WorldWideScience

Sample records for air transportation

  1. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  2. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  3. AIR TRANSPORTS – COMPONENT OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Loredana LĂPĂDUŞI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air transports activity has known an important development caused by the economic increase, by Romania’s involvement in the international products trade, in international tourism. They are completed by the specific characteristics of air transports, which, together with the characteristics of the other ways of transport, has certain transport objectives with a higher and higher significance. Air traffic has a national commercial value and thus practices have been established in approaching national policies regarding: internal traffic protection through national air transporters, granting access to foreign transporters to national traffic in international transports.

  4. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  5. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criteria for determining when U.S. flag air carriers are unavailable. See 48 CFR 47.403-1, or USAID... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation...

  6. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  7. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  8. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  9. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  10. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel. PMID:20669640

  11. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  12. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2) package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities, especially as used in international safeguards activities, and especially as transported by air. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The accident environments may be imposed upon the package singly or seqentially. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. Packaging, operational features, and contents of package, are discussed

  13. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqian Qu; Jinfu Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the dif...

  14. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  15. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  16. Consumer protections and limited liability: Global order for air transport?

    OpenAIRE

    Truxal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of air passenger rights regimes around the globe, at least half of which were introduced in the past seven years, presents a real challenge for many stakeholders in air transport. On the one hand, national rules often vary from state to state; they overlap and are often complex or conflicting, which can be seen as creating rather ambiguous liability for the air transport sector, in particular for airlines and airports. On the other hand, the inherent nature of air transport ...

  17. [Long-haul intensive care transports by air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC. PMID:23504461

  18. Air Transport and Operations. Proceedings of the Third International Air Transport and Operations Symposium 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Fischer, L.; Pérez, D.; Klein, K.; Hoekstra, J.; Roling, P.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Air transport must evolve if it is to optimize its value in the 21st century. The mood in the aerospace industry is positive with regard to economic recovery, but the focus in this transitional time must be on sustaining value, without losing sight of environmental and safety priorities

  19. 49 CFR 1510.7 - Air transportation advertisements and solicitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transportation advertisements and... PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.7 Air transportation advertisements and solicitations... part as “September 11th Security Fee” in all its advertisements and solicitations for...

  20. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5 Section 221.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff...

  1. Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng

    In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the

  2. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqian Qu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the difference of the factors for different city. By comparing demand distribution with airports’ throughput, we can analyze the demand flow. There are some conclusions. The factors have different contribution rate to different city for demand generation. Aircraft movement is the most important factor influencing demand flow. It provides more accurate basis for market positioning and developing, airport layout in a multi-airport system.

  3. Weighted multiplex network of air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Imre

    2016-06-01

    In several real networks large heterogeneity of links is present either in intensity or in the nature of relationships. Therefore, recent studies in network science indicate that more detailed topological information are available if weighted or multi-layer aspect is applied. In the age of globalization air transportation is a representative example of huge complex infrastructure systems, which has been analyzed from different points of view. In this paper a novel approach is applied to study the airport network as a weighted multiplex taking into account the fact that the rules and fashion of domestic and international flights differ. Restricting study to only topological features and their correlations in the system (disregarding traffic) one can see reasons why simple network approximation is not adequate.

  4. Globalisation and Air Transportation Industry: A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin, Shahrul Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Air transportation remains a large and growing industry that is central to the globalisation process. The globalisation impact on the air transportation industry remains largely focused on the airlines, while the impact on airports is rarely defined. The objective of this research is to identify the processes of globalisation that impact the air transportation industry specifically on airport development and operations that will greatly influence the changing nature of airports. A survey ques...

  5. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  6. Modelling the Air Transport with Complex Networks: a short review

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Air transport is a key infrastructure of modern societies. In this paper we review some recent approaches to air transport, which make extensive use of theory of complex networks. We discuss possible networks that can be defined for the air transport and we focus our attention to networks of airports connected by flights. We review several papers investigating the topology of these networks and their dynamics for time scales ranging from years to intraday intervals, and consider also the resilience properties of air networks to extreme events. Finally we discuss the results of some recent papers investigating the dynamics on air transport network, with emphasis on passengers traveling in the network and epidemic spreading mediated by air transport.

  7. Physiology and behavior of dogs during air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Renée; Scott, Shannon L.; Émond, Jean-Pierre; Mercier, Florent; Nigel J. Cook; Schaefer, Al L.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four beagles were used to measure physiological and behavioral reactions to air transport. Each of 3 groups of 4 sedated (with 0.5 mg/kg body weight of acepromazine maleate) and 4 non-sedated (control) dogs was flown on a separate flight between Montreal, Quebec, and Toronto, Ontario, after being transported by road from Quebec City to Montreal. Saliva and blood samples were taken before ground and air transport and after air transport. The heart rate was monitored during the whole exp...

  8. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE Camelia; SEBEA Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Air transport is an innovative industry that drives economic and social progress. It connects people, countries and cultures; provides access to global markets and generates trade and tourism. It also forges links between developed and developing nations. Like most human activities, air transport has an impact on the environment, mainly through noise and emissions that affect local air quality and the climate. The industry fully recognises its responsibility in this regard and is determined t...

  9. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  10. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  11. First International Forum on Management of Air Transport & Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne Napoli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Sabatier University is the only French University that offers a Master’s Degree in both Air Transport and International Tourism Management and in January 21-23, 2016 launched the first "business-research" Forum to capitalize on the combination of international professional and academic experts and to confirm its role as a major player in two inseparable areas: research and study development within Air Transport and Tourism.

  12. First International Forum on Management of Air Transport & Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Jocelyne Napoli

    2016-01-01

    The Paul Sabatier University is the only French University that offers a Master’s Degree in both Air Transport and International Tourism Management and in January 21-23, 2016 launched the first "business-research" Forum to capitalize on the combination of international professional and academic experts and to confirm its role as a major player in two inseparable areas: research and study development within Air Transport and Tourism.

  13. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, Nicole; Nash, Chris; Pels, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers,

  14. International antiterrorist conventions concerning the safety of air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek BARCIK; Piotr CZECH

    2008-01-01

    In this article the international law regulations are presented concerning the civilian safety of the air transport. The history concerning air terrorism and international antiterrorist conventions was described in detail, involving The Chicago Convention, The Tokyo Convention, The Hague Convention and Montreal Convention.

  15. Transportation and Air Quality in California: A Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in air pollution emissions control have occurred over the past twenty years. Emissions have been substantially reduced by both industrial and transportation sources; over the ten year period 1977-86, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports improvements in each of the six air pollutants for which health-based national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exist -- lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. Yet ma...

  16. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  17. The impact of sea-air mode on air cargo transport

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hajri, Ghanem Mohamed

    1997-01-01

    The following research looks into the concept of sea-air intermodality, a combination of two or more modes of transport for the carriage of goods from origin to destination. The study examines why and how this form of transport evolved to become a viable alternative to the conventional single modes of ocean and air transport. The viability of the sea-air mode depends on various equally important factors which are analysed in depth, with a special emphasis on the sea-ai...

  18. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  19. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  20. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre...... neurologist to arrival in the regional stroke centre was significantly shorter in the ground group (55 (34-85) vs 68 (40-85) min, pstroke centre was shorter in the ground group (67 (42-136) km) than in the helicopter group (83 (46-143) km) (p

  1. Computational Modeling of Transport Limitations in Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2013-02-22

    In this paper we investigate transport limitations in the electrodes of lithium-air batteries through computational modeling. We use meso-scale models to consider the effects of dendrites on the current and potential at the anode surface, and to investigate the effects of reaction and transport parameters on the formation of precipitates in the cathode. The formation of dendrites on the anode surface during cycling reduces the transport of ions and can lead to short circuits in the cell. Growth of precipitates in the cathode reduces the specific capacity of the cell due to surface passivation and pore clogging. Both of these degradation mechanisms depend on meso-scale phenomena, such as the pore-scale reactive transport in the cathode. To understand the effects of the meso-scale transport and precipitation on the performance and lifetime of Li-air batteries, meso-scale modeling is needed that is able to resolve the electrodes and their microstructures.

  2. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 29, 2012. See 77 FR 38747. The Department of Transportation is... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department...

  3. Proposed design for the new SNL air-transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a prototype air-transporter suitable for remote operation in a size reduction facility is discussed. The first section describes the design concept selected for the transporter, that of a series of modular units within a simple rigid framework and the detailed design of the individual modules. The design has the following features: electrical drive units, self contained air-skates, electrical logic circuit placed outside the working area, pneumatic and electrical umbilicals and provision for specific items of ancilliary equipment. The second section describes the detailed evaluation of various cable handling systems for the umbilicals from the control console outside the facility to the transporter. It has been established that the optimum system is a single rail festoon complete with transporter mounted pivoting arm. (author)

  4. Selecting appropriate Internet advertising type in air transport services,Case Study: Iran Air Airlines (Homa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Zargham Borojeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is looking for selecting the appropriate form of Internet advertising in the air transport services. The model which is used in this research is a combination of structural models of the interactive advertising, interactive advertising model TOORSON Mr. RAGERS, Mr. Kasipo, and Patty probability model complexity and model of how advertising Mr. Vaqn, obtained, is used. The purpose of this study is to select the appropriate form of Internet advertising in the air transport services, (case study: Iran Air. This study is descriptive - survey. For gathering information, a questionnaire was used. The questionnaire included four parts. With applying exploratory data analysis methods (comparison of the relative frequencies according to the results of Sections 2 and 4 of questionnaires, the Internet advertising Skyscraper as the most desirable form of Internet advertising in air transport services is selected.

  5. Selecting appropriate Internet advertising type in air transport services,Case Study: Iran Air Airlines (Homa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    anna alaei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is looking for selecting the appropriate form of Internet advertising in the air transport services. The model which is used in this research is a combination of structural models of the interactive advertising, interactive advertising model TOORSON Mr. RAGERS, Mr. Kasipo, and Patty probability model complexity and model of how advertising Mr. Vaqn, obtained, is used. The purpose of this study is to select the appropriate form of Internet advertising in the air transport services, (case study: Iran Air. This study is descriptive - survey. For gathering information, a questionnaire was used. The questionnaire included four parts. With applying exploratory data analysis methods (comparison of the relative frequencies according to the results of Sections 2 and 4 of questionnaires, the Internet advertising Skyscraper as the most desirable form of Internet advertising in air transport services is selected.

  6. The Implementation of Competition Law in the Air Transport Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Goktepe

    2007-01-01

    The competition rules areapplied in the transportation sector in European Union due to the fact that liberalization process has started. The competition law is applied in order to support the liberalization process. As a result of the liberalization, a free and honest competition has increased between airline companies. Similarly, the liberalization process in the air transportation sector has also started in Turkey. Because of liberalization, the competition has increased. Therefore, the com...

  7. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport

  8. A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Lioen, W.; Verwer, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a l

  9. The competitive landscape of air transport in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lieshout; P. Malighetti; R. Redondi; G. Burghouwt

    2016-01-01

    Competition between airlines and airports increased significantly since the deregulation of the intra-European air transport market in 1997. The passenger has a wider choice in terms of routings and departure airports than twenty-five years ago and pays a lower price. In this paper we investigate in

  10. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  11. THE ROLE OF AIR TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT IN ADRIATICIONIAN MACROREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Čokorilo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed research is to improve the accessibility and the mobility of passengers across the Adriatic area and its hinterland, through the development of new sustainable and integrated transport services and the improvement of physical infrastructures related to those new services, particulary in the air transport connectivity and accesability. Analysis is oriented on existing infrastructure, connections and available aircraft fleet capacities based on three possible scenarios which are identified on the recommendations of renominated statistical data (Eurocontrol, Boeing, Airbus. Microregional improvements could be the key drivers for the macro economical issues where air transport plays significant role. Aircraft fleet, load factor and tourist destination atractivnes significantly improve hinterlend connectivities within Adriatic ports for both ferry and cruise passengers.

  12. What should ''damaged'' mean in air transport of fissile packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is likely that the ongoing process to produce the 1996 version of the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, IAEA Safety Series 6(SS 6) will result in a more stringent package qualification standard for air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) than is included in the 1990 version. During the process to define the scope of the new requirements there was extensive discussion of their impact on, and application to, fissile material package qualification criteria. Since fissile materials are shipped in a variety of packagings ranging from exempt to Type B, each packaging of each type must be evaluated for its ability to maintain subcriticality both alone and in arrays and in both damaged and undamaged condition. In the 1990 version of SS 6 ''damaged'' means the condition of a package after it had undergone the ''tests for demonstrating the ability to withstand accident conditions in transport,'' i.e., Type B qualification tests. These tests conditions are typical of severe accidents in surface modes, but are less severe than air mode qualification test environments to be applied to Type C packages. As a result, questions arose about the need for a corresponding change in the 1996 SS 6 to define ''damaged'' to include the Type C test regime for criticality evaluations of fissile packages in air transport

  13. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  14. Review of Maritime Transportation Air Emission Pollution and Policy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haifeng; LIU Dahai; DAI Guilin

    2009-01-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the 'bottom up' approach, the 'top down' approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  15. Radiant heat test of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronewald, Patrick James; Oneto, Robert (Weidlinger Associates, Inc., Los Altos, CA); Mould, John (Weidlinger Associates, Inc., Los Altos, CA); Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    A conceptual design for a plutonium air transport package capable of surviving a 'worst case' airplane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A full-scale prototype, designated as the Perforated Metal Air Transport Package (PMATP) was thermally tested in the SNL Radiant Heat Test Facility. This testing, conducted on an undamaged package, simulated a regulation one-hour aviation fuel pool fire test. Finite element thermal predictions compared well with the test results. The package performed as designed, with peak containment package temperatures less than 80 C after exposure to a one-hour test in a 1000 C environment.

  16. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  17. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  18. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a)...

  19. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  20. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  1. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on

  2. Implementation of Satellite Techniques in the Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Andrzej; Jafernik, Henryk

    2016-06-01

    The article shows process of the implementation satellite systems in Polish aviation which contributed to accomplishment Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept. Since 1991 authors have introduced Satellite Navigation Equipment in Polish Air Forces. The studies and researches provide to the Polish Air Force alternative approaches, modernize their navigation and landing systems and achieve compatibility with systems of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Acquired experience, conducted military tests and obtained results enabled to take up work scientifically - research in the environment of the civil aviation. Therefore in 2008 there has been launched cooperation with Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA). Thanks to cooperation, there have been compiled and fulfilled three fundamental international projects: EGNOS APV MIELEC (EGNOS Introduction in European Eastern Region - APV Mielec), HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe), SHERPA (Support ad-Hoc to Eastern Region Pre-operational in GNSS). The successful completion of these projects enabled implementation 21 procedures of the RNAV GNSS final approach at Polish airports, contributing to the implementation of PBN in Poland as well as ICAO resolution A37-11. Results of conducted research which served for the implementation of satellite techniques in the air transport constitute the meaning of this material.

  3. The Air Connectivity Index : Measuring Integration in the Global Air Transport Network

    OpenAIRE

    Arvis, Jean-François; Shepherd, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The authors construct a new measure of connectivity in the global air transport network, covering 211 countries and territories for the year 2007. It is grounded in network analysis methods, and is based on a gravity-like model that is familiar from the international trade and regional science literatures. It is a global measure of connectivity, in the sense that it captures the full range...

  4. Effect of Burstiness on the Air Transportation System

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    The effect of burstiness in complex networks has received considerable attention. In particular, its effect on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system is significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two indexes of temporal distance based on passengers' behavior and analyze the effect. As a result, we find that burstiness shortens the temporal distance while delays are increased. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules get overcrowded.

  5. Permanent internal pacemaker safety in air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R S; O'Dell, K B

    1991-02-01

    Helicopter and fixed-wing air medical transportation provides an important role in the management of critically-ill patients. As the use of cardiac pacemakers continues to grow, knowledge of their expanding capabilities and sophistication is important. The environments of our "airborne intensive care units" are subject to many sources of electromagnetic and vibrational interference. Although pacemaker shielding mechanisms have become quite elaborate, further studies are needed to define their reliability in modern aircraft. Further, the possible effects of electromagnetic and vibrational interference upon inflight reprogramming require further study. PMID:10109075

  6. AIR TRANSPORT VECTOR IN THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS BOIŢĂ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the global context of the airline industry is necessary in each organization a comprehensive analysis of multiple methods to reduce operational costs. Effective and constant cost control is crucial for most airlines. Continuous reduction of costs has become a cult. This is due mainly to the following aspects: market deregulation and globalization of the industry have increased the competitive pressure on firms, reducing the error rate and making essential the “reduce costs cult." This observation applies especially to businesses in commercial air transport.

