertising Mr. Vaqn, obtained, is used. The purpose of this study is to select the appropriate form of Internet advertising in the air transport services, (case study: Iran Air. This study is descriptive - survey. For gathering information, a questionnaire was used. The questionnaire included four parts. With applying exploratory data analysis methods (comparison of the relative frequencies according to the results of Sections 2 and 4 of questionnaires, the Internet advertising Skyscraper as the most desirable form of Internet advertising in air transport services is selected.

  5. The Implementation of Competition Law in the Air Transport Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Goktepe

    2007-01-01

    The competition rules areapplied in the transportation sector in European Union due to the fact that liberalization process has started. The competition law is applied in order to support the liberalization process. As a result of the liberalization, a free and honest competition has increased between airline companies. Similarly, the liberalization process in the air transportation sector has also started in Turkey. Because of liberalization, the competition has increased. Therefore, the com...

  6. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport

  7. A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Lioen, W.; Verwer, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a l

  8. The competitive landscape of air transport in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lieshout; P. Malighetti; R. Redondi; G. Burghouwt

    2016-01-01

    Competition between airlines and airports increased significantly since the deregulation of the intra-European air transport market in 1997. The passenger has a wider choice in terms of routings and departure airports than twenty-five years ago and pays a lower price. In this paper we investigate in

  9. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  10. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  11. THE ROLE OF AIR TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT IN ADRIATICIONIAN MACROREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Čokorilo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed research is to improve the accessibility and the mobility of passengers across the Adriatic area and its hinterland, through the development of new sustainable and integrated transport services and the improvement of physical infrastructures related to those new services, particulary in the air transport connectivity and accesability. Analysis is oriented on existing infrastructure, connections and available aircraft fleet capacities based on three possible scenarios which are identified on the recommendations of renominated statistical data (Eurocontrol, Boeing, Airbus. Microregional improvements could be the key drivers for the macro economical issues where air transport plays significant role. Aircraft fleet, load factor and tourist destination atractivnes significantly improve hinterlend connectivities within Adriatic ports for both ferry and cruise passengers.

  12. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  13. Solar Control Glazing for Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Tavast, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns the use of solar control and electrochromic glazing in trucks. The purpose has been to study the decrease in solar energy transport into the cab and how to utilize the technology. The solar spectrum consists of both visible light and near-IR radiation, and solar control glazing transmits the majority of the visible light and reflects or absorbs most of the near-IR radiation. Electrochromic glazing has variable transmittance, which enables the driver to regulate the energy...

  14. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  15. Trucks on Our Turf: Seeking to Resolve the International Inconsistency in Public Citizen v. Department of Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Erica J. Burgess

    2005-01-01

    Such it is with international trade. What was once a world divided into separate and distinct cultures has now become a globe where borders continually fade and cease to exist. Although this progress brings new opportunities to many, it similarly awakens emotions of apprehension and uncertainty, while creating clashes between what was known and what is yet to be discovered. A recent Ninth Circuit case, Public Citizen v. Department of Transportation,6 illuminated inconsistencies that may occur...

  16. What should ''damaged'' mean in air transport of fissile packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is likely that the ongoing process to produce the 1996 version of the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, IAEA Safety Series 6(SS 6) will result in a more stringent package qualification standard for air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) than is included in the 1990 version. During the process to define the scope of the new requirements there was extensive discussion of their impact on, and application to, fissile material package qualification criteria. Since fissile materials are shipped in a variety of packagings ranging from exempt to Type B, each packaging of each type must be evaluated for its ability to maintain subcriticality both alone and in arrays and in both damaged and undamaged condition. In the 1990 version of SS 6 ''damaged'' means the condition of a package after it had undergone the ''tests for demonstrating the ability to withstand accident conditions in transport,'' i.e., Type B qualification tests. These tests conditions are typical of severe accidents in surface modes, but are less severe than air mode qualification test environments to be applied to Type C packages. As a result, questions arose about the need for a corresponding change in the 1996 SS 6 to define ''damaged'' to include the Type C test regime for criticality evaluations of fissile packages in air transport

  17. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  18. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret Michael

    component. In order to apply the new emission factors to policy-relevant scenarios, a projection is made for the fleet inventory of infrastructure components necessary to distribute 21 billion gallons of ethanol (the 2022 federal mandate for advanced biofuels under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007) derived entirely from Miscanthus grass, for comparison to the baseline petroleum system. Due to geographic, physical and chemical properties of biomass and alcohols, the distribution system for Miscanthus-based ethanol is more capital- and energy-intensive than petroleum per unit of fuel energy delivered. The transportation of biofuels away from producer regions poses environmental, health, and economic trade-offs that are herein evaluated using a simplified national distribution network model. In just the last ten years, ethanol transportation within the contiguous United States is estimated to have increased more than ten-fold in total t-km as ethanol has increasingly been transported away from Midwest producers due to air quality regulations pertaining to gasoline, renewable fuel mandates, and the 10% blending limit (i.e., the E10 blend wall). From 2004 to 2009, approximately 10 billion t-km of ethanol transportation are estimated to have taken place annually for reasons other than the E10 blend wall, leading to annual freight costs greater than $240 million and more than 300,000 tonnes of CO2-e emissions and significant emissions of criteria air pollutants from the combustion of more than 90 million liters of diesel. Although emissions from distribution activities are small when normalized to each unit of fuel, they are large in scale. Archetypal fuel distribution routes by rail and by truck are created to evaluate the significance of mode choice and route location on the severity of public health impacts from locomotive and truck emissions, by calculating the average PM2.5 pollution intake fraction along each route. Exposure to pollution resulting from

  19. Review of Maritime Transportation Air Emission Pollution and Policy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haifeng; LIU Dahai; DAI Guilin

    2009-01-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the 'bottom up' approach, the 'top down' approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  20. Kogi Truck Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    Food trucks have become a large phenomenon in many parts of Southern California. In fact, the University of California, Los Angeles had begun permitting several food trucks to park on campus for hungry students, in response to the closure of the Bombshelter, a major campus food court. These trucks’ budding popularity has been spurred by the notable Kogi Trucks, which began its business serving those in Los Angeles. To explore the heart of this Kogi hype, I took two trips to the intersectio...

  1. Light truck forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepins, G.E.

    1979-09-01

    The recent dramatic increase in the number of light trucks (109% between 1963 and 1974) has prompted concern about the energy consequences of the growing popularity of the light truck. An estimate of the future number of light trucks is considered to be a reasonable first step in assessing the energy impact of these vehicles. The monograph contains forecasts based on two models and six scenarios. The coefficients for the models have been derived by ordinary least squares regression of national level time series data. The first model is a two stage model. The first stage estimates the number of light trucks and cars (together), and the second stage applies a share's submodel to determine the number of light trucks. The second model is a simultaneous equation model. The two models track one another remarkably well, within about 2%. The scenarios were chosen to be consistent with those used in the Lindsey-Kaufman study Projection of Light Truck Population to Year 2025. Except in the case of the most dismal economic scenario, the number of light trucks is expected to increase from the 1974 level of 0.09 light truck per person to about 0.12 light truck per person in 1995.

  2. Radiant heat test of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronewald, Patrick James; Oneto, Robert (Weidlinger Associates, Inc., Los Altos, CA); Mould, John (Weidlinger Associates, Inc., Los Altos, CA); Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    A conceptual design for a plutonium air transport package capable of surviving a 'worst case' airplane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A full-scale prototype, designated as the Perforated Metal Air Transport Package (PMATP) was thermally tested in the SNL Radiant Heat Test Facility. This testing, conducted on an undamaged package, simulated a regulation one-hour aviation fuel pool fire test. Finite element thermal predictions compared well with the test results. The package performed as designed, with peak containment package temperatures less than 80 C after exposure to a one-hour test in a 1000 C environment.

  3. Trucks on Our Turf: Seeking to Resolve the International Inconsistency in Public Citizen v. Department of Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica J. Burgess

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Such it is with international trade. What was once a world divided into separate and distinct cultures has now become a globe where borders continually fade and cease to exist. Although this progress brings new opportunities to many, it similarly awakens emotions of apprehension and uncertainty, while creating clashes between what was known and what is yet to be discovered. A recent Ninth Circuit case, Public Citizen v. Department of Transportation,6 illuminated inconsistencies that may occur when transnational interactions attempt to fit into our previously ethnocentric societies. The discrepancy brought to light through this decision concerned a claimed conflict between an international arbitration decision under the North American Free Trade Agreement7 (hereinafter “NAFTA” and United States environmental law.

  4. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  5. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  6. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials during their road transportation with trucks for loads up to 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation and a coordination of available standards, regulatory prescriptions and directives on stowing are first presented. Then generated forces resulting from road vehicle deceleration in accidental conditions are searched. The investigation shows that higher dangerous materials transportation probabilities essentially concern front end impacts (51.4 %) and side on impacts (19 %). These accidents occur with a speed of about 80 km/h before the impact and 50 km/h during the crash. During the latter, deceleration values ranging from 20 to 100g could be reached, the mean value could be about 30g. A mathematical model is developed. Experiments are realized with the aims on the one hand, to verify the results obtained from a mathematical model of accident and on the other hand to collect experimental values allowing to work out a code of good practice for the stowing of radioactive materials packages having a maximum weight of about 20 tons. A number of 8 tests has been performed with two types of packagings: lower and higher centre of gravity in front end and side on impacts. In case of a front end impact, the stowing system must be able to absorb entirely the kinetic energy generated by the package deceleration. This means that a tie-down system according to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient provided that the package is chocked in the direction of the traffic. The damage is proportional to the weight of the vehicle responsible for such side on impact. This weight could be much higher than the package weight. Deceleration values up to 120g have been recorded. As a result, the tie down system similar to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient, but chocks acting perpendicularly to the direction of the traffic are to be prohibited

  7. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a)...

  8. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  9. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  10. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on

  11. North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART at CD4 count >350 cells/μL have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate “real world” programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of an early ART intervention for HIV-positive truck drivers along a transport corridor across South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, as part of an enhanced strategy to improve treatment adherence and retention in care. Methods and Analysis. This demonstration study would follow an observational cohort of truck drivers receiving early treatment. Our mixed methods approach includes quantitative, qualitative, and economic analyses. Key ethical and logistical issues are discussed (i.e., choice of drug regimen, recruitment of participants, and monitoring of adherence, behavioural changes, and adverse events. Conclusion. Questions specific to the design of tailored early ART programmes are amenable to operational research approaches but present substantial ethical and logistical challenges. Addressing these in demonstration projects can inform policy decisions regarding strategies to reduce health inequalities in access to HIV prevention and treatment programmes.

  12. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  13. Implementation of Satellite Techniques in the Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Andrzej; Jafernik, Henryk

    2016-06-01

    The article shows process of the implementation satellite systems in Polish aviation which contributed to accomplishment Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept. Since 1991 authors have introduced Satellite Navigation Equipment in Polish Air Forces. The studies and researches provide to the Polish Air Force alternative approaches, modernize their navigation and landing systems and achieve compatibility with systems of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Acquired experience, conducted military tests and obtained results enabled to take up work scientifically - research in the environment of the civil aviation. Therefore in 2008 there has been launched cooperation with Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA). Thanks to cooperation, there have been compiled and fulfilled three fundamental international projects: EGNOS APV MIELEC (EGNOS Introduction in European Eastern Region - APV Mielec), HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe), SHERPA (Support ad-Hoc to Eastern Region Pre-operational in GNSS). The successful completion of these projects enabled implementation 21 procedures of the RNAV GNSS final approach at Polish airports, contributing to the implementation of PBN in Poland as well as ICAO resolution A37-11. Results of conducted research which served for the implementation of satellite techniques in the air transport constitute the meaning of this material.

  14. The Air Connectivity Index : Measuring Integration in the Global Air Transport Network

    OpenAIRE

    Arvis, Jean-François; Shepherd, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The authors construct a new measure of connectivity in the global air transport network, covering 211 countries and territories for the year 2007. It is grounded in network analysis methods, and is based on a gravity-like model that is familiar from the international trade and regional science literatures. It is a global measure of connectivity, in the sense that it captures the full range...

  15. Effect of Burstiness on the Air Transportation System

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    The effect of burstiness in complex networks has received considerable attention. In particular, its effect on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system is significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two indexes of temporal distance based on passengers' behavior and analyze the effect. As a result, we find that burstiness shortens the temporal distance while delays are increased. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules get overcrowded.

  16. Permanent internal pacemaker safety in air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R S; O'Dell, K B

    1991-02-01

    Helicopter and fixed-wing air medical transportation provides an important role in the management of critically-ill patients. As the use of cardiac pacemakers continues to grow, knowledge of their expanding capabilities and sophistication is important. The environments of our "airborne intensive care units" are subject to many sources of electromagnetic and vibrational interference. Although pacemaker shielding mechanisms have become quite elaborate, further studies are needed to define their reliability in modern aircraft. Further, the possible effects of electromagnetic and vibrational interference upon inflight reprogramming require further study. PMID:10109075

  17. AIR TRANSPORT VECTOR IN THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS BOIŢĂ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the global context of the airline industry is necessary in each organization a comprehensive analysis of multiple methods to reduce operational costs. Effective and constant cost control is crucial for most airlines. Continuous reduction of costs has become a cult. This is due mainly to the following aspects: market deregulation and globalization of the industry have increased the competitive pressure on firms, reducing the error rate and making essential the “reduce costs cult." This observation applies especially to businesses in commercial air transport.

  18. High-Speed Civil Transport Will Revolutionize Air Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced technologies that will allow industry to build a high-speed civil transport that will revolutionize overseas air travel. The technology challenges include developing low-cost materials and structural concepts as well as supersonic engines that can meet stringent noise and emissions standards. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will reduce the travel time to the Far East by 50 percent within 25 years, and do so at today's subsonic ticket prices. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  19. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  20. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  1. The contribution of transport to air quality. TERM 2012: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vicente, A.; Pastorello, C.; Foltescu, V.L. [and others

    2012-11-15

    TERM 2012 (Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism) presents the most relevant and up to date information on the main issues regarding transport and environment in Europe, particularly in areas with specific policy targets such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, transport demand levels, noise and other issues. It also offers an overview of the transport sector's impact on air pollutant emissions and air quality. It discusses the contributions made by all modes of transport to direct air pollutant emissions and also to 'secondary' air pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Alongside the recently published Air quality in Europe - 2012 report, TERM 2012 aims to inform the European Commission's review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. (Author)

  2. Near-rail yard air quality--assessment through field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to truck transport, goods movement by rail produces generally lower air pollutant emissions (e.g., particulate matter, carbon dioxide) per ton of freight transported. Emissions associated with rail transport are also confined to rail corridors which may lower the risk of...

  3. Application of Time and Distance Driven ABC in Truck-load Transport Costing%时间和距离驱动作业成本法在整车运输成本核算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆平; 向吉美; 师建华

    2011-01-01

    提出应用时间和距离作业成本法核算单次整车运输任务成本,并给出了合算步骤,最后通过具体的运输任务实例说明了计算整车运输成本的过程,证明该方法简捷并具有可操作业.%The paper proposes to use time and distance driven activity-based costing in accounting the cost of a single operation of truck-load transportation and prese nts an empirical example for illustration.

  4. 49 CFR 238.219 - Truck-to-car-body attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body attachment. 238.219 Section 238... I Passenger Equipment § 238.219 Truck-to-car-body attachment. Passenger equipment shall have a truck-to-car-body attachment with an ultimate strength sufficient to resist without failure the...

  5. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  6. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret Michael

    component. In order to apply the new emission factors to policy-relevant scenarios, a projection is made for the fleet inventory of infrastructure components necessary to distribute 21 billion gallons of ethanol (the 2022 federal mandate for advanced biofuels under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007) derived entirely from Miscanthus grass, for comparison to the baseline petroleum system. Due to geographic, physical and chemical properties of biomass and alcohols, the distribution system for Miscanthus-based ethanol is more capital- and energy-intensive than petroleum per unit of fuel energy delivered. The transportation of biofuels away from producer regions poses environmental, health, and economic trade-offs that are herein evaluated using a simplified national distribution network model. In just the last ten years, ethanol transportation within the contiguous United States is estimated to have increased more than ten-fold in total t-km as ethanol has increasingly been transported away from Midwest producers due to air quality regulations pertaining to gasoline, renewable fuel mandates, and the 10% blending limit (i.e., the E10 blend wall). From 2004 to 2009, approximately 10 billion t-km of ethanol transportation are estimated to have taken place annually for reasons other than the E10 blend wall, leading to annual freight costs greater than $240 million and more than 300,000 tonnes of CO2-e emissions and significant emissions of criteria air pollutants from the combustion of more than 90 million liters of diesel. Although emissions from distribution activities are small when normalized to each unit of fuel, they are large in scale. Archetypal fuel distribution routes by rail and by truck are created to evaluate the significance of mode choice and route location on the severity of public health impacts from locomotive and truck emissions, by calculating the average PM2.5 pollution intake fraction along each route. Exposure to pollution resulting from

  7. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  8. Air transportation and tourism in the Croatian littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Gašparović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse and explain the impact of air transportation on the development of tourism in the Croatian littoral. The analysis was made by using the data collected from flight schedules and airport authorities. The data on frequency of lines and number of passengers were analysed in order to correlate the distribution of the number of passengers with the number of tourists during the year. In this case, the correlation between the number of passengers and the number of arrivals/number of overnight stays is observed. Data for the time period from 2008 till 2010 were analysed in more detail by dividing the passengers into four categories: full-service passengers, low-cost passengers, charter passengers and general aviation passengers. Major touristic markets are identified on the basis of the number of connections between European and Croatian littoral airports. The last part of the paper deals with the increasing impact of low-cost services on the development of tourism in the Croatian littoral region. This is due to the fact that low-cost carriers have accounted for a considerable part of air transport in the last few years.

  9. Study on Air-Aided Transport Means of Cutter-Suction Dredger

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Xiong; Yunnan Yao; Shandong Fan; Hanhua Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This study proves the effectiveness of air-aided transport in reducing pipeline resistance and lengthening transport distance. The adopted experimental apparatus is unique in its chosen pipes (120 mm), transmission mediums (including clean water and slurries concentrated at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively) and experiment comparisons between air-aided transport and traditional relay pump transport. Factors such as resistance, transport distance and energy consumption are compared through the data...

  10. Assessment of on-road emissions of four Euro V diesel and CNG waste collection trucks for supporting air-quality improvement initiatives in the city of Milan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaras, Georgios, E-mail: georgios.fontaras@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano; Marotta, Alessandro; Krasenbrink, Alois [Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Maffioletti, Francesco; Terenghi, Roberto; Colombo, Mauro [AMSA, Azienda Milanese Servizi Ambientali, Milano (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an extensive experimental study aiming to evaluate the performance and pollutant emissions of diesel and CNG waste collection trucks under realistic and controlled operating conditions in order to support a fleet renewal initiative in the city of Milan. Four vehicles (1 diesel and 3 CNG) were tested in two phases using a portable emission measurement system. The first phase included real world operation in the city of Milan while the second involved controlled conditions in a closed track. Emissions recorded from the diesel truck were on average 2.4 kg/km for CO{sub 2}, 0.21 g/km for HC, 7.4 g/km for CO, 32.3 g/km for NO{sub x} and 46.4 mg/km for PM. For the CNG the values were 3.6 kg/km for CO{sub 2}, 2.19 g/km for HC, 15.8 g/km for CO, 4.38 g/km for NO{sub x} and 11.4 mg/km for PM. CNG vehicles presented an important advantage with regards to NO{sub x} and PM emissions but lack the efficiency of their diesel counterparts when it comes to CO, HC and particularly greenhouse gas emissions. This tradeoff needs to be carefully analyzed prior to deciding if a fleet should be shifted towards either technology. In addition it was shown that existing emission factors, used in Europe for environmental assessment studies, reflect well the operation for CNG but were not so accurate when it came to the diesel engine truck particularly for CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. With regard to NO{sub x}, it was also shown that the limits imposed by current emission standards are not necessarily reflected in real world operation, under which the diesel vehicle presented almost 4 times higher emissions. Regarding CO{sub 2}, appropriate use of PEMS data and vehicle information allows for accurate emission monitoring through computer simulation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated diesel and CNG Euro V waste collection vehicles for municipal use Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO{sub x}-GhG emission trade-off should be considered prior to

  11. Study on Countermeasures for Developing LNG Heavy Truck Logistics Transportation Enterprises in Shanxi%山西LNG重卡物流运输企业发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, in light of the great significance of the LNG heavy truck for the logistics transportation enterprises in Shanxi and for the economic development of the country, we analyzed the current status of the logistics transportation enterprises relying on LNG trucks in Shanxi, pointed out the problems such as lack of overall planning, unclear positioning and backward management, etc., and presented the measures to ensure the healthy development of these enterprises.%基于液化天然气(LNG)重卡对山西物流运输企业乃至山西、全国经济发展的重要作用,分析了山西LNG重卡物流运输企业发展的现状,指出其存在欠缺规则、定位不清、管理落后等一系列问题,由此而提出了加快山西LNG重卡物流运输企业健康发展的主要措施.

  12. Plutonium transport for the oxide form. Air and road accidentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to define the probability of accident that can be applied to a packaging for plutonium oxide transport. The analysis is designed essentially for packagings of few tons with impact resistance corresponding to a speed of 10 m/s but can be used for packagings with a resistance corresponding to IAEA tests. This work is based on analysis and processing of 2 accident files: one on road accidents, the other on air accidents. Computer codes are developed, from one hand, to obtain stress indicator distribution by Monte Carlo methods and on the other hand to link these distributions to itinerary parameters. Previous similar studies are examined and compared to figures obtained here and explained as far as possible

  13. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α =2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  14. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed inter-event time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law inter-arrival time distribution with an exponent $\\alpha=2.5$ and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  15. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  16. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  17. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  18. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  19. 49 CFR 230.108 - Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. 230.108 Section 230.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.108 Steam locomotive...

  20. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  1. Volvo Trucks' Customer Value Proposition

    OpenAIRE

    Storubleva, Ekaterina; Milosch, Gregor; Neumann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Title: Volvo Trucks' Customer Value Proposition Authors: Ekaterina Storubleva, Gregor Milosch, Christian Neumann Tutor: Erik Hunter Date: May 2009 Keywords: Volvo Truck Corporation, truck industry, customer value, value drivers, retail strategy, communication, relationship marketing Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the general composition of Volvo Trucks' customer value proposition in Europe and to examine possible ways of enhancing it using Volvo's retailing strategy as a t...

  2. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  3. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. 119.53 Section 119.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  4. 78 FR 15664 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Rule (CAIR), 70 FR 25172 (May 12, 2005); and Transport Rule or Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, 76 FR... our July 30, 2012 proposal for Arizona regarding interstate transport for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS (77 FR... significant deterioration of air quality for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS (78 FR 4337). We will act on the...