  7. High-Speed Civil Transport Will Revolutionize Air Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced technologies that will allow industry to build a high-speed civil transport that will revolutionize overseas air travel. The technology challenges include developing low-cost materials and structural concepts as well as supersonic engines that can meet stringent noise and emissions standards. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will reduce the travel time to the Far East by 50 percent within 25 years, and do so at today's subsonic ticket prices. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  8. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  9. The contribution of transport to air quality. TERM 2012: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vicente, A.; Pastorello, C.; Foltescu, V.L. [and others

    2012-11-15

    TERM 2012 (Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism) presents the most relevant and up to date information on the main issues regarding transport and environment in Europe, particularly in areas with specific policy targets such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, transport demand levels, noise and other issues. It also offers an overview of the transport sector's impact on air pollutant emissions and air quality. It discusses the contributions made by all modes of transport to direct air pollutant emissions and also to 'secondary' air pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Alongside the recently published Air quality in Europe - 2012 report, TERM 2012 aims to inform the European Commission's review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. (Author)

  10. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  11. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  12. Air transportation and tourism in the Croatian littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Gašparović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse and explain the impact of air transportation on the development of tourism in the Croatian littoral. The analysis was made by using the data collected from flight schedules and airport authorities. The data on frequency of lines and number of passengers were analysed in order to correlate the distribution of the number of passengers with the number of tourists during the year. In this case, the correlation between the number of passengers and the number of arrivals/number of overnight stays is observed. Data for the time period from 2008 till 2010 were analysed in more detail by dividing the passengers into four categories: full-service passengers, low-cost passengers, charter passengers and general aviation passengers. Major touristic markets are identified on the basis of the number of connections between European and Croatian littoral airports. The last part of the paper deals with the increasing impact of low-cost services on the development of tourism in the Croatian littoral region. This is due to the fact that low-cost carriers have accounted for a considerable part of air transport in the last few years.

  13. Study on Air-Aided Transport Means of Cutter-Suction Dredger

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Xiong; Yunnan Yao; Shandong Fan; Hanhua Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This study proves the effectiveness of air-aided transport in reducing pipeline resistance and lengthening transport distance. The adopted experimental apparatus is unique in its chosen pipes (120 mm), transmission mediums (including clean water and slurries concentrated at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively) and experiment comparisons between air-aided transport and traditional relay pump transport. Factors such as resistance, transport distance and energy consumption are compared through the data...

  14. Plutonium transport for the oxide form. Air and road accidentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to define the probability of accident that can be applied to a packaging for plutonium oxide transport. The analysis is designed essentially for packagings of few tons with impact resistance corresponding to a speed of 10 m/s but can be used for packagings with a resistance corresponding to IAEA tests. This work is based on analysis and processing of 2 accident files: one on road accidents, the other on air accidents. Computer codes are developed, from one hand, to obtain stress indicator distribution by Monte Carlo methods and on the other hand to link these distributions to itinerary parameters. Previous similar studies are examined and compared to figures obtained here and explained as far as possible

  15. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α =2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  16. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed inter-event time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law inter-arrival time distribution with an exponent $\\alpha=2.5$ and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  17. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  18. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  19. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  20. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  1. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  2. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. 119.53 Section 119.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  3. 78 FR 15664 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Rule (CAIR), 70 FR 25172 (May 12, 2005); and Transport Rule or Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, 76 FR... our July 30, 2012 proposal for Arizona regarding interstate transport for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS (77 FR... significant deterioration of air quality for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS (78 FR 4337). We will act on the...

  4. Identification of terms to define unconstrained air transportation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhilhau, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The factors involved in the evaluation of unconstrained air transportation systems were carefully analyzed. By definition an unconstrained system is taken to be one in which the design can employ innovative and advanced concepts no longer limited by present environmental, social, political or regulatory settings. Four principal evaluation criteria are involved: (1) service utilization, based on the operating performance characteristics as viewed by potential patrons; (2) community impacts, reflecting decisions based on the perceived impacts of the system; (3) technological feasibility, estimating what is required to reduce the system to practice; and (4) financial feasibility, predicting the ability of the concepts to attract financial support. For each of these criteria, a set of terms or descriptors was identified, which should be used in the evaluation to render it complete. It is also demonstrated that these descriptors have the following properties: (a) their interpretation may be made by different groups of evaluators; (b) their interpretations and the way they are used may depend on the stage of development of the system in which they are used; (c) in formulating the problem, all descriptors should be addressed independent of the evaluation technique selected.

  5. Study on Air-Aided Transport Means of Cutter-Suction Dredger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xiong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proves the effectiveness of air-aided transport in reducing pipeline resistance and lengthening transport distance. The adopted experimental apparatus is unique in its chosen pipes (120 mm, transmission mediums (including clean water and slurries concentrated at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively and experiment comparisons between air-aided transport and traditional relay pump transport. Factors such as resistance, transport distance and energy consumption are compared through the data from laboratory experiments, thus proving the evident advantages from air-aided transport. The total energy consumption in air-aided transport is less than that of relay pump, especially within its resistance reducing scope, where slurry flow ranges from 65m3/h to 90 m3/h. It also exists within resistance reducing scope where slurry flow of air-aided transport is less than that of relay pump transport and may reach its limited effective distance. Thus, the findings of this study can provide valuable insight for the optimization design of air-aided transport of cutter-suction dredger.

  6. IMPACT OF INFORMATION ON THE DELIVERY OF CARGO WITH AIR TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Габріелова, Т.Ю.; National Aviation University; Войцеховський, В.С.; National Aviation University

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the impact of informatization on the process of cargo delivery involving air transport under conditions of competitive environment dynamic development have been considered. Information products providing uploading capacity on an extensive air route network were analysed. The role of international mediation bodies for financial settlements between participants of air transportation process was determined. Basic aspects of the pricing control depending on the condition of fligh...

  7. Air Passenger Transport In The APEC: Regulatory Impacts and Prospects for Asia Pacific Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Grosso, Massimo Geloso

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at assessing the prospects for a more liberal air passenger transport regime in the Asia Pacific region under the auspices of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The decades-old bilateral air services regime has been under pressure to reform for several years. Notwithstanding the critical role that international air transport plays in the ongoing integration of Asia Pacific economies, the airline industry remains one of the region’s most heavily regulated. Estimates ...

  8. ELECTROHYDRODYNAMIC ENHANCED TRANSPORT AND TRAPPING OF AIRBORNE PARTICLES TO A MICROFLUIDIC AIR-LIQUID INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Niklas; Frisk, Thomas; Stemme, Göran; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for greatly improved transport and trapping of airborne sample to a microfluidic analysis system by integrating an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) air pump with a microfluidic air-liquid interface. In our system, a negative corona discharge partially ionizes the air around a sharp electrode tip while the electrostatic field accelerates airborne particles towards an electrically grounded liquid surface, where they absorb. The air-liquid interface is fixated at the micro...

  9. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  10. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  11. Cabin environment and air quality in civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    The cabin environment of a commercial aircraft, including cabin layout and the quality of air supply, is crucial to the airline operators. These aspects directly affect the passengers’ experience and willing to travel. This aim of this thesis is to design the cabin layout for flying wing aircraft as part of cabin environment work, followed by the air quality work, which is to understand what effect the ECS can have in terms of cabin air contamination. The project, initially, focuses on the...

  12. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: Taking off on an exciting journey into Air Transport Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM. JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, project management, quality, as well as regional development, economics, organizational behaviour, finance and accounting in air transport research.

  13. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  14. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  15. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  16. RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION BY AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN THE STREETS OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhneva, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of the atmospheric air of residential area roadside territory at functioning of motor transport are presented. Architectural and planning activities to improve the environmental performance of the local area of Kharkiv are offered.

  17. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: taking off on an exciting journey into air transport research

    OpenAIRE

    David Gonzalez-Prieto; Oriol Lordan; Jose M Sallan; Pep Simo; Mihaela Enache; Vicenc Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM). JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to) air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, pro...

  18. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  19. Transport parameters and breakdown voltage characteristics of the dry air and its constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains measured breakdown voltage curves and calculated transport parameters for the dry air and gases included in the air composition. The breakdown voltage curves exhibit U-shaped form for the interelectrode separation of 100 μm and departure from the standard Paschen law for a few micrometers gap sizes. The results of calculations provide an insight into similarities and differences between the transport parameters for individual gases and the gas mixture.

  20. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may... implementing section 710 of AIR-21. See 68 FR 47798. The rule required air carriers that provide scheduled... regulations. See 70 FR 7392. The rule is codified at 14 CFR 234.13. Section 234.13 requires air carriers...

  1. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  2. New principle of organization of working process of air conditioning systems at railway and sea transport

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey KRAJNIUK; Aleksander KRAJNIUK

    2008-01-01

    An indispensable component of ensuring safe control of railway and sea transport in conditions of hot climate is maintenance of comfortable temperature of air in control cabins and living spaces. Now the interest is restored to use the Air Refrigerating Plants (ARP) as they have a wide potential of low-temperature cooling without use of ozone-destructive cooling agents prohibited by decision of the Montreal meeting. At the same time, air conditioning installations on the basis of turbo-expand...

  3. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition...... operations are becoming available. The use of advanced planning and recovery methods in the railway industry currently gains momentum. The current paper gives a short overview over the methods used for planning and disruption management in the airline industry. The situation regarding railway optimization...

  4. Air gap membrane distillation: 1. Modelling and mass transport properties for hollow fibre membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, C.M.; Meindersma, G.W.; Reith, T.; Haan, de A.B.

    2005-01-01

    A predictive model for air gap membrane distillation in a counter current flow configuration using fibre membranes is presented. The water vapour transport across the membrane is described by the dusty-gas model that uses constant membrane mass transport parameters to describe simultaneous Knudsen d

  5. 10 CFR 71.74 - Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. 71.74 Section 71.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE... plutonium. (a) Test conditions—Sequence of tests. A package must be physically tested to the...

  6. Ministerial Order of 22 August 1957 on the transport of dangerous materials by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order provides for the conditions of transport of dangerous materials by air. Materials regarded as dangerous to handle or transport by aircraft from a safety or health standpoint may possibly not be accepted, or only accepted under certain conditions. These materials include radioactive materials in Class IV(b). (NEA)

  7. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  8. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  9. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  10. 78 FR 59880 - Enhanced Consumer Protections for Charter Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may... carrier that contracted with the charter customer learns of the change. A ``reasonable'' time would be... and other similarly situated air charter brokers from the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 41101...

  11. Strategy of Competitive Forces in the Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Utureanu Simona-Luize

    2013-01-01

    The aviation industry plays an important role for their customers and for the economy in general. However, the value created by the airline companies does not reflect in the company's profitability. Nevertheless, the demand for airline transport services will continue to increase, especially in the developing economies. This will require the substitution and the extension of the existing capacity.

  12. Energy consumption and air emissions from domestic transport; Energiforbruk og utslipp til luft fra innenlandsk transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutain, Jun Elin Wiik; Taarneby, Gaute; Selvig, Eivind

    2008-07-01

    Energy for transport purposes account for a growing proportion of our total energy consumption. The increased transport of both people and goods is a consequence of prosperity development in Norway. We travel more, both privately and at work, and good purchasing power means that more goods must be transported from production site to the users' site. In 2006 the energy used to transport was more than a quarter of the total Norwegian energy consumption. (AG)

  13. Modeling the impact of air transport on the economy - practices, problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Huderek-Glapska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of measuring the contribution of air transport to the regional economy is very important nowadays since many airport infrastructure projects are being implemented, using available European Union funds. As a result of growing transport needs and increasing incomes among the population, the air transport market is strongly developing.  This development results to many direct and indirect socio-economic benefits to locations in close proximity of an airport but also in the whole economy. The measurement of these benefits is important because the decisions made with respect to air transport influence local and regional economic performance. The most commonly used tool for measuring the positive effects associated with the operation of an airport is the input-output analysis. The aim of the article is to present the characteristics of the input-output method, to indicate its applications in Poland - the country with the most dynamic growth of air transport, to present the possible limitations of this method and propose improvements. Methods: The method used in this research is one that measures the effects of changes in the economy as a result of air transport activity. Particular input-output analysis is used. Results: On the background of the results of modeling the impact of polish airport on regional economy in 2009 the updated analysis in 2012 is provided. The economic impacts of Krakow, Katowice, Wroclaw and Szczecin airports are estimated. Then the limitations of input-output method are presented and suggestions of possible improvements are made. Comments: Proper measurement of the impact of airport's operation and investment on the economy, leads to more effective air transport policy development. For future research, the advanced input-output method to assess the positive impact of airports on regional development is recommended. However, a comprehensive assessment of the operation and expansion of airport

  14. A Simulation Testbed for Dynamic Air Corridors within the Next Generation Air Transportation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for identifying dynamic air corridors that can increase aircraft throughput in and...

  15. On the pathways and timescales of intercontinental air pollution transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Andreas; Eckhardt, Sabine; Forster, Caroline; James, Paul; Spichtinger, Nicole

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents results of a 1-year simulation of the transport of six passive tracers, released over the continents according to an emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Lagrangian concepts are introduced to derive age spectra of the tracer concentrations on a global grid in order to determine the timescales and pathways of pollution export from the continents. Calculating these age spectra is equivalent to simulating many (quasi continuous) plumes, each starting at a different time, which are subsequently merged. Movies of the tracer dispersion have been made available on an Internet website. It is found that emissions from Asia experience the fastest vertical transport, whereas European emissions have the strongest tendency to remain in the lower troposphere. European emissions are transported primarily into the Arctic and appear to be the major contributor to the Arctic haze problem. Tracers from an upwind continent first arrive over a receptor continent in the upper troposphere, typically after some 4 days. Only later foreign tracers also arrive in the lower troposphere. Assuming a 2-day lifetime, the domestic tracers dominate total tracer columns over all continents except over Australia where foreign tracers account for 20% of the tracer mass. In contrast, for a 20-day lifetime even continents with high domestic emissions receive more than half of their tracer burden from foreign continents. Three special regions were identified where tracers are transported to, and tracer dilution is slow. Future field studies therefore should be deployed in the following regions: (1) In the winter, the Asia tracer accumulates over Indonesia and the Indian Ocean, a region speculated to be a stratospheric fountain. (2) In the summer, the highest concentrations of the Asia tracer are found in the Middle East. (3) In the summer, the highest concentrations of the North America tracer are found in the Mediterranean.

  16. Computational modelling of contaminant transport in indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X.; McLaughlin, J.B. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ahmadi, G. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) based calculations were used to investigate aerosol trajectories in turbulent flows through small-scale models of rooms. The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of using coarse spatial resolution simulations to obtain results for statistical quantities such as the rate of deposition of particles on a given surface. The study focused on low Reynolds number results for a model room with a displacement ventilation system. The ultimate fate of aerosol particles entering the room through the inlet vents was investigated. The lattice-Boltzmann method was used to perform DNS of the flow of the room, in which a random stirring force was used to create free-stream turbulence. Particle trajectories were calculated from the fluid velocity fields through the numerical integration of a particle equation of motion in time, which included drag and gravity. The simulations were based on a 1-way coupling approximation, in which the effects of the particles on the air velocity field were neglected. It was concluded that the approximation was appropriate for the low mass readings and small particle sizes relevant for simulations of indoor air pollution.

  17. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-11-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis.

  18. Economic conditions of technical changes in world civil air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world economic environment of the turn of the century produced many new challenges to civil aviation in expectation of a continued growth in the transportation of passengers and cargo. To meet this growing demand, it will be necessary to increase the fleet and to modernise infrastructure – a process hampered by finances and capacity constraints.Such constraints are especially pressing with regard to the acquisition of new types of large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 and 747-8. Future dominance of the market is, however, difficult to predict, as this will be the outcome of a combination of uncertain parameters.

  19. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  20. Evolution of demand for leisure air transport in 2025, Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    Laplace, Isabelle; Lenoir, Nathalie; Cassan, Christine

    2007-01-01

    http://www.eurocontrol.int/eec/gallery/content/public/document/eec/report/2007/011_Evolution_of_demand_for_leisure_air_transport_in_2025.pdf EEC Note N°12/07 The purpose of the DEMAND 2025 study is to explore what can be assumed today about the main features of the demand for leisure air transport in 2025 ? leisure meaning all travel purposes except business, i.e. when the expense is a discretionary choice. An original methodology has been devoted to the study, and applied to the case o...

  1. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  2. The stakes of air pollution in the transport sector, from the French case

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, R

    2005-01-01

    The main pollutants are listed for today and the future according to the progression of air quality,as measured in France and in the European Union during the 1990s,the progression of pollutant emissions of road transport in France,as calculated for the period 1970-2020,and the progression of public concern regarding air pollution and environment. These pollutants are headed by carbon dioxide,followed by nitrogen oxides and fine particulates. The stakes in terms of technology and transport su...

  3. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  4. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  5. Transportation loads with air versus leaf spring suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T.A.; Weinacht, D.J.; Tafoya, J.I.

    1988-06-01

    Data acquisition equipment was installed on a heavily loaded drop- platform trailer. Accelerations were recorded at various locations on the trailer during a trip from Los Alamos to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Road conditions varied from paved primary and secondary highways to very rough crushed rock roads at NTS. Data for transient events, such as railroad crossings and bridges, were also recorded. Descriptions of the tractor/trailer configuration, instrumentation, and data analysis techniques are presented. Reduced data are presented in the form of power spectral density plots and response spectra (shock spectra) plots. Finally, recommended load factors for use in designing payloads that are to be transported on heavily loaded trailers are discussed.