  5. Identification of terms to define unconstrained air transportation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhilhau, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The factors involved in the evaluation of unconstrained air transportation systems were carefully analyzed. By definition an unconstrained system is taken to be one in which the design can employ innovative and advanced concepts no longer limited by present environmental, social, political or regulatory settings. Four principal evaluation criteria are involved: (1) service utilization, based on the operating performance characteristics as viewed by potential patrons; (2) community impacts, reflecting decisions based on the perceived impacts of the system; (3) technological feasibility, estimating what is required to reduce the system to practice; and (4) financial feasibility, predicting the ability of the concepts to attract financial support. For each of these criteria, a set of terms or descriptors was identified, which should be used in the evaluation to render it complete. It is also demonstrated that these descriptors have the following properties: (a) their interpretation may be made by different groups of evaluators; (b) their interpretations and the way they are used may depend on the stage of development of the system in which they are used; (c) in formulating the problem, all descriptors should be addressed independent of the evaluation technique selected.

  6. Study on Air-Aided Transport Means of Cutter-Suction Dredger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xiong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proves the effectiveness of air-aided transport in reducing pipeline resistance and lengthening transport distance. The adopted experimental apparatus is unique in its chosen pipes (120 mm, transmission mediums (including clean water and slurries concentrated at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively and experiment comparisons between air-aided transport and traditional relay pump transport. Factors such as resistance, transport distance and energy consumption are compared through the data from laboratory experiments, thus proving the evident advantages from air-aided transport. The total energy consumption in air-aided transport is less than that of relay pump, especially within its resistance reducing scope, where slurry flow ranges from 65m3/h to 90 m3/h. It also exists within resistance reducing scope where slurry flow of air-aided transport is less than that of relay pump transport and may reach its limited effective distance. Thus, the findings of this study can provide valuable insight for the optimization design of air-aided transport of cutter-suction dredger.

  7. IMPACT OF INFORMATION ON THE DELIVERY OF CARGO WITH AIR TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Габріелова, Т.Ю.; National Aviation University; Войцеховський, В.С.; National Aviation University

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the impact of informatization on the process of cargo delivery involving air transport under conditions of competitive environment dynamic development have been considered. Information products providing uploading capacity on an extensive air route network were analysed. The role of international mediation bodies for financial settlements between participants of air transportation process was determined. Basic aspects of the pricing control depending on the condition of fligh...

  8. Air Passenger Transport In The APEC: Regulatory Impacts and Prospects for Asia Pacific Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Grosso, Massimo Geloso

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at assessing the prospects for a more liberal air passenger transport regime in the Asia Pacific region under the auspices of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The decades-old bilateral air services regime has been under pressure to reform for several years. Notwithstanding the critical role that international air transport plays in the ongoing integration of Asia Pacific economies, the airline industry remains one of the region’s most heavily regulated. Estimates ...

  9. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, J.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Wakeman, B.H. [Virginia Electric and Power Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel.

  10. ELECTROHYDRODYNAMIC ENHANCED TRANSPORT AND TRAPPING OF AIRBORNE PARTICLES TO A MICROFLUIDIC AIR-LIQUID INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Niklas; Frisk, Thomas; Stemme, Göran; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for greatly improved transport and trapping of airborne sample to a microfluidic analysis system by integrating an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) air pump with a microfluidic air-liquid interface. In our system, a negative corona discharge partially ionizes the air around a sharp electrode tip while the electrostatic field accelerates airborne particles towards an electrically grounded liquid surface, where they absorb. The air-liquid interface is fixated at the micro...

  11. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  12. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  13. ESTIMATING TRUCK RATES FOR REFRIGERATED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, J. B.; Farris, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Food companies and analysts often need transportation rate data to explore market opportunities. In some cases, it may not be practical or necessary to obtain actual rates for all routes under consideration. This study provides analysis of truck rate patterns and alternative rate-estimating equations. The original objective was to provide shipping cost estimates for a national beef-marketing model involving 30 regions of the United States. The data set is 254 rates for refrigerated shipments ...

  14. Assessing the Benefits of Intelligent Truck Parking

    OpenAIRE

    Sochor, Jana; Mbiydzenyuy, Gideon; Larsson, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and provide a discussion about aspects related to benefits of Intelligent Truck Parking (ITP) for Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) and their effects on different stakeholders. Most existing work has narrowly focused on benefits for private cars and does not include the user perspective. In this paper, a review of previous work helps identify benefit areas and stakeholder groups relevant for HGV transport. These benefit areas are then theoretically assessed and ...

  15. Do more trucks lead to more motor vehicle fatalities in European roads? Evaluating the impact of specific safety strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; José I. Castillo-Manzano; Fageda, Xavier, 1975-

    2015-01-01

    Truck operations have recently become an important focus of academic research not only because road freight transport is a key part of logistics, but because trucks are usually associated with negative externalities including pollution, congestion and traffic accidents. While the negative environmental impacts of truck activities have been extensively analyzed, comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of trucks in road accidents. A review of the literature identifies various t...

  16. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  17. Cabin environment and air quality in civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    The cabin environment of a commercial aircraft, including cabin layout and the quality of air supply, is crucial to the airline operators. These aspects directly affect the passengers’ experience and willing to travel. This aim of this thesis is to design the cabin layout for flying wing aircraft as part of cabin environment work, followed by the air quality work, which is to understand what effect the ECS can have in terms of cabin air contamination. The project, initially, focuses on the...

  18. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: Taking off on an exciting journey into Air Transport Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM. JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, project management, quality, as well as regional development, economics, organizational behaviour, finance and accounting in air transport research.

  19. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  20. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  1. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  2. RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION BY AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN THE STREETS OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhneva, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of the atmospheric air of residential area roadside territory at functioning of motor transport are presented. Architectural and planning activities to improve the environmental performance of the local area of Kharkiv are offered.

  3. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: taking off on an exciting journey into air transport research

    OpenAIRE

    David Gonzalez-Prieto; Oriol Lordan; Jose M Sallan; Pep Simo; Mihaela Enache; Vicenc Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM). JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to) air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, pro...

  4. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  5. Transport parameters and breakdown voltage characteristics of the dry air and its constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains measured breakdown voltage curves and calculated transport parameters for the dry air and gases included in the air composition. The breakdown voltage curves exhibit U-shaped form for the interelectrode separation of 100 μm and departure from the standard Paschen law for a few micrometers gap sizes. The results of calculations provide an insight into similarities and differences between the transport parameters for individual gases and the gas mixture.

  6. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may... implementing section 710 of AIR-21. See 68 FR 47798. The rule required air carriers that provide scheduled... regulations. See 70 FR 7392. The rule is codified at 14 CFR 234.13. Section 234.13 requires air carriers...

  7. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  8. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  9. Fill That Truck | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feds Feed Families is a federal workforce initiative to fight hunger in our local communities. This year’s campaign began on June 13 and will continue until the end of August. After collecting approximately 550 pounds of food each of the last two years, NCI at Frederick is making a push to collect even more this summer. On June 29, during Take Your Child to Work Day, a 10-foot truck will be parked in the hub area along Chandler Street and Wood Street.

  10. New principle of organization of working process of air conditioning systems at railway and sea transport

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey KRAJNIUK; Aleksander KRAJNIUK

    2008-01-01

    An indispensable component of ensuring safe control of railway and sea transport in conditions of hot climate is maintenance of comfortable temperature of air in control cabins and living spaces. Now the interest is restored to use the Air Refrigerating Plants (ARP) as they have a wide potential of low-temperature cooling without use of ozone-destructive cooling agents prohibited by decision of the Montreal meeting. At the same time, air conditioning installations on the basis of turbo-expand...

  11. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NOx emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  12. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition...... operations are becoming available. The use of advanced planning and recovery methods in the railway industry currently gains momentum. The current paper gives a short overview over the methods used for planning and disruption management in the airline industry. The situation regarding railway optimization...

  13. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  14. Air gap membrane distillation: 1. Modelling and mass transport properties for hollow fibre membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, C.M.; Meindersma, G.W.; Reith, T.; Haan, de A.B.

    2005-01-01

    A predictive model for air gap membrane distillation in a counter current flow configuration using fibre membranes is presented. The water vapour transport across the membrane is described by the dusty-gas model that uses constant membrane mass transport parameters to describe simultaneous Knudsen d

  15. 10 CFR 71.74 - Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. 71.74 Section 71.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE... plutonium. (a) Test conditions—Sequence of tests. A package must be physically tested to the...

  16. Ministerial Order of 22 August 1957 on the transport of dangerous materials by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order provides for the conditions of transport of dangerous materials by air. Materials regarded as dangerous to handle or transport by aircraft from a safety or health standpoint may possibly not be accepted, or only accepted under certain conditions. These materials include radioactive materials in Class IV(b). (NEA)

  17. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  18. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  19. Self-supporting refrigerated truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Winter, S.E.E.; Brouwer, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Self-supporting refrigerated truck comprising a floor, two side walls, a front bulkhead and a roof. The components are all constructed as sandwich panels. The connection between the rear axle construction of the refrigerated truck and the front is not provided with longitudinal beams. The function o

  20. [Analyses of work-relatedness of health problems among truck drivers by questionnaire survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, S; Yasuda, N; Sugihara, Y; Ohara, H; Udo, H; Otani, T; Hisashige, A; Ogawa, T; Aoyama, H

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate occupational risk factors for health problems among truck drivers, a questionnaire survey of working conditions, job content in truck transportation, subjective symptoms and present illnesses was carried out among 541 truck transportation workers in 1997. The valid response rate was 85.7%, and 134 local truck drivers, 199 long-distance truck drivers and 71 clerical workers were analyzed. First, to examine occupational risk factors and health problems among the three groups, the authors analyzed working conditions, job content in truck transportation, subjective symptoms and present illnesses. Second, to estimate the work-relatedness of health problems among local truck drivers and long-distance truck drivers, logistic regression analyses were conducted, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. The prevalence rates of working factors affecting health problems of truck drivers were significantly higher than those of clerical workers in the items on irregular shift work, working environment, working posture, handling heavy materials, job stress due to overloading and long working time and limited time off. The prevalence rates for subjective symptoms (ringing in the ears, neck pain and low back pain) and present illnesses (hypertension, ulcers in the digestive tract, back injuries, whiplash injuries and hemorrhoids) among truck drivers were significantly higher than those of clerical workers. In logistic regression analyses, many work-related items except age, BMI and smoking habit showed significantly higher odds ratios for subjective symptoms and present illnesses of truck drivers. Odds ratios for hypertension, heart diseases and related subjective symptoms among local truck drivers were significantly increased by job career, twisting posture, vibration and driving stress. Odds ratios for gastro-duodenal diseases and related subjective symptoms were significantly increased by narrow working space, sleeping in the truck

  1. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  2. 78 FR 59880 - Enhanced Consumer Protections for Charter Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may... carrier that contracted with the charter customer learns of the change. A ``reasonable'' time would be... and other similarly situated air charter brokers from the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 41101...

  3. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  4. Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffery Birkel

    2007-12-31

    geartrain of the engine yields efficiency improvements for the engine while freeing those accessories to perform at their individual peak efficiencies to meet instantaneous demand. The net result is a systems approach to fuel usage optimization. Unique control algorithms were specifically developed to capitalize on the flexibility afforded by the TEPS architecture. Moreover, the TEPS truck technology mixture exhibits a means to supplant current accessory power sources such as on-board or trailer-mounted gasoline-powered generators or air compressors. Such functionality further enhances the value of the electric systems beyond the fuel savings alone. To demonstrate the fuel economy improvement wrought via the TEPS components, vehicle fuel economy testing was performed on the nearly stock (baseline) truck and the TEPS truck. Table 1 illustrates the fuel economy gains produced by the TEPS truck electrification. While the fuel economy results shown in Table 1 do reflect specific test conditions, they show that electrification of accessory hardware can yield significant fuel savings. In this case, the savings equated to a 15 percent reduction in fuel consumption during controlled on-road testing. Truck electrification allows engine shutdown during idle conditions as well as independent on-demand actuation of accessory systems. In some cases, independent actuation may even include lack of operation, a feature not always present in mechanically driven components. This combination of attributes allows significant improvements in system efficiency and the fuel economy improvements demonstrated by the TEPS team.

  5. 49 CFR 1242.44 - Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service) (accounts XX-23-43 and XX-23-44). 1242.44 Section 1242.44... Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service) (accounts...

  6. Strategy of Competitive Forces in the Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Utureanu Simona-Luize

    2013-01-01

    The aviation industry plays an important role for their customers and for the economy in general. However, the value created by the airline companies does not reflect in the company's profitability. Nevertheless, the demand for airline transport services will continue to increase, especially in the developing economies. This will require the substitution and the extension of the existing capacity.

  7. Energy consumption and air emissions from domestic transport; Energiforbruk og utslipp til luft fra innenlandsk transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutain, Jun Elin Wiik; Taarneby, Gaute; Selvig, Eivind

    2008-07-01

    Energy for transport purposes account for a growing proportion of our total energy consumption. The increased transport of both people and goods is a consequence of prosperity development in Norway. We travel more, both privately and at work, and good purchasing power means that more goods must be transported from production site to the users' site. In 2006 the energy used to transport was more than a quarter of the total Norwegian energy consumption. (AG)

  8. Fleet servicing facilities for servicing, maintaining, and testing rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems: functional requirements, technical design concepts and options cost estimates and comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a resource document which examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of a Fleet Servicing Facility (FSF). Such a facility is intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the United States' waste handling plants presently receiving radioactive wastes have an on-site FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the system is placed into service. Thus, a need is indicated for FSF's, or their equivalent, at various radioactive materials receiving sites. In this report, three forms of FSF's solely for spent fuel transport systems were examined: independent, integrated, and colocated. The independent concept was already the subject of a detailed report and is extensively referenced in this document so that capital cost comparisons of the three concepts could be made. These facilities probably could service high-level, intermediate-level, low-level, or other waste transportation systems with minor modification, but this study did not include any system other than spent fuel. Both the Integrated and Colocated concepts were assumed to be associated with some radioactive materials handling facility such as an AFR repository

  9. Modeling the impact of air transport on the economy - practices, problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Huderek-Glapska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of measuring the contribution of air transport to the regional economy is very important nowadays since many airport infrastructure projects are being implemented, using available European Union funds. As a result of growing transport needs and increasing incomes among the population, the air transport market is strongly developing.  This development results to many direct and indirect socio-economic benefits to locations in close proximity of an airport but also in the whole economy. The measurement of these benefits is important because the decisions made with respect to air transport influence local and regional economic performance. The most commonly used tool for measuring the positive effects associated with the operation of an airport is the input-output analysis. The aim of the article is to present the characteristics of the input-output method, to indicate its applications in Poland - the country with the most dynamic growth of air transport, to present the possible limitations of this method and propose improvements. Methods: The method used in this research is one that measures the effects of changes in the economy as a result of air transport activity. Particular input-output analysis is used. Results: On the background of the results of modeling the impact of polish airport on regional economy in 2009 the updated analysis in 2012 is provided. The economic impacts of Krakow, Katowice, Wroclaw and Szczecin airports are estimated. Then the limitations of input-output method are presented and suggestions of possible improvements are made. Comments: Proper measurement of the impact of airport's operation and investment on the economy, leads to more effective air transport policy development. For future research, the advanced input-output method to assess the positive impact of airports on regional development is recommended. However, a comprehensive assessment of the operation and expansion of airport

  10. A Simulation Testbed for Dynamic Air Corridors within the Next Generation Air Transportation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for identifying dynamic air corridors that can increase aircraft throughput in and...

  11. 48 CFR 47.305-6 - Shipments to ports and air terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... can be loaded in a car, truck, or other conveyance of the size normally used (specify type and size... remote from the port that normally serves the overseas destination to be competitive as far as... Transportation Control Movement Document (TCMD) must be dispatched to the appropriate DOD air or water...

  12. On the pathways and timescales of intercontinental air pollution transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Andreas; Eckhardt, Sabine; Forster, Caroline; James, Paul; Spichtinger, Nicole

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents results of a 1-year simulation of the transport of six passive tracers, released over the continents according to an emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Lagrangian concepts are introduced to derive age spectra of the tracer concentrations on a global grid in order to determine the timescales and pathways of pollution export from the continents. Calculating these age spectra is equivalent to simulating many (quasi continuous) plumes, each starting at a different time, which are subsequently merged. Movies of the tracer dispersion have been made available on an Internet website. It is found that emissions from Asia experience the fastest vertical transport, whereas European emissions have the strongest tendency to remain in the lower troposphere. European emissions are transported primarily into the Arctic and appear to be the major contributor to the Arctic haze problem. Tracers from an upwind continent first arrive over a receptor continent in the upper troposphere, typically after some 4 days. Only later foreign tracers also arrive in the lower troposphere. Assuming a 2-day lifetime, the domestic tracers dominate total tracer columns over all continents except over Australia where foreign tracers account for 20% of the tracer mass. In contrast, for a 20-day lifetime even continents with high domestic emissions receive more than half of their tracer burden from foreign continents. Three special regions were identified where tracers are transported to, and tracer dilution is slow. Future field studies therefore should be deployed in the following regions: (1) In the winter, the Asia tracer accumulates over Indonesia and the Indian Ocean, a region speculated to be a stratospheric fountain. (2) In the summer, the highest concentrations of the Asia tracer are found in the Middle East. (3) In the summer, the highest concentrations of the North America tracer are found in the Mediterranean.

  13. Computational modelling of contaminant transport in indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X.; McLaughlin, J.B. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ahmadi, G. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) based calculations were used to investigate aerosol trajectories in turbulent flows through small-scale models of rooms. The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of using coarse spatial resolution simulations to obtain results for statistical quantities such as the rate of deposition of particles on a given surface. The study focused on low Reynolds number results for a model room with a displacement ventilation system. The ultimate fate of aerosol particles entering the room through the inlet vents was investigated. The lattice-Boltzmann method was used to perform DNS of the flow of the room, in which a random stirring force was used to create free-stream turbulence. Particle trajectories were calculated from the fluid velocity fields through the numerical integration of a particle equation of motion in time, which included drag and gravity. The simulations were based on a 1-way coupling approximation, in which the effects of the particles on the air velocity field were neglected. It was concluded that the approximation was appropriate for the low mass readings and small particle sizes relevant for simulations of indoor air pollution.

  14. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-11-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis.

  15. Economic conditions of technical changes in world civil air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world economic environment of the turn of the century produced many new challenges to civil aviation in expectation of a continued growth in the transportation of passengers and cargo. To meet this growing demand, it will be necessary to increase the fleet and to modernise infrastructure – a process hampered by finances and capacity constraints.Such constraints are especially pressing with regard to the acquisition of new types of large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 and 747-8. Future dominance of the market is, however, difficult to predict, as this will be the outcome of a combination of uncertain parameters.

  16. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alternative Motor Fuel Act of 1988 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate and evaluate alternative fuels usage in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel and diesel fuel trucks. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel trucks being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel trucks servings as controls within the same fleets. This report highlights the start-up experience and presents the lessons learned from a project that operated a fleet of liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuse haulers in Washington, Pennsylvania

  17. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  18. Air leakage in refrigerated vans. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Air Leakage in Refrigerated Vans Project was initiated by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of air leakage on fuel consumption of highway transport refrigeration equipment. The project, conducted from September of 1977 to December of 1978 collected air leakage data on refrigerated trailers, containers and truck bodies. A Prototype Air Leakage Test Set was developed, designed and constructed to take measurements, and a total of 92 representative vehicles were examined. The results of the study indicate that air leakage causes a 25% increase in the average refrigeration load. However, the majority of transport refrigeration units are equipped with control systems that require the power to be supplied continuously, so that the potential reduction in fuel consumption that can be expected by reduced air leakage is limited. Alternative control techniques and power sources for the control and operation of refrigeration unit components other than the compressor could reduce fuel consumption by approximately 60%.

  19. Evolution of demand for leisure air transport in 2025, Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    Laplace, Isabelle; Lenoir, Nathalie; Cassan, Christine

    2007-01-01

    http://www.eurocontrol.int/eec/gallery/content/public/document/eec/report/2007/011_Evolution_of_demand_for_leisure_air_transport_in_2025.pdf EEC Note N°12/07 The purpose of the DEMAND 2025 study is to explore what can be assumed today about the main features of the demand for leisure air transport in 2025 ? leisure meaning all travel purposes except business, i.e. when the expense is a discretionary choice. An original methodology has been devoted to the study, and applied to the case o...

  20. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  1. The stakes of air pollution in the transport sector, from the French case

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, R

    2005-01-01

    The main pollutants are listed for today and the future according to the progression of air quality,as measured in France and in the European Union during the 1990s,the progression of pollutant emissions of road transport in France,as calculated for the period 1970-2020,and the progression of public concern regarding air pollution and environment. These pollutants are headed by carbon dioxide,followed by nitrogen oxides and fine particulates. The stakes in terms of technology and transport su...

  2. 886起危险品罐式车辆道路运输事故统计分析研究%Statistical analysis on 886 road HAZMAT transportation accidents by the tank truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小燕; 李小楠; 谢培; 谢陈江

    2012-01-01

    For mastering the general features and laws of the road hazmat transportation accidents by tank truck, 886 transportation accidents occurred in China involving the hazmat tank truck were analyzed from the time of occurrence, location of accident, accident forms (e. G. , single-vehicle accident, collision between vehicles, collision with rigid barrier), the type of road (grade, curve, etc. ), the accident cause and so on. The results showed that 38. 1% of the total accidents occurred at the East China Area, 11. 6% of which were taken place in Zhejiang province; 82. 8% of the total accidents were caused by the traffic accident, of which, 44. 1% were the single-vehicle accidents, 38.1% were collision accidents; Moreover, 9. 1% of the remainder( 17. 2% ) were caused by the leaking from the tank-body and accessories, and the valve failure; As for the accident form, about 23. 6% were single-vehicle overturning ,followed by run-off-road accidents (14. 3% ) , and then the rear-end collision between two vehicles( 12. 0% ) ; 60% of total accidents occurred at high-grade highway and 20% in urban road; 67% of the total accidents were caused by personal factors including drivers and supercargos, etc. The results can provide data support for the accident prevention and related transportation security technology, and decision-making of the government departments including route planning and task scheduling.%为了系统掌握危险品罐式车辆道路运输事故特征及规律,统计分析了886起危险品罐车道路运输事故的发生时间、地点、形态、道路等级、路段特征及事故原因等.结果表明:38.1%的危险品罐车运输事故发生在华东地区,其中11.6%发生在浙江省;82.8%的事故由交通事故引发,其中车辆单独事故占44.1%,车辆碰撞事故占38.7%;9.1%的事故由罐体及附件泄漏和阀门失效引起;就事故形态而言,约23.6%的事故为单方翻车,其次是冲出路外(14.3

  3. Sexual behavior among truck drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Kumar Singh; Hari Shankar Joshi

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, ...

  4. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  5. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  6. Transportation loads with air versus leaf spring suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T.A.; Weinacht, D.J.; Tafoya, J.I.