  6. 03. Disruption Management in PassengerTransportation - from Air to Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular traffic around and in all larger cities of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportatio...

  7. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  8. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  9. Ciprofloxacin Is Actively Transported across Bronchial Lung Epithelial Cells Using a Calu-3 Air Interface Cell Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Hui Xin; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a well-established broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic that penetrates well into the lung tissues; still, the mechanisms of its transepithelial transport are unknown. The contributions of specific transporters, including multidrug efflux transporters, organic cation transporters, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide transporters, to the uptake of ciprofloxacin were investigated in vitro using an air interface bronchial epithelial model. Our results demonstrate tha...

  10. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.;

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  11. Agent-based modeling and simulation of emergent behavior in air transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, S.; Blom, H.A.P.; Curran, R.; Everdij, M.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Commercial aviation is feasible thanks to the complex socio-technical air transportation system, which involves interactions between human operators, technical systems, and procedures. In view of the expected growth in commercial aviation, significant changes in this socio-technical system a

  12. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  13. A model for the estimation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport. It is based on the estimation of energy consumption from a matirx describing the distribution of speeds and accelerations for operation. It is shown that calculations can be performed on...... on energy consumption and emissions....

  14. Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation of Safety and Resilience in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In order to improve the safety, capacity, economy, and sustainability of air transportation, revolutionary changes are required. These changes might range from the introduction of new technology and operational procedures to unprecedented roles of human operators and the way they interact.

  15. In the wake of liberalisation: long-term developments in the EU air transport market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; J.G. de Wit

    2015-01-01

    Using a 24-year analysis period (1990-2013), a new perspective is offered on long-term first- and second-order developments following liberalisation of the intra-EU air transport market. The focus of the analysis is on supply-side issues, such as airline output, structure of supply, yields, business

  16. Connectivity in air transport networks: an assessment of models and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; R. Redondi

    2013-01-01

    This paper classifies and compares eight different connectivity models employed in air transport literature and applies them to European airports. Traditional size-based measures tend to underestimate the accessibility of small airports and overestimate the centrality of large airports. Small airpor

  17. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  18. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket formation in downward-sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pocket accumulation causes energy losses a...

  19. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Environmental and Air Quality Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Emissions and air pollution modeling, Vehicle energy and power analysis, Climate change impact studies, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  20. Feasibility of Remote Ischemic Peri-conditioning during Air Medical Transport of STEMI Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Wayne, Max; Guyette, Francis X; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Toma, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic peri-conditioning (RIPC) has gained interest as a means of reducing ischemic injury in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are undergoing emergent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, process, and patient-related factors related to the delivery of RIPC during air medical transport of STEMI patients to tertiary pPCI centers. We performed a retrospective review of procedural outcomes of a cohort of STEMI patients who received RIPC as part of a clinical protocol in a multi-state air medical service over 16 months (March 2013 to June 2014). Eligible patients were transported to two tertiary PCI centers and received up to four cycles of RIPC by inflating a blood pressure cuff on an upper arm to 200 mmHg for 5 minutes and subsequently deflating the cuff for 5 minutes. Data regarding feasibility, process variables, patient comfort, and occurrence of hypotension were obtained from prehospital records and prospectively completed quality improvement surveys. The primary outcome was whether at least 3 cycles of RIPC were completed by air medical transport crews prior to pPCI. Secondary outcomes included the number of cycles completed prior to pPCI, time spent with the patient prior to transport (bedside time), patient discomfort level, and incidence of hypotension (systolic blood pressure air medical transport for pPCI, without occurrence of prolonged bedside times. The incidence of excessive RIPC-related discomfort or hemodynamic instability is rare. STEMI patients requiring on average >30 minutes transport for pPCI may be the ideal group for RIPC utilization.

  1. Evaluation of a prototype air transport system for use in a crate handling and size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes in detail the design features and evaluation, under simulated active conditions, of a purpose designed remotely operated air transporter system. The paper concludes by recommending that an air transporter, based on this concept, is considered for the alpha active facility. (author)

  2. Evaluation of a prototype air transport system for use in a crate handling and size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design features and evaluation, under simulated active conditions, of a purpose designed remotely operated air transporter system. The paper concludes by recommending that an air transporter, based on this concept, is considered for the alpha active facility. (author)

  3. Peroxy radicals and ozone photochemistry in air masses undergoing long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Parker

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of peroxy radicals (HO2iRiO2 in addition to other trace gases were measured onboard the UK Meteorological Office/Natural Environment Research Council British Aerospace 146-300 atmospheric research aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors (ITOP campaign based at Horta Airport, Faial, Azores (38.58° N, 28.72° W in July/August 2004. The overall peroxy radical altitude profile displays an increase with altitude that is likely to have been impacted by the effects of long-range transport. The peroxy radical altitude profile for air classified as of marine origin shows no discernable altitude profile. A range of air-masses were intercepted with varying source signatures, including those with aged American and Asian signatures, air-masses of biomass burning origin, and those that originated from the east coast of the United States. Enhanced peroxy radical concentrations have been observed within this range of air-masses indicating that long-range transported air-masses traversing the Atlantic show significant photochemical activity. The net ozone production at clear sky limit is in general negative, and as such the summer mid-Atlantic troposphere is at limit net ozone destructive. However, there is clear evidence of positive ozone production even at clear sky limit within air masses undergoing long-range transport, and during ITOP especially between 5 and 5.5 km, which in the main corresponds to a flight that extensively sampled air with a biomass burning signature. Ozone production was NOx limited throughout ITOP, as evidenced by a good correlation (r2=0.72 between P(O3 and NO. Strong positive net ozone production has also been seen in varying source signature air-masses undergoing long-range transport, including but not limited to low-level export events, and export from the east coast of the United States.

  4. WETAIR: A computer code for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of air-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, WETAIR, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of air water mixtures. It determines the thermodynamic state from assigned values of temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy. The WETAIR calculates the properties of dry air and water (steam) by interpolating to obtain values from property tables. Then it uses simple mixing laws to calculate the properties of air water mixtures. Properties of mixtures with water contents below 40 percent (by mass) can be calculated at temperatures from 273.2 to 1497 K and pressures to 450 MN/sq m. Dry air properties can be calculated at temperatures as low as 150 K. Water properties can be calculated at temperatures to 1747 K and pressures to 100 MN/sq m. The WETAIR is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  5. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert; Lock, Grahm;

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of commer......This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database...... changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA...... with a view to this purpose, are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission calculations for bulk carriers entering the port of Helsinki, as an example of the database operation, and aggregate results for different types...

  6. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes an

  7. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  8. Hospital survival upon discharge of ill-neonates transported by ground or air ambulance to a tertiary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Alvarado-Socarras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the differences in hospital survival between modes of transport to a tertiary center in Colombia for critically ill neonates. Methods: Observational study of seriously ill neonates transported via air or ground, who required medical care at a center providing highly complex services. Data on sociodemographic, clinical, the Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS, and mode of transport were collected. Patients were described, followed by a bivariate analysis with condition (live or dead at time of discharge as the dependent variable. A multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was used to adjust associations. Results: A total of 176 neonates were transported by ambulance (10.22% by air over six months. The transport distances were longer by air (median: 237.5 km than by ground (median: 11.3 km. Mortality was higher among neonates transported by air (33.33% than by ground (7.79%. No differences in survival were found between the two groups when adjusted by the multiple model. An interaction between mode of transport and distance was observed. Live hospital discharge was found to be associated with clinical severity upon admittance, birth weight, hemorrhaging during the third trimester, and serum potassium levels when admitted. Conclusions: Mode of transport was not associated with the outcome. In Colombia, access to medical services through air transport is a good option for neonates in critical condition. Further studies would determine the optimum distance (time of transportation to obtain good clinical outcomes according type of ambulance.

  9. AIR TRANSPORT AS A PART OF TOURIST EVENTS – LEGAL STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław ŻUKIEWICZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reconstruct the current legal status of the air transport organized as a part of tourist events in Poland, to make systematization of the nomenclature used in the field of research and to indicate the direction of the evolution of legal norms in the context of the further development of air charter segment. The main research method was the analysis of selected legal acts; as the complementary method the analysis of some statistical data was used.

  10. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  11. Qualification criteria to certify a package for air transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes qualification criteria developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to certify a package for air transport of plutonium. Included in the document is a discussion of aircraft accident conditions and a summary of the technical basis for the qualification criteria. The criteria require prototype packages to be subjected to various individual and sequential tests that simulate the conditions produced in severe aircraft accidents. Specific post-test acceptance standards are prescribed for each of the three safety functions of a package. The qualification criteria also prescribe certain operational controls to be exercised during transport

  12. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  13. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Leshane, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The RECAT study evaluated the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of these fuel-conserving alternatives was investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000. Consequently, while the RECAT results lend insight into the directions in which technology can best be pursued for improved air transport fuel economy, no single option studied in the RECAT program is indicative of a realistic future scenario.

  14. Agent-based modeling and simulation of emergent behavior in air transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Bouarfa, S.; Blom, H.A.P.; Curran, R.; Everdij, M.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Commercial aviation is feasible thanks to the complex socio-technical air transportation system, which involves interactions between human operators, technical systems, and procedures. In view of the expected growth in commercial aviation, significant changes in this socio-technical system are in development both in the USA and Europe. Such a complex socio-technical system may generate various types of emergent behavior, which may range from simple emergence, through weak emergence, u...

  15. Methodology for optimal design of efficient air transport network in a competitive environment

    OpenAIRE

    Trapote Barreira, César

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to dissert about air transport network design taking into consideration the current needs about efficiency in a very competitive industry. The main focus for this work is the airline's point of view and for this reason is going to be common to talk about profitability. A methodology is proposed to analyse current networks and to introduce modifications. First, an analytical approach is proposed with the aim to understand better the interaction of key parameters in network ...

  16. Specific intangible assets in the air transportation sector: a theoretical construct for their identification and valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ilídio Tomás; Rodrigues, Ana Maria Gomes

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of intangible assets in the entire value creation process. Based on the Portuguese airlines companies, the paper presents a theoretical framework approach about intangible assets identification and valuation for the air transportation sector as a whole. It is now irrefutable that a new perspective has replaced traditional value chains, based on the linear activities alignment: the innovation cycle (recognizing specific intangibles as value key drivers on w...

  17. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moyer, Neil [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  18. An Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Hydrogen Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Sonia; Loughlin, Daniel H.; Shay, Carol; Gage, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential system-wide energy and air emissions implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H2-FCV) penetration into the U.S. light duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. The analysis uses the U.S. EPA MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) technology database and model to simultaneously consider competition among alternative technologies and fuels, with a focus on the transportation and the electric sectors. Our modeled reference case suggests that economics alone would not yiel...

  19. Bayesian model for strategic level risk assessment in continuing airthworthiness of air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakody-Arachchige, Dhanapala

    2010-01-01

    Continuing airworthiness (CAW) of aircraft is an essential pre-requisite for the safe operation of air transport. Human errors that occur in CAW organizations and processes could undermine the airworthiness and constitute a risk to flight safety. This thesis reports on a generic Bayesian model that has been designed to assess and quantify this risk. The model removes the vagueness inherent in the subjective methods of assessment of risk and its qualitative expression. Instead, relying on a...

  20. Global strategic alliances in scheduled air transport - implications for competition policy

    OpenAIRE

    Laaser, Claus-Friedrich; Sichelschmidt, Henning; Soltwedel, Rüdiger; Wolf, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    In international aviation, global strategic alliances (GSAs) have in recent years become an important form of cooperation between airlines. This cooperation has hit the antitrust nerve of the European Commission. Initially, the Commission had attempted to constrain both the market share of the major alliances in transatlantic air transport and their access to major European hubs (London and Frankfurt). The airlines maintain that they need alliances as an inevitable means to adapt to the chang...

  1. The effect of air transport on the production of goods and services

    OpenAIRE

    Sheard, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of air transport on local production in the manufacturing and service sectors. The analysis is conducted using data from the United States. These effects are important for the design of policies that aim to develop an airport or to otherwise attract airlines to operate to and from the airport. This type of policy is commonly employed by national and local governments, indeed most large commercial airports in the United States and Canada are publicly owned. Thou...

  2. Evolution of the airport and air transport industry in Colombia and it’s impact on the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Diaz Olariaga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article aims to describe the development and evolution of the airports and air transport industry in Colombia. During the past fifteen years Colombia has witnessed a remarkably rapid and dynamic growth in air transport. This period coincides with the establishment and continuous implementation of public policy specifically designed for the air transport sector and airports. Methodology / Approach: The evolution of air transport in Colombia is evaluated descriptively through the analysis of air transport and socio-economic historical data. The impact of public and investment policies is analyzed through a cause-effect approach. Findings: This paper describes how the air transport/airport industry in Colombia has been directly and positively affected by the implementation of public policies and other legislation, while measuring the effect and impact of this industry on the Colombian economy. Originality  / Value: This work fills a notorious deficiency in specialized literature concerning air transport in Colombia and Latin America in all its aspects and dimensions.

  3. Dynamics of Air Transport Networks: A Review from a Complex Systems Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa

    2016-01-01

    Air transport systems are highly dynamic at temporal scales from minutes to years. This dynamic behavior not only characterizes the evolution of the system but also affect the system's functioning. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms is thus fundamental in order to better design optimal air transport networks that benefits companies, passengers and the environment. In this review, we briefly present and discuss the state-of-art on time-evolving air transport networks. We distinguish the structural analysis of sequences of network snapshots, ideal for long-term network evolution (e.g. annual evolution), and temporal paths, preferred for short-term dynamics (e.g. hourly evolution). We emphasize that most previous research focused on the first modeling approach (i.e. long-term) whereas only a few studies look at high-resolution temporal paths. We conclude the review highlighting that much research remains to be done, both to apply already available methods and to develop new measures for temporal paths on ...

  4. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  5. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  6. New principle of organization of working process of air conditioning systems at railway and sea transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey KRAJNIUK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An indispensable component of ensuring safe control of railway and sea transport in conditions of hot climate is maintenance of comfortable temperature of air in control cabins and living spaces. Now the interest is restored to use the Air Refrigerating Plants (ARP as they have a wide potential of low-temperature cooling without use of ozone-destructive cooling agents prohibited by decision of the Montreal meeting. At the same time, air conditioning installations on the basis of turbo-expanders have low refrigerating factor, they are very expensive in manufacturing and require a high level of maintenance service.Alternative trend of perfection of air refrigeration units is connected with a new principle of organization of working process, based on the use as expander and compressor of aggregates of cascade exchanger of pressure (CPE. Besides of unsurpassed efficiency of exchange processes, CPE is characterized by simplicity of design and high reliability, including, due to low frequency of rotation (2000-3000 min-1 with practically absence of consumption of mechanical energy on the drive of the rotor. The attractive aspect of application of equipment of conditioning with CPE is the opportunity of organization of working process only due to thermal energy including the utilization in the heat-power installation of transport vehicle.

  7. Air transport and climate change: emissions market to demand management; Transporte aereo y cambio climatico: del mercado de emisiones a la gestion de la demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Perez, D.

    2012-11-01

    improvements in air traffic management, the efficiency gain in the search engines and alternative fuels to kerosene are the basic pillars of the strategy to address the environmental consequences of air transport. however the technological innovations that aim by themselves can hardly reduce sector emissions to the numbers required for an effective fight against climate change. (Author) 32 refs.

  8. Transport sector strategies and their impact on the air quality and on greenhouse gasses; Estrategias del sector del transporte y su impacto en la calidad del aire y en los gases de efecto invernadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Portillo Jimenez-Landi, A.

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector plays on essential role in our society, but generates non desired effects on the air quality as well on climate change. This is the reason why the transport and the environment governmental actions are crucial to mitigate them. In this article we introduced the most important resources and regulations to control and to evaluate the air quality and emissions, and also the most relevant objectives in transport actions to reduce them, not only in Spain but also in the European Union. We discuss herein their compliance degree and their effectiveness in relation with the transport emissions evolution during 1990-2006 in spain. (Author) 11 refs.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  10. Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim; Kovar, O.;

    2003-01-01

    The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement...... quality with personalized and mixing ventilation was higher or at least similar compared to mixing ventilation alone. In the case of PV combined with displacement ventilation, the interaction caused mixing of the room air, an increase in the transport of bioeffluents and exhaled air between occupants and......, at low flow rates of personalized air a decrease in the quality of the inhaled air compared to displacement ventilation alone. The PV system supplying air against the face improved the ventilation efficiency in regard to the floor pollution up to 20 times and up to 13 times in regard to bioeffluents...

  11. Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.

    2009-10-01

    A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.