    1988-06-01

    Data acquisition equipment was installed on a heavily loaded drop- platform trailer. Accelerations were recorded at various locations on the trailer during a trip from Los Alamos to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Road conditions varied from paved primary and secondary highways to very rough crushed rock roads at NTS. Data for transient events, such as railroad crossings and bridges, were also recorded. Descriptions of the tractor/trailer configuration, instrumentation, and data analysis techniques are presented. Reduced data are presented in the form of power spectral density plots and response spectra (shock spectra) plots. Finally, recommended load factors for use in designing payloads that are to be transported on heavily loaded trailers are discussed.

  7. 03. Disruption Management in PassengerTransportation - from Air to Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular traffic around and in all larger cities of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportatio...

  8. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  9. 78 FR 26106 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ..., April 24, 2013, in the FR Doc. 2013-09691, on page 24295 in Table 2, correct Table 2, line one, column H... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions...

  10. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  11. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Ciprofloxacin Is Actively Transported across Bronchial Lung Epithelial Cells Using a Calu-3 Air Interface Cell Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Hui Xin; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a well-established broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic that penetrates well into the lung tissues; still, the mechanisms of its transepithelial transport are unknown. The contributions of specific transporters, including multidrug efflux transporters, organic cation transporters, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide transporters, to the uptake of ciprofloxacin were investigated in vitro using an air interface bronchial epithelial model. Our results demonstrate tha...

  13. The risk of injury to children in compact pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Flaura K; Durbin, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Nearly one million compact pickup trucks were sold last year in the US. Manufacturers now produce extended-cab models of pickups such as the Ford Ranger, Chevrolet S-10, Dodge Dakota, and Toyota Tacoma that can accommodate at least two rear-seated passengers, making them attractive to families with children. However, the safety of these rear seats for children has not been determined. This Issue Brief summarizes a new study that examines and quantifies the risk of injury to children riding in compact pickup trucks. Based on these findings, parents should be advised against using these vehicles as family transportation. PMID:12528740

  14. Hazardous materials transportation. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the transportation of hazardous chemicals, gases, explosives, and spent nuclear fuel. Liquefied natural gas transportation is emphasized. Tanker ships, containers, and pipelines for these materials are discussed along with truck, rail, air, and submarine transportation. Safety programs and routing information are presented. Hazards specific to arctic shipping are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting AGENCY... the 9th day of September 2010. John Augustine, Managing Director, ITS Joint Program Office....

  16. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.;

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  17. Agent-based modeling and simulation of emergent behavior in air transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, S.; Blom, H.A.P.; Curran, R.; Everdij, M.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Commercial aviation is feasible thanks to the complex socio-technical air transportation system, which involves interactions between human operators, technical systems, and procedures. In view of the expected growth in commercial aviation, significant changes in this socio-technical system a

  18. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  19. A model for the estimation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport. It is based on the estimation of energy consumption from a matirx describing the distribution of speeds and accelerations for operation. It is shown that calculations can be performed on...... on energy consumption and emissions....

  20. Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation of Safety and Resilience in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In order to improve the safety, capacity, economy, and sustainability of air transportation, revolutionary changes are required. These changes might range from the introduction of new technology and operational procedures to unprecedented roles of human operators and the way they interact.

  1. In the wake of liberalisation: long-term developments in the EU air transport market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; J.G. de Wit

    2015-01-01

    Using a 24-year analysis period (1990-2013), a new perspective is offered on long-term first- and second-order developments following liberalisation of the intra-EU air transport market. The focus of the analysis is on supply-side issues, such as airline output, structure of supply, yields, business

  2. Connectivity in air transport networks: an assessment of models and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; R. Redondi

    2013-01-01

    This paper classifies and compares eight different connectivity models employed in air transport literature and applies them to European airports. Traditional size-based measures tend to underestimate the accessibility of small airports and overestimate the centrality of large airports. Small airpor

  3. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  4. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket formation in downward-sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pocket accumulation causes energy losses a...

  5. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  6. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Environmental and Air Quality Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Emissions and air pollution modeling, Vehicle energy and power analysis, Climate change impact studies, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  7. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  8. Development of a control system for automated cab roof deflectors for articulated trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Berkenbusch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of emissions from the global transport industry on the environment have become increasingly apparent, with significant emphasis placed on their reduction through various initiatives. In the UK, Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV’s) are used to transport 68 % of all goods. The majority of trucks are articulated (Truck and Trailer) – rather than rigid vehicles. Surveys show that within the UK in 2014, HGV’s travelled approximately 18,769 million kilometres (1). The CO2 emissions from...

  9. Feasibility of Remote Ischemic Peri-conditioning during Air Medical Transport of STEMI Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Wayne, Max; Guyette, Francis X; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Toma, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic peri-conditioning (RIPC) has gained interest as a means of reducing ischemic injury in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are undergoing emergent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, process, and patient-related factors related to the delivery of RIPC during air medical transport of STEMI patients to tertiary pPCI centers. We performed a retrospective review of procedural outcomes of a cohort of STEMI patients who received RIPC as part of a clinical protocol in a multi-state air medical service over 16 months (March 2013 to June 2014). Eligible patients were transported to two tertiary PCI centers and received up to four cycles of RIPC by inflating a blood pressure cuff on an upper arm to 200 mmHg for 5 minutes and subsequently deflating the cuff for 5 minutes. Data regarding feasibility, process variables, patient comfort, and occurrence of hypotension were obtained from prehospital records and prospectively completed quality improvement surveys. The primary outcome was whether at least 3 cycles of RIPC were completed by air medical transport crews prior to pPCI. Secondary outcomes included the number of cycles completed prior to pPCI, time spent with the patient prior to transport (bedside time), patient discomfort level, and incidence of hypotension (systolic blood pressure air medical transport for pPCI, without occurrence of prolonged bedside times. The incidence of excessive RIPC-related discomfort or hemodynamic instability is rare. STEMI patients requiring on average >30 minutes transport for pPCI may be the ideal group for RIPC utilization.

  10. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Nadine E; Strathdee Steffanie A; Uribe-Salas Felipe J; Patterson Thomas L; Rangel Maria; Rosen Perth; Brouwer Kimberly C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSW) are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation cor...

  11. Evaluation of a prototype air transport system for use in a crate handling and size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes in detail the design features and evaluation, under simulated active conditions, of a purpose designed remotely operated air transporter system. The paper concludes by recommending that an air transporter, based on this concept, is considered for the alpha active facility. (author)

  12. Evaluation of a prototype air transport system for use in a crate handling and size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design features and evaluation, under simulated active conditions, of a purpose designed remotely operated air transporter system. The paper concludes by recommending that an air transporter, based on this concept, is considered for the alpha active facility. (author)

  13. Peroxy radicals and ozone photochemistry in air masses undergoing long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Parker

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of peroxy radicals (HO2iRiO2 in addition to other trace gases were measured onboard the UK Meteorological Office/Natural Environment Research Council British Aerospace 146-300 atmospheric research aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors (ITOP campaign based at Horta Airport, Faial, Azores (38.58° N, 28.72° W in July/August 2004. The overall peroxy radical altitude profile displays an increase with altitude that is likely to have been impacted by the effects of long-range transport. The peroxy radical altitude profile for air classified as of marine origin shows no discernable altitude profile. A range of air-masses were intercepted with varying source signatures, including those with aged American and Asian signatures, air-masses of biomass burning origin, and those that originated from the east coast of the United States. Enhanced peroxy radical concentrations have been observed within this range of air-masses indicating that long-range transported air-masses traversing the Atlantic show significant photochemical activity. The net ozone production at clear sky limit is in general negative, and as such the summer mid-Atlantic troposphere is at limit net ozone destructive. However, there is clear evidence of positive ozone production even at clear sky limit within air masses undergoing long-range transport, and during ITOP especially between 5 and 5.5 km, which in the main corresponds to a flight that extensively sampled air with a biomass burning signature. Ozone production was NOx limited throughout ITOP, as evidenced by a good correlation (r2=0.72 between P(O3 and NO. Strong positive net ozone production has also been seen in varying source signature air-masses undergoing long-range transport, including but not limited to low-level export events, and export from the east coast of the United States.

  14. WETAIR: A computer code for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of air-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, WETAIR, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of air water mixtures. It determines the thermodynamic state from assigned values of temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy. The WETAIR calculates the properties of dry air and water (steam) by interpolating to obtain values from property tables. Then it uses simple mixing laws to calculate the properties of air water mixtures. Properties of mixtures with water contents below 40 percent (by mass) can be calculated at temperatures from 273.2 to 1497 K and pressures to 450 MN/sq m. Dry air properties can be calculated at temperatures as low as 150 K. Water properties can be calculated at temperatures to 1747 K and pressures to 100 MN/sq m. The WETAIR is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  15. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Nakamura, Nanami; Larsen, Rainer Rye

    2015-01-01

    discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared...... narratives by moving the objects around, they name them to handle the complexity, they experience what happens in the video through their hands, and they use the video together with objects to create alternative narratives, and thus alternative solutions to the problems they observe. In this paper we claim...... that when analysing for instance truck drivers’ practices, the use of toy trucks to replicate actions in scale helps participants engage experiential knowledge as they use their body to make sense of the on-going action....

  16. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of Heavy Duty Truck Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad O. Moaaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy duty vehicle plays a more important role in highway transportation. The major focus in the truck manufacturing industries is design of truck chassis with more pay load capacity and possible less weight. An important aspect of chassis’ design and analysis is the stress distribution and fatigue life of prediction process. Fatigue is one of the most important parameters to consider when designing truck components. The components are typically subjected to dynamic loads when in service. In this paper, an effort is made to review the investigations that have been made on the different fatigue analysis techniques of heavy duty truck frames. A number of analytical and numerical techniques are available for the fatigue analysis of the heavy duty truck frames has been reported in literature.

  17. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert; Lock, Grahm;

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of commer......This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database...... changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA...... with a view to this purpose, are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission calculations for bulk carriers entering the port of Helsinki, as an example of the database operation, and aggregate results for different types...

  18. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes an

  19. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  20. Hospital survival upon discharge of ill-neonates transported by ground or air ambulance to a tertiary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Alvarado-Socarras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the differences in hospital survival between modes of transport to a tertiary center in Colombia for critically ill neonates. Methods: Observational study of seriously ill neonates transported via air or ground, who required medical care at a center providing highly complex services. Data on sociodemographic, clinical, the Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS, and mode of transport were collected. Patients were described, followed by a bivariate analysis with condition (live or dead at time of discharge as the dependent variable. A multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was used to adjust associations. Results: A total of 176 neonates were transported by ambulance (10.22% by air over six months. The transport distances were longer by air (median: 237.5 km than by ground (median: 11.3 km. Mortality was higher among neonates transported by air (33.33% than by ground (7.79%. No differences in survival were found between the two groups when adjusted by the multiple model. An interaction between mode of transport and distance was observed. Live hospital discharge was found to be associated with clinical severity upon admittance, birth weight, hemorrhaging during the third trimester, and serum potassium levels when admitted. Conclusions: Mode of transport was not associated with the outcome. In Colombia, access to medical services through air transport is a good option for neonates in critical condition. Further studies would determine the optimum distance (time of transportation to obtain good clinical outcomes according type of ambulance.

  1. AIR TRANSPORT AS A PART OF TOURIST EVENTS – LEGAL STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław ŻUKIEWICZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reconstruct the current legal status of the air transport organized as a part of tourist events in Poland, to make systematization of the nomenclature used in the field of research and to indicate the direction of the evolution of legal norms in the context of the further development of air charter segment. The main research method was the analysis of selected legal acts; as the complementary method the analysis of some statistical data was used.

  2. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  3. Qualification criteria to certify a package for air transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes qualification criteria developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to certify a package for air transport of plutonium. Included in the document is a discussion of aircraft accident conditions and a summary of the technical basis for the qualification criteria. The criteria require prototype packages to be subjected to various individual and sequential tests that simulate the conditions produced in severe aircraft accidents. Specific post-test acceptance standards are prescribed for each of the three safety functions of a package. The qualification criteria also prescribe certain operational controls to be exercised during transport

  4. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  5. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  6. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Leshane, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The RECAT study evaluated the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of these fuel-conserving alternatives was investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000. Consequently, while the RECAT results lend insight into the directions in which technology can best be pursued for improved air transport fuel economy, no single option studied in the RECAT program is indicative of a realistic future scenario.

  7. Fuel Efficiency in Truck Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports range of activities and offer information regarding activities performed at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in order to reduce of fuel consumption in truck industry. There are six major areas investigated: Aerodynamics, Component Spec’ing, Advanced Technology, Route Management, Driver Behaviour, Proper Maintenance. New technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are also reported.

  8. Agent-based modeling and simulation of emergent behavior in air transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Bouarfa, S.; Blom, H.A.P.; Curran, R.; Everdij, M.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Commercial aviation is feasible thanks to the complex socio-technical air transportation system, which involves interactions between human operators, technical systems, and procedures. In view of the expected growth in commercial aviation, significant changes in this socio-technical system are in development both in the USA and Europe. Such a complex socio-technical system may generate various types of emergent behavior, which may range from simple emergence, through weak emergence, u...

  9. Methodology for optimal design of efficient air transport network in a competitive environment

    OpenAIRE

    Trapote Barreira, César

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to dissert about air transport network design taking into consideration the current needs about efficiency in a very competitive industry. The main focus for this work is the airline's point of view and for this reason is going to be common to talk about profitability. A methodology is proposed to analyse current networks and to introduce modifications. First, an analytical approach is proposed with the aim to understand better the interaction of key parameters in network ...

  10. Specific intangible assets in the air transportation sector: a theoretical construct for their identification and valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ilídio Tomás; Rodrigues, Ana Maria Gomes

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of intangible assets in the entire value creation process. Based on the Portuguese airlines companies, the paper presents a theoretical framework approach about intangible assets identification and valuation for the air transportation sector as a whole. It is now irrefutable that a new perspective has replaced traditional value chains, based on the linear activities alignment: the innovation cycle (recognizing specific intangibles as value key drivers on w...

  11. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moyer, Neil [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  12. An Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Hydrogen Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Sonia; Loughlin, Daniel H.; Shay, Carol; Gage, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential system-wide energy and air emissions implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H2-FCV) penetration into the U.S. light duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. The analysis uses the U.S. EPA MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) technology database and model to simultaneously consider competition among alternative technologies and fuels, with a focus on the transportation and the electric sectors. Our modeled reference case suggests that economics alone would not yiel...

  13. Bayesian model for strategic level risk assessment in continuing airthworthiness of air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakody-Arachchige, Dhanapala

    2010-01-01

    Continuing airworthiness (CAW) of aircraft is an essential pre-requisite for the safe operation of air transport. Human errors that occur in CAW organizations and processes could undermine the airworthiness and constitute a risk to flight safety. This thesis reports on a generic Bayesian model that has been designed to assess and quantify this risk. The model removes the vagueness inherent in the subjective methods of assessment of risk and its qualitative expression. Instead, relying on a...

  14. Global strategic alliances in scheduled air transport - implications for competition policy

    OpenAIRE

    Laaser, Claus-Friedrich; Sichelschmidt, Henning; Soltwedel, Rüdiger; Wolf, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    In international aviation, global strategic alliances (GSAs) have in recent years become an important form of cooperation between airlines. This cooperation has hit the antitrust nerve of the European Commission. Initially, the Commission had attempted to constrain both the market share of the major alliances in transatlantic air transport and their access to major European hubs (London and Frankfurt). The airlines maintain that they need alliances as an inevitable means to adapt to the chang...

  15. The effect of air transport on the production of goods and services

    OpenAIRE

    Sheard, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of air transport on local production in the manufacturing and service sectors. The analysis is conducted using data from the United States. These effects are important for the design of policies that aim to develop an airport or to otherwise attract airlines to operate to and from the airport. This type of policy is commonly employed by national and local governments, indeed most large commercial airports in the United States and Canada are publicly owned. Thou...

  16. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception. 325.17 Section 325.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... TRANSPORTATION § 325.17 Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route...

  17. Evolution of the airport and air transport industry in Colombia and it’s impact on the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Diaz Olariaga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article aims to describe the development and evolution of the airports and air transport industry in Colombia. During the past fifteen years Colombia has witnessed a remarkably rapid and dynamic growth in air transport. This period coincides with the establishment and continuous implementation of public policy specifically designed for the air transport sector and airports. Methodology / Approach: The evolution of air transport in Colombia is evaluated descriptively through the analysis of air transport and socio-economic historical data. The impact of public and investment policies is analyzed through a cause-effect approach. Findings: This paper describes how the air transport/airport industry in Colombia has been directly and positively affected by the implementation of public policies and other legislation, while measuring the effect and impact of this industry on the Colombian economy. Originality  / Value: This work fills a notorious deficiency in specialized literature concerning air transport in Colombia and Latin America in all its aspects and dimensions.

  18. Dynamics of Air Transport Networks: A Review from a Complex Systems Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa

    2016-01-01

    Air transport systems are highly dynamic at temporal scales from minutes to years. This dynamic behavior not only characterizes the evolution of the system but also affect the system's functioning. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms is thus fundamental in order to better design optimal air transport networks that benefits companies, passengers and the environment. In this review, we briefly present and discuss the state-of-art on time-evolving air transport networks. We distinguish the structural analysis of sequences of network snapshots, ideal for long-term network evolution (e.g. annual evolution), and temporal paths, preferred for short-term dynamics (e.g. hourly evolution). We emphasize that most previous research focused on the first modeling approach (i.e. long-term) whereas only a few studies look at high-resolution temporal paths. We conclude the review highlighting that much research remains to be done, both to apply already available methods and to develop new measures for temporal paths on ...

  19. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  20. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  1. New principle of organization of working process of air conditioning systems at railway and sea transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey KRAJNIUK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An indispensable component of ensuring safe control of railway and sea transport in conditions of hot climate is maintenance of comfortable temperature of air in control cabins and living spaces. Now the interest is restored to use the Air Refrigerating Plants (ARP as they have a wide potential of low-temperature cooling without use of ozone-destructive cooling agents prohibited by decision of the Montreal meeting. At the same time, air conditioning installations on the basis of turbo-expanders have low refrigerating factor, they are very expensive in manufacturing and require a high level of maintenance service.Alternative trend of perfection of air refrigeration units is connected with a new principle of organization of working process, based on the use as expander and compressor of aggregates of cascade exchanger of pressure (CPE. Besides of unsurpassed efficiency of exchange processes, CPE is characterized by simplicity of design and high reliability, including, due to low frequency of rotation (2000-3000 min-1 with practically absence of consumption of mechanical energy on the drive of the rotor. The attractive aspect of application of equipment of conditioning with CPE is the opportunity of organization of working process only due to thermal energy including the utilization in the heat-power installation of transport vehicle.

  2. Air transport and climate change: emissions market to demand management; Transporte aereo y cambio climatico: del mercado de emisiones a la gestion de la demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Perez, D.

    2012-11-01

    improvements in air traffic management, the efficiency gain in the search engines and alternative fuels to kerosene are the basic pillars of the strategy to address the environmental consequences of air transport. however the technological innovations that aim by themselves can hardly reduce sector emissions to the numbers required for an effective fight against climate change. (Author) 32 refs.

  3. Transport sector strategies and their impact on the air quality and on greenhouse gasses; Estrategias del sector del transporte y su impacto en la calidad del aire y en los gases de efecto invernadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Portillo Jimenez-Landi, A.

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector plays on essential role in our society, but generates non desired effects on the air quality as well on climate change. This is the reason why the transport and the environment governmental actions are crucial to mitigate them. In this article we introduced the most important resources and regulations to control and to evaluate the air quality and emissions, and also the most relevant objectives in transport actions to reduce them, not only in Spain but also in the European Union. We discuss herein their compliance degree and their effectiveness in relation with the transport emissions evolution during 1990-2006 in spain. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Technical documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the design of the NTACS are described in this document.

  5. Fatal incidents involving pickup trucks in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, G B; King, W; Bolton, A; Fine, P R

    1991-03-01

    Death or injury resulting from crashes involving light trucks (ie, pickup trucks) is a significant problem. Data show that fatal crashes and occupant fatalities involving light trucks have steadily increased since 1983. This project describes vehicle crashes involving passengers riding in the beds of pickup trucks. Actual crashes were identified through the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The 40 incidents studied involved 204 pickup truck passengers. Of these, 45 were killed, 107 sustained visible injuries or were carried from the scene, 6 had bruises and abrasions, and 2 had no visible injury but were briefly unconscious or had a documented complaint of pain. The risk of death among pickup truck passengers who were fully ejected from the vehicle was nearly six times that of passengers not fully ejected. Correspondingly, the risk of ejection from the truck was 26.7 times greater among occupants riding in the bed than occupants riding in the cab. PMID:2000522

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  7. Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim; Kovar, O.;

    2003-01-01

    The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement...... quality with personalized and mixing ventilation was higher or at least similar compared to mixing ventilation alone. In the case of PV combined with displacement ventilation, the interaction caused mixing of the room air, an increase in the transport of bioeffluents and exhaled air between occupants and......, at low flow rates of personalized air a decrease in the quality of the inhaled air compared to displacement ventilation alone. The PV system supplying air against the face improved the ventilation efficiency in regard to the floor pollution up to 20 times and up to 13 times in regard to bioeffluents...

  8. Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.

    2009-10-01

    A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.

  9. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  10. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  11. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  12. Analysis of major trends in U.S. commercial trucking, 1977-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D .J.; Vyas, A. D.

    2009-06-10

    This report focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002) and intermediate-range (1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends. The primary sources of data for this period were the U.S. Bureau of the Census Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey and Truck Inventory and Use Survey. In addition, selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration and from the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration's Highway Statistics were used. The report analyzes (1) overall gasoline and diesel fuel consumption patterns by passenger vehicles and trucks and (2) the population changes and fuels used by all commercial truck classes by selected truck type (single unit or combination), during specified time periods, with cargo-hauling commercial trucks given special emphasis. It also assesses trends in selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-mile traveled, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption. In addition, the report examines long-range trends for related factors (e.g., long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes. It identifies the effects of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption. The report also discusses basic engineering design and performance, national legislation on interstate highway construction, national demographic trends (e.g., suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operations requirements, and it highlights their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry.

  13. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  14. North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, G.B.; Venter, W. D. F.; Lange, J.M.A.; H. Rees; Hankins, C

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 count >350 cells/ μ L) have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate "real world" programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and co...

  15. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  16. Developing Chinese Heavy Truck Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Strong economic recovery=Great opportunity in heavy trucks Based on the four trillion investment expansionary fiscal policy and the loose monetary policy,China's economy is stimulated.Meanwhile,the CITIC Securities Research Dept.estimated that the economic growth will be better than expected in 2009 and 2010.Macro-economic expectations continue to improve and the fix-asset investment growth rate hit a new high level of the recent five years.

  17. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzón, Andrés; Guerrero, María-José

    2004-12-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use. PMID:15504528

  18. Sexual behavior among truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6% drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8% were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8% who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW, 146 (83.9% used a condom. 38 (12.8% visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  19. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komppula

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In eastern air masses almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in western air masses most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The value of condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the organic vapours

  20. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komppula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the

  1. Liberalism in foreign trade versus liberalism in air transportation - is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancay Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a statistically significant link between regulation of international civil aviation and protectionism against foreign trade. We use weighted air liberalization index (WALI as a proxy for the level of regulation in a country’s foreign aviation relations; trade tariff restrictiveness index (TTRI and overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI as proxies for the level of protectionism in a country’s foreign trade. Correlation analysis shows that there is no statistically significant link between the indicators. Hence, our research confirms the view that air transportation is a specific sector and it is subject to a different kind of policies than trade in goods. We also demonstrate that large high-income countries tend to have a more liberal approach to international civil aviation than small low-income countries.

  2. The impact of energy, transport, and trade on air pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, J.P.H.; Casas, I.; He, C.F. [SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology

    2006-09-15

    A team of U.S.- and China-based geographers examines the relationship between China's economic development and its environment by modeling the effects of energy, transport, and trade on local air pollution emissions (sulfur dioxide and soot particulates) using the Environmental Kuznets model. Specifically, the latter model is investigated using spatial econometrics that take into account potential regional spillover effects from high-polluting neighbors. The analysis finds an inverted-U relationship for sulfur dioxide but a U-shaped curve for soot particulates. This suggests that soot particulates such as black carbon may pose a more serious environmental problem in China than sulfur dioxide.

  3. Assistive technology and passengers with special assistance needs in air transport: contributions to cabin design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Campese

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been significant growth in air transport worldwide, as well as in Brazil. However, studies have emphasized that disabled, obese, and elderly passengers face difficulties when using this means of transport. Among these difficulties, issues related to passengers’ own assistive devices, including damage, loss, or the impossibility of using during the entire flight, stand out. Therefore, the present study aims to understand the trends in assistive technology focusing on cabin design. This research is based upon literature review, interviews with manufacturers and research centers, visits to specialized trade fairs, and patent search. The results revealed a great diversity of assistive products, its trends, and an increase in their use, which affect aircraft cabin design, especially in terms of space, access, and stowage of these devices.

  4. Study of interfacial area transport and sensitivity analysis for air-water bubbly flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M.; Beus, S.G.

    2000-09-01

    The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired by the state-of-the-art miniaturized double-sensor conductivity probe in an adiabatic air-water co-current vertical test loop under atmospheric pressure condition. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of plus/minus 10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. The analysis employing the drift flux model is also performed for the data acquired. Under the given flow conditions, the distribution parameter of 1.076 yields the best fit to the data.

  5. Impact of air pollutants from surface transport sources on human health: A modeling and epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Preeti; Jain, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    This study adopted an integrated 'source-to-receptor' assessment paradigm in order to determine the effects of emissions from passenger transport on urban air quality and human health in the megacity, Delhi. The emission modeling was carried out for the base year 2007 and three alternate (ALT) policy scenarios along with a business as usual (BAU) scenario for the year 2021. An Activity-Structure-Emission Factor (ASF) framework was adapted for emission modeling, followed by a grid-wise air quality assessment using AERMOD and a health impact assessment using an epidemiological approach. It was observed that a 2021-ALT-III scenario resulted in a maximum concentration reduction of ~24%, ~42% and ~58% for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM), respectively, compared to a 2021-BAU scenario. Further, it results in significant reductions in respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, morbidity and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) by 41% and 58% on exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations when compared to the 2021-BAU scenario, respectively. In other words, a mix of proposed policy interventions namely the full-phased introduction of the Integrated Mass Transit System, fixed bus speed, stringent vehicle emission norms and a hike in parking fees for private vehicles would help in strengthening the capability of passenger transport to cater to a growing transport demand with a minimum health burden in the Delhi region. Further, the study estimated that the transport of goods would be responsible for ~5.5% additional VKT in the 2021-BAU scenario; however, it will contribute ~49% and ~55% additional NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations, respectively, in the Delhi region. Implementation of diesel particulate filters for goods vehicles in the 2021-ALT-IV-O scenario would help in the reduction of ~87% of PM2.5 concentration, compared to the 2021-BAU scenario; translating into a gain of 1267 and 505 DALY per million people from exposure to PM2.5 and NO

  6. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macropore characteristics inferred from X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, S.; Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    -porosity, suggesting that density is the main control of functional soil structure and gas and solute transport at the Silstrup site. Linking gas transport and chemical tracer experiments with X-ray CT based visualization and quantification of macro-porosity was found to be a powerful method to understand field scale...... variations in gas and solute transport properties as influenced by soil structure and density.......Soil macropores often control fluid flow and solute transport, and quantification of macropore characteristics including their variability in space and time are essential to predict soil hydraulic and hydrogeochemical functions. In this study, measurements of air and solute transport properties...

  7. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A., E-mail: ksteph@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  8. An aggregated indicator of air-pollution impacts involved by transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We intend to build a global environmental impact indicator of air pollution to assess transport infrastructures, technologies or flows. This indicator tries to be simple and transparent to facilitate its use in decision-making. The intention is for the indicator to be like the Global Warming Potential (GWP), which establishes a relationship between the emission of six greenhouse gases and the average temperature increase of the Earth. The indicator therefore allows estimating the global environmental impact of transport-generated air pollution, while simultaneously conserving the value of the environmental impact of each type of air pollution and the emission assessment. This work is based on an environmental impact typology, a set of indicators, and aggregation architecture of atmospheric pollution. The typology is established as a function of the specific and homogenous characteristics of each type of pollution in terms of pollutants, impact mechanisms, targets and environmental impacts. To ensure exhaustiveness and non-redundancy, 10 types of air pollution impact are proposed: greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, direct eco-toxicity (this type of pollution excludes greenhouse effects on nature, ozone depletion, eutrophication, acidification and photochemical pollution), eutrophication, acidification, photochemical pollution, restricted direct health effects (not taking into account welfare, and excluding the effects on health of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification and photochemical pollution), sensitive pollution (annoyance caused by odours and fumes), and degradation of common and historical man-made heritage. Indicators similar to GWP can be identified in the literature for each type of atmospheric pollution, except for the degradation of common and historical man-made heritage, for which none indicator have been suggested. However, these indicators do not seem to have achieved wide scientific consensus, except for GWP, which may make it

  9. CFD Analysis of Multi-Phase Reacting Transport Phenomena in Discharge Process of Non-Aqueous Lithium-Air Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jinliang; Yu, Jong-Sung; Sundén, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed for rechargeable non-aqueous electrolyte lithium-air batteries with a partial opening for oxygen supply to the cathode. Multi-phase transport phenomena occurred in the battery are considered, including dissolved lithium ions and oxygen gas in the liquid electrolyte, solid-phase electron transfer in the porous functional materials and liquid-phase charge transport in the electrolyte. These transport processes are coupled with the electroc...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines Subject to the Requirements of This Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Light Duty Truck Lines Subject to the Requirements of This Standard A Appendix A to Part 541 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt....

  11. A Data-Driven Air Transportation Delay Propagation Model Using Epidemic Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baspinar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In air transport network management, in addition to defining the performance behavior of the system’s components, identification of their interaction dynamics is a delicate issue in both strategic and tactical decision-making process so as to decide which elements of the system are “controlled” and how. This paper introduces a novel delay propagation model utilizing epidemic spreading process, which enables the definition of novel performance indicators and interaction rates of the elements of the air transportation network. In order to understand the behavior of the delay propagation over the network at different levels, we have constructed two different data-driven epidemic models approximating the dynamics of the system: (a flight-based epidemic model and (b airport-based epidemic model. The flight-based epidemic model utilizing SIS epidemic model focuses on the individual flights where each flight can be in susceptible or infected states. The airport-centric epidemic model, in addition to the flight-to-flight interactions, allows us to define the collective behavior of the airports, which are modeled as metapopulations. In network model construction, we have utilized historical flight-track data of Europe and performed analysis for certain days involving certain disturbances. Through this effort, we have validated the proposed delay propagation models under disruptive events.

  12. A metric of influential spreading during contagion dynamics through the air transportation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Nicolaides

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious diseases at the global scale is mediated by long-range human travel. Our ability to predict the impact of an outbreak on human health requires understanding the spatiotemporal signature of early-time spreading from a specific location. Here, we show that network topology, geography, traffic structure and individual mobility patterns are all essential for accurate predictions of disease spreading. Specifically, we study contagion dynamics through the air transportation network by means of a stochastic agent-tracking model that accounts for the spatial distribution of airports, detailed air traffic and the correlated nature of mobility patterns and waiting-time distributions of individual agents. From the simulation results and the empirical air-travel data, we formulate a metric of influential spreading--the geographic spreading centrality--which accounts for spatial organization and the hierarchical structure of the network traffic, and provides an accurate measure of the early-time spreading power of individual nodes.

  13. Analysis and Improvement of the Effects of Air-conditioning System on the Thermal Comfort of Passenger Compartment in a Heavy Truck%某重型货车空调系统对乘员舱热舒适性影响的分析与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦克龙; 谷正气; 贾新建; 尹郁琦

    2011-01-01

    应用计算流体力学软件Fluent对某重型货车空调系统和乘员舱中的气流进行数值仿真,其结果与试验对比,相差在5%以内.采用当量温度Teq,i作为评价指标,对乘员舱的热舒适性进行分析.结果表明,由于各风道风量分配不均匀,乘员舱内部气流组织不合理,致使热舒适性较差.对空调系统进行改进,增加前吹面风道风量比例后,乘员舱的热舒适性得到明显改善.%A numerical simulation on the air flow in air-conditioning system and passenger compartment of a heavy truck is conducted by applying CFD code Fluent and its result is compared to test result with a difference within 5%.Using equivalent temperature as evaluation indicator, the thermal comfort in passenger compartment is analyzed.The results show that, due to the uneven distribution of air flow in various ducts and the unreasonable organization of air flow in passenger compartment, the thermal comfort in passenger compartment is rather poor.The modification of air conditioning system is carried out to increase the airflow proportion of front air duct, and as a resuit, the thermal comfort of passenger compartment is obviously improved.

  14. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime air pollutant emission modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert A.; Lock, Graham; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of commercial vessels kept at the Technical University of Denmark, relationships between the fuel consumption and size of different vessels have been developed, taking into account the fleet's age and service speed. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the database are presented, including changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA) level, so a bottom-up approach is used. A port to MCA distance database has also been constructed for the purpose of the study. This was the first attempt to use Eurostat maritime statistics for emission modelling; and the problems encountered, since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose, are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission calculations for bulk carriers entering the port of Helsinki, as an example of the database operation, and aggregate results for different types of movements for France. Overall estimates of SO x and NO x emission caused by shipping traffic between the EU 15 countries are in the area of 1 and 1.5 million tonnes, respectively.

  15. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Sperling, Dan; Gouse, Bill; Harris, D. Bruce; King, Foy G

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engin...

  16. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  17. HTAP_v2.2: a mosaic of regional and global emission grid maps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F.; Muntean, M.; Pouliot, G.; Keating, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Wankmüller, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Kuenen, J.J.P.; Klimont, Z.; Frost, G.; Darras, S.; Koffi, B.; Li, M.

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, vegetation and clima

  18. An integrative assessment of the commercial air transportation system via adaptive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Choon Giap

    The overarching research objective is to address the tightly-coupled interactions between the demand-side and supply-side components of the United States Commercial Air Transportation System (CATS) in a time-variant environment. A system-of-system perspective is adopted, where the scope is extended beyond the National Airspace System (NAS) level to the National Transportation System (NTS) level to capture the intermodal and multimodal relationships between the NTS stakeholders. The Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation technique is employed where the NTS/NAS is treated as an integrated Multi-Agent System comprising of consumer and service provider agents, representing the demand-side and supply-side components respectively. Successful calibration and validation of both model components against the observable real world data resulted in a CATS simulation tool where the aviation demand is estimated from socioeconomic and demographic properties of the population instead of merely based on enplanement growth multipliers. This valuable achievement enabled a 20-year outlook simulation study to investigate the implications of a global fuel price hike on the airline industry and the U.S. CATS at large. Simulation outcomes revealed insights into the airline competitive behaviors and the subsequent responses from transportation consumers.

  19. An effort for developing a seamless transport modeling and remote sensing system for air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Dai, T.; Misawa, S.; Uchida, J.; Schutgens, N.; Hashimoto, M.; Oikawa, E.; Takenaka, H.; Tsuruta, H.; Inoue, T.; Higurashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wide area of the globe, like Asian region, still suffers from a large emission of air pollutants and cause serious impacts on the earth's climate and the public health of the area. Launch of an international initiative, Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), is an example of efforts to ease the difficulties by reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs), i.e., black carbon aerosol, methane and other short-lived atmospheric materials that heat the earth's system, along with long-lived greenhouse gas mitigation. Impact evaluation of the air pollutants, however, has large uncertainties. We like to introduce a recent effort of projects MEXT/SALSA and MOEJ/S-12 to develop a seamless transport model for atmospheric constituents, NICAM-Chem, that is flexible enough to cover global scale to regional scale by the NICAM nonhydrostatic dynamic core (NICAM), coupled with SPRINTARS aerosol model, CHASER atmospheric chemistry model and with their three computational grid systems, i.e. quasi homogeneous grids, stretched grids and diamond grids. A local ensemble transform Kalman filter/smoother with this modeling system was successfully applied to data from MODIS, AERONET, and CALIPSO for global assimilation/inversion and surface SPM and SO2 air pollution monitoring networks for Japanese area assimilation. My talk will be extended to discuss an effective utility of satellite remote sensing of aerosols using Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) on board the GOSAT satellite and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on board the new third generation geostationary satellite, Himawari-8. The CAI has a near-ultraviolet channel of 380nm with 500m spatial resolution and the AHI has high frequency measurement capability of every 10 minutes. These functions are very effective for accurate land aerosol remote sensing, so that a combination with the developed aerosol assimilation system is promising.

  20. TRUCK DISPATCHING CRITERIA AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张幼蒂; 李曙光

    1990-01-01

    Along with the development of automatical truck dispatching in open pits, it is important to establish genera1-purpose criteria for truck dispatching optimization. The existing dispatching criteria are briefly intrcdaced and optimal dispatching criteria for different haulage systems are recommended. Obvious economic results have been obtained from case studies applying tile recommended dispatching criteria.

  1. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  2. Simulation of air-supply systems efficiency in refrigerated vehicles to prevent food spoilage

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarma, R. A.; Ramos, J. E.; Lima, Nelson; Carvalho, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    An improper air distribution within refrigerated truck chambers is the major cause of inadequate road transport of perishable products under controlled temperature. Inadequate temperature control permits microbial and/or enzymatic deterioration. Experimental results in refrigerated long road vehicles show temperatures differences in the cargo of as much as 12ºC. This paper presents a computational model to predict, and visualize, the temperature conditions (e.g. velocity, temperat...

  3. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their

  4. Air cushion vehicles - Any potential for Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laframboise, J. F.

    1987-09-01

    The present evaluation of air cushion vehicle (ACV) operational and commercial suitability in the Canadian context notes that the most successful and durable ACV applications are those in which only ACVs can perform the required mission. An important factor is the reliability of the craft being tested in a given field of operations. Because of their low ground pressure, ACVs can operate over low-cost trails with an efficiency that compares with that of trucks over conventional roads; this renders them especially attractive for transportation networks in the North West Territories.

  5. El transporte urbano en la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Beatriz Malfa Del Grosso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en el análisis de la oferta actual del transporte urbano en la Region metropolitana de Buenos Aires, en el marco de las concesiones otorgadas a empresas privadas, de los servicios públicos de transporte, tratando de evaluar las políticas y modalidades de regulación y gestión aplicadas desde el Estado y centrando la mirada en los efectos y consecuencias de esta modalidad, sobre el conjunto social involucrado y sobre el territorio. Se presentará un panorama general de la situación del sistema de transporte y circulación urbana a modo de síntesis diagnostica, que incluye las características mas significativas movilidad, los distintos modos de transportación, los procesos de concesión de la red de accesos a la ciudad madre, del transporte publico, tanto automotor como ferroviario de pasajeros y de las nuevas modalidades que incrementaron la oferta. Asimismo en el contexto de la Reforma del Estado, - privatizaciones y concesiones-, se incorporaran algunas reflexiones haciendo hincapié en los impactos que estos procesos provocaron en lo social, espacial-económico y ambiental, y que favorecieron el recrudecimiento de la exclusión y fractura social, y la fragmentación territorial, fenómenos ocurridos de manera general en todas las ciudades latinoamericanas sin distinción de niveles de jerarquía urbana o límites jurisdiccionales pero recortando espacialmente el estudio en la Region metropolitana de Buenos Aires.. Toda la reflexión se apoya en el marco del enfoque sistémico, partiendo de considerar que la realidad es compleja y multidimensional y que su naturaleza no es unívoca, que los elementos que la constituyen están interrelacionados entre si, por lo que existen múltiples relaciones ínter- temáticas e ínter escalares.

  6. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. F.; Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving potential and cost effectiveness of numerous operational and technical options proposed for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. commercial airline fleet was examined and compared. The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs and airline profits when implemented in the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets was determined. A forecast estimate was made of the potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system. Specifically, the means for reducing the jet fuel consumption of the U.S. scheduled airlines in domestic and international passenger operations were investigated. A design analysis was made of two turboprop aircraft as possible fuel conserving derivatives of the DC-9-30.

  7. Computational Analysis of Mixing and Transport of Air and Fuel in Co-Fired Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis for air fuel mixing and transport in a combustor used for co fired burner has been done by RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier?Stokes model comparing with 3D (Three Dimensional LES (Large Eddy Simulation. To investigate the better turbulence level and mixing within co fired combustor using the solid fuel biomass with coal is main purpose of this research work. The results show the difference in flow predicted by the two models, LES give better results than the RANS. For compressible flow the LES results show more swirling effect, The velocity decays along axial and radial distance for both swirling and non-swirling jet. Because of no slip condition near boundary the near the wall velocity is about zero

  8. High-speed impact test of an air-transportable plutonium nitrate shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain information on package response for comparison with other test environments, a high-speed impact test was performed on a modified Federal Republic of Germany 18B plutonium nitrate air-transportable container. The container, modified with reinforcing rings for improved crush resistance around the inner tube assembly, was impacted at a velocity of 137 m/s onto an unyielding surface. Substantial crushing of the foam overpack and extensive deformation of the container cavity occurred, causing release of the liquid surrogate contents from the titanium shipping container. The container damage resulting from the high-speed pulldown test was more severe than that from a 185-m free fall onto a semirigid surface by a similar container or the crush environment produced by a 9-m drop of a 2-Mg block onto the container resting on an unyielding surface

  9. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  10. Transatlantic Transport of Fermilab 3.9 GHZ Cryomodule to DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M.W.; Grimm, C.; Olis, D.; Schappert, Warren; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    In an exchange of technology agreement, Fermilab has built and delivered a 3.9 GHz (3rd harmonic) cryomodule to Deutsches Elektron-Synchrotron (DESY) Laboratory to be installed in the TTF/FLASH beamline. Transport to Hamburg, Germany was completed via a combination of flatbed air ride truck and commercial aircraft, while minimizing transition or handling points. Initially, destructive testing of fragile components, transport and corresponding alignment stability studies were performed in order to assess the risk associated with transatlantic travel of a fully assembled cryomodule. Data logged triaxial acceleration results of the transport with a comparison to the transport study predicted values are presented.

  11. Comparative Study on Options for High-Speed Intercontinental Passenger Transports: Air-Breathing- vs. Rocket-Propelled

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; Klevanski, Josef; Steelant, Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical options for high-speed intercontinental passenger transports on a preliminary basis. Horizontal take-off hypersonic air-breathing airliners are assessed as well as vertical take-off, rocket powered stages, capable of a safe atmospheric reentry. The study includes a preliminary sizing and performance assessment of all investigated vehicles and compares characteristic technical and passenger environment data. The aerodynamic shape of the air-bre...

  12. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  13. Modeling Air Bubble Transport in Hydraulic Jump Flows using Population Balance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a numerical model aiming at coupling the MUltiple-SIze-Group (MUSIG with the semiempirical air entrainment model based on the Euler-Euler two-fluid framework to handle the bubble transport in hydraulic jump flows. The internal flow structure including the recirculation region, the shear layer region and the jet region was accurately predicted. The flow parameters such as the water velocity and void fraction distributions were examined and compared with the experimental data, validating the effectiveness of the numerical model. Prediction of the Sauter mean bubble diameter distributions by the population balance approach at different axial locations confirmed the dominance of breakage due to the high turbulent intensity in the shear layer region which led to the generation of small gas bubbles at high void fraction. Comparison between different cases indicates that high Froude number not only give rise to longer recirculation region and higher void fraction due to larger air entrainment rate, but also generate larger bubble number density and smaller bubble size because of the stronger turbulence intensity in the same axial position.

  14. Lagrangian particle modeling of air pollution transport in southwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Stocker, R.A.; Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Several modeling techniques of various complexity and accuracy are applied in a numerical modeling study of regional air pollution transport being performed within the Measurement Of Haze And Visual Effect (MOHAVE) project. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the Mohave Power Project (MPP) and other potential sources of air pollution to specific Class I areas located in the desert southwest United States including the Grand Canyon National Park. The Colorado State University team is performing the daily meteorological and dispersion simulations for a year long study using a nonhydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model; the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with a Lagrangian particle dispersion (LPD) model. The modeling domain covers the southwestern United States with its extremely complex terrain. Two complementary dispersion modeling techniques: a traditional source-oriented approach and receptor-oriented approach are used to calculate concentration and influence function fields, respectively. All computations are performed on two IBM RISC-6000 workstations dedicated to the project. The goal of this paper is to present our design for daily dispersion simulations with an emphasis on influence function calculations using examples from the winter and summer intensive periods of the MOHAVE project.

  15. Two-dimensional noncontact transportation of small objects in air using flexural vibration of a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Ryota; Koyama, Daisuke; Matsukawa, Mami

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates a two-dimensional ultrasonic manipulation technique for small objects in air. The ultrasonic levitation system consists of a rectangular vibrating plate with four ultrasonic transducers and a reflector. The configuration of the vibrator, the resonant frequency, and the positions of the four transducers with step horns were determined from finite element analysis such that an intense acoustic standing-wave field could be generated between the plates. A lattice flexural vibration mode with a wavelength of 28.3 mm was excited on the prototype plate at 24.6 kHz. Small objects could get trapped in air along the horizontal nodal plane of the standing wave. By controlling the driving phase difference between the transducers, trapped objects could be transported without contact in a two-dimensional plane. When the phase difference was changed from 0° to 720°, the distance moved by a small particle in the orthogonal direction was approximately 29 mm, which corresponds with the wavelength of the flexural vibration on the vibrating plate. PMID:26670855

  16. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1988-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along several avenues during the past year. A study of optimal trajectories for penetration of microbursts when encounter is unavoidable was conducted. The emphasis of current wind shear research is on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. A knowledge-based reconfigurable flight control system that is implemented with the Pascal programming language using parallel microprocessors was developed. This expert system could be considered a prototype for a failure-tolerant control system that can be constructed using existing hardware. Development of a real-time cockpit simulator continued during the year. The simulator provides a single-person crew station with both conventional and advanced control devices; it currently is programmed to simulate the Navion single-engine general aviation airplane. Alternatives for the air traffic control system giving particular attention to the institutional structure of the FAA are analyzed. A simple numerical procedure for estimating the stochastic robustness of control systems is being investigated. The revitalization of the general aviation industry is also discussed.