  12. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  13. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  14. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzón, Andrés; Guerrero, María-José

    2004-12-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use. PMID:15504528

  15. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komppula

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In eastern air masses almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in western air masses most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The value of condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the organic vapours

  16. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komppula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the

  17. Liberalism in foreign trade versus liberalism in air transportation - is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancay Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a statistically significant link between regulation of international civil aviation and protectionism against foreign trade. We use weighted air liberalization index (WALI as a proxy for the level of regulation in a country’s foreign aviation relations; trade tariff restrictiveness index (TTRI and overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI as proxies for the level of protectionism in a country’s foreign trade. Correlation analysis shows that there is no statistically significant link between the indicators. Hence, our research confirms the view that air transportation is a specific sector and it is subject to a different kind of policies than trade in goods. We also demonstrate that large high-income countries tend to have a more liberal approach to international civil aviation than small low-income countries.

  18. The impact of energy, transport, and trade on air pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, J.P.H.; Casas, I.; He, C.F. [SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology

    2006-09-15

    A team of U.S.- and China-based geographers examines the relationship between China's economic development and its environment by modeling the effects of energy, transport, and trade on local air pollution emissions (sulfur dioxide and soot particulates) using the Environmental Kuznets model. Specifically, the latter model is investigated using spatial econometrics that take into account potential regional spillover effects from high-polluting neighbors. The analysis finds an inverted-U relationship for sulfur dioxide but a U-shaped curve for soot particulates. This suggests that soot particulates such as black carbon may pose a more serious environmental problem in China than sulfur dioxide.

  19. Assistive technology and passengers with special assistance needs in air transport: contributions to cabin design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Campese

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been significant growth in air transport worldwide, as well as in Brazil. However, studies have emphasized that disabled, obese, and elderly passengers face difficulties when using this means of transport. Among these difficulties, issues related to passengers’ own assistive devices, including damage, loss, or the impossibility of using during the entire flight, stand out. Therefore, the present study aims to understand the trends in assistive technology focusing on cabin design. This research is based upon literature review, interviews with manufacturers and research centers, visits to specialized trade fairs, and patent search. The results revealed a great diversity of assistive products, its trends, and an increase in their use, which affect aircraft cabin design, especially in terms of space, access, and stowage of these devices.

  20. Study of interfacial area transport and sensitivity analysis for air-water bubbly flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M.; Beus, S.G.

    2000-09-01

    The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired by the state-of-the-art miniaturized double-sensor conductivity probe in an adiabatic air-water co-current vertical test loop under atmospheric pressure condition. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of plus/minus 10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. The analysis employing the drift flux model is also performed for the data acquired. Under the given flow conditions, the distribution parameter of 1.076 yields the best fit to the data.

  1. Impact of air pollutants from surface transport sources on human health: A modeling and epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Preeti; Jain, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    This study adopted an integrated 'source-to-receptor' assessment paradigm in order to determine the effects of emissions from passenger transport on urban air quality and human health in the megacity, Delhi. The emission modeling was carried out for the base year 2007 and three alternate (ALT) policy scenarios along with a business as usual (BAU) scenario for the year 2021. An Activity-Structure-Emission Factor (ASF) framework was adapted for emission modeling, followed by a grid-wise air quality assessment using AERMOD and a health impact assessment using an epidemiological approach. It was observed that a 2021-ALT-III scenario resulted in a maximum concentration reduction of ~24%, ~42% and ~58% for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM), respectively, compared to a 2021-BAU scenario. Further, it results in significant reductions in respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, morbidity and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) by 41% and 58% on exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations when compared to the 2021-BAU scenario, respectively. In other words, a mix of proposed policy interventions namely the full-phased introduction of the Integrated Mass Transit System, fixed bus speed, stringent vehicle emission norms and a hike in parking fees for private vehicles would help in strengthening the capability of passenger transport to cater to a growing transport demand with a minimum health burden in the Delhi region. Further, the study estimated that the transport of goods would be responsible for ~5.5% additional VKT in the 2021-BAU scenario; however, it will contribute ~49% and ~55% additional NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations, respectively, in the Delhi region. Implementation of diesel particulate filters for goods vehicles in the 2021-ALT-IV-O scenario would help in the reduction of ~87% of PM2.5 concentration, compared to the 2021-BAU scenario; translating into a gain of 1267 and 505 DALY per million people from exposure to PM2.5 and NO

  2. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macropore characteristics inferred from X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, S.; Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    -porosity, suggesting that density is the main control of functional soil structure and gas and solute transport at the Silstrup site. Linking gas transport and chemical tracer experiments with X-ray CT based visualization and quantification of macro-porosity was found to be a powerful method to understand field scale...... variations in gas and solute transport properties as influenced by soil structure and density.......Soil macropores often control fluid flow and solute transport, and quantification of macropore characteristics including their variability in space and time are essential to predict soil hydraulic and hydrogeochemical functions. In this study, measurements of air and solute transport properties...

  3. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A., E-mail: ksteph@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  4. An aggregated indicator of air-pollution impacts involved by transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We intend to build a global environmental impact indicator of air pollution to assess transport infrastructures, technologies or flows. This indicator tries to be simple and transparent to facilitate its use in decision-making. The intention is for the indicator to be like the Global Warming Potential (GWP), which establishes a relationship between the emission of six greenhouse gases and the average temperature increase of the Earth. The indicator therefore allows estimating the global environmental impact of transport-generated air pollution, while simultaneously conserving the value of the environmental impact of each type of air pollution and the emission assessment. This work is based on an environmental impact typology, a set of indicators, and aggregation architecture of atmospheric pollution. The typology is established as a function of the specific and homogenous characteristics of each type of pollution in terms of pollutants, impact mechanisms, targets and environmental impacts. To ensure exhaustiveness and non-redundancy, 10 types of air pollution impact are proposed: greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, direct eco-toxicity (this type of pollution excludes greenhouse effects on nature, ozone depletion, eutrophication, acidification and photochemical pollution), eutrophication, acidification, photochemical pollution, restricted direct health effects (not taking into account welfare, and excluding the effects on health of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification and photochemical pollution), sensitive pollution (annoyance caused by odours and fumes), and degradation of common and historical man-made heritage. Indicators similar to GWP can be identified in the literature for each type of atmospheric pollution, except for the degradation of common and historical man-made heritage, for which none indicator have been suggested. However, these indicators do not seem to have achieved wide scientific consensus, except for GWP, which may make it

  5. CFD Analysis of Multi-Phase Reacting Transport Phenomena in Discharge Process of Non-Aqueous Lithium-Air Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jinliang; Yu, Jong-Sung; Sundén, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed for rechargeable non-aqueous electrolyte lithium-air batteries with a partial opening for oxygen supply to the cathode. Multi-phase transport phenomena occurred in the battery are considered, including dissolved lithium ions and oxygen gas in the liquid electrolyte, solid-phase electron transfer in the porous functional materials and liquid-phase charge transport in the electrolyte. These transport processes are coupled with the electroc...

  6. A Data-Driven Air Transportation Delay Propagation Model Using Epidemic Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baspinar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In air transport network management, in addition to defining the performance behavior of the system’s components, identification of their interaction dynamics is a delicate issue in both strategic and tactical decision-making process so as to decide which elements of the system are “controlled” and how. This paper introduces a novel delay propagation model utilizing epidemic spreading process, which enables the definition of novel performance indicators and interaction rates of the elements of the air transportation network. In order to understand the behavior of the delay propagation over the network at different levels, we have constructed two different data-driven epidemic models approximating the dynamics of the system: (a flight-based epidemic model and (b airport-based epidemic model. The flight-based epidemic model utilizing SIS epidemic model focuses on the individual flights where each flight can be in susceptible or infected states. The airport-centric epidemic model, in addition to the flight-to-flight interactions, allows us to define the collective behavior of the airports, which are modeled as metapopulations. In network model construction, we have utilized historical flight-track data of Europe and performed analysis for certain days involving certain disturbances. Through this effort, we have validated the proposed delay propagation models under disruptive events.

  7. A metric of influential spreading during contagion dynamics through the air transportation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Nicolaides

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious diseases at the global scale is mediated by long-range human travel. Our ability to predict the impact of an outbreak on human health requires understanding the spatiotemporal signature of early-time spreading from a specific location. Here, we show that network topology, geography, traffic structure and individual mobility patterns are all essential for accurate predictions of disease spreading. Specifically, we study contagion dynamics through the air transportation network by means of a stochastic agent-tracking model that accounts for the spatial distribution of airports, detailed air traffic and the correlated nature of mobility patterns and waiting-time distributions of individual agents. From the simulation results and the empirical air-travel data, we formulate a metric of influential spreading--the geographic spreading centrality--which accounts for spatial organization and the hierarchical structure of the network traffic, and provides an accurate measure of the early-time spreading power of individual nodes.

  8. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime air pollutant emission modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert A.; Lock, Graham; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of commercial vessels kept at the Technical University of Denmark, relationships between the fuel consumption and size of different vessels have been developed, taking into account the fleet's age and service speed. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the database are presented, including changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA) level, so a bottom-up approach is used. A port to MCA distance database has also been constructed for the purpose of the study. This was the first attempt to use Eurostat maritime statistics for emission modelling; and the problems encountered, since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose, are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission calculations for bulk carriers entering the port of Helsinki, as an example of the database operation, and aggregate results for different types of movements for France. Overall estimates of SO x and NO x emission caused by shipping traffic between the EU 15 countries are in the area of 1 and 1.5 million tonnes, respectively.

  9. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  10. HTAP_v2.2: a mosaic of regional and global emission grid maps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F.; Muntean, M.; Pouliot, G.; Keating, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Wankmüller, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Kuenen, J.J.P.; Klimont, Z.; Frost, G.; Darras, S.; Koffi, B.; Li, M.

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, vegetation and clima

  11. An integrative assessment of the commercial air transportation system via adaptive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Choon Giap

    The overarching research objective is to address the tightly-coupled interactions between the demand-side and supply-side components of the United States Commercial Air Transportation System (CATS) in a time-variant environment. A system-of-system perspective is adopted, where the scope is extended beyond the National Airspace System (NAS) level to the National Transportation System (NTS) level to capture the intermodal and multimodal relationships between the NTS stakeholders. The Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation technique is employed where the NTS/NAS is treated as an integrated Multi-Agent System comprising of consumer and service provider agents, representing the demand-side and supply-side components respectively. Successful calibration and validation of both model components against the observable real world data resulted in a CATS simulation tool where the aviation demand is estimated from socioeconomic and demographic properties of the population instead of merely based on enplanement growth multipliers. This valuable achievement enabled a 20-year outlook simulation study to investigate the implications of a global fuel price hike on the airline industry and the U.S. CATS at large. Simulation outcomes revealed insights into the airline competitive behaviors and the subsequent responses from transportation consumers.

  12. An effort for developing a seamless transport modeling and remote sensing system for air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Dai, T.; Misawa, S.; Uchida, J.; Schutgens, N.; Hashimoto, M.; Oikawa, E.; Takenaka, H.; Tsuruta, H.; Inoue, T.; Higurashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wide area of the globe, like Asian region, still suffers from a large emission of air pollutants and cause serious impacts on the earth's climate and the public health of the area. Launch of an international initiative, Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), is an example of efforts to ease the difficulties by reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs), i.e., black carbon aerosol, methane and other short-lived atmospheric materials that heat the earth's system, along with long-lived greenhouse gas mitigation. Impact evaluation of the air pollutants, however, has large uncertainties. We like to introduce a recent effort of projects MEXT/SALSA and MOEJ/S-12 to develop a seamless transport model for atmospheric constituents, NICAM-Chem, that is flexible enough to cover global scale to regional scale by the NICAM nonhydrostatic dynamic core (NICAM), coupled with SPRINTARS aerosol model, CHASER atmospheric chemistry model and with their three computational grid systems, i.e. quasi homogeneous grids, stretched grids and diamond grids. A local ensemble transform Kalman filter/smoother with this modeling system was successfully applied to data from MODIS, AERONET, and CALIPSO for global assimilation/inversion and surface SPM and SO2 air pollution monitoring networks for Japanese area assimilation. My talk will be extended to discuss an effective utility of satellite remote sensing of aerosols using Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) on board the GOSAT satellite and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on board the new third generation geostationary satellite, Himawari-8. The CAI has a near-ultraviolet channel of 380nm with 500m spatial resolution and the AHI has high frequency measurement capability of every 10 minutes. These functions are very effective for accurate land aerosol remote sensing, so that a combination with the developed aerosol assimilation system is promising.

  13. El transporte urbano en la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Beatriz Malfa Del Grosso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en el análisis de la oferta actual del transporte urbano en la Region metropolitana de Buenos Aires, en el marco de las concesiones otorgadas a empresas privadas, de los servicios públicos de transporte, tratando de evaluar las políticas y modalidades de regulación y gestión aplicadas desde el Estado y centrando la mirada en los efectos y consecuencias de esta modalidad, sobre el conjunto social involucrado y sobre el territorio. Se presentará un panorama general de la situación del sistema de transporte y circulación urbana a modo de síntesis diagnostica, que incluye las características mas significativas movilidad, los distintos modos de transportación, los procesos de concesión de la red de accesos a la ciudad madre, del transporte publico, tanto automotor como ferroviario de pasajeros y de las nuevas modalidades que incrementaron la oferta. Asimismo en el contexto de la Reforma del Estado, - privatizaciones y concesiones-, se incorporaran algunas reflexiones haciendo hincapié en los impactos que estos procesos provocaron en lo social, espacial-económico y ambiental, y que favorecieron el recrudecimiento de la exclusión y fractura social, y la fragmentación territorial, fenómenos ocurridos de manera general en todas las ciudades latinoamericanas sin distinción de niveles de jerarquía urbana o límites jurisdiccionales pero recortando espacialmente el estudio en la Region metropolitana de Buenos Aires.. Toda la reflexión se apoya en el marco del enfoque sistémico, partiendo de considerar que la realidad es compleja y multidimensional y que su naturaleza no es unívoca, que los elementos que la constituyen están interrelacionados entre si, por lo que existen múltiples relaciones ínter- temáticas e ínter escalares.

  14. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. F.; Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving potential and cost effectiveness of numerous operational and technical options proposed for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. commercial airline fleet was examined and compared. The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs and airline profits when implemented in the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets was determined. A forecast estimate was made of the potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system. Specifically, the means for reducing the jet fuel consumption of the U.S. scheduled airlines in domestic and international passenger operations were investigated. A design analysis was made of two turboprop aircraft as possible fuel conserving derivatives of the DC-9-30.

  15. Computational Analysis of Mixing and Transport of Air and Fuel in Co-Fired Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis for air fuel mixing and transport in a combustor used for co fired burner has been done by RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier?Stokes model comparing with 3D (Three Dimensional LES (Large Eddy Simulation. To investigate the better turbulence level and mixing within co fired combustor using the solid fuel biomass with coal is main purpose of this research work. The results show the difference in flow predicted by the two models, LES give better results than the RANS. For compressible flow the LES results show more swirling effect, The velocity decays along axial and radial distance for both swirling and non-swirling jet. Because of no slip condition near boundary the near the wall velocity is about zero

  16. High-speed impact test of an air-transportable plutonium nitrate shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain information on package response for comparison with other test environments, a high-speed impact test was performed on a modified Federal Republic of Germany 18B plutonium nitrate air-transportable container. The container, modified with reinforcing rings for improved crush resistance around the inner tube assembly, was impacted at a velocity of 137 m/s onto an unyielding surface. Substantial crushing of the foam overpack and extensive deformation of the container cavity occurred, causing release of the liquid surrogate contents from the titanium shipping container. The container damage resulting from the high-speed pulldown test was more severe than that from a 185-m free fall onto a semirigid surface by a similar container or the crush environment produced by a 9-m drop of a 2-Mg block onto the container resting on an unyielding surface

  17. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  18. Comparative Study on Options for High-Speed Intercontinental Passenger Transports: Air-Breathing- vs. Rocket-Propelled

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; Klevanski, Josef; Steelant, Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical options for high-speed intercontinental passenger transports on a preliminary basis. Horizontal take-off hypersonic air-breathing airliners are assessed as well as vertical take-off, rocket powered stages, capable of a safe atmospheric reentry. The study includes a preliminary sizing and performance assessment of all investigated vehicles and compares characteristic technical and passenger environment data. The aerodynamic shape of the air-bre...

  19. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  20. Modeling Air Bubble Transport in Hydraulic Jump Flows using Population Balance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a numerical model aiming at coupling the MUltiple-SIze-Group (MUSIG with the semiempirical air entrainment model based on the Euler-Euler two-fluid framework to handle the bubble transport in hydraulic jump flows. The internal flow structure including the recirculation region, the shear layer region and the jet region was accurately predicted. The flow parameters such as the water velocity and void fraction distributions were examined and compared with the experimental data, validating the effectiveness of the numerical model. Prediction of the Sauter mean bubble diameter distributions by the population balance approach at different axial locations confirmed the dominance of breakage due to the high turbulent intensity in the shear layer region which led to the generation of small gas bubbles at high void fraction. Comparison between different cases indicates that high Froude number not only give rise to longer recirculation region and higher void fraction due to larger air entrainment rate, but also generate larger bubble number density and smaller bubble size because of the stronger turbulence intensity in the same axial position.

  1. Lagrangian particle modeling of air pollution transport in southwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Stocker, R.A.; Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Several modeling techniques of various complexity and accuracy are applied in a numerical modeling study of regional air pollution transport being performed within the Measurement Of Haze And Visual Effect (MOHAVE) project. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the Mohave Power Project (MPP) and other potential sources of air pollution to specific Class I areas located in the desert southwest United States including the Grand Canyon National Park. The Colorado State University team is performing the daily meteorological and dispersion simulations for a year long study using a nonhydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model; the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with a Lagrangian particle dispersion (LPD) model. The modeling domain covers the southwestern United States with its extremely complex terrain. Two complementary dispersion modeling techniques: a traditional source-oriented approach and receptor-oriented approach are used to calculate concentration and influence function fields, respectively. All computations are performed on two IBM RISC-6000 workstations dedicated to the project. The goal of this paper is to present our design for daily dispersion simulations with an emphasis on influence function calculations using examples from the winter and summer intensive periods of the MOHAVE project.

  2. Two-dimensional noncontact transportation of small objects in air using flexural vibration of a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Ryota; Koyama, Daisuke; Matsukawa, Mami

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates a two-dimensional ultrasonic manipulation technique for small objects in air. The ultrasonic levitation system consists of a rectangular vibrating plate with four ultrasonic transducers and a reflector. The configuration of the vibrator, the resonant frequency, and the positions of the four transducers with step horns were determined from finite element analysis such that an intense acoustic standing-wave field could be generated between the plates. A lattice flexural vibration mode with a wavelength of 28.3 mm was excited on the prototype plate at 24.6 kHz. Small objects could get trapped in air along the horizontal nodal plane of the standing wave. By controlling the driving phase difference between the transducers, trapped objects could be transported without contact in a two-dimensional plane. When the phase difference was changed from 0° to 720°, the distance moved by a small particle in the orthogonal direction was approximately 29 mm, which corresponds with the wavelength of the flexural vibration on the vibrating plate. PMID:26670855

  3. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1988-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along several avenues during the past year. A study of optimal trajectories for penetration of microbursts when encounter is unavoidable was conducted. The emphasis of current wind shear research is on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. A knowledge-based reconfigurable flight control system that is implemented with the Pascal programming language using parallel microprocessors was developed. This expert system could be considered a prototype for a failure-tolerant control system that can be constructed using existing hardware. Development of a real-time cockpit simulator continued during the year. The simulator provides a single-person crew station with both conventional and advanced control devices; it currently is programmed to simulate the Navion single-engine general aviation airplane. Alternatives for the air traffic control system giving particular attention to the institutional structure of the FAA are analyzed. A simple numerical procedure for estimating the stochastic robustness of control systems is being investigated. The revitalization of the general aviation industry is also discussed.

  4. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated.

  5. The role of transition metal interfaces on the electronic transport in lithium–air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer;

    2011-01-01

    at the top of the anti bonding peroxide π*(2px) and π*(2py) levels in the Li2O2 valence band. Under an applied bias, this can result in a reduced transmission, since the anti bonding σ*(2pz) level in the Li2O2 conduction band is found to couple strongly to the metal substrate and create localized interface......Low electronic conduction is expected to be a main limiting factor in the performance of reversible lithium–air, Li–O2, batteries. Here, we apply density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function calculations to determine the electronic transport through lithium peroxide, Li2O2, formed...... at the cathode during battery discharge. We find the transport to depend on the orientation and lattice matching of the insulator–metal interface in the presence of Au and Pt catalysts. Bulk lithium vacancies are found to be available and mobile under battery charging conditions, and found to pin the Fermi level...

  6. Vertical Navigation Control Laws and Logic for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Khong, Thuan H.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical navigation (VNAV) outer-loop control system was developed to capture and track the vertical path segments of energy-efficient trajectories that are being developed for high-density operations in the evolving Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The VNAV control system has a speed-on-elevator control mode to pitch the aircraft for tracking a calibrated airspeed (CAS) or Mach number profile and a path control mode for tracking the VNAV altitude profile. Mode control logic was developed for engagement of either the speed or path control modes. The control system will level the aircraft to prevent it from flying through a constraint altitude. A stability analysis was performed that showed that the gain and phase margins of the VNAV control system significantly exceeded the design gain and phase margins. The system performance was assessed using a six-deg-of-freedom non-linear transport aircraft simulation and the performance is illustrated with time-history plots of recorded simulation data.

  7. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  8. Transport and fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the oceanic air and surface seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs are ubiquitous organic pollutants derived from pesticide application. They are subject to long-range transport, persistent in the environment, and capable of accumulation in biota. Shipboard measurements of HCH isomers (α-, γ- and β-HCH in surface seawater and boundary layer atmospheric samples were conducted in the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean in October to December of 2008. ΣHCHs concentrations (the sum of α-, γ- and β-HCH in the lower atmosphere ranged from 11.8 to 36.9 pg m−3 (mean: 26.6 ± 11.0 pg m−3 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH, and from 1.5 to 4.0 pg m−3 (mean: 2.8 ± 1.1 pg m−3 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, respectively. Water concentrations were: α-HCH 0.33–46.8 pg l−1, γ-HCH 0.02–33.2 pg l−1 and β-HCH 0.11–2 pg l−1. HCH concentrations decreased from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean, indicating historical use of HCHs in the NH. Spatial distribution showed increasing concentrations from the equator towards North and South latitudes illustrating the concept of cold condensation and less interhemispheric mixing process. In comparison to concentrations measured in 1987–1999/2000, gaseous HCHs were slightly lower, while dissolved HCHs decreased by factor of 2–3 orders of magnitude. Air-water exchange gradients suggested net deposition for α-HCH (mean: 3759 pg m−2 day−1 and γ-HCH (mean: 1987 pg m−2 day−1, whereas β-HCH varied between equilibrium (volatilization: <0–12 pg m−2 day−1 and net deposition (range: 6–687 pg m−2 day−1, indicating a multi-hopper transport behavior. Climate change may significantly accelerate the releasing process of "old" HCHs from continental storage (e.g. soil, vegetation and high mountains and drive long-range transport from sources to deposition in the

  9. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006 in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem. We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA with values up to 600 μg m−3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA concentration slightly

  10. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-05-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration slightly increased. The

  11. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... agents must inform the consumer of the code-share service ``before booking transportation'' and state... global distribution systems, which may be assisting travel agents to establish airline ticket sales...

  12. [The prevalence of hearing impairment in transport workers and peculiarities of management of occupational loss of hearing (as exemplified by the situation in the air and railway transport)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, V B; Skryabina, L Yu; Kas'kov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    This article presents data on the prevalence of hearing impairment among the workers engaged in the main means of transportation(air and railway transport). They show that the relative frequency of occupational loss of hearing in the cockpit members of commercial aviation amounts to one third of all cases of analogous diseases in this country. The main professional groups of transport works suffering from hearing impairment are constituted by the representatives of the so-called elite specialities, such as flying crew personnel, locomotive engineers, and their assistants. This fact constitutes an important aspect (not only of medical but also of socio-economic significance) of the problem under consideration. The high prevalence of professional hearing impairment among the transport workers is attributable to the high noise level in the cabins of locomotives and aircraft cockpits as well as to the inadequate expert and diagnostic work or imperfection of the regulatory documentation.

  13. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  14. X-ray CT-Derived Soil Characteristics Explain Varying Air, Water, and Solute Transport Properties across a Loamy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per;

    2016-01-01

    when the limiting macroporosity (the minimum macroporosity for every 0.6-mm layer along the soil column) was used, suggesting that soil layers with the narrowest macropore section restricted the flow through the whole soil column. Water, air, and solute transport were related with the CT......The characterization of soil pore space geometry is important for explaining fluxes of air, water, and solutes through soil and understanding soil hydrogeochemical functions. X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be applied for this characterization, and in this study CT-derived parameters were used...... to explain water, air, and solute transport through soil. Forty-five soil columns (20 by 20 cm) were collected from an agricultural field in Estrup, Denmark, and subsequently scanned using a medical CT scanner. Nonreactive tracer leaching experiments were performed in the laboratory along with measurements...

  15. Performance of personalized ventilation in a room with an underfloor air distribution system: transport of contaminants between occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    Studies have documented that personalized ventilation, which provides clean air at each office workplace, is able to improve substantially the quality of air inhaled by occupants. However, the interaction between the airflow generated by personalized ventilation and the airflow pattern outside...... the workplaces has not been studied in detail. This paper presents a study on the performance of a personalized ventilation system installed in a full-scale test room with an underfloor air distribution system. Transport of human-produced airborne pollutants (in real life they can be infectious agents) between...... by the exposed manikin. The main conclusion is that the design of the personalised ventilation system and the interaction of personalized airflow and room airflow should be carefully considered in order to achieve minimal transport of pollution between occupants....

  16. Transport and fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the oceanic air and surface seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs are ubiquitous organic pollutants derived from pesticide application. They are subject to long-range transport, persistent in the environment, and capable of accumulation in biota. Shipboard measurements of HCH isomers (α-, γ- and β-HCH in surface seawater and boundary layer atmospheric samples were conducted in the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean in October to December of 2008. ΣHCHs concentrations (the sum of α-, γ- and β-HCH in the lower atmosphere ranged from 12 to 37 pg m−3 (mean: 27 ± 11 pg m−3 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH, and from 1.5 to 4.0 pg m−3 (mean: 2.8 ± 1.1 pg m−3 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, respectively. Water concentrations were: α-HCH 0.33–47 pg l−1, γ-HCH 0.02–33 pg l−1 and β-HCH 0.11–9.5 pg l−1. Dissolved HCH concentrations decreased from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean, indicating historical use of HCHs in the NH. Spatial distribution showed increasing concentrations from the equator towards North and South latitudes illustrating the concept of cold trapping in high latitudes and less interhemispheric mixing process. In comparison to concentrations measured in 1987–1999/2000, gaseous HCHs were slightly lower, while dissolved HCHs decreased by factor of 2–3 orders of magnitude. Air-water exchange gradients suggested net deposition for α-HCH (mean: 3800 pg m−2 day−1 and γ-HCH (mean: 2000 pg m−2 day−1, whereas β-HCH varied between equilibrium (volatilization: <0–12 pg m−2 day−1 and net deposition (range: 6–690 pg m−2 day−1. Climate change may significantly accelerate the release of "old" HCHs from continental storage (e.g. soil, vegetation and high mountains and drive long-range transport from sources to deposition in the open oceans. Biological productivities may

  17. Transport of north China air pollution by midlatitude cyclones: Case study of aircraft measurements in summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Xue, Likun; Gao, Jian; Stohl, Andreas; Lei, Hengchi; Jin, Dezhen; Ren, Yu; Wang, Xuezhong; Wei, Xiaolin; Qi, Yanbin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2009-04-01

    Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and frontal activity play important roles in the long-range transport of air pollutants by lifting them from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) into the free troposphere (FT) in midlatitudes. In summer 2007, an aircraft study was carried out in northeast (NE) China in order to understand the role of midlatitude cyclones in air pollution transport in north and east China in warm seasons. During a flight on 27 June, high concentrations of ozone and related trace gases were observed, with maximum concentrations (O3 ˜ 140 ppbv, SO2 ˜ 14.6 ppbv, CO ˜ 1185 ppbv) recorded at an altitude of 2.6 km. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of this flight. The mesoscale meteorological model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and a Lagrangian dispersion model called FLEXPART were used to aid the diagnostic analysis of the atmospheric dynamic structure and the understanding of the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution. The flight took place in a region adjacent to a warm front associated with a weak cyclone in north China. The aircraft sampled both the WCB and warm air frontal zone of the cyclone. The simulations show that the observed high air pollution in the FT mostly originated from the North China Plain, especially the megacities Beijing and Tianjin. Their plumes were vented by a stagnant front, probably through, in part, topographic lifting by the mountains in the north, and then were quickly transported in the FT to the study region. Trajectory analysis and satellite data suggest that the observed air masses were further lifted by the WCB into the middle and upper troposphere and were exported from Asia toward North America and the Arctic.

  18. 75 FR 50730 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... (SIP) submitted on June 4, 2010. This revision consists of transportation conformity criteria and... Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: Comments must be received on or before September 16,...

  19. Transport of north China air pollution by mid-latitude cyclones: A case study of aircraft measurements in summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A.; Wang, T.; Xue, L.; Gao, J.; Stohl, A.; Lei, H.; Jin, D.; Ren, Y.; Wang, X.; Wei, X.; Qi, Y.; Liu, J.; Zhang, X.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorological processes such as warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and frontal activities, which are related to extratropical cyclones, have been recognized to play important roles in the long-range transport of air pollutants by lifting them from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) into the free troposphere (FT) in mid- latitudes. To understand the transport mechanism and regional impact of air pollution transport in north and east China by mid-latitude cyclones in warm seasons, an aircraft study was carried out in northeast (NE) China in the summer of 2007. During a flight on 27 June, high concentrations of ozone and related trace gases as well as high values of the aerosol scattering coefficient (Bsp) were observed, with maximum concentrations (O3~ 140 ppbv, SO2 ~ 14.6 ppbv, CO ~ 1185 ppbv) recorded at an altitude of 2.6 km in the FT. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of this flight. Mesoscale meteorological simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model aided the diagnostic analysis of the atmospheric dynamic structure in the low troposphere and helped in the understanding of the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution. Based on the WRF output, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART, was used to conduct backward simulations and calculate the source-receptor relationship. The study was undertaken in a region in NE China adjacent to a warm front associated with a weak cyclone in north China. Trajectory analysis and atmospheric structure analysis suggest that the aircraft sampled both the WCB and warm air frontal zone of the cyclone. The backward Lagrangian simulations show that the observed high air pollution in the FT mostly originated from the North China Plain (NCP), especially the northern part containing the megacities Beijing and Tianjin. Their plumes were vented by a stagnant front, probably through, in part, topographic lifting by the mountains in the north, and then were quickly (within 1 to 2 days

  20. Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we compare the potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on the air quality of (different) continental regions. We use a global chemical transport model, Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), to quantify the source-receptor relationships of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols among ten regions in 2000. In order to compare the importance of foreign with domestic emissions and to estimate the effect of future changes in emissions on human exposure, we define an 'influence potential' (IP). The IP quantifies the human exposure that occurs in a receptor region as a result of a unit of SO2 emissions from a source region. We find that due to the non-linear nature of sulfate production, regions with low SO2 emissions usually have large domestic IP, and vice versa. An exception is East Asia (EA), which has both high SO2 emissions and relatively large domestic IP, mostly caused by the spatial coincidence of emissions and population. We find that inter-continental IPs are usually less than domestic IPs by 1-3 orders of magnitude. SO2 emissions from the Middle East (ME) and Europe (EU) have the largest potential to influence populations in surrounding regions. By comparing the IP ratios (IPR) between foreign and domestic SO2 emissions, we find that the IPR values range from 0.000 01 to 0.16 and change with season. Therefore, if reducing human exposure to sulfate aerosols is the objective, all regions should first focus on reducing domestic SO2 emissions. In addition, we find that relatively high IPR values exist among the EU, ME, the former Soviet Union (FSU) and African (AF) regions. Therefore, on the basis of the IP and IPR values, we conclude that a regional agreement among EA countries, and an inter-regional agreement among EU, ME, FSU and (north) AF regions to control sulfur emissions could benefit public health in these regions

  1. Specification of test criteria for containers to be used in the air transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential accidents in the transport by aeroplane of plutonium are considered. Past literature on the subject is reviewed. Civilian air accident statistics are surveyed: impact and fire are shown to be the major threats. Probabilities (given an accident) are derived for encountering and impact of above any given speed as a function of speed, and a fire of above any given duration, as a function of duration. The crash of two typical jet cargo aircraft (BAC-111, Boeing-707) against a rigid normal surface is considered and cargo hold decelerations derived from a one-dimensional model. The response of a cargo to such decelerations is calculated for loads of two typical containers, and related to the velocity of impact into a hard target necessary to produce similar damage in single containers. Free fall of containers and the effect on the surface struck are discussed. The response of two typical containers to a fire is calculated, allowing for the charring of insulating/shock absorbing material. Calculations without charring appear pessimistic. The consequences of plutonium release are estimated and risk spectra derived for two failure assumptions. The implications for container test criteria are discussed, and recommendations made

  2. An Assessment of Civil Tiltrotor Concept of Operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Salvano, Dan; Rinehart, David; Young, Ray; Cheng, Victor; Lindsey, James

    2012-01-01

    Based on a previous Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) National Airspace System (NAS) performance analysis study, CTR operations were evaluated over selected routes and terminal airspace configurations assuming noninterference operations (NIO) and runway-independent operations (RIO). This assessment aims to further identify issues associated with these concepts of operations (ConOps), and their dependency on the airspace configuration and interaction with conventional fixed-wing traffic. Safety analysis following a traditional Safety Management System (SMS) methodology was applied to CTR-unique departure and arrival failures in the selected airspace to identify any operational and certification issues. Additional CTR operational cases were then developed to get a broader understanding of issues and gaps that will need to be addressed in future CTR operational studies. Finally, needed enhancements to National Airspace System performance analysis tools were reviewed, and recommendations were made on improvements in these tools that are likely to be required to support future progress toward CTR fleet operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen).