  17. Driving and traffic simulation for the evaluation of electronically coupled truck platoons; Kombinierte Fahr- und Verkehrsfluss-Simulation zur Untersuchung von elektronisch gekoppelten Lkw-Konvois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, A.; Petry, L.; Savelsberg, E. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Lern- und Wissensmanagement]|[RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl Informatik im Maschinenbau

    2005-07-01

    The concept of creating trains on road (truck platoons) supported by advanced driver assistance systems is one possibility to manage the permanent increase of freight transportation and the utilisation of its capacities. An electronic coupling of trucks with short gaps will release the truck driver and therefore will also increase safety. Furthermore, the capacity of road will be used more efficient due to the short gaps between the trucks and the slip stream will save fuel. Regarding former research programs of the same topic, the practical use of such platoons shall be prepared with help of the InDriveS truck driving simulator. InDriveS is a combined driving and traffic flow simulation and gives the possibility to develop the driver assistance system and to investigate the stress of the truck driver during the platoon driving. It also allows an evaluation of the complete system in meaning of traffic flow, safety, environmental impacts and profitability. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric injuries in the back of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Castillo, D N

    1990-08-01

    Travel in the back of pickup trucks has not been adequately addressed as an occupant protection issue. This study compares injuries sustained by children riding in the back of pickup trucks with those of children riding in the cab. Data were obtained from a multihospital monitoring system and the coroner in a single urban county. The series of injured children consisted of 290 children 0 through 14 years of age, 201 of whom had been riding in the cab and 89 in the back. Age distribution of the children demonstrated that it is most frequently the 10- to 14-year-olds who travel in the back. Children riding in the back were more frequently injured in noncrash events (absence of a collision), had more ejections, had more injuries, and sustained more severe injuries as measured by the Maximum Injury Score. With increased restraint use in the cab, it is likely that even greater differentials in injury severity and patterns would be realized. Education regarding the hazards of travel in the back of pickups and stronger legislation limiting the transport of children in the back of trucks are recommended. PMID:2374274

  19. Injuries to occupants in cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C

    1994-11-01

    Transporting passengers in the cargo area of pickup trucks is a public health safety issue in the United States. Our study compared crashes involving passengers in the cargo area with those involving passengers in the cab. We obtained data for all injury events of pickup occupants for 1990 from the California Highway Patrol. A total of 702 traffic reports coded as having passengers riding in pickup truck beds involved 1,685 passengers in the cargo area and 865 in the cab. Significantly more events involving passengers in the cargo area occurred in summer in rural areas and were noncollisions than did events with only cab passengers. Crashes with passengers in the cargo area resulted in death in 5% of passengers. Of the drivers, 81% were male and 22% were younger than 20 years. Among the 1,685 passengers in the cargo area, 65% were male, 36% were younger than 15 years, and 30% were ages 15 to 19 years. Passengers in the cargo area were more frequently ejected and more seriously injured than their counterparts in the cab. Legislation to restrict travel in truck beds and the design of restraints for this area are some measures that may reduce the risk of injury. PMID:7810125

  20. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated.

  1. The role of transition metal interfaces on the electronic transport in lithium–air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer;

    2011-01-01

    at the top of the anti bonding peroxide π*(2px) and π*(2py) levels in the Li2O2 valence band. Under an applied bias, this can result in a reduced transmission, since the anti bonding σ*(2pz) level in the Li2O2 conduction band is found to couple strongly to the metal substrate and create localized interface......Low electronic conduction is expected to be a main limiting factor in the performance of reversible lithium–air, Li–O2, batteries. Here, we apply density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function calculations to determine the electronic transport through lithium peroxide, Li2O2, formed...... at the cathode during battery discharge. We find the transport to depend on the orientation and lattice matching of the insulator–metal interface in the presence of Au and Pt catalysts. Bulk lithium vacancies are found to be available and mobile under battery charging conditions, and found to pin the Fermi level...

  2. Vertical Navigation Control Laws and Logic for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Khong, Thuan H.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical navigation (VNAV) outer-loop control system was developed to capture and track the vertical path segments of energy-efficient trajectories that are being developed for high-density operations in the evolving Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The VNAV control system has a speed-on-elevator control mode to pitch the aircraft for tracking a calibrated airspeed (CAS) or Mach number profile and a path control mode for tracking the VNAV altitude profile. Mode control logic was developed for engagement of either the speed or path control modes. The control system will level the aircraft to prevent it from flying through a constraint altitude. A stability analysis was performed that showed that the gain and phase margins of the VNAV control system significantly exceeded the design gain and phase margins. The system performance was assessed using a six-deg-of-freedom non-linear transport aircraft simulation and the performance is illustrated with time-history plots of recorded simulation data.

  3. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  4. Transport and fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the oceanic air and surface seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs are ubiquitous organic pollutants derived from pesticide application. They are subject to long-range transport, persistent in the environment, and capable of accumulation in biota. Shipboard measurements of HCH isomers (α-, γ- and β-HCH in surface seawater and boundary layer atmospheric samples were conducted in the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean in October to December of 2008. ΣHCHs concentrations (the sum of α-, γ- and β-HCH in the lower atmosphere ranged from 11.8 to 36.9 pg m−3 (mean: 26.6 ± 11.0 pg m−3 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH, and from 1.5 to 4.0 pg m−3 (mean: 2.8 ± 1.1 pg m−3 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, respectively. Water concentrations were: α-HCH 0.33–46.8 pg l−1, γ-HCH 0.02–33.2 pg l−1 and β-HCH 0.11–2 pg l−1. HCH concentrations decreased from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean, indicating historical use of HCHs in the NH. Spatial distribution showed increasing concentrations from the equator towards North and South latitudes illustrating the concept of cold condensation and less interhemispheric mixing process. In comparison to concentrations measured in 1987–1999/2000, gaseous HCHs were slightly lower, while dissolved HCHs decreased by factor of 2–3 orders of magnitude. Air-water exchange gradients suggested net deposition for α-HCH (mean: 3759 pg m−2 day−1 and γ-HCH (mean: 1987 pg m−2 day−1, whereas β-HCH varied between equilibrium (volatilization: <0–12 pg m−2 day−1 and net deposition (range: 6–687 pg m−2 day−1, indicating a multi-hopper transport behavior. Climate change may significantly accelerate the releasing process of "old" HCHs from continental storage (e.g. soil, vegetation and high mountains and drive long-range transport from sources to deposition in the

  5. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006 in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem. We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA with values up to 600 μg m−3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA concentration slightly

  6. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-05-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration slightly increased. The

  7. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.

  8. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... agents must inform the consumer of the code-share service ``before booking transportation'' and state... global distribution systems, which may be assisting travel agents to establish airline ticket sales...

  9. [The prevalence of hearing impairment in transport workers and peculiarities of management of occupational loss of hearing (as exemplified by the situation in the air and railway transport)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, V B; Skryabina, L Yu; Kas'kov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    This article presents data on the prevalence of hearing impairment among the workers engaged in the main means of transportation(air and railway transport). They show that the relative frequency of occupational loss of hearing in the cockpit members of commercial aviation amounts to one third of all cases of analogous diseases in this country. The main professional groups of transport works suffering from hearing impairment are constituted by the representatives of the so-called elite specialities, such as flying crew personnel, locomotive engineers, and their assistants. This fact constitutes an important aspect (not only of medical but also of socio-economic significance) of the problem under consideration. The high prevalence of professional hearing impairment among the transport workers is attributable to the high noise level in the cabins of locomotives and aircraft cockpits as well as to the inadequate expert and diagnostic work or imperfection of the regulatory documentation.

  10. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  11. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  12. X-ray CT-Derived Soil Characteristics Explain Varying Air, Water, and Solute Transport Properties across a Loamy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per;

    2016-01-01

    when the limiting macroporosity (the minimum macroporosity for every 0.6-mm layer along the soil column) was used, suggesting that soil layers with the narrowest macropore section restricted the flow through the whole soil column. Water, air, and solute transport were related with the CT......The characterization of soil pore space geometry is important for explaining fluxes of air, water, and solutes through soil and understanding soil hydrogeochemical functions. X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be applied for this characterization, and in this study CT-derived parameters were used...... to explain water, air, and solute transport through soil. Forty-five soil columns (20 by 20 cm) were collected from an agricultural field in Estrup, Denmark, and subsequently scanned using a medical CT scanner. Nonreactive tracer leaching experiments were performed in the laboratory along with measurements...

  13. Performance of personalized ventilation in a room with an underfloor air distribution system: transport of contaminants between occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    Studies have documented that personalized ventilation, which provides clean air at each office workplace, is able to improve substantially the quality of air inhaled by occupants. However, the interaction between the airflow generated by personalized ventilation and the airflow pattern outside...... the workplaces has not been studied in detail. This paper presents a study on the performance of a personalized ventilation system installed in a full-scale test room with an underfloor air distribution system. Transport of human-produced airborne pollutants (in real life they can be infectious agents) between...... by the exposed manikin. The main conclusion is that the design of the personalised ventilation system and the interaction of personalized airflow and room airflow should be carefully considered in order to achieve minimal transport of pollution between occupants....

  14. Transport and fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the oceanic air and surface seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs are ubiquitous organic pollutants derived from pesticide application. They are subject to long-range transport, persistent in the environment, and capable of accumulation in biota. Shipboard measurements of HCH isomers (α-, γ- and β-HCH in surface seawater and boundary layer atmospheric samples were conducted in the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean in October to December of 2008. ΣHCHs concentrations (the sum of α-, γ- and β-HCH in the lower atmosphere ranged from 12 to 37 pg m−3 (mean: 27 ± 11 pg m−3 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH, and from 1.5 to 4.0 pg m−3 (mean: 2.8 ± 1.1 pg m−3 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, respectively. Water concentrations were: α-HCH 0.33–47 pg l−1, γ-HCH 0.02–33 pg l−1 and β-HCH 0.11–9.5 pg l−1. Dissolved HCH concentrations decreased from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean, indicating historical use of HCHs in the NH. Spatial distribution showed increasing concentrations from the equator towards North and South latitudes illustrating the concept of cold trapping in high latitudes and less interhemispheric mixing process. In comparison to concentrations measured in 1987–1999/2000, gaseous HCHs were slightly lower, while dissolved HCHs decreased by factor of 2–3 orders of magnitude. Air-water exchange gradients suggested net deposition for α-HCH (mean: 3800 pg m−2 day−1 and γ-HCH (mean: 2000 pg m−2 day−1, whereas β-HCH varied between equilibrium (volatilization: <0–12 pg m−2 day−1 and net deposition (range: 6–690 pg m−2 day−1. Climate change may significantly accelerate the release of "old" HCHs from continental storage (e.g. soil, vegetation and high mountains and drive long-range transport from sources to deposition in the open oceans. Biological productivities may

  15. Transport of north China air pollution by midlatitude cyclones: Case study of aircraft measurements in summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Xue, Likun; Gao, Jian; Stohl, Andreas; Lei, Hengchi; Jin, Dezhen; Ren, Yu; Wang, Xuezhong; Wei, Xiaolin; Qi, Yanbin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2009-04-01

    Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and frontal activity play important roles in the long-range transport of air pollutants by lifting them from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) into the free troposphere (FT) in midlatitudes. In summer 2007, an aircraft study was carried out in northeast (NE) China in order to understand the role of midlatitude cyclones in air pollution transport in north and east China in warm seasons. During a flight on 27 June, high concentrations of ozone and related trace gases were observed, with maximum concentrations (O3 ˜ 140 ppbv, SO2 ˜ 14.6 ppbv, CO ˜ 1185 ppbv) recorded at an altitude of 2.6 km. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of this flight. The mesoscale meteorological model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and a Lagrangian dispersion model called FLEXPART were used to aid the diagnostic analysis of the atmospheric dynamic structure and the understanding of the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution. The flight took place in a region adjacent to a warm front associated with a weak cyclone in north China. The aircraft sampled both the WCB and warm air frontal zone of the cyclone. The simulations show that the observed high air pollution in the FT mostly originated from the North China Plain, especially the megacities Beijing and Tianjin. Their plumes were vented by a stagnant front, probably through, in part, topographic lifting by the mountains in the north, and then were quickly transported in the FT to the study region. Trajectory analysis and satellite data suggest that the observed air masses were further lifted by the WCB into the middle and upper troposphere and were exported from Asia toward North America and the Arctic.

  16. 40 CFR 85.2204 - Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks. 85.2204 Section 85.2204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty...

  17. Effectiveness of Health Promotion Programmes for Truck Drivers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mandy K.; Yousuf, Bilal; Bigelow, Philip Lloyd; Van Eerd, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the characteristics of effective health promotion interventions for reducing chronic diseases and their risk factors in truck drivers. Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed), SCOPUS, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and the National Transportation Library were…

  18. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  19. Detroit Diesel Engine Technology for Light Duty Truck Applications - DELTA Engine Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, Charlie

    2000-08-20

    The early generation of the DELTA engine has been thoroughly tested and characterized in the virtual lab, during engine dynamometer testing, and on light duty trucks for personal transportation. This paper provides an up-to-date account of program findings. Further, the next generation engine design and future program plans will be briefly presented.

  20. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry - volume, fleet characteristics and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry in Denmark, using aggregate time series data for the period 1980–2007. The model captures the main linkages between the demand for freight transport, the characteristics of the vehicle fleet, and the demand for fuel. Results...

  1. 75 FR 50730 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... (SIP) submitted on June 4, 2010. This revision consists of transportation conformity criteria and... Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: Comments must be received on or before September 16,...

  2. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  3. Transport of north China air pollution by mid-latitude cyclones: A case study of aircraft measurements in summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A.; Wang, T.; Xue, L.; Gao, J.; Stohl, A.; Lei, H.; Jin, D.; Ren, Y.; Wang, X.; Wei, X.; Qi, Y.; Liu, J.; Zhang, X.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorological processes such as warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and frontal activities, which are related to extratropical cyclones, have been recognized to play important roles in the long-range transport of air pollutants by lifting them from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) into the free troposphere (FT) in mid- latitudes. To understand the transport mechanism and regional impact of air pollution transport in north and east China by mid-latitude cyclones in warm seasons, an aircraft study was carried out in northeast (NE) China in the summer of 2007. During a flight on 27 June, high concentrations of ozone and related trace gases as well as high values of the aerosol scattering coefficient (Bsp) were observed, with maximum concentrations (O3~ 140 ppbv, SO2 ~ 14.6 ppbv, CO ~ 1185 ppbv) recorded at an altitude of 2.6 km in the FT. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of this flight. Mesoscale meteorological simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model aided the diagnostic analysis of the atmospheric dynamic structure in the low troposphere and helped in the understanding of the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution. Based on the WRF output, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART, was used to conduct backward simulations and calculate the source-receptor relationship. The study was undertaken in a region in NE China adjacent to a warm front associated with a weak cyclone in north China. Trajectory analysis and atmospheric structure analysis suggest that the aircraft sampled both the WCB and warm air frontal zone of the cyclone. The backward Lagrangian simulations show that the observed high air pollution in the FT mostly originated from the North China Plain (NCP), especially the northern part containing the megacities Beijing and Tianjin. Their plumes were vented by a stagnant front, probably through, in part, topographic lifting by the mountains in the north, and then were quickly (within 1 to 2 days

  4. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers. PMID:19540960

  5. Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we compare the potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on the air quality of (different) continental regions. We use a global chemical transport model, Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), to quantify the source-receptor relationships of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols among ten regions in 2000. In order to compare the importance of foreign with domestic emissions and to estimate the effect of future changes in emissions on human exposure, we define an 'influence potential' (IP). The IP quantifies the human exposure that occurs in a receptor region as a result of a unit of SO2 emissions from a source region. We find that due to the non-linear nature of sulfate production, regions with low SO2 emissions usually have large domestic IP, and vice versa. An exception is East Asia (EA), which has both high SO2 emissions and relatively large domestic IP, mostly caused by the spatial coincidence of emissions and population. We find that inter-continental IPs are usually less than domestic IPs by 1-3 orders of magnitude. SO2 emissions from the Middle East (ME) and Europe (EU) have the largest potential to influence populations in surrounding regions. By comparing the IP ratios (IPR) between foreign and domestic SO2 emissions, we find that the IPR values range from 0.000 01 to 0.16 and change with season. Therefore, if reducing human exposure to sulfate aerosols is the objective, all regions should first focus on reducing domestic SO2 emissions. In addition, we find that relatively high IPR values exist among the EU, ME, the former Soviet Union (FSU) and African (AF) regions. Therefore, on the basis of the IP and IPR values, we conclude that a regional agreement among EA countries, and an inter-regional agreement among EU, ME, FSU and (north) AF regions to control sulfur emissions could benefit public health in these regions

  6. Specification of test criteria for containers to be used in the air transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential accidents in the transport by aeroplane of plutonium are considered. Past literature on the subject is reviewed. Civilian air accident statistics are surveyed: impact and fire are shown to be the major threats. Probabilities (given an accident) are derived for encountering and impact of above any given speed as a function of speed, and a fire of above any given duration, as a function of duration. The crash of two typical jet cargo aircraft (BAC-111, Boeing-707) against a rigid normal surface is considered and cargo hold decelerations derived from a one-dimensional model. The response of a cargo to such decelerations is calculated for loads of two typical containers, and related to the velocity of impact into a hard target necessary to produce similar damage in single containers. Free fall of containers and the effect on the surface struck are discussed. The response of two typical containers to a fire is calculated, allowing for the charring of insulating/shock absorbing material. Calculations without charring appear pessimistic. The consequences of plutonium release are estimated and risk spectra derived for two failure assumptions. The implications for container test criteria are discussed, and recommendations made

  7. An Assessment of Civil Tiltrotor Concept of Operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Salvano, Dan; Rinehart, David; Young, Ray; Cheng, Victor; Lindsey, James

    2012-01-01

    Based on a previous Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) National Airspace System (NAS) performance analysis study, CTR operations were evaluated over selected routes and terminal airspace configurations assuming noninterference operations (NIO) and runway-independent operations (RIO). This assessment aims to further identify issues associated with these concepts of operations (ConOps), and their dependency on the airspace configuration and interaction with conventional fixed-wing traffic. Safety analysis following a traditional Safety Management System (SMS) methodology was applied to CTR-unique departure and arrival failures in the selected airspace to identify any operational and certification issues. Additional CTR operational cases were then developed to get a broader understanding of issues and gaps that will need to be addressed in future CTR operational studies. Finally, needed enhancements to National Airspace System performance analysis tools were reviewed, and recommendations were made on improvements in these tools that are likely to be required to support future progress toward CTR fleet operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen).

  8. Meso-scale modeling of air pollution transport/chemistry/deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport/chemistry/deposition model for atmospheric trace chemical species is now regarded as an important tool for an understanding of the effects of various human activities, such as fuel combustion and deforestation, on human health, eco-system, and climate and for planning of appropriate control of emission sources. Several 'comprehensive' models have been proposed such as RADM (Chang, et al., 1987), STEM-II (Carmichael, et al., 1986), and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, e.g., EPA website, 2003); the 'comprehensive' models include not only gas/aerosol phase chemistry but also aqueous phase chemistry in cloud/rain water in addition to the processes of advection, diffusion, wet deposition (mass transfer between aqueous and gas/aerosol phases), and dry deposition. The target of the development of the 'comprehensive' model will be that the model can correctly reproduce mass balance of various chemical species in the atmosphere with keeping adequate accuracy for calculated concentration distributions of chemical species. For the purpose, one of the important problems is a reliable wet deposition modeling, and here, we introduce two types of methods of 'cloud-resolving' and 'non-cloud-resolving' modeling for the wet deposition of pollutants. (author)

  9. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  10. NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MACHINE TOOL FOR THE FORMING OF THE REAR AXLE SHAFT OF LIGHT TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yingchun; Yu Duonian; Wang Xueming

    2004-01-01

    A new technology of forward extrusion and cross rolling has been developed to process the rear axle shaft sleeve of light truck with the use of tube billets. This technology is characterized by large reductions of material, energy and cost of production and has significant economical benefits. This technology is stable and reliable. The three rolls transverse rolling mill built based on this technology has novelty construction, higher production efficiency, non-vibration and noise. The research results have been extensively applied to light trucks and farm transport with load of 1 to 3 tones.