  3. Meso-scale modeling of air pollution transport/chemistry/deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport/chemistry/deposition model for atmospheric trace chemical species is now regarded as an important tool for an understanding of the effects of various human activities, such as fuel combustion and deforestation, on human health, eco-system, and climate and for planning of appropriate control of emission sources. Several 'comprehensive' models have been proposed such as RADM (Chang, et al., 1987), STEM-II (Carmichael, et al., 1986), and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, e.g., EPA website, 2003); the 'comprehensive' models include not only gas/aerosol phase chemistry but also aqueous phase chemistry in cloud/rain water in addition to the processes of advection, diffusion, wet deposition (mass transfer between aqueous and gas/aerosol phases), and dry deposition. The target of the development of the 'comprehensive' model will be that the model can correctly reproduce mass balance of various chemical species in the atmosphere with keeping adequate accuracy for calculated concentration distributions of chemical species. For the purpose, one of the important problems is a reliable wet deposition modeling, and here, we introduce two types of methods of 'cloud-resolving' and 'non-cloud-resolving' modeling for the wet deposition of pollutants. (author)

  4. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  5. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  6. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  10. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980's at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments

  11. Air Transport and Destination Performance – A case study of three African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya and South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Tchouamou Njoya, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Tourism is increasingly being promoted as an important source of economic growth especially in developing countries. While there are many elements that contribute to tourism growth, without an efficient air transport system, it is almost impossible for a number of landlocked and geographically isolated developing nations to expand and sustain domestic and international tourism. From the perspective of an African nation the most important question is whether the benefit of aviation expansion w...

  12. Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lei; X.-Z. Liang; D. J. Wuebbles; Tao, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury is a toxic air and water pollutant that is of significant concern because of its effects on human health and ecosystems. A mechanistic representation of the atmospheric mercury cycle is developed for the state-of-the-art global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem (Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry). The model simulates the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) in three forms: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), reactive mercury (Hg(II...

  13. Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lei; Liang, X.-Z.; D. J. Wuebbles; Tao, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury is a toxic air and water pollutant that is of significant concern because of its effects on human health and ecosystems. A mechanistic representation of the atmospheric mercury cycle is developed for the state-of-the-art global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem (Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry). The model simulates the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) in three forms: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), react...

  14. Will technological progress be sufficient to stabilize CO2 emissions from air transport in the mid-term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates whether anticipated technological progress can be expected to be strong enough to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the rapid growth of air transport. Aviation CO2 emissions projections are provided at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Total air traffic flows are first forecast using a dynamic panel-data econometric model, and then converted into corresponding quantities of air traffic CO2 emissions using specific hypotheses and energy factors. None of our nine scenarios appears compatible with the objective of 450 ppm CO2-eq. (a.k.a. 'scenario of type I') recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). None is either compatible with the IPCC scenario of type III, which aims at limiting global warming to 3.2 deg. C

  15. Prediction of air leakage and aerosol transport through concrete cracks with a fractal based crack morphology model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, L.R., E-mail: lrbishnoi@aerb.gov.in [Siting and Structural Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Vedula, R.P., E-mail: rpv@iitb.ac.in [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A fractal based numerical concrete crack morphology model is presented. • Computational studies conducted for airflow and aerosol transport through cracks. • Results are compared with experimental data and other empirical relations. • Comparative studies demonstrate model effectiveness and versatility of application. - Abstract: Cracks may appear in pressurized concrete containment of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident and provide leak paths for release of radioactive aerosols dispersed in the contained air. In this paper, a fractal based crack morphology model is presented for prediction of air leakage and aerosol transport through cracks in concrete. Airflow field generated in air leakage studies is used for aerosol transport studies with the Lagrangian discrete phase model using CFD code FLUENT. Computational studies conducted with the fractal based model are compared with the experimental data as well as the predictions from empirical relations available in open literature. The comparative studies demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed fractal based model and its versatility for practical applications.

  16. Unexpected high 35S concentration revealing strong downward transport of stratospheric air during the monsoon transitional period in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mang; Zhang, Zhisheng; Su, Lin; Su, Binbin; Liu, Lanzhong; Tao, Jun; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2016-03-01

    October is the monsoon transitional period in East Asia (EA) involving a series of synoptic activities that may enhance the downward transport of stratospheric air to the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here we use cosmogenic 35S in sulfate aerosols (35SO42-) as a tracer for air masses originating from the stratosphere and transported downward to quantify these mixing processes. From 1 year 35SO42- measurements (March 2014 to February 2015) at a background station in EA we find remarkably enhanced 35SO42- concentration (3150 atoms m-3) in October, the highest value ever reported for natural sulfate aerosols. A four-box 1-D model and meteorological analysis reveal that strong downward transport from the free troposphere is a vital process entraining aged stratospheric air masses to the PBL. The aged stratospheric masses are accumulated in the PBL, accelerating the SO2 transformation to SO42-. Implications for the tropospheric O3 budget and the CO2 biogeochemical cycle are discussed.

  17. Temperature control apparatus including air return bulkhead for mounting in a transportable body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, A.H.

    1988-02-23

    An air return bulkhead assembly for removable installation adjacent an inside surface of a front wall of a trailer also having two side walls extending from opposite ends of the front wall, through which front wall is disposed an air treatment apparatus for receiving air through an inlet, for temperature treating the air and for providing the temperature-treated air through an outlet is described comprising: a first vertical support member having a first web through which a first hole is defined; first attachment means for attaching the first vertical support member to the front wall of the trailer between one of the side walls of the trailer and the air treatment apparatus.

  18. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  19. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Scanning drift tube measurements of electron transport parameters in different gases: argon, synthetic air, methane and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolov, I.; Vass, M.; Donkó, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of transport coefficients of electrons in a scanning drift tube apparatus are reported for different gases: argon, synthetic air, methane and deuterium. The experimental system allows the spatio-temporal development of the electron swarms (‘swarm maps’) to be recorded and this information, when compared with the profiles predicted by theory, makes it possible to determine the ‘time-of-flight’ transport coefficients: the bulk drift velocity, the longitudinal diffusion coefficient and the effective ionization coefficient, in a well-defined way. From these data, the effective Townsend ionization coefficient is determined as well. The swarm maps provide, additionally, direct, unambiguous information about the hydrodynamic/non-hydrodynamic regimes of the swarms, aiding the selection of the proper regions applicable for the determination of the transport coefficients.

  1. Principal component analysis of the evolution of the Saharan air layer and dust transport: Comparisons between a model simulation and MODIS and AIRS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Colarco, Peter R.; Dessler, Andrew E.

    2006-10-01

    The onset and evolution of Saharan air layer (SAL) episodes during June-September 2002 are diagnosed by applying principal component analysis to the NCEP reanalysis temperature anomalies at 850 hPa, where the largest SAL-induced temperature anomalies are located along the west coast of Africa. The first principal component (PC) represents the onset of SAL episodes, which are associated with large warm anomalies located at the west coast of Africa. The second PC represents two opposite phases of the evolution of the SAL. The positive phase corresponds to the southwestward migration of the warm anomalies into the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, and the negative phase corresponds to the northwestward migration into the subtropical to midlatitude North Atlantic Ocean and the southwest Europe. AIRS retrievals of temperatures in September 2002 verify the migration depicted by the second PC. In addition, a dust transport model (CARMA) and the MODIS retrievals of aerosol optical thickness are used to study the associated effects on dust distribution and deposition. The positive (negative) phase of the second PC corresponds to a strengthening (weakening) of the offshore flows in the lower troposphere around 10-20°N, causing more (less) dust being transported toward the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The 700-hPa anticyclonic circulation associated with the warm anomalies plays a role in connecting the dust with the warm anomalies.

  2. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macro-porosity by combining laboratory measurements and X-ray Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per;

    With an objective to link the hydraulic properties of soil with the soil structural properties, air permeability and 5% arrival time of a conservative tracer was measured for large undisturbed soil columns from the same agricultural field. The same soil columns were scanned with a medical scanner......-porosity (R2 = 0.80 for air permeability: R2= 0.61 for 5% arrival time) and macro-porosity of the restricting layer (R2=0.83 for air permeability: R2= 0.71 for 5% arrival time) over air-filled porosity and all the correlations were positive. The high positive correlation these air and water transport...... functions with macro-porosity stressed the importance of continuity and tortuosity of pores in air, water and solute flow and transport through the soils. Negative correlations of air permeability, 5% arrival time of tracer and macro-porosity were obtained with bulk density whereas with other soil physical...

  3. Identifying and quantifying transported vs. local sources of New York City PM 2.5 fine particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    New York City (NYC) is presently in violation of the nation's PM 2.5 annual mass standard, and will have to take actions to control the sources contributing to these violations. This paper seeks to differentiate the impact of long-range transported aerosols on the air quality of downtown NYC, so that the roles of local sources can more clearly be evaluated. Past source apportionment studies have considered single sites individually in their source apportionment analyses to identify and determine sources affecting that site, often finding secondary sulfates to be an important contributor, but not being able to quantify the portion that is transported vs. local. In this study, a rural site located in Sterling Forest, NY, which is near to the NYC area, but unaffected by local NYC sources, is instead used as a reference to separate the portion of the aerosol that is transported to our Manhattan, NYC site before conducting the source apportionment analysis. Sterling Forest is confirmed as a background site via elemental comparisons with NYC during regional transport episodes of Asian and Sahara sandstorm dusts, as well as by comparisons with a second background site in Chester, NJ. Two different approaches that incorporate Sterling Forest background data into the NYC source apportionment analysis are then applied to quantify local vs. transported aerosols. Six source categories are identified for NYC: regional transported sulfate, trans-continental desert dust, traffic, residual oil, "local" dust and World Trade Center fires pollution. Of these, the transported sulfates and trans-continental desert dust accounted for nearly half of the total PM 2.5 mass in Manhattan during 2001, with more than half coming from these transported sources during the summer months. More than 90% of the Manhattan elemental carbon was found to be of local origins. Conversely, roughly 90% of the NYC sulfate mass was identified as transported into the city. Our results indicate that transported

  4. Draft environmental statement on the transportation of radioactive material by air and other modes. DOCKET No. PR-71,73 (40 FR 23768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft environmental statement was prepared in connection with the NRC re-evaluation of its present regulations governing air transportation of radioactive materials, to provide sufficient analysis to determine the effectiveness of the present rules and of possible alternatives to those rules. The following topics are discussed: regulations governing radioactive materials transport; radiological effects; transport impacts under normal conditions; effect of transport under accident conditions; alternatives; and security and safeguards

  5. Variability of Compet itive Factors in Air Transportation and Improving Customer Satisfaction with Service Innovation: A New "Mile + Time Score" Application

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Can Yıldırır

    2015-01-01

    As in all the world, airlines transportation in our country is increasing every day. Rapid transport, reasonable price and high quality service is the reaso n for this increase. Both local and foreign airline companies have accelerated their activities as result of this rapid growth in air transportation sector. Over the time, these enterprises reached a level to go head to head with each other about the quality, price, transport network and ...

  6. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 2. Public-private urban transportation modal mixes. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Dei Rossi, J.A.; Henneman, S.S.; Putnam, E.S.; Usowicz, T.W.

    1974-12-01

    The objective of this four-volume study is to formulate a basis for the design of a joint interagency action program which would simultaneously improve urban mobility and air quality and conserve petroleum resources. This second volume presents an algorithm for calculating the impacts on transportation energy use and pollutant emissions of alternative urban transportation mixes. The algorithm is used to compare the change in national urban energy use and pollutant emissions implied by the maximum conceivable diversion of 1990 urban auto travel to bus, rail and para-transit compared to the no-diversion case. This exercise is supported by appendices showing the derivation of the methodology and of the database. The volume also includes a discussion of issues, tradeoffs, and methodologies relevant to the local determination of a balanced modal mix in an individual metropolitan area.

  7. Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Glenn C.

    1999-12-01

    In this dissertation, results are presented of laboratory investigations and mathematical modeling efforts designed to better understand the interactions of ozone with surfaces. In the laboratory, carpet and duct materials were exposed to ozone and measured ozone uptake kinetics and the ozone induced emissions of volatile organic compounds. To understand the results of the experiments, mathematical methods were developed to describe dynamic indoor aldehyde concentrations, mass transport of reactive species to smooth surfaces, the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet due to the surface reactivity of fibers and carpet backing, and ozone aging of surfaces. Carpets, separated carpet fibers, and separated carpet backing all tended to release aldehydes when exposed to ozone. Secondary emissions were mostly n-nonanal and several other smaller aldehydes. The pattern of emissions suggested that vegetable oils may be precursors for these oxidized emissions. Several possible precursors and experiments in which linseed and tung oils were tested for their secondary emission potential were discussed. Dynamic emission rates of 2-nonenal from a residential carpet may indicate that intermediate species in the oxidation of conjugated olefins can significantly delay aldehyde emissions and act as reservoir for these compounds. The ozone induced emission rate of 2-nonenal, a very odorous compound, can result in odorous indoor concentrations for several years. Surface ozone reactivity is a key parameter in determining the flux of ozone to a surface, is parameterized by the reaction probability, which is simply the probability that an ozone molecule will be irreversibly consumed when it strikes a surface. In laboratory studies of two residential and two commercial carpets, the ozone reaction probability for carpet fibers, carpet backing and the equivalent reaction probability for whole carpet were determined. Typically reaction probability values for these materials were 10

  8. Transport and chemical conversion of air pollutants under convective conditions - Results of the COPS-TRACKS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms-Grabe, W.; Corsmeier, U.; Vogel, H.; Kottmeier, Ch.

    2012-04-01

    Embedded in the COPS project, the TRACKS campaign (Transport and Chemical Conversion in Convective Systems) was carried out in summer 2007 in order to study the transport of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols under convective conditions. One focus of this experiment was to investigate the dilution of air pollutants in the surroundings of a metropolitan area in complex terrain due to dynamical and chemical processes. Therefore, trace gas distributions in the lee of the city of Karlsruhe had been detected by coordinated measurements of different airborne platforms, including several aircraft and a zeppelin. We study a summer day with convective boundary layer, characterized not by extreme but standard weather conditions with typical atmospheric pollution. The relevance of urban sources of atmospheric pollutants located in Karlsruhe is considered in relation to meteorological and transport conditions in the Upper Rhine Valley. The observed ozone concentrations inside the TRACKS area are moderate during this day and reach maximum values around 60 ppb. However, the measurements reveal specific horizontal structures in several trace gas distributions lee-side of Karlsruhe. At a distance of 40 km away from the city, the ozone concentration increases by about 10 ppb, although NO2 does not show a clear horizontal gradient. The correlation of O3 and CO provides an indicator for the origin of air masses. Near to Karlsruhe, the O3/CO correlation is not significant. However, in the remote lee area a significant positive correlation with a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.71 was found which refers to additional insertion of air pollutants by longer distance transport or vertical transport processes. A model simulation with COSMO-ART shows low NO2 concentrations in the lee of Karlsruhe which vary around 5 ppb and indicate that Karlsruhe does not develop a distinctive city plume by the combination of local emissions and atmospheric conditions at this day. In the afternoon

  9. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  10. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin A. Brown III

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results: 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9% medical and 2,685 (55.1% trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1% adult and 256 (5.3% pediatric (age ≤ 14 intubations; 225 (4.6% did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6% had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9% and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%. Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test. 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD. Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7% and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7% encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion: Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:188–193.

  11. Theoretical preconditions and technical substantiation for mechanical compressed air drying method application on the railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana RIPOL’-SARAGOSI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is related to the compressed air purification for the rolling stock problems. The mechanical method is described as a potential way of the compressed air cooling and purificating. The temperature field at the heat conducting surface engineer function equation is given in the article as well.

  12. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  13. An air-mass trajectory study of the transport of radioactivity from Fukushima to Thessaloniki, Greece and Milan, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Vagena, E.; Papastefanou, C.; Gini, L.; Manenti, S.; Groppi, F.

    2013-08-01

    Analyses of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in airborne aerosols were carried out in daily samples at two different sites of investigation: Thessaloniki, Greece (40° N) and Milan, Italy (45° N) after the Fukushima accident during the period of March-April, 2011. The radionuclide concentrations were determined and studied as a function of time. The 131I concentration in air over Milan and Thessaloniki peaked on April 3-4, 2011, with observed activities 467 μBq m-3 and 497 μBq m-3, respectively. The 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio values in air were around 1 in both regions, related to the burn-up history of the damaged nuclear fuel of the destroyed nuclear reactor. The high 131I/137Cs ratio, observed during the first days after the accident, followed by lower values during the following days, reflects not only the initial release ratio but also the different volatility, attachment and removal of the two isotopes during transportation due to their different physico-chemical properties. No artificial radionuclides could be detected in air after April 28, 2011 in both regions of investigation. The different maxima of airborne 131I and 134,137Cs in these two regions were related to long-range air mass transport from Japan, across the Pacific and to Central Europe. Analysis of backward trajectories was used to confirm the arrival of artificial radionuclides following atmospheric transport and processing. HYSPLIT backward trajectories were applied for the interpretation of activity variations of measured radionuclides.

  14. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  15. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located. PMID:26797812

  16. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed. PMID:26667061

  17. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed.

  18. Assessment and prediction of urban air pollution caused by motor transport exhaust gases using computer simulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarshinov, Michael G.; Vaismana, Yakov I.

    2016-10-01

    The following methods were used in order to identify the pollution fields of urban air caused by the motor transport exhaust gases: the mathematical model, which enables to consider the influence of the main factors that determine pollution fields formation in the complex spatial domain; the authoring software designed for computational modeling of the gas flow, generated by numerous mobile point sources; the results of computing experiments on pollutant spread analysis and evolution of their concentration fields. The computational model of exhaust gas distribution and dispersion in a spatial domain, which includes urban buildings, structures and main traffic arteries, takes into account a stochastic character of cars apparition on the borders of the examined territory and uses a Poisson process. The model also considers the traffic lights switching and permits to define the fields of velocity, pressure and temperature of the discharge gases in urban air. The verification of mathematical model and software used confirmed their satisfactory fit to the in-situ measurements data and the possibility to use the obtained computing results for assessment and prediction of urban air pollution caused by motor transport exhaust gases.

  19. Development of open air silicon deposition technology by silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under local ambient gas control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2016-07-01

    Open air silicon deposition was performed by combining silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical transport and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. The effect of air contamination on silicon deposition was investigated using a vacuum chamber, and the allowable air contamination level was confirmed to be 3 ppm. The capability of the local ambient gas control head was investigated numerically and experimentally. A safe and clean process environment with air contamination less than 1 ppm was achieved. Combining these technologies, a microcrystalline silicon film was deposited in open air, the properties of which were comparable to those of silicon films deposited in a vacuum chamber.

  20. Legal aspects of the air transportation of pregnant women having children on board the aircraft and especially the definition of citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Липець, Людмила

    2016-01-01

    The article defines the legal aspects of the air transport of pregnant women having children on board the aircraft and especially the definition of citizenship. The author makes a conclusion that the national legislation contains gaps and conflicts with respect to international legislation regulating these issues. English abstract L. Lуpets Legal aspects of the air transportation of pregnant women having children onboardtheaircraftandespeciallythedefinitionofcitizenship Thearticledefinesthel...

  1. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when de...

  2. The impact of circulation patterns on regional transport pathways and air quality over Beijing and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the air pollution characteristics of synoptic-scale circulation in the Beijing megacity, and provided quantitative evaluation of the impacts of circulation patterns on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Nine weather circulation types (CTs were objectively identified over the North China region during 2000–2009, using obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA. The resulting CTs were examined in relation to the local meteorology, regional transport pathways, and air quality parameters, respectively. The FLEXPART-WRF model was used to calculate 48-h backward plume trajectories for each CT. Each CT was characterized with distinct local meteorology and air mass origin. CT 1 (high pressure to the west with a strong pressure gradient was characterized by a northwestern air mass origin, with the smallest local and southeasterly air mass sources, and CT 6 (high pressure to the northwest had air mass sources mostly from the north and east. On the contrary, CTs 5, 8, and 9 (weak pressure field, high pressure to the east, and low pressure to the northwest, respectively were characterized by southern and southeastern trajectories, which indicated a greater influence of high pollutant emission sources. In turn, poor air quality in Beijing (high loadings of PM10, BC, SO2, NO2, NOx, O3, AOD, and low visibility was associated with these CTs. Good air quality in Beijing was associated with CTs 1 and 6. The average visibilities (with ±1σ in Beijing for CTs 1 and 6 during 2000–2009 were 18.5 ± 8.3 km and 14.3 ± 8.5 km, respectively. In contrast, low visibility values of 6.0 ± 3.5 km, 6.6 ± 3.7 km, and 6.7 ± 3.6 km were found in CTs 5, 8, and 9, respectively. The mean concentrations of PM10 for CTs 1, 6, 5, 8, and 9 during 2005–2009 were 90.3 ± 76.3 μg m−3, 111.7 ± 89.6 μg m−3, 173.4 ± 105.8 μg m

  3. The impact of circulation patterns on regional transport pathways and air quality over Beijing and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. P.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Q. H.; Li, C. C.; Shu, H. L.; Ying, Y.; Dai, Z. P.; Wang, X.; Liu, X. Y.; Liang, A. M.; Shen, H. X.; Yi, B. Q.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the air pollution characteristics of synoptic-scale circulation in the Beijing megacity, and provided quantitative evaluation of the impacts of circulation patterns on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Nine weather circulation types (CTs) were objectively identified over the North China region during 2000-2009, using obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting CTs were examined in relation to the local meteorology, regional transport pathways, and air quality parameters, respectively. The FLEXPART-WRF model was used to calculate 48-h backward plume trajectories for each CT. Each CT was characterized with distinct local meteorology and air mass origin. CT 1 (high pressure to the west with a strong pressure gradient) was characterized by a northwestern air mass origin, with the smallest local and southeasterly air mass sources, and CT 6 (high pressure to the northwest) had air mass sources mostly from the north and east. On the contrary, CTs 5, 8, and 9 (weak pressure field, high pressure to the east, and low pressure to the northwest, respectively) were characterized by southern and southeastern trajectories, which indicated a greater influence of high pollutant emission sources. In turn, poor air quality in Beijing (high loadings of PM10, BC, SO2, NO2, NOx, O3, AOD, and low visibility) was associated with these CTs. Good air quality in Beijing was associated with CTs 1 and 6. The average visibilities (with ±1σ) in Beijing for CTs 1 and 6 during 2000-2009 were 18.5 ± 8.3 km and 14.3 ± 8.5 km, respectively. In contrast, low visibility values of 6.0 ± 3.5 km, 6.6 ± 3.7 km, and 6.7 ± 3.6 km were found in CTs 5, 8, and 9, respectively. The mean concentrations of PM10 for CTs 1, 6, 5, 8, and 9 during 2005-2009 were 90.3 ± 76.3 μg m-3, 111.7 ± 89.6 μg m-3, 173.4 ± 105.8 μg m-3, 158.4 ± 90.0 μg m-3, and 151.2 ± 93.1 μg m-3, respectively. Analysis of the relationship between

  4. Investigations on the distribution of air transport traffic and CO2 emissions within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Rodrigo, Gustavo; Benito, A; Lonza, L.; Kousoulidou, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the structure of air traffic and its distribution among the different countries in the European Union, as well as traffic with an origin or destination in non-EU countries. Data sources are Eurostat statistics and actual flight information from EUROCONTROL. Relevant variables such as the number of flights, passengers or cargo tonnes and production indicators (RPKs) are used together with fuel consumption and CO2 emissions data. The segmentation of air traffic in terms of d...

  5. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Komppula, M.; Sihto, S.-L.; Korhonen, H.; Lihavainen, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In eastern air masses almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in western air masses most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle form...

  6. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  7. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 4. Information data base: status of urban congestion, air pollution, and energy use. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.; Putnam, E.S.; Usowicz, T.W.

    1974-12-01

    The objective of the study is to formulate a basis for the design of a joint program which would simultaneously improve urban mobility and air quality and conserve petroleum resources. This fourth volume contains INTERPLAN's initial definition of the transportation-related urban problems now faced by UMTA, EPA, and FEA, and their authority to cope with these problems. The current status of transportation-related urban congestion, air pollution, and energy usage is analyzed on a national level, and the future status likely to obtain if present trends continue unchecked is projected. Congestion and air pollution is also examined in four cities: Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Seattle, and Baltimore.

  8. Explaining Air and Water Transport in Undisturbed Soils By X-Ray CT Derived Macroporosity and CT- Number-Derived Matrix Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per;

    The characterization of soil pore space geometry is important to predict the fluxes of air, water and solutes through soil and understand soil hydrogeochemical functions. X-ray computed tomography (CT) -derived parameters were evaluated as predictors of water, air and solute transport through soil...... the potential of X-ray CT visualization techniques for estimating fluxes through soil....

  9. The impact of total liberalization on domestic air transport on the social welfare and on the dynamics of competition : comparison between United States and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    International audience Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a com...

  10. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  11. The impact of circulation patterns on regional transport pathways and air quality over Beijing and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the air pollution characteristics of synoptic-scale circulation in the Beijing megacity, and provided holistic evaluation of the impacts of circulation patterns on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Nine weather circulation types (CTs were objectively identified over the North China region during 2000–2009, using obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA. The resulting CTs were examined in relation to the local meteorology, regional transport pathways, and air quality parameters, respectively. The FLEXPART-WRF model was used to calculate 48-h backward plume trajectories for each CT. Nine CTs were characterized, with distinct local meteorology and air mass origins. CT 1 (high to the west with a strong pressure gradient was characterized by a northwestern origin, with the smallest local and southeasterly air mass sources, and CT 6 (high to the northwest had air mass sources mostly from the north and east. In contrast, CTs 5, 8, and 9 (unique, high to the east, and low to the northwest, respectively were characterized by southern and southeastern trajectories, which indicated a greater influence of high pollutant emission sources. In turn, poor air quality in Beijing (high loadings of PM10, BC, SO2, NO2, O3, AOD, and low visibility was associated with these CTs. Good air quality in Beijing was associated with CTs 1 and 6. The average visibilities (with ±1 σ in Beijing for CTs 1 and 6 during 2000–2009 were 18.5 ± 8.3 km and 14.3 ± 8.5 km, respectively. In contrast, poor visibility values of 6.0 ± 3.5 km, 6.6 ± 3.7 km, and 6.7 ± 3.6 km were found in CTs 5, 8, and 9, respectively. The mean concentrations of PM10 for CTs 1, 6, 5, 8, and 9 during 2005–2009 were 90.3 ± 76.3 μg m−3, 111.7 ± 89.6 μg m−3, 173.4 ± 105.8 μg m−3, 158.4 ± 90.0 μg m−3, and 151.2 ± 93.1 μg m

  12. The influence of firn air transport processes and radiocarbon production on gas records from polar firn and ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buizert, Christo

    Air bubbles found in polar ice cores preserve a record of past atmospheric composition up to 800 kyr back in time. The composition of the bubbles is not identical to the ancient atmosphere, as it is influenced by processes prior to trapping, within the ice sheet itself, and during sampling...... in Northern Greenland (77.45 o N 51.06 o W). The depthdiffusivity relationship needs to be reconstructed using reference tracers of known atmospheric history. We present a novel method of characterizing the firn transport using ten tracers simultaneously, thus constraining the effective diffusivity better...

  13. Free Trade in Airline Services: Assessing the Proposals to Liberalize the Canada – U.S. Air Transport Bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Gillen, David W.; Hansen, Mark; Ramos, Robson

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we examine the consequences of changes to the bilateral agreement which regulates air transport between Canada and the United States. A hubbing competition model based on an n-player non-cooperative game is used to simulate six alternative bilateral scenarios including the current positions of Canada and the U.S.. We find that changes to the bilateral does not have a significant effect on the total amount of traffic but it does effect the distribution of traffic between countrie...

  14. OBTAINING OF NEW KNOWLEDGE IN «AIR CONDITIONING» DIRECTION DEVELOPMENT AT THE RAILWAYS TRANSPORT: SCIENTOMETRIC ASPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnykova, T. O.; Pominova, O. V.; Kolesnykov, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The research aimes at obtaining of new knowledge in «air conditioning» direction development at railway transport using products and services of Web of Science (WoS) scientometric database. Chronological frameworks of the studied scientific articles – 2010-2015 years. Methodology. In order to obtain relevant empirical data the authors reviewed the world literature on the paper topic with the use of full-texts and abstract databases. The algorithm of «incremental» actions in WoS was c...

  15. Integrated Observation of Aerosol Plumes Transport and Impacts on the Air Quality Remote Sensing in the Northeast U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghua; Nazmi, Chowdhury; Han, Zaw; Li, Cuiya; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a cluster analysis of plume transport paths to New York City (NYC, 40.821ºN, 73.949ºW) for the 8-year period during 2006-2013. We also show cases of such aloft aerosol plumes intrusion and mixing into the boundary layer (PBL) and the impact on local air quality. Range-resolved monthly occurrence frequency and modification of local aerosol optical properties are presented. The NOAA-HYSPLIT cluster analysis indicates 6 main transport paths; and the optical properties (optical depth-AOD, Angstrom exponent-AE and single scatter albedo-SSA) of aerosol for each cluster are characterized. We further illustrate the impact of these aloft plumes on the satellite MODIS estimate of ground PM2.5 levels and observe that when the aloft plumes-layer AODs are filtered out using lidar, the correlation of MODIS AOD-PM2.5 can be much improved.

  16. Diagnostic Evaluation of Ozone Production and Horizontal Transport in a Regional Photochemical Air Quality Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O3) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...

  17. Competitiveness of the Air and the Sea Cargo Transport of Mexico under the International Trade Frame

    OpenAIRE

    America I. Zamora Torres; Jose Cesar Lenin Navarro Chavez; Joel Bonales Valencia

    2015-01-01

    International trade trends have changed the cost structure, pricing, logistics, supply chain and hence comparative advantages. Such trends have similarly defined the trade competitiveness of countries becoming more relevant with the level of integration of global transport networks as a driver of international trade. In this paper we evaluate through Principal Component Analysis methodology the international transport competitiveness considering the most important variables that affect this s...

  18. Joint strategies for urban transportation, air quality, and energy conservation. Joint action programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.; Hudson, C.L.; Putnam, E.S.; Thiesen, D.J.

    1974-12-01

    An integrated approach is given for resolving problems created by traffic congestion, air pollution, and petroleum shortages. In Part 1, the basic relationships among the strategies and actions are summarized in a matrix display. Each item is ranked to access its impact on six subgoals, or phenomena, in the near or long term: improved auto alernatives; improved vehicular flow; reduced auto use; reduced travel demand; reduced vehicular emissions; and reduced vehicular petroleum consumption. Two synergistic joint action programs are presented. Part II contains an information review of experience, impacts on goals (mobility, air quality, energy conservation), and an overall evaluation of 54 specific actions.

  19. An Overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Langford; Senff, C.J.; R.J., Alvarez; Brioude, Jérome; Cooper, O. R; J. S. Holloway; Lin, M.; Marchbanks, R.D.; R. B. Pierce; S. P. Sandberg; A. M. Weickmann; E. J. Williams

    2014-01-01

    International audience The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport...

  20. Hub-and-Spoke System in Air Transportation and Its Implications to Regional Economic Development——A Case Study of United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wei; MA Yanji

    2006-01-01

    Considerable changes have taken place in commercial passenger air transport since the enactment of the 1978Airline Deregulation Act in the US and the deregulation of airline networks that has occurred elsewhere. The commercial and operational freedoms have led most of the larger carriers to develop hub-and-spoke networks, within which certain cities or metropolitan areas emerge as key nodes possessing tremendous advantages over other locations in the air transport system. This paper examines the nature of hub-and-spoke operations in air transportation services, and the benefits that accrue to a city or geographical region that is host to an airline hub. In particular, it looks into linkages between the air service hub and local economic development. Four potential types of impact of airports on the regional economy are defined and discussed. As an example, the assessment of the economic impacts of Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), a major Delta Airlines hub, is introduced.

  1. 32 CFR 861.4 - DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or 135 (14 CFR 121, 125, 127, or 135) air carrier (or foreign CAA equivalent if appropriate) on a...) Aircrew training. Training, including recurrent training, which develops and refines skills designed to... ensure that all maintenance tasks, including required inspections and airworthiness directives,...