  11. Demonstration Project 111, ITS/CVO Technology Truck, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambrell, KP

    2002-01-11

    In 1995, the planning and building processes began to design and develop a mobile demonstration unit that could travel across the nation and be used as an effective outreach tool. In 1997, the unit was completed; and from June 1997 until December 2000, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)/Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) mobilized the Technology Truck, also known as Demonstration Project No. 111, ''Advanced Motor Carrier Operations and Safety Technologies.'' The project featured the latest available state-of-the-practice intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies designed to improve both the efficiency and safety of commercial vehicle operations (CVO). The Technology Truck was designed to inform and educate the motor carrier community and other stakeholders regarding ITS technologies, thus gaining support and buy-in for participation in the ITS program. The primary objective of the project was to demonstrate new and emerging ITS/CVO technologies and programs, showing their impact on motor carrier safety and productivity. In order to meet the objectives of the Technology Truck project, the FHWA/FMCSA formed public/private partnerships with industry and with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to demonstrate and display available ITS/CVO technologies in a cooperative effort. The mobile demonstration unit was showcased at national and regional conferences, symposiums, universities, truck shows and other venues, in an effort to reach as many potential users and decision makers as possible. By the end of the touring phase, the ITS/CVO Technology Truck had been demonstrated in 38 states, 4 Canadian provinces, 88 cities, and 114 events; been toured by 18,099 people; and traveled 115,233 miles. The market penetration for the Technology Truck exceeded 4,000,000, and the website received more than 25,000 hits. In addition to the Truck's visits, the portable ITS/CVO kiosk was demonstrated at 31 events in 23 cites in 15

  12. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  13. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  15. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  16. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  17. Transportation energy trends and issues through 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCicco, J.M. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Controlling transportation energy use looms as a serious challenge for the United States in the 21st century. Demand for transportation services is steadily growing, driven by increasing population, economic activity, and incomes. Few forces presently constrain growth in travel by the energy-intensive modes of automobile, truck, and air transportation. In contrast to other sectors of the economy, transportation energy efficiency improvements are nearly stagnant. Efficiency increases are now absent in highway modes; aircraft efficiency is improving, but not enough to offset rising air travel. Transportation is also the most oil-dependent sector of the economy as well as the country`s most rapidly growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. A conservative forecast indicates US transportation energy consumption rising from 23 Quads in 1990 to roughly 36 Quads by 2030; less conservative assumptions push the total to 43 Quads by 2030. Yet opportunities exist for efficiency improvements to counter a substantial portion of this growth. The most promising options are technological, with potential long-term efficiency improvements of threefold for light vehicles, twofold for aircraft, and 65 percent for heavy trucks. Combined with system efficiency changes to help limit growth of the energy-intensive modes, transportation energy use might be cut to 19 Quads by 2030. Pursuing cost-effective strategies to move the system toward such reduced energy intensiveness would be clearly valuable for the economy and environment. This paper examines these trends and options, and offers suggestions for policies that could lead to reductions in transportation energy use and its associated problems such as greenhouse gas emissions and oil dependence risks. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Incidence and toxin production ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from cattle trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta Alonso, E P; Gilliland, S E; Krehbiel, C R

    2007-10-01

    Twelve cattle trucks were analyzed for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Three of them had been washed prior to arrival, and the others had not. Seventy-five percent of the trailers were positive for the presence of this foodborne pathogen. A total of 54 cultures were isolated and identified as E. coli O157:H7, all from the trucks that had not been cleaned. Most of the cultures (96.4%) produced Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). No E. coli O157:H7 was detected in cattle trucks that were cleaned before arrival at the cattle pens. The incidence of E. coli O157:H7 in transport trailers increases the potential risk of contamination of cattle and transmission from farms to feedlots and to packing plants. This contamination increases the potential of contamination of meat during harvest and the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  19. Emissions from nine heavy trucks fueled by diesel and biodiesel blend without engine modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel, a fuel that can be made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats, has been recognized recently as an environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this paper, the authors describe a study that compared exhaust emissions from in-use heavy trucks fueled with a biodiesel blend with those from trucks fueled with petroleum diesel. The biodiesel blend tested is a mixture of 35% biodiesel and 65% petroleum diesel, a blend designated as B35. The study is based on the field test results from West Virginia University's Transportable Heavy Duty Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Testing Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The heavy trucks the authors tested performed well when the originally equipped compression-ignition engine (diesel engine) was fueled with B35 without any engine modifications. Fuel economy (in terms of gallon per mile) of the two fuels was about the same. The emissions test results have shown that the heavy trucks fueled by B35 emitted significantly lower particulate matter (PM) and moderately lower carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) than the same trucks fueled by no. 2 diesel (D2). Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from B35 and D2, however, were generally in the same level. Emissions variations from two different engine models and two driving cycles were also observed. Although the authors recommend more tests for biodiesel vehicles, the data obtained in this study indicate that biodiesel has promise as an emissions-reducing alternative fuel for diesel engines

  20. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  1. Business plan for Gourmet Food Truck in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Mulmi, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work is about food truck and food truck industry in Finland. In Finland, Culinary scenes are booming and growing but, the food truck concept is new to Finland. Food truck industry is very young and currently, there is a hype for food truck and people are admiring new cuisines. Author himself is working as a cook. And he is passionate about food and restaurant industry. The main purpose of the thesis was to explore more about food truck industry in Finland and create the busine...

  2. Simulation and analysis of a Truck Model's ride comfort based on fuzzy adaptive control theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-biao; WANG Deng-feng; NI Qiang; TAN Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper tried to analyse and verify the fuzzy adaptive control strategy of electronic control air suspension system for heavy truck. Created the seven-freedoms vehicle suspension model, and the road input model; with Matlab/Simulink toolboxes and modules, built dynamical system simulation model for heavy truck with air suspension, fuzzy adaptive control model, height control model for air spring, and intelligent control and analyse on root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center of the vehicle under excitation of road. Results show that the fuzzy control had less help to the body vibration on the better pavement, but had the better benefit on the bad road, and the vehicle's root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center is less than passive suspension's obviously.

  3. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  4. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980's at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments

  5. Air Transport and Destination Performance – A case study of three African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya and South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Tchouamou Njoya, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Tourism is increasingly being promoted as an important source of economic growth especially in developing countries. While there are many elements that contribute to tourism growth, without an efficient air transport system, it is almost impossible for a number of landlocked and geographically isolated developing nations to expand and sustain domestic and international tourism. From the perspective of an African nation the most important question is whether the benefit of aviation expansion w...

  6. Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lei; X.-Z. Liang; D. J. Wuebbles; Tao, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury is a toxic air and water pollutant that is of significant concern because of its effects on human health and ecosystems. A mechanistic representation of the atmospheric mercury cycle is developed for the state-of-the-art global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem (Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry). The model simulates the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) in three forms: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), reactive mercury (Hg(II...

  7. Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lei; Liang, X.-Z.; D. J. Wuebbles; Tao, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury is a toxic air and water pollutant that is of significant concern because of its effects on human health and ecosystems. A mechanistic representation of the atmospheric mercury cycle is developed for the state-of-the-art global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem (Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry). The model simulates the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) in three forms: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), react...

  8. Will technological progress be sufficient to stabilize CO2 emissions from air transport in the mid-term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates whether anticipated technological progress can be expected to be strong enough to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the rapid growth of air transport. Aviation CO2 emissions projections are provided at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Total air traffic flows are first forecast using a dynamic panel-data econometric model, and then converted into corresponding quantities of air traffic CO2 emissions using specific hypotheses and energy factors. None of our nine scenarios appears compatible with the objective of 450 ppm CO2-eq. (a.k.a. 'scenario of type I') recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). None is either compatible with the IPCC scenario of type III, which aims at limiting global warming to 3.2 deg. C

  9. Prediction of air leakage and aerosol transport through concrete cracks with a fractal based crack morphology model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, L.R., E-mail: lrbishnoi@aerb.gov.in [Siting and Structural Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Vedula, R.P., E-mail: rpv@iitb.ac.in [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A fractal based numerical concrete crack morphology model is presented. • Computational studies conducted for airflow and aerosol transport through cracks. • Results are compared with experimental data and other empirical relations. • Comparative studies demonstrate model effectiveness and versatility of application. - Abstract: Cracks may appear in pressurized concrete containment of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident and provide leak paths for release of radioactive aerosols dispersed in the contained air. In this paper, a fractal based crack morphology model is presented for prediction of air leakage and aerosol transport through cracks in concrete. Airflow field generated in air leakage studies is used for aerosol transport studies with the Lagrangian discrete phase model using CFD code FLUENT. Computational studies conducted with the fractal based model are compared with the experimental data as well as the predictions from empirical relations available in open literature. The comparative studies demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed fractal based model and its versatility for practical applications.

  10. Unexpected high 35S concentration revealing strong downward transport of stratospheric air during the monsoon transitional period in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mang; Zhang, Zhisheng; Su, Lin; Su, Binbin; Liu, Lanzhong; Tao, Jun; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2016-03-01

    October is the monsoon transitional period in East Asia (EA) involving a series of synoptic activities that may enhance the downward transport of stratospheric air to the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here we use cosmogenic 35S in sulfate aerosols (35SO42-) as a tracer for air masses originating from the stratosphere and transported downward to quantify these mixing processes. From 1 year 35SO42- measurements (March 2014 to February 2015) at a background station in EA we find remarkably enhanced 35SO42- concentration (3150 atoms m-3) in October, the highest value ever reported for natural sulfate aerosols. A four-box 1-D model and meteorological analysis reveal that strong downward transport from the free troposphere is a vital process entraining aged stratospheric air masses to the PBL. The aged stratospheric masses are accumulated in the PBL, accelerating the SO2 transformation to SO42-. Implications for the tropospheric O3 budget and the CO2 biogeochemical cycle are discussed.

  11. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  12. Investigation on Drag Reduction of Trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiao-ni; LIU Zhen-yan

    2008-01-01

    A study of the mechanism of fences was given to reduce drag by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental research. A 3D mathematical model has been developed based on computational fluid dynamics software Phoenics that was capable of handling steady state, 3D flow to simulate the flow field around the truck. The experiment made in a low speed wind tunnel is used as references for validation. By analyzing the results of calculation and experiment, the flowing mechanism of the flow field around the container truck and the drag-reducing mechanism of #-shaped fences on the truck are unveiled, which provides theoretical guidance to the aerodynamic formation designing and amelioration.

  13. Temperature control apparatus including air return bulkhead for mounting in a transportable body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, A.H.

    1988-02-23

    An air return bulkhead assembly for removable installation adjacent an inside surface of a front wall of a trailer also having two side walls extending from opposite ends of the front wall, through which front wall is disposed an air treatment apparatus for receiving air through an inlet, for temperature treating the air and for providing the temperature-treated air through an outlet is described comprising: a first vertical support member having a first web through which a first hole is defined; first attachment means for attaching the first vertical support member to the front wall of the trailer between one of the side walls of the trailer and the air treatment apparatus.

  14. Mining truck scheduling with stochastic maintenance cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erkan TOPAL; Salih RAMAZAN

    2012-01-01

    Open pit mining operations utilize large scale and expensive equipment.For the mines implementing shovel and truck operation system,trucks constitute a large portion of these equipment and are used for hauling the mined materials.In order to have sustainable and viable operation,these equipment need to be utilized efficiently with minimum operating cost.Maintenance cost is a significant proportion of the overall operating costs.The maintenance cost of a truck changes non-linearly depending on the type,age and truck types.A new approach based on stochastic integer programming (SIP) techniques is used for annually scheduling a fixed fleet of mining trucks in a given operation,over the life of mine (multi-year time horizon) to minimize maintenance cost.The maintenance cost data in mining usually has uncertainty caused from the variability of the operational conditions at mines.To estimate the cost,usually historic data from different operations for new mines,and/or the historic data at the operating mines are used.However,maintenance cost varies depending on road conditions,age of equipment and many other local conditions at an operation.Traditional models aim to estimate the maintenance cost as a deterministic single value and financial evaluations are based on the estimated value.However,it does not provide a confidence on the estimate.The proposed model in this study assumes the truck maintenance cost is a stochastic parameter due to the significant level of uncertainty in the data and schedules the available fleet to meet the annual production targets.The scheduling has been performed by applying both the proposed stochastic and deterministic approaches.The approach provides a distribution for the maintenance cost of the optimized equipment schedule minimizing the cost.

  15. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  16. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Scanning drift tube measurements of electron transport parameters in different gases: argon, synthetic air, methane and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolov, I.; Vass, M.; Donkó, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of transport coefficients of electrons in a scanning drift tube apparatus are reported for different gases: argon, synthetic air, methane and deuterium. The experimental system allows the spatio-temporal development of the electron swarms (‘swarm maps’) to be recorded and this information, when compared with the profiles predicted by theory, makes it possible to determine the ‘time-of-flight’ transport coefficients: the bulk drift velocity, the longitudinal diffusion coefficient and the effective ionization coefficient, in a well-defined way. From these data, the effective Townsend ionization coefficient is determined as well. The swarm maps provide, additionally, direct, unambiguous information about the hydrodynamic/non-hydrodynamic regimes of the swarms, aiding the selection of the proper regions applicable for the determination of the transport coefficients.

  18. Principal component analysis of the evolution of the Saharan air layer and dust transport: Comparisons between a model simulation and MODIS and AIRS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Colarco, Peter R.; Dessler, Andrew E.

    2006-10-01

    The onset and evolution of Saharan air layer (SAL) episodes during June-September 2002 are diagnosed by applying principal component analysis to the NCEP reanalysis temperature anomalies at 850 hPa, where the largest SAL-induced temperature anomalies are located along the west coast of Africa. The first principal component (PC) represents the onset of SAL episodes, which are associated with large warm anomalies located at the west coast of Africa. The second PC represents two opposite phases of the evolution of the SAL. The positive phase corresponds to the southwestward migration of the warm anomalies into the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, and the negative phase corresponds to the northwestward migration into the subtropical to midlatitude North Atlantic Ocean and the southwest Europe. AIRS retrievals of temperatures in September 2002 verify the migration depicted by the second PC. In addition, a dust transport model (CARMA) and the MODIS retrievals of aerosol optical thickness are used to study the associated effects on dust distribution and deposition. The positive (negative) phase of the second PC corresponds to a strengthening (weakening) of the offshore flows in the lower troposphere around 10-20°N, causing more (less) dust being transported toward the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The 700-hPa anticyclonic circulation associated with the warm anomalies plays a role in connecting the dust with the warm anomalies.

  19. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macro-porosity by combining laboratory measurements and X-ray Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per;

    With an objective to link the hydraulic properties of soil with the soil structural properties, air permeability and 5% arrival time of a conservative tracer was measured for large undisturbed soil columns from the same agricultural field. The same soil columns were scanned with a medical scanner......-porosity (R2 = 0.80 for air permeability: R2= 0.61 for 5% arrival time) and macro-porosity of the restricting layer (R2=0.83 for air permeability: R2= 0.71 for 5% arrival time) over air-filled porosity and all the correlations were positive. The high positive correlation these air and water transport...... functions with macro-porosity stressed the importance of continuity and tortuosity of pores in air, water and solute flow and transport through the soils. Negative correlations of air permeability, 5% arrival time of tracer and macro-porosity were obtained with bulk density whereas with other soil physical...

  20. Identifying and quantifying transported vs. local sources of New York City PM 2.5 fine particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    New York City (NYC) is presently in violation of the nation's PM 2.5 annual mass standard, and will have to take actions to control the sources contributing to these violations. This paper seeks to differentiate the impact of long-range transported aerosols on the air quality of downtown NYC, so that the roles of local sources can more clearly be evaluated. Past source apportionment studies have considered single sites individually in their source apportionment analyses to identify and determine sources affecting that site, often finding secondary sulfates to be an important contributor, but not being able to quantify the portion that is transported vs. local. In this study, a rural site located in Sterling Forest, NY, which is near to the NYC area, but unaffected by local NYC sources, is instead used as a reference to separate the portion of the aerosol that is transported to our Manhattan, NYC site before conducting the source apportionment analysis. Sterling Forest is confirmed as a background site via elemental comparisons with NYC during regional transport episodes of Asian and Sahara sandstorm dusts, as well as by comparisons with a second background site in Chester, NJ. Two different approaches that incorporate Sterling Forest background data into the NYC source apportionment analysis are then applied to quantify local vs. transported aerosols. Six source categories are identified for NYC: regional transported sulfate, trans-continental desert dust, traffic, residual oil, "local" dust and World Trade Center fires pollution. Of these, the transported sulfates and trans-continental desert dust accounted for nearly half of the total PM 2.5 mass in Manhattan during 2001, with more than half coming from these transported sources during the summer months. More than 90% of the Manhattan elemental carbon was found to be of local origins. Conversely, roughly 90% of the NYC sulfate mass was identified as transported into the city. Our results indicate that transported

  1. Draft environmental statement on the transportation of radioactive material by air and other modes. DOCKET No. PR-71,73 (40 FR 23768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft environmental statement was prepared in connection with the NRC re-evaluation of its present regulations governing air transportation of radioactive materials, to provide sufficient analysis to determine the effectiveness of the present rules and of possible alternatives to those rules. The following topics are discussed: regulations governing radioactive materials transport; radiological effects; transport impacts under normal conditions; effect of transport under accident conditions; alternatives; and security and safeguards

  2. Variability of Compet itive Factors in Air Transportation and Improving Customer Satisfaction with Service Innovation: A New "Mile + Time Score" Application

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Can Yıldırır

    2015-01-01

    As in all the world, airlines transportation in our country is increasing every day. Rapid transport, reasonable price and high quality service is the reaso n for this increase. Both local and foreign airline companies have accelerated their activities as result of this rapid growth in air transportation sector. Over the time, these enterprises reached a level to go head to head with each other about the quality, price, transport network and ...

  3. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 2. Public-private urban transportation modal mixes. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Dei Rossi, J.A.; Henneman, S.S.; Putnam, E.S.; Usowicz, T.W.

    1974-12-01

    The objective of this four-volume study is to formulate a basis for the design of a joint interagency action program which would simultaneously improve urban mobility and air quality and conserve petroleum resources. This second volume presents an algorithm for calculating the impacts on transportation energy use and pollutant emissions of alternative urban transportation mixes. The algorithm is used to compare the change in national urban energy use and pollutant emissions implied by the maximum conceivable diversion of 1990 urban auto travel to bus, rail and para-transit compared to the no-diversion case. This exercise is supported by appendices showing the derivation of the methodology and of the database. The volume also includes a discussion of issues, tradeoffs, and methodologies relevant to the local determination of a balanced modal mix in an individual metropolitan area.

  4. Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Glenn C.

    1999-12-01

    In this dissertation, results are presented of laboratory investigations and mathematical modeling efforts designed to better understand the interactions of ozone with surfaces. In the laboratory, carpet and duct materials were exposed to ozone and measured ozone uptake kinetics and the ozone induced emissions of volatile organic compounds. To understand the results of the experiments, mathematical methods were developed to describe dynamic indoor aldehyde concentrations, mass transport of reactive species to smooth surfaces, the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet due to the surface reactivity of fibers and carpet backing, and ozone aging of surfaces. Carpets, separated carpet fibers, and separated carpet backing all tended to release aldehydes when exposed to ozone. Secondary emissions were mostly n-nonanal and several other smaller aldehydes. The pattern of emissions suggested that vegetable oils may be precursors for these oxidized emissions. Several possible precursors and experiments in which linseed and tung oils were tested for their secondary emission potential were discussed. Dynamic emission rates of 2-nonenal from a residential carpet may indicate that intermediate species in the oxidation of conjugated olefins can significantly delay aldehyde emissions and act as reservoir for these compounds. The ozone induced emission rate of 2-nonenal, a very odorous compound, can result in odorous indoor concentrations for several years. Surface ozone reactivity is a key parameter in determining the flux of ozone to a surface, is parameterized by the reaction probability, which is simply the probability that an ozone molecule will be irreversibly consumed when it strikes a surface. In laboratory studies of two residential and two commercial carpets, the ozone reaction probability for carpet fibers, carpet backing and the equivalent reaction probability for whole carpet were determined. Typically reaction probability values for these materials were 10

  5. Transport and chemical conversion of air pollutants under convective conditions - Results of the COPS-TRACKS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms-Grabe, W.; Corsmeier, U.; Vogel, H.; Kottmeier, Ch.

    2012-04-01

    Embedded in the COPS project, the TRACKS campaign (Transport and Chemical Conversion in Convective Systems) was carried out in summer 2007 in order to study the transport of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols under convective conditions. One focus of this experiment was to investigate the dilution of air pollutants in the surroundings of a metropolitan area in complex terrain due to dynamical and chemical processes. Therefore, trace gas distributions in the lee of the city of Karlsruhe had been detected by coordinated measurements of different airborne platforms, including several aircraft and a zeppelin. We study a summer day with convective boundary layer, characterized not by extreme but standard weather conditions with typical atmospheric pollution. The relevance of urban sources of atmospheric pollutants located in Karlsruhe is considered in relation to meteorological and transport conditions in the Upper Rhine Valley. The observed ozone concentrations inside the TRACKS area are moderate during this day and reach maximum values around 60 ppb. However, the measurements reveal specific horizontal structures in several trace gas distributions lee-side of Karlsruhe. At a distance of 40 km away from the city, the ozone concentration increases by about 10 ppb, although NO2 does not show a clear horizontal gradient. The correlation of O3 and CO provides an indicator for the origin of air masses. Near to Karlsruhe, the O3/CO correlation is not significant. However, in the remote lee area a significant positive correlation with a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.71 was found which refers to additional insertion of air pollutants by longer distance transport or vertical transport processes. A model simulation with COSMO-ART shows low NO2 concentrations in the lee of Karlsruhe which vary around 5 ppb and indicate that Karlsruhe does not develop a distinctive city plume by the combination of local emissions and atmospheric conditions at this day. In the afternoon

  6. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  7. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin A. Brown III

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results: 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9% medical and 2,685 (55.1% trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1% adult and 256 (5.3% pediatric (age ≤ 14 intubations; 225 (4.6% did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6% had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9% and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%. Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test. 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD. Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7% and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7% encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion: Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:188–193.

  8. Theoretical preconditions and technical substantiation for mechanical compressed air drying method application on the railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana RIPOL’-SARAGOSI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is related to the compressed air purification for the rolling stock problems. The mechanical method is described as a potential way of the compressed air cooling and purificating. The temperature field at the heat conducting surface engineer function equation is given in the article as well.

  9. The Problem of Multiple Criteria Selection of the Surface Mining Haul Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodziony, Przemysław; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle transport is a dominant type of technological processes in rock mines, and its profit ability is strictly dependent on overall cost of its exploitation, especially on diesel oil consumption. Thus, a rational design of transportation system based on haul trucks should result from thorough analysis of technical and economic issues, including both cost of purchase and its further exploitation, having a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. Moreover, off-highway trucks should be selected with respect to all specific exploitation conditions and even the user's preferences and experience. In this paper a development of universal family of evaluation criteria as well as application of evaluation method for haul truck selection process for a specific exploitation conditions in surface mining have been carried out. The methodology presented in the paper is based on the principles of multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA) using one of the ranking method, i.e. ELECTRE III. The applied methodology has been allowed for ranking of alternative solution (variants), on the considered set of haul trucks. The result of the research is a universal methodology, and it consequently may be applied in other surface mines with similar exploitation parametres.

  10. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  11. An air-mass trajectory study of the transport of radioactivity from Fukushima to Thessaloniki, Greece and Milan, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Vagena, E.; Papastefanou, C.; Gini, L.; Manenti, S.; Groppi, F.

    2013-08-01

    Analyses of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in airborne aerosols were carried out in daily samples at two different sites of investigation: Thessaloniki, Greece (40° N) and Milan, Italy (45° N) after the Fukushima accident during the period of March-April, 2011. The radionuclide concentrations were determined and studied as a function of time. The 131I concentration in air over Milan and Thessaloniki peaked on April 3-4, 2011, with observed activities 467 μBq m-3 and 497 μBq m-3, respectively. The 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio values in air were around 1 in both regions, related to the burn-up history of the damaged nuclear fuel of the destroyed nuclear reactor. The high 131I/137Cs ratio, observed during the first days after the accident, followed by lower values during the following days, reflects not only the initial release ratio but also the different volatility, attachment and removal of the two isotopes during transportation due to their different physico-chemical properties. No artificial radionuclides could be detected in air after April 28, 2011 in both regions of investigation. The different maxima of airborne 131I and 134,137Cs in these two regions were related to long-range air mass transport from Japan, across the Pacific and to Central Europe. Analysis of backward trajectories was used to confirm the arrival of artificial radionuclides following atmospheric transport and processing. HYSPLIT backward trajectories were applied for the interpretation of activity variations of measured radionuclides.

  12. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  13. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...

  14. A cognitive Analysis of truck Drivers' right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Sieker, Tobias; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...

  15. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments...

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  18. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located. PMID:26797812

  19. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed. PMID:26667061

  20. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed.

  1. So Much Depends Upon a Pickup Truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    An anecdote from the author's own career as a researcher stresses the importance of becoming thoroughly familiar with a subject under study, in order to avoid overlooking obvious factors. In one study he conducted in Israel, he found that pickup truck size sometimes determined work crew size.

  2. Assessment and prediction of urban air pollution caused by motor transport exhaust gases using computer simulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarshinov, Michael G.; Vaismana, Yakov I.

    2016-10-01

    The following methods were used in order to identify the pollution fields of urban air caused by the motor transport exhaust gases: the mathematical model, which enables to consider the influence of the main factors that determine pollution fields formation in the complex spatial domain; the authoring software designed for computational modeling of the gas flow, generated by numerous mobile point sources; the results of computing experiments on pollutant spread analysis and evolution of their concentration fields. The computational model of exhaust gas distribution and dispersion in a spatial domain, which includes urban buildings, structures and main traffic arteries, takes into account a stochastic character of cars apparition on the borders of the examined territory and uses a Poisson process. The model also considers the traffic lights switching and permits to define the fields of velocity, pressure and temperature of the discharge gases in urban air. The verification of mathematical model and software used confirmed their satisfactory fit to the in-situ measurements data and the possibility to use the obtained computing results for assessment and prediction of urban air pollution caused by motor transport exhaust gases.

  3. Development of open air silicon deposition technology by silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under local ambient gas control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2016-07-01

    Open air silicon deposition was performed by combining silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical transport and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. The effect of air contamination on silicon deposition was investigated using a vacuum chamber, and the allowable air contamination level was confirmed to be 3 ppm. The capability of the local ambient gas control head was investigated numerically and experimentally. A safe and clean process environment with air contamination less than 1 ppm was achieved. Combining these technologies, a microcrystalline silicon film was deposited in open air, the properties of which were comparable to those of silicon films deposited in a vacuum chamber.

  4. Legal aspects of the air transportation of pregnant women having children on board the aircraft and especially the definition of citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Липець, Людмила

    2016-01-01

    The article defines the legal aspects of the air transport of pregnant women having children on board the aircraft and especially the definition of citizenship. The author makes a conclusion that the national legislation contains gaps and conflicts with respect to international legislation regulating these issues. English abstract L. Lуpets Legal aspects of the air transportation of pregnant women having children onboardtheaircraftandespeciallythedefinitionofcitizenship Thearticledefinesthel...

  5. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when de...

  6. The impact of circulation patterns on regional transport pathways and air quality over Beijing and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the air pollution characteristics of synoptic-scale circulation in the Beijing megacity, and provided quantitative evaluation of the impacts of circulation patterns on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Nine weather circulation types (CTs were objectively identified over the North China region during 2000–2009, using obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA. The resulting CTs were examined in relation to the local meteorology, regional transport pathways, and air quality parameters, respectively. The FLEXPART-WRF model was used to calculate 48-h backward plume trajectories for each CT. Each CT was characterized with distinct local meteorology and air mass origin. CT 1 (high pressure to the west with a strong pressure gradient was characterized by a northwestern air mass origin, with the smallest local and southeasterly air mass sources, and CT 6 (high pressure to the northwest had air mass sources mostly from the north and east. On the contrary, CTs 5, 8, and 9 (weak pressure field, high pressure to the east, and low pressure to the northwest, respectively were characterized by southern and southeastern trajectories, which indicated a greater influence of high pollutant emission sources. In turn, poor air quality in Beijing (high loadings of PM10, BC, SO2, NO2, NOx, O3, AOD, and low visibility was associated with these CTs. Good air quality in Beijing was associated with CTs 1 and 6. The average visibilities (with ±1σ in Beijing for CTs 1 and 6 during 2000–2009 were 18.5 ± 8.3 km and 14.3 ± 8.5 km, respectively. In contrast, low visibility values of 6.0 ± 3.5 km, 6.6 ± 3.7 km, and 6.7 ± 3.6 km were found in CTs 5, 8, and 9, respectively. The mean concentrations of PM10 for CTs 1, 6, 5, 8, and 9 during 2005–2009 were 90.3 ± 76.3 μg m−3, 111.7 ± 89.6 μg m−3, 173.4 ± 105.8 μg m

  7. The impact of circulation patterns on regional transport pathways and air quality over Beijing and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. P.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Q. H.; Li, C. C.; Shu, H. L.; Ying, Y.; Dai, Z. P.; Wang, X.; Liu, X. Y.; Liang, A. M.; Shen, H. X.; Yi, B. Q.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the air pollution characteristics of synoptic-scale circulation in the Beijing megacity, and provided quantitative evaluation of the impacts of circulation patterns on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Nine weather circulation types (CTs) were objectively identified over the North China region during 2000-2009, using obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting CTs were examined in relation to the local meteorology, regional transport pathways, and air quality parameters, respectively. The FLEXPART-WRF model was used to calculate 48-h backward plume trajectories for each CT. Each CT was characterized with distinct local meteorology and air mass origin. CT 1 (high pressure to the west with a strong pressure gradient) was characterized by a northwestern air mass origin, with the smallest local and southeasterly air mass sources, and CT 6 (high pressure to the northwest) had air mass sources mostly from the north and east. On the contrary, CTs 5, 8, and 9 (weak pressure field, high pressure to the east, and low pressure to the northwest, respectively) were characterized by southern and southeastern trajectories, which indicated a greater influence of high pollutant emission sources. In turn, poor air quality in Beijing (high loadings of PM10, BC, SO2, NO2, NOx, O3, AOD, and low visibility) was associated with these CTs. Good air quality in Beijing was associated with CTs 1 and 6. The average visibilities (with ±1σ) in Beijing for CTs 1 and 6 during 2000-2009 were 18.5 ± 8.3 km and 14.3 ± 8.5 km, respectively. In contrast, low visibility values of 6.0 ± 3.5 km, 6.6 ± 3.7 km, and 6.7 ± 3.6 km were found in CTs 5, 8, and 9, respectively. The mean concentrations of PM10 for CTs 1, 6, 5, 8, and 9 during 2005-2009 were 90.3 ± 76.3 μg m-3, 111.7 ± 89.6 μg m-3, 173.4 ± 105.8 μg m-3, 158.4 ± 90.0 μg m-3, and 151.2 ± 93.1 μg m-3, respectively. Analysis of the relationship between

  8. Greenhouse gas issues in the North American trucking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, P. [Center for Data and Analysis in Transportation CDAT, Departement d' economique, Universite Laval, 1025 Avenue des sciences sociales, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we examine some of the issues associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the North American trucking industry. We review some basic descriptive statistics to apprehend the basic conditions in the three countries of North America and describe the North American trucking industry and the changes in its GHG performance. We also present some of the policies that have been either implemented or are being considered to reduce trucking GHG emissions. We then discuss some of the issues involved in choosing instruments to reduce trucking emissions. Specifically, we discuss the following instruments: incentives and standard to improve truck fuel efficiency, a tax on CO2, and tradable permits systems.

  9. Investigations on the distribution of air transport traffic and CO2 emissions within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Rodrigo, Gustavo; Benito, A; Lonza, L.; Kousoulidou, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the structure of air traffic and its distribution among the different countries in the European Union, as well as traffic with an origin or destination in non-EU countries. Data sources are Eurostat statistics and actual flight information from EUROCONTROL. Relevant variables such as the number of flights, passengers or cargo tonnes and production indicators (RPKs) are used together with fuel consumption and CO2 emissions data. The segmentation of air traffic in terms of d...

  10. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Komppula, M.; Sihto, S.-L.; Korhonen, H.; Lihavainen, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In eastern air masses almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in western air masses most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle form...

  11. Effects of refrigerated truck temperature field uniformity on preservation of vegetables%冷藏车温度场不均匀度对蔬菜保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲; 李立民; 田津津; 郭永刚; 李曼

    2014-01-01

    &vegetables. Air supply is one of the key factors that ensures a uniform temperature field distribution to keep fruits and vegetables at good quality, prolong the shelf-life of products, and reduce loss in the refrigerated transport. Therefore, the experimental system for a refrigerated truck and data acquisition system has been developed. The experimental system consists of the refrigeration system, carriage of the refrigerated truck, and the fan. The data acquisition system includes the acquisition board, acquisition program, personal computer, anemometer, and thermocouples. The temperature in the refrigerated truck can be adjusted by the thermostat based on the different temperature requirements. To assess the temperature distribution in the refrigerated truck, the temperature non-uniformity (S) has been defined. In this paper, three kinds of vegetables (baby cabbages, peppers, and flammulina velutipes) have been tested in the refrigerated truck under different conditions. The weight loss rate, membrane penetration rate, vitamin c content, and chlorophyll content were evaluated under different storage conditions with three kinds of air supply forms. Weight loss rate, membrane penetration rate, and vitamin c content were evaluated under different storage conditions with different temperature fields, with temperature non-uniformity values of SI=3.71, SII=5.68, and SIII=8.36. It was found that the effect of the temperature field on the quality of vegetables is significant. Results show that the uniform temperature field has a better effect on preservation. The reason for this is that the more uniform the temperature is distributed, the more uniform the cold energy is distributed. In doing so, vegetables can be kept at the appropriate temperature environment; thus, the quality of vegetables can be kept for a long time. The three kinds of vegetables (baby cabbages, peppers, and flammulina velutipes) show the same result. This study can provide a reference for the optimization design

  12. 冷藏车温度场不均匀度对蔬菜保鲜效果的影响%Effects of refrigerated truck temperature field uniformity on preservation of vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲; 李立民; 田津津; 郭永刚; 李曼

    2014-01-01

    Social development promotes the growth of food production, thus increasing the requirement for food cold-chain circulation. The cold chain of fruits & vegetables occurs among picking, storage, and transportation and the entire process prior to consumption. It is what keeps fruits&vegetables at the appropriate temperature environment in order to maximize their storage quality assurance. Refrigerated transport has higher requirements on vehicles such as good refrigeration insulation properties free from large temperature fluctuations. Using refrigerated trucks is an advanced means of meeting the refrigerated transport development trends. Refrigerated trucks are able to meet the diverse market and the small quantities of frozen or fresh goods. Recently, the quantity of refrigerated trucks has been increasing rapidly. It is very important for refrigerated trucks to improve their uniform temperature field. The temperature field distribution of refrigerated trucks is one of the key factors that ensures a uniform distribution of the cooling capacity and it is what achieves energy reservation and weight loss reduction. Therefore, ensuring a uniform flow in the distribution of cargo area is a critical issue in improving the quality of transported fruits&vegetables. Air supply is one of the key factors that ensures a uniform temperature field distribution to keep fruits and vegetables at good quality, prolong the shelf-life of products, and reduce loss in the refrigerated transport. Therefore, the experimental system for a refrigerated truck and data acquisition system has been developed. The experimental system consists of the refrigeration system, carriage of the refrigerated truck, and the fan. The data acquisition system includes the acquisition board, acquisition program, personal computer, anemometer, and thermocouples. The temperature in the refrigerated truck can be adjusted by the thermostat based on the different temperature requirements. To assess the temperature

  13. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  14. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 4. Information data base: status of urban congestion, air pollution, and energy use. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.; Putnam, E.S.; Usowicz, T.W.

    1974-12-01

    The objective of the study is to formulate a basis for the design of a joint program which would simultaneously improve urban mobility and air quality and conserve petroleum resources. This fourth volume contains INTERPLAN's initial definition of the transportation-related urban problems now faced by UMTA, EPA, and FEA, and their authority to cope with these problems. The current status of transportation-related urban congestion, air pollution, and energy usage is analyzed on a national level, and the future status likely to obtain if present trends continue unchecked is projected. Congestion and air pollution is also examined in four cities: Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Seattle, and Baltimore.

  15. Explaining Air and Water Transport in Undisturbed Soils By X-Ray CT Derived Macroporosity and CT- Number-Derived Matrix Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per;

    The characterization of soil pore space geometry is important to predict the fluxes of air, water and solutes through soil and understand soil hydrogeochemical functions. X-ray computed tomography (CT) -derived parameters were evaluated as predictors of water, air and solute transport through soil...... the potential of X-ray CT visualization techniques for estimating fluxes through soil....

  16. Cause-Specific Mortality in the Unionized U.S. Trucking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime Elizabeth; Thomas J Smith; Davis, Mary E.; Garshick, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background: Occupational and population-based studies have related exposure to fine particulate air pollution, and specifically particulate matter from vehicle exhausts, to cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Objectives: We have established a large retrospective cohort to assess mortality in the unionized U.S. trucking industry. To provide insight into mortality patterns associated with job-specific exposures, we examined rates of cause-specific mortality compared with the general U.S. p...

  17. The Effect of Alternative Heavy Truck Suspensions on Flexible Pavement Response

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, J. K.; Yi, K.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic effects of heavy vehicle suspensions are investigated by analyzing parametric studies performed using previously developed simulation tools. In particular, the truck simulation package, VESYM, and the flexible pavement simulation package. VESYS, are used to look at the influence of alternative suspension types, e.g., walking beam, leaf spring/short rocker, air spring and semi-active shock absorbers on pavement response. The intent of the study is to determi...

  18. The impact of total liberalization on domestic air transport on the social welfare and on the dynamics of competition : comparison between United States and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    International audience Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a com...

  19. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  20. The impact of circulation patterns on regional transport pathways and air quality over Beijing and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the air pollution characteristics of synoptic-scale circulation in the Beijing megacity, and provided holistic evaluation of the impacts of circulation patterns on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Nine weather circulation types (CTs were objectively identified over the North China region during 2000–2009, using obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA. The resulting CTs were examined in relation to the local meteorology, regional transport pathways, and air quality parameters, respectively. The FLEXPART-WRF model was used to calculate 48-h backward plume trajectories for each CT. Nine CTs were characterized, with distinct local meteorology and air mass origins. CT 1 (high to the west with a strong pressure gradient was characterized by a northwestern origin, with the smallest local and southeasterly air mass sources, and CT 6 (high to the northwest had air mass sources mostly from the north and east. In contrast, CTs 5, 8, and 9 (unique, high to the east, and low to the northwest, respectively were characterized by southern and southeastern trajectories, which indicated a greater influence of high pollutant emission sources. In turn, poor air quality in Beijing (high loadings of PM10, BC, SO2, NO2, O3, AOD, and low visibility was associated with these CTs. Good air quality in Beijing was associated with CTs 1 and 6. The average visibilities (with ±1 σ in Beijing for CTs 1 and 6 during 2000–2009 were 18.5 ± 8.3 km and 14.3 ± 8.5 km, respectively. In contrast, poor visibility values of 6.0 ± 3.5 km, 6.6 ± 3.7 km, and 6.7 ± 3.6 km were found in CTs 5, 8, and 9, respectively. The mean concentrations of PM10 for CTs 1, 6, 5, 8, and 9 during 2005–2009 were 90.3 ± 76.3 μg m−3, 111.7 ± 89.6 μg m−3, 173.4 ± 105.8 μg m−3, 158.4 ± 90.0 μg m−3, and 151.2 ± 93.1 μg m

  1. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling isprimarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, hasflexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describesthe CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  2. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  3. 40 CFR 86.097-9 - Emission standards for 1997 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1997 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.097-9 Section 86.097-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  4. 40 CFR 86.099-9 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.099-9 Section 86.099-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 86.001-9 - Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks 86.001-9 Section 86.001-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.004-9 Section 86.004-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 86.000-9 - Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.000-9 Section 86.000-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  8. The influence of firn air transport processes and radiocarbon production on gas records from polar firn and ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buizert, Christo

    Air bubbles found in polar ice cores preserve a record of past atmospheric composition up to 800 kyr back in time. The composition of the bubbles is not identical to the ancient atmosphere, as it is influenced by processes prior to trapping, within the ice sheet itself, and during sampling...... in Northern Greenland (77.45 o N 51.06 o W). The depthdiffusivity relationship needs to be reconstructed using reference tracers of known atmospheric history. We present a novel method of characterizing the firn transport using ten tracers simultaneously, thus constraining the effective diffusivity better...

  9. Free Trade in Airline Services: Assessing the Proposals to Liberalize the Canada – U.S. Air Transport Bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Gillen, David W.; Hansen, Mark; Ramos, Robson

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we examine the consequences of changes to the bilateral agreement which regulates air transport between Canada and the United States. A hubbing competition model based on an n-player non-cooperative game is used to simulate six alternative bilateral scenarios including the current positions of Canada and the U.S.. We find that changes to the bilateral does not have a significant effect on the total amount of traffic but it does effect the distribution of traffic between countrie...

  10. OBTAINING OF NEW KNOWLEDGE IN «AIR CONDITIONING» DIRECTION DEVELOPMENT AT THE RAILWAYS TRANSPORT: SCIENTOMETRIC ASPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnykova, T. O.; Pominova, O. V.; Kolesnykov, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The research aimes at obtaining of new knowledge in «air conditioning» direction development at railway transport using products and services of Web of Science (WoS) scientometric database. Chronological frameworks of the studied scientific articles – 2010-2015 years. Methodology. In order to obtain relevant empirical data the authors reviewed the world literature on the paper topic with the use of full-texts and abstract databases. The algorithm of «incremental» actions in WoS was c...

  11. Integrated Observation of Aerosol Plumes Transport and Impacts on the Air Quality Remote Sensing in the Northeast U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghua; Nazmi, Chowdhury; Han, Zaw; Li, Cuiya; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a cluster analysis of plume transport paths to New York City (NYC, 40.821ºN, 73.949ºW) for the 8-year period during 2006-2013. We also show cases of such aloft aerosol plumes intrusion and mixing into the boundary layer (PBL) and the impact on local air quality. Range-resolved monthly occurrence frequency and modification of local aerosol optical properties are presented. The NOAA-HYSPLIT cluster analysis indicates 6 main transport paths; and the optical properties (optical depth-AOD, Angstrom exponent-AE and single scatter albedo-SSA) of aerosol for each cluster are characterized. We further illustrate the impact of these aloft plumes on the satellite MODIS estimate of ground PM2.5 levels and observe that when the aloft plumes-layer AODs are filtered out using lidar, the correlation of MODIS AOD-PM2.5 can be much improved.

  12. Diagnostic Evaluation of Ozone Production and Horizontal Transport in a Regional Photochemical Air Quality Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O3) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...

  13. Competitiveness of the Air and the Sea Cargo Transport of Mexico under the International Trade Frame

    OpenAIRE

    America I. Zamora Torres; Jose Cesar Lenin Navarro Chavez; Joel Bonales Valencia

    2015-01-01

    International trade trends have changed the cost structure, pricing, logistics, supply chain and hence comparative advantages. Such trends have similarly defined the trade competitiveness of countries becoming more relevant with the level of integration of global transport networks as a driver of international trade. In this paper we evaluate through Principal Component Analysis methodology the international transport competitiveness considering the most important variables that affect this s...

  14. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER AND TRUCK TEST SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2014-09-25

    This study continues the modeling support of the SNL shaker table task from 2013 and includes analysis of the SNL 2014 truck test campaign. Detailed finite element models of the fuel assembly surrogate used by SNL during testing form the basis of the modeling effort. Additional analysis was performed to characterize and filter the accelerometer data collected during the SNL testing. The detailed fuel assembly finite element model was modified to improve the performance and accuracy of the original surrogate fuel assembly model in an attempt to achieve a closer agreement with the low strains measured during testing. The revised model was used to recalculate the shaker table load response from the 2013 test campaign. As it happened, the results remained comparable to the values calculated with the original fuel assembly model. From this it is concluded that the original model was suitable for the task and the improvements to the model were not able to bring the calculated strain values down to the extremely low level recorded during testing. The model needs more precision to calculate strains that are so close to zero. The truck test load case had an even lower magnitude than the shaker table case. Strain gage data from the test was compared directly to locations on the model. Truck test strains were lower than the shaker table case, but the model achieved a better relative agreement of 100-200 microstrains (or 0.0001-0.0002 mm/mm). The truck test data included a number of accelerometers at various locations on the truck bed, surrogate basket, and surrogate fuel assembly. This set of accelerometers allowed an evaluation of the dynamics of the conveyance system used in testing. It was discovered that the dynamic load transference through the conveyance has a strong frequency-range dependency. This suggests that different conveyance configurations could behave differently and transmit different magnitudes of loads to the fuel even when travelling down the same road at

  15. Joint strategies for urban transportation, air quality, and energy conservation. Joint action programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.; Hudson, C.L.; Putnam, E.S.; Thiesen, D.J.

    1974-12-01

    An integrated approach is given for resolving problems created by traffic congestion, air pollution, and petroleum shortages. In Part 1, the basic relationships among the strategies and actions are summarized in a matrix display. Each item is ranked to access its impact on six subgoals, or phenomena, in the near or long term: improved auto alernatives; improved vehicular flow; reduced auto use; reduced travel demand; reduced vehicular emissions; and reduced vehicular petroleum consumption. Two synergistic joint action programs are presented. Part II contains an information review of experience, impacts on goals (mobility, air quality, energy conservation), and an overall evaluation of 54 specific actions.

  16. An Overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Langford; Senff, C.J.; R.J., Alvarez; Brioude, Jérome; Cooper, O. R; J. S. Holloway; Lin, M.; Marchbanks, R.D.; R. B. Pierce; S. P. Sandberg; A. M. Weickmann; E. J. Williams

    2014-01-01

    International audience The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport...

  17. Hub-and-Spoke System in Air Transportation and Its Implications to Regional Economic Development——A Case Study of United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wei; MA Yanji

    2006-01-01

    Considerable changes have taken place in commercial passenger air transport since the enactment of the 1978Airline Deregulation Act in the US and the deregulation of airline networks that has occurred elsewhere. The commercial and operational freedoms have led most of the larger carriers to develop hub-and-spoke networks, within which certain cities or metropolitan areas emerge as key nodes possessing tremendous advantages over other locations in the air transport system. This paper examines the nature of hub-and-spoke operations in air transportation services, and the benefits that accrue to a city or geographical region that is host to an airline hub. In particular, it looks into linkages between the air service hub and local economic development. Four potential types of impact of airports on the regional economy are defined and discussed. As an example, the assessment of the economic impacts of Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), a major Delta Airlines hub, is introduced.

  18. 32 CFR 861.4 - DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or 135 (14 CFR 121, 125, 127, or 135) air carrier (or foreign CAA equivalent if appropriate) on a...) Aircrew training. Training, including recurrent training, which develops and refines skills designed to... ensure that all maintenance tasks, including required inspections and airworthiness directives,...

  19. Buenos Aires: en busca de un modelo de gestión integral del transporte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagare, V.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    En la ciudad de Buenos Aires, el modelo de movilidad urbana y sus mutaciones a lo largo de la historia han dejado su impronta en la expansión territorial, y sobre todo, en el proceso de metropolización. En este artículo se analizan esas mutaciones desde varias ópticas. En un primer apartado se estud

  20. Reliance of British transport on fossil fuels: associated adverse impacts on air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.-M.; Badr, O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1997-01-01

    Economically recoverable indigenous reserves of petroleum and natural gas will be exhausted early next century, forcing the UK to rely heavily upon imports of these commodities. The forecasted increases in the latter will result in a rise in the national rate of CO{sub 2} emissions after AD 2000. It has been estimated that by 2020, approximately 675 ({+-} 55) million tonnes of CO{sub 2} will be emitted annually in the UK, with {approx} 30% of these arising from transport. The percentage of total SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the transport sector is also predicted to increase to 10% by AD 2020. The recent rise in energy demand by the transport sector is also leading to larger emission rates of other atmospheric pollutants in the UK. In 1992, transport was responsible for 48%, 48%, 91%, and 61% of the total national emissions of black smoke, VOCs, CO, and NO{sub x} respectively, with 47%, 46%, 90% and 53% of these respectively resulting from road transport. (author)

  1. Final environmental statement on the transportation of radioactive material by air and other modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is presented of the environmental impact from transportation of shipments of radioactive material into, within, and out of the United States. It is intended to serve as background material for a review by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of regulations dealing with transportation of radioactive materials. The impetus for such a review results not only from a general need to examine regulations to ensure their continuing consistency with the goal of limiting radiological impact to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable, but also from a need to respond to current national discussions of the safety and security aspects of nuclear fuel cycle materials. Chapters are included on regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials, radiological effects, transport impact under normal conditions, impacts of transportation accidents, alternatives, and security and safeguards. A standard shipments model is also included along with a demographic model, excerpts from federal regulations, data on Pu, Population dose formulas, a list of radioactive material incidents, accident analysis methodology, and an analysis of risk assessment sensitivity

  2. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  3. Supply Chain Basics: Tracking Trucks With GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, GPS systems provide a vehicle operator with the vehicle’s position in latitude and longitude. A mapping program is usually integrated, which correlates the vehicle’s position with the location of landmarks. Routing programs (similar to the commonly used Internet driving directions) are generally added to give vehicle operators directions to their destination. The central component of a tracking system is a GPS unit with the ability to locate a container, truck, or rail...

  4. 76 FR 42163 - Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... to an April 8, 2011 notice announcing a pilot program on the North American Free Trade Agreement... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...

  5. A summary of truck fuel-saving measures developed with industry participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.M.; Saricks, C.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gregory, E.W. II [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Moore, A.J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the third project undertaken by the Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in a US Department of Energy program designed to develop and distribute compendiums of measures for saving transportation fuel. A matrix, or chart, of more than 60 fuel-saving measures was developed by ANL and refined with the assistance of trucking industry operators and researchers at an industry coordination meeting held in August 1982. The first two projects used similar meetings to refine matrices developed for the international maritime and US railroad industries. The consensus reached by those at the meeting was that the single most important element in a truck fuel-efficiency improvement program is the human element -- namely the development of strong motivation among truck drivers to save fuel. The role of the driver is crucial to the successful use of fuel-saving equipment and operating procedures. Identical conclusions were reached in the earlier maritime and rail meetings, thus providing a strong indication of the pervasive importance of the human element in energy-efficient transportation systems. The number and variety of changes made to the matrix are also delineated, including addition and deletion of various options and revisions of fuel-saving estimates, payback period estimates, and remarks concerning items such as the advantages, disadvantages, and cautions associated with various measures. The quality and quantity of the suggested changes demonstrate the considerable value of using a forum of industry operators and researchers to refine research data that are intended for practical application.

  6. Accelerated OH(-) transport in activated carbon air cathode by modification of quaternary ammonium for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Cuijuan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qingrui; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a promising catalyst for the air cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of its high performance and low cost. To increase the performance of AC air cathodes, the acceleration of OH(-) transport is one of the most important methods, but it has not been widely investigated. Here we added quaternary ammonium to ACs by in situ anchoring of a quaternary ammonium/epoxide-reacting compound (QAE) or ex situ mixing with anion exchange resins in order to modify ACs from not only the external surface but also inside the pores. In 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the in situ anchoring of QAE was a more effective way to increase the power. The highest power density of 2781 ± 36 mW/m(2), which is 10% higher than that of the control, was obtained using QAE-anchored AC cathodes. When the medium was switched to an unbuffered NaCl solution, the increase in maximum power density (885 ± 25 mW/m(2)) was in accordance with the anion exchange capacity (0.219 mmol/g). The highest power density of the anion exchange resin-mixed air cathode was 51% higher than that of the control, indicating that anion exchange is urgently needed in real wastewaters. Excess anchoring of QAE blocked both the mesopores and micropores, causing the power output to be inhibited. PMID:24597673

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of an Air-monitoring Network Using Atmospheric Transport Modeling and Frequency of Detection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Arthur S; Sondrup, A Jeffrey; Ritter, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the performance of an air-monitoring network in terms of frequency of detection. Frequency of detection is defined as the fraction of "events" that result in a detection at either a single sampler or network of samplers. An "event" is defined as a release to the atmosphere of a specified amount of activity over a finite duration that begins on a given day and hour of the year. The methodology uses an atmospheric transport model to predict air concentrations of radionuclides at the samplers for a given release time and duration. Another metric of interest determined by the methodology is called the network intensity, which is defined as the fraction of samplers in the network that have a positive detection for a given event. The frequency of detection methodology allows for evaluation of short-term releases that include effects of short-term variability in meteorological conditions. The methodology was tested using the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site ambient air-monitoring network consisting of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations covering a 17,630 km region. Releases from six major facilities distributed over an area of 1,435 km were modeled and included three stack sources and eight ground-level sources. A Lagrangian Puff air dispersion model (CALPUFF) was used to model atmospheric transport. The model was validated using historical Sb releases and measurements. Relevant 1-wk release quantities from each emission source were calculated based on a dose of 1.9×10 mSv at a public receptor (0.01 mSv assuming release persists over a year). Important radionuclides were Am, Cs, Pu, Pu, Sr, and tritium. Results show the detection frequency was over 97.5% for the entire network considering all sources and radionuclides. Network intensity results ranged from 3.75% to 62.7%. Evaluation of individual samplers indicated some samplers were poorly located and added little to the overall

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of an Air-monitoring Network Using Atmospheric Transport Modeling and Frequency of Detection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Arthur S; Sondrup, A Jeffrey; Ritter, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the performance of an air-monitoring network in terms of frequency of detection. Frequency of detection is defined as the fraction of "events" that result in a detection at either a single sampler or network of samplers. An "event" is defined as a release to the atmosphere of a specified amount of activity over a finite duration that begins on a given day and hour of the year. The methodology uses an atmospheric transport model to predict air concentrations of radionuclides at the samplers for a given release time and duration. Another metric of interest determined by the methodology is called the network intensity, which is defined as the fraction of samplers in the network that have a positive detection for a given event. The frequency of detection methodology allows for evaluation of short-term releases that include effects of short-term variability in meteorological conditions. The methodology was tested using the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site ambient air-monitoring network consisting of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations covering a 17,630 km region. Releases from six major facilities distributed over an area of 1,435 km were modeled and included three stack sources and eight ground-level sources. A Lagrangian Puff air dispersion model (CALPUFF) was used to model atmospheric transport. The model was validated using historical Sb releases and measurements. Relevant 1-wk release quantities from each emission source were calculated based on a dose of 1.9×10 mSv at a public receptor (0.01 mSv assuming release persists over a year). Important radionuclides were Am, Cs, Pu, Pu, Sr, and tritium. Results show the detection frequency was over 97.5% for the entire network considering all sources and radionuclides. Network intensity results ranged from 3.75% to 62.7%. Evaluation of individual samplers indicated some samplers were poorly located and added little to the overall

  9. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  10. 冷板冷藏汽车箱体内温度场的数值模拟及试验%Numerical simulation and experiment of temperature field distribution in box of cold plate refrigerated truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲; 郭永刚; 田津津; 李曼

    2013-01-01

    intermediated stacking in this paper. To better display the simulated results, three sections were selected along truck’s length direction and one section alone width direction as the research surface of computational simulation. This study revealed the general rules and influencing factors of temperature field in cold plate refrigerated truck, which can provide a reference for the optimization design and the selection of stack method in cold plate refrigerated truck. Simulation result showed that the temperature of container roof was always at a relatively high level. In this model, the temperature field and fluid field of the refrigerated truck were symmetrical both along the length and the width direction. The highest temperature difference in cargo area reached 18℃, which was disadvantage to storage and transportation quality. It is hard to form a uniform air and temperature field only by the natural convection depended on temperature difference in cold plate refrigerated truck. It's recommended to install cold plates on top of container and to find proper ventilation methods that can strengthen heat convection between cold air and goods, improving the cooling speed of cold plate refrigerated truck. Method of contrast verification was used to verify the correctness of the model in this paper. And the deviation of experimental data and simulated result was not beyond the scope of permission, which showed that the model was appropriate to the simulation of the temperature distribution in cold plate refrigerated truck.%  冷板冷藏汽车内空气的温度分布对其储运能力有很大影响,均匀的温度场使得货物在运输过程中品质得到有效保证。该文采用数值模拟方法,计算空载车箱内部温度场,并分析不同堆码方式对货物区温度场及流场的影响。通过对不同情况下冷板冷藏汽车箱体内的温度场特性进行数值模拟研究,得出了车箱内温度分布规律及其影响因素,可为其

  11. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Department of Transportation (44 FR 11034). Executive Order 13563 is supplemental to and reaffirms the... tape or a waterproof soft plastic cap that must easily provide ventilation of the drum contents in the... has substantial direct effects on the States, the relationship between the national government and...

  12. 78 FR 71504 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...) On August 10, 2005, the SAFETEA-LU was signed into law streamlining the requirements for conformity... provision took effect on August 10, 2005, when SAFETEA-LU was signed into law. E. General Conformity... Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) E. General Conformity Affected by SAFETEA-LU ]...

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  14. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, R. A.; Lock, G.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the...... database are presented, including changes from MEET findings. The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat. Data is at port to MCA level, so a bottom-up approach is used. This was the first attempt to use Eurostat maritime statistics for emission modelling, and the problems that have been...... encountered since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission results per port and vessel type, to aggregate results for different types of movements...

  15. Liberalism in foreign trade versus liberalism in air transportation - is there a link?

    OpenAIRE

    Grancay Martin; Szikorova Nora

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a statistically significant link between regulation of international civil aviation and protectionism against foreign trade. We use weighted air liberalization index (WALI) as a proxy for the level of regulation in a country’s foreign aviation relations; trade tariff restrictiveness index (TTRI) and overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI) as proxies for the level of protectionism in a country’s forei...

  16. Long Range Transport of Air Pollution Into Norway - A Transfer Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Damsleth

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily and monthly concentration of sulphate in the air at Birkcnes in the southern part of Norway is analysed within an intervention analysis and transfer function framework. As input to the model we use the prevailing wind direction. It is shown that when the wind comes mainly from the South, that is from Central Europe and England, this gives a significant increase in the sulphate concentration, while a northern wind leads to a decrease.

  17. Benchmarking passenger air transport marketing activities in Vietnam : case company: Etihad Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Nga Nguyen, Thi

    2015-01-01

    Marketing strategy is crucial for businesses operating in highly competitive environments. Especially with the intense competition over international flights in the Vietnamese air travel market, it is important for airlines to adopt superior strategy, in order to incorporate brand presence in the market. Hence, performing benchmarking on marketing strategy for Etihad Airways is timely and necessary. The thesis adopts the combination of inductive and deductive approaches, with the assistan...

  18. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    B. Aouizerats; G. R. van der Werf; Balasubramanian, R; R. Betha

    2014-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of ...

  19. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN TRUCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Kaselyova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Design of experiment (DOE represent very powerful tool for process improvement vastly supported by six sigma methodology. This approach is mostly used by large and manufacturing orientated companies. Presented research is focused on use of DOE in truck company, which is medium size and service orientated. Such study has several purposes. Firstly, detailed description of improvement effort based on DOE can be used as a methodological framework for companies similar to researched one. Secondly, it provides example of successfully implemented low cost design of experiment practise. Moreover, performed experiment identifies key factors, which influence the lifetime of truck tyres.Design/methodology: The research in this paper is based on experiment conducted in Slovakian Truck Company. It provides detailed case study of whole improvement effort, together with problem formulation, design creation and analysis, as well as the results interpretation. The company wants to improve lifetime of the truck tyres. Next to fuel consumption, consumption of tyres and their replacement represent according to them, one of most costly processes in company. Improvement effort was made through the use of PDCA cycle. It start with analysis of current state of tyres consumption. The variability of tyres consumption based on years and types was investigated. Then the causes of tyres replacement were identified and screening DOE was conducted. After a screening design, the full factorial design of experiment was used to identify main drivers of tyres deterioration and breakdowns. Based on result of DOE, the corrective action were propose and implement.Findings: Based on performed experiment our research describes process of tyres use and replacement. It defines main reasons for tyre breakdown and identify main drivers which influence truck tyres lifetime. Moreover it formulates corrective action to prolong tyres lifetime.Originality: The study represents full

  20. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  1. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers

  2. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, A.W.; Foley, J.T. Jr.; Hartman, W.F.; Larson, D.W.

    1978-05-01

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers.

  3. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas; Dwyer, Harry; Sperling, Daniel; Gouse, S. William; King, Foy

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engines....

  4. Chemical Transport and Reduced-Form Models for Assessing Air Quality Impacts of Current and Future Energy Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Though essential for informed decision-making, it is challenging to estimate the air quality and public health impacts associated with current and future energy generation scenarios because the analysis must address the complicated atmospheric processes that air pollutants undergo: emissions, dispersion, chemistry, and removal. Employing a chemical transport model (CTM) is the most rigorous way to address these atmospheric processes. However, CTMs are expensive from a computational standpoint and, therefore, beyond the reach of policy analysis for many types of problems. On the other hand, previously available reduced-form models used for policy analysis fall short of the rigor of CTMs and may lead to biased results. To address this gap, we developed the Estimating Air pollution Social Impacts Using Regression (EASIUR) method, which builds parameterizations that predict per-tonne social costs and intake fractions for pollutants emitted from any location in the United States. Derived from a large database of tagged CTM simulations, the EASIUR method predicts social costs almost indistinguishable from a full CTM but with negligible computational requirements. We found that the average mortality-related social costs from inorganic PM2.5 and its precursors in the United States are 150,000-180,000/t EC, 21,000-34,000/t SO2, 4,200-15,000/t NOx, and 29,000-85,000/t NH3. This talk will demonstrate examples of using both CTMs and reduced-form models for assessing air quality impacts associated with current energy production activities as well as a future deployment of carbon capture and sequestration.

  5. Analyzing the evolutionary mechanisms of the Air Transportation System-of-Systems using network theory and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya

    Complexity in the Air Transportation System (ATS) arises from the intermingling of many independent physical resources, operational paradigms, and stakeholder interests, as well as the dynamic variation of these interactions over time. Currently, trade-offs and cost benefit analyses of new ATS concepts are carried out on system-wide evaluation simulations driven by air traffic forecasts that assume fixed airline routes. However, this does not well reflect reality as airlines regularly add and remove routes. A airline service route network evolution model that projects route addition and removal was created and combined with state-of-the-art air traffic forecast methods to better reflect the dynamic properties of the ATS in system-wide simulations. Guided by a system-of-systems framework, network theory metrics and machine learning algorithms were applied to develop the route network evolution models based on patterns extracted from historical data. Constructing the route addition section of the model posed the greatest challenge due to the large pool of new link candidates compared to the actual number of routes historically added to the network. Of the models explored, algorithms based on logistic regression, random forests, and support vector machines showed best route addition and removal forecast accuracies at approximately 20% and 40%, respectively, when validated with historical data. The combination of network evolution models and a system-wide evaluation tool quantified the impact of airline route network evolution on air traffic delay. The expected delay minutes when considering network evolution increased approximately 5% for a forecasted schedule on 3/19/2020. Performance trade-off studies between several airline route network topologies from the perspectives of passenger travel efficiency, fuel burn, and robustness were also conducted to provide bounds that could serve as targets for ATS transformation efforts. The series of analysis revealed that high

  6. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  7. Alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology for large size uranium waste (2). Simulation model reinforcement for practical apparatus design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation (AMAT), conversion from ion currents to radioactivity accurate is required. An ion transport simulation provides ways of complementarily determining conversion factors. We have developed an ion transport simulation model. Simulation results were compared with experiments with air speeds, faster than 1 m/s, achieving good agreement. In a practical AMAT apparatus, the air-flow at the alpha source may be slower than 1 m/s, and ion loss is likely to be large. Reinforcement of the ion transport model to cover the lower air speed region is effective. Ions are generated by an alpha particle in a very thin column. Since the ion density at this temporal stage is high, the recombination loss, proportional to the square of ion density, is dominant within a few milli-seconds. The spatial and temporal scales of this columnar recombination are too small for CFD simulation. We solve an ion transport equation during the period of columnar recombination with diffusion and recombination terms and incorporated the relation between ion loss and turbulent parameters into CFD. Using this model, simulations have been done for various air speeds and targets. Those for simulation results agree with experiments, showing improvement of simulation accuracy. (author)

  8. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  9. Overweight truck shipments to nuclear waste repositories: legal, political, administrative and operational considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared for the Chicago Operations Office and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), identifies and analyzes legal, political, administrative, and operational issues that could affect an OCRWM decision to develop an overweight truck cask fleet for the commercial nuclear waste repository program. It also provides information required by DOE on vehicle size-and-weight administration and regulation, pertinent to nuclear waste shipments. Current legal-weight truck casks have a payload of one pressurized-water reactor spent fuel element or two boiling-water reactor spent fuel elements (1 PWR/2 BWR). For the requirements of the 1960s and 1970s, casks were designed with massive shielding to accommodate 6-month-old spent fuel; the gross vehicle weight was limited to 73,280 pounds. Spent fuel to be moved in the 1990s will have aged five years or more. Gross vehicle weight limitation for the Interstate highway system has been increased to 80,000 pounds. These changes allow the design of 25-ton legal-weight truck casks with payloads of 2 PWR/5 BWR. These changes may also allow the development of a 40-ton overweight truck cask with a payload of 4 PWR/10 BWR. Such overweight casks will result in significantly fewer highway shipments compared with legal-weight casks, with potential reductions in transport-related repository risks and costs. These advantages must be weighed against a number of institutional issues surrounding such overweight shipments before a substantial commitment is made to develop an overweight truck cask fleet. This report discusses these issues in detail and provides recommended actions to DOE

  10. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  11. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    CERN Document Server

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  12. AN INITIAL INTIMATION OF A YET BANAL DISCOURSE: TRUCK GRAFFITI

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid Basthomi

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an initial discussion of truck graffiti. It reviews pertinent literature on graffiti which shows that, despite the fact that graffiti have attracted a number of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds, truck graffiti have been under researched. It also specifically presents types of graffiti and approaches to graffiti research which demonstrates that, even though truck graffiti might be classified into "public", they seem to have been overlooked in the realm ...

  13. Unrestricted riding in pickup truck cargo beds poses significant hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, R C

    2000-02-01

    Individuals riding in the beds of pickup trucks face significant risks of debilitating injury or death, yet Mississippi currently has no legislation restricting ridership in truck beds. Data collection on accidents involving truck bed passengers indicates that children make up the majority of victims. Such accidents impose a heavy burden on society in terms of both medical expenses and impaired quality of life for the victims. PMID:10710895

  14. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  15. Heat transport in the marine atmospheric boundary layer during an intense cold air outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    1988-01-01

    The generation of the virtual heat flux in the convective MABL associated with the January 28, 1986 intense cold air airbreak offshore of the Carolinas is studied. A technique based on the joint frequency distribution of the virtual potential temperature and vertical motion (Mahrt and Paumier, 1984) is used. The results suggest that, if buoyancy is mainly driven by the temperature flux, the physical processes for generating buoyancy flux are about the same for boundary layers over land and ocean, even with different convective regimes.

  16. AN INITIAL INTIMATION OF A YET BANAL DISCOURSE: TRUCK GRAFFITI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Basthomi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an initial discussion of truck graffiti. It reviews pertinent literature on graffiti which shows that, despite the fact that graffiti have attracted a number of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds, truck graffiti have been under researched. It also specifically presents types of graffiti and approaches to graffiti research which demonstrates that, even though truck graffiti might be classified into "public", they seem to have been overlooked in the realm of graffiti research. This situation insinuates that truck graffiti, particularly those in the Indonesian settings, warrants further exploration.

  17. Differences between pickup truck and automobile driver-owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Winn, D G; Agran, P F

    1999-01-01

    This study compares pickup truck driver-owners and drivers who owned only automobiles with respect to demographic factors, conditions of use, risk-taking driving behavior, prior driving history and attitudes towards motor vehicle laws. A telephone survey conducted in Riverside County, CA determined that 36% of the households had a pickup truck. Pickup truck owners were primarily male, aged 30-39 years, married, reported lower restraint use and more risky driving behaviors, and had more traffic citations. Differences in behaviors and attitudes were largely a function of age and gender. There is a need to design appropriate occupant safety interventions for those most likely to own pickup trucks. PMID:10084620

  18. Quantifying capital goods for collection and transport of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    he capital goods for collection and transport of waste were quantified for different types of containers (plastic containers, cubes and steel containers) and an 18-tonnes compacting collection truck. The data were collected from producers and vendors of the bins and the truck. The service lifetime and the capacity of the goods were also assessed. Environmental impact assessment of the production of the capital goods revealed that, per tonne of waste handled, the truck had the largest contribu...

  19. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    fuel economy benefits to the heavy-duty trucking industry. Control software for power management brings added value to the power distribution and energy storage architecture on board a truck with electric accessories and an ISG. The research team has built upon a previous truck electrification project, formally, 'Parasitic Energy Loss Reduction and Enabling Technologies for Class 7/8 Trucks', DE-FC04-2000AL6701, where the fundamental concept of electrically-driven accessories replacing belt/gear-driven accessories was demonstrated on a Kenworth T2000 truck chassis. The electrical accessories, shown in Figure 1, were controlled to provide 'flow on demand' variable-speed operation and reduced parasitic engine loads for increased fuel economy. These accessories also provided solutions for main engine idle reduction in long haul trucks. The components and systems of the current project have been integrated into the same Kenworth T2000 truck platform. Reducing parasitic engine loading by decoupling accessory loads from the engine and driving them electrically has been a central concept of this project. Belt or gear-driven engine accessories, such as water pump, air conditioning compressor, or air compressor, are necessarily tied to the engine speed dictated by the current vehicle operating conditions. These conventional accessory pumps are sized to provide adequate flow or pressure at low idle or peak torque speeds, resulting in excess flow or pressure at cruising or rated speeds. The excess flow is diverted through a pressure-minimizing device such as a relief valve thereby expending energy to drive unnecessary and inefficient pump operation. This inefficiency causes an increased parasitic load to the engine, which leads to a loss of usable output power and decreased fuel economy. Controlling variable-speed electric motors to provide only the required flow or pressure of a particular accessory system can yield significant increases in fuel economy for a

  20. The dynamics of the HSCT environment. [air pollution from High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of aircraft engine exhausts on stratospheric ozone levels are currently limited to 2D zonally-averaged models which, while completely representing chemistry, involve high parameterization of transport processes. Prospective 3D models under development by NASA-Goddard will use winds from a data-assimilation procedure; the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere behavior of one such model has been verified by direct comparison of model simulations with satellite, balloon, and sonde measurements. Attention is presently given to the stratosphere/troposphere exchange and nonzonal distribution of aircraft engine exhaust.