  2. Buenos Aires: en busca de un modelo de gestión integral del transporte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagare, V.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    En la ciudad de Buenos Aires, el modelo de movilidad urbana y sus mutaciones a lo largo de la historia han dejado su impronta en la expansión territorial, y sobre todo, en el proceso de metropolización. En este artículo se analizan esas mutaciones desde varias ópticas. En un primer apartado se estud

  3. Reliance of British transport on fossil fuels: associated adverse impacts on air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.-M.; Badr, O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1997-01-01

    Economically recoverable indigenous reserves of petroleum and natural gas will be exhausted early next century, forcing the UK to rely heavily upon imports of these commodities. The forecasted increases in the latter will result in a rise in the national rate of CO{sub 2} emissions after AD 2000. It has been estimated that by 2020, approximately 675 ({+-} 55) million tonnes of CO{sub 2} will be emitted annually in the UK, with {approx} 30% of these arising from transport. The percentage of total SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the transport sector is also predicted to increase to 10% by AD 2020. The recent rise in energy demand by the transport sector is also leading to larger emission rates of other atmospheric pollutants in the UK. In 1992, transport was responsible for 48%, 48%, 91%, and 61% of the total national emissions of black smoke, VOCs, CO, and NO{sub x} respectively, with 47%, 46%, 90% and 53% of these respectively resulting from road transport. (author)

  4. Final environmental statement on the transportation of radioactive material by air and other modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is presented of the environmental impact from transportation of shipments of radioactive material into, within, and out of the United States. It is intended to serve as background material for a review by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of regulations dealing with transportation of radioactive materials. The impetus for such a review results not only from a general need to examine regulations to ensure their continuing consistency with the goal of limiting radiological impact to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable, but also from a need to respond to current national discussions of the safety and security aspects of nuclear fuel cycle materials. Chapters are included on regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials, radiological effects, transport impact under normal conditions, impacts of transportation accidents, alternatives, and security and safeguards. A standard shipments model is also included along with a demographic model, excerpts from federal regulations, data on Pu, Population dose formulas, a list of radioactive material incidents, accident analysis methodology, and an analysis of risk assessment sensitivity

  5. Accelerated OH(-) transport in activated carbon air cathode by modification of quaternary ammonium for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Cuijuan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qingrui; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a promising catalyst for the air cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of its high performance and low cost. To increase the performance of AC air cathodes, the acceleration of OH(-) transport is one of the most important methods, but it has not been widely investigated. Here we added quaternary ammonium to ACs by in situ anchoring of a quaternary ammonium/epoxide-reacting compound (QAE) or ex situ mixing with anion exchange resins in order to modify ACs from not only the external surface but also inside the pores. In 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the in situ anchoring of QAE was a more effective way to increase the power. The highest power density of 2781 ± 36 mW/m(2), which is 10% higher than that of the control, was obtained using QAE-anchored AC cathodes. When the medium was switched to an unbuffered NaCl solution, the increase in maximum power density (885 ± 25 mW/m(2)) was in accordance with the anion exchange capacity (0.219 mmol/g). The highest power density of the anion exchange resin-mixed air cathode was 51% higher than that of the control, indicating that anion exchange is urgently needed in real wastewaters. Excess anchoring of QAE blocked both the mesopores and micropores, causing the power output to be inhibited. PMID:24597673

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of an Air-monitoring Network Using Atmospheric Transport Modeling and Frequency of Detection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Arthur S; Sondrup, A Jeffrey; Ritter, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the performance of an air-monitoring network in terms of frequency of detection. Frequency of detection is defined as the fraction of "events" that result in a detection at either a single sampler or network of samplers. An "event" is defined as a release to the atmosphere of a specified amount of activity over a finite duration that begins on a given day and hour of the year. The methodology uses an atmospheric transport model to predict air concentrations of radionuclides at the samplers for a given release time and duration. Another metric of interest determined by the methodology is called the network intensity, which is defined as the fraction of samplers in the network that have a positive detection for a given event. The frequency of detection methodology allows for evaluation of short-term releases that include effects of short-term variability in meteorological conditions. The methodology was tested using the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site ambient air-monitoring network consisting of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations covering a 17,630 km region. Releases from six major facilities distributed over an area of 1,435 km were modeled and included three stack sources and eight ground-level sources. A Lagrangian Puff air dispersion model (CALPUFF) was used to model atmospheric transport. The model was validated using historical Sb releases and measurements. Relevant 1-wk release quantities from each emission source were calculated based on a dose of 1.9×10 mSv at a public receptor (0.01 mSv assuming release persists over a year). Important radionuclides were Am, Cs, Pu, Pu, Sr, and tritium. Results show the detection frequency was over 97.5% for the entire network considering all sources and radionuclides. Network intensity results ranged from 3.75% to 62.7%. Evaluation of individual samplers indicated some samplers were poorly located and added little to the overall

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of an Air-monitoring Network Using Atmospheric Transport Modeling and Frequency of Detection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Arthur S; Sondrup, A Jeffrey; Ritter, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the performance of an air-monitoring network in terms of frequency of detection. Frequency of detection is defined as the fraction of "events" that result in a detection at either a single sampler or network of samplers. An "event" is defined as a release to the atmosphere of a specified amount of activity over a finite duration that begins on a given day and hour of the year. The methodology uses an atmospheric transport model to predict air concentrations of radionuclides at the samplers for a given release time and duration. Another metric of interest determined by the methodology is called the network intensity, which is defined as the fraction of samplers in the network that have a positive detection for a given event. The frequency of detection methodology allows for evaluation of short-term releases that include effects of short-term variability in meteorological conditions. The methodology was tested using the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site ambient air-monitoring network consisting of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations covering a 17,630 km region. Releases from six major facilities distributed over an area of 1,435 km were modeled and included three stack sources and eight ground-level sources. A Lagrangian Puff air dispersion model (CALPUFF) was used to model atmospheric transport. The model was validated using historical Sb releases and measurements. Relevant 1-wk release quantities from each emission source were calculated based on a dose of 1.9×10 mSv at a public receptor (0.01 mSv assuming release persists over a year). Important radionuclides were Am, Cs, Pu, Pu, Sr, and tritium. Results show the detection frequency was over 97.5% for the entire network considering all sources and radionuclides. Network intensity results ranged from 3.75% to 62.7%. Evaluation of individual samplers indicated some samplers were poorly located and added little to the overall

  8. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Department of Transportation (44 FR 11034). Executive Order 13563 is supplemental to and reaffirms the... tape or a waterproof soft plastic cap that must easily provide ventilation of the drum contents in the... has substantial direct effects on the States, the relationship between the national government and...

  9. 78 FR 71504 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...) On August 10, 2005, the SAFETEA-LU was signed into law streamlining the requirements for conformity... provision took effect on August 10, 2005, when SAFETEA-LU was signed into law. E. General Conformity... Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) E. General Conformity Affected by SAFETEA-LU ]...

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  11. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, R. A.; Lock, G.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the...... database are presented, including changes from MEET findings. The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat. Data is at port to MCA level, so a bottom-up approach is used. This was the first attempt to use Eurostat maritime statistics for emission modelling, and the problems that have been...... encountered since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission results per port and vessel type, to aggregate results for different types of movements...

  12. Liberalism in foreign trade versus liberalism in air transportation - is there a link?

    OpenAIRE

    Grancay Martin; Szikorova Nora

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a statistically significant link between regulation of international civil aviation and protectionism against foreign trade. We use weighted air liberalization index (WALI) as a proxy for the level of regulation in a country’s foreign aviation relations; trade tariff restrictiveness index (TTRI) and overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI) as proxies for the level of protectionism in a country’s forei...

  13. Long Range Transport of Air Pollution Into Norway - A Transfer Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Damsleth

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily and monthly concentration of sulphate in the air at Birkcnes in the southern part of Norway is analysed within an intervention analysis and transfer function framework. As input to the model we use the prevailing wind direction. It is shown that when the wind comes mainly from the South, that is from Central Europe and England, this gives a significant increase in the sulphate concentration, while a northern wind leads to a decrease.

  14. Benchmarking passenger air transport marketing activities in Vietnam : case company: Etihad Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Nga Nguyen, Thi

    2015-01-01

    Marketing strategy is crucial for businesses operating in highly competitive environments. Especially with the intense competition over international flights in the Vietnamese air travel market, it is important for airlines to adopt superior strategy, in order to incorporate brand presence in the market. Hence, performing benchmarking on marketing strategy for Etihad Airways is timely and necessary. The thesis adopts the combination of inductive and deductive approaches, with the assistan...

  15. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    B. Aouizerats; G. R. van der Werf; Balasubramanian, R; R. Betha

    2014-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of ...

  16. Chemical Transport and Reduced-Form Models for Assessing Air Quality Impacts of Current and Future Energy Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Though essential for informed decision-making, it is challenging to estimate the air quality and public health impacts associated with current and future energy generation scenarios because the analysis must address the complicated atmospheric processes that air pollutants undergo: emissions, dispersion, chemistry, and removal. Employing a chemical transport model (CTM) is the most rigorous way to address these atmospheric processes. However, CTMs are expensive from a computational standpoint and, therefore, beyond the reach of policy analysis for many types of problems. On the other hand, previously available reduced-form models used for policy analysis fall short of the rigor of CTMs and may lead to biased results. To address this gap, we developed the Estimating Air pollution Social Impacts Using Regression (EASIUR) method, which builds parameterizations that predict per-tonne social costs and intake fractions for pollutants emitted from any location in the United States. Derived from a large database of tagged CTM simulations, the EASIUR method predicts social costs almost indistinguishable from a full CTM but with negligible computational requirements. We found that the average mortality-related social costs from inorganic PM2.5 and its precursors in the United States are 150,000-180,000/t EC, 21,000-34,000/t SO2, 4,200-15,000/t NOx, and 29,000-85,000/t NH3. This talk will demonstrate examples of using both CTMs and reduced-form models for assessing air quality impacts associated with current energy production activities as well as a future deployment of carbon capture and sequestration.

  17. Analyzing the evolutionary mechanisms of the Air Transportation System-of-Systems using network theory and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya

    Complexity in the Air Transportation System (ATS) arises from the intermingling of many independent physical resources, operational paradigms, and stakeholder interests, as well as the dynamic variation of these interactions over time. Currently, trade-offs and cost benefit analyses of new ATS concepts are carried out on system-wide evaluation simulations driven by air traffic forecasts that assume fixed airline routes. However, this does not well reflect reality as airlines regularly add and remove routes. A airline service route network evolution model that projects route addition and removal was created and combined with state-of-the-art air traffic forecast methods to better reflect the dynamic properties of the ATS in system-wide simulations. Guided by a system-of-systems framework, network theory metrics and machine learning algorithms were applied to develop the route network evolution models based on patterns extracted from historical data. Constructing the route addition section of the model posed the greatest challenge due to the large pool of new link candidates compared to the actual number of routes historically added to the network. Of the models explored, algorithms based on logistic regression, random forests, and support vector machines showed best route addition and removal forecast accuracies at approximately 20% and 40%, respectively, when validated with historical data. The combination of network evolution models and a system-wide evaluation tool quantified the impact of airline route network evolution on air traffic delay. The expected delay minutes when considering network evolution increased approximately 5% for a forecasted schedule on 3/19/2020. Performance trade-off studies between several airline route network topologies from the perspectives of passenger travel efficiency, fuel burn, and robustness were also conducted to provide bounds that could serve as targets for ATS transformation efforts. The series of analysis revealed that high

  18. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  19. Alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology for large size uranium waste (2). Simulation model reinforcement for practical apparatus design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation (AMAT), conversion from ion currents to radioactivity accurate is required. An ion transport simulation provides ways of complementarily determining conversion factors. We have developed an ion transport simulation model. Simulation results were compared with experiments with air speeds, faster than 1 m/s, achieving good agreement. In a practical AMAT apparatus, the air-flow at the alpha source may be slower than 1 m/s, and ion loss is likely to be large. Reinforcement of the ion transport model to cover the lower air speed region is effective. Ions are generated by an alpha particle in a very thin column. Since the ion density at this temporal stage is high, the recombination loss, proportional to the square of ion density, is dominant within a few milli-seconds. The spatial and temporal scales of this columnar recombination are too small for CFD simulation. We solve an ion transport equation during the period of columnar recombination with diffusion and recombination terms and incorporated the relation between ion loss and turbulent parameters into CFD. Using this model, simulations have been done for various air speeds and targets. Those for simulation results agree with experiments, showing improvement of simulation accuracy. (author)

  20. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  1. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    CERN Document Server

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  2. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  3. Heat transport in the marine atmospheric boundary layer during an intense cold air outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    1988-01-01

    The generation of the virtual heat flux in the convective MABL associated with the January 28, 1986 intense cold air airbreak offshore of the Carolinas is studied. A technique based on the joint frequency distribution of the virtual potential temperature and vertical motion (Mahrt and Paumier, 1984) is used. The results suggest that, if buoyancy is mainly driven by the temperature flux, the physical processes for generating buoyancy flux are about the same for boundary layers over land and ocean, even with different convective regimes.

  4. The dynamics of the HSCT environment. [air pollution from High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of aircraft engine exhausts on stratospheric ozone levels are currently limited to 2D zonally-averaged models which, while completely representing chemistry, involve high parameterization of transport processes. Prospective 3D models under development by NASA-Goddard will use winds from a data-assimilation procedure; the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere behavior of one such model has been verified by direct comparison of model simulations with satellite, balloon, and sonde measurements. Attention is presently given to the stratosphere/troposphere exchange and nonzonal distribution of aircraft engine exhaust.

  5. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  6. Radiation transport in earth for neutron and gamma ray point sources above an air-ground interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional discrete ordinates methods were used to calculate the instantaneous dose rate in silicon and neutron and gamma ray fluences as a function of depth in earth from point sources at various heights (1.0, 61.3, and 731.5 meters) above an air--ground interface. The radiation incident on the earth's surface was transported through an earth-only and an earth--concrete model containing 0.9 meters of borated concrete beginning 0.5 meters below the earth's surface to obtain fluence distributions to a depth of 3.0 meters. The inclusion of borated concrete did not significantly reduce the total instantaneous dose rate in silicon and, in all cases, the secondary gamma ray fluence and corresponding dose are substantially larger than the primary neutron fluence and corresponding dose for depths greater than 0.6 meter. 4 figures, 4 tables

  7. Carretas y transporte terrestre bioceánico: la ruta Buenos Aires-Mendoza en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A carreta foi o principal meio de transporte terrestre na América colonial entre os séculos XVI e XIX. Uma das rotas mais utilizadas foi Buenos Aires-Mendoza, estabelecendo uma ligação entre os mercados do Atlântico e do Pacífico. Este artigo examina essas rotas, ao final do século XVIII, com base no processamento das viagens de 16. 000 carretas. O tema será aprofundado em um segundo trabalho intitulado "Los troperos y los orígenes de la burguesía en el Cono Sur de América colonial" (previsto para o próximo número de Estudos Ibero-Americanos

  8. Interfacial area transport of vertical upward air-water two-phase flow in an annulus channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jjjeong@kaeri.re.kr; Ozar, B.; Dixit, A. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Julia, J.E. [Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I. Castellon (Spain); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    An experimental study on the interfacial area transport (IAT) of vertical, upward, air-water two-phase flows in an annulus channel has been conducted. The inner and outer diameters of the annular channel were 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. Nineteen inlet flow conditions were selected, which cover bubbly, cap-slug, and churn-turbulent flows. The local flow parameters, such as void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), and bubble interface velocity, were measured at nine radial positions for the three axial locations (z/D{sub H} = 52, 149 and 230). The radial and axial evolutions of local flow structure were interpreted in terms of bubble coalescence and breakup. The measured data can be used for the development of the bubble coalescence/breakup models for the IAT model and some closure models for computational fluid dynamics.

  9. Ambient air particle transport into the effluent of a cold atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet investigated by molecular beam mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air species, which are transported into the active effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet result in highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Especially for the envisaged application field of plasma medicine, these RONS are responsible for strong biological responses. In this work, the effect of ambient air transport into the effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma argon jet on the on-axis densities of nitrogen, oxygen and argon was investigated by means of absolutely calibrated molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). According to biomedical experiments a (bottomless) Petri dish was installed in front of the MBMS. In the following, the near flow field is referring to the region close to the nozzle exit and the far flow field is referring to the region beyond that. The absolute on-axis densities were obtained by three different methods, for the near flow field with VUV-absorption technique, for the far flow field with the MBMS and the total flow field was calculated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results of the ambient air particle densities of all independent methods were compared and showed an excellent agreement. Therefore the transport processes of ambient air species can be measured for the whole effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. Additionally, with the validation of the simulation it is possible in future to calculate the ambient species transport for various gas fluxes in the same turbulent flow regime. Comparing the on-axis densities obtained with an ignited and with a non-ignited plasma jet shows that for the investigated parameters, the main influence on the ambient air species transport is due to the increased temperature in the case when the jet is switched on. Moreover, the presence of positive ions (e.g. ArN2+) formed due to the interaction of plasma-produced particles and ambient air species, which are transported into the effluent, is shown. (paper)

  10. Transboundary Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions in Southeast Asia and Contribution to Local Air Quality During the 2006 Fire Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) that originated in Indonesia using WRF-Chem. Our study addressed 3 research questions: (1) Can the WRF-Chem model reproduce observations of both aerosol and CO concentrations in this complex region? (2) What is the evolution in the chemical composition of the aerosol fire plume during its atmospheric transport? and (3) What is the relative contribution of these fires to air quality in the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore? To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors). We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with ground-based measurements of both CO and PM10. However, the comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD. In the past, modeling studies using only AOD as a constraint have often boosted fire emissions to get a better agreement with observations. In our case, this approach would seriously deteriorate the difference with ground-based observations. Finally, our results show that about 21% of the total mass loading of ambient PM10 during the July-October study period in Singapore was due to the influence of biomass and peat burning in Sumatra, with an increased contribution during high burning periods. The composition of this biomass burning plume was largely dominated by primary organic carbon. In total, our model results indicated that during 35 days aerosol concentrations in Singapore were above the threshold of 50 μg m-3 day-1 (WHO threshold). During 17 days this deterioration was due to Indonesian fires, based on the difference between the simulations with and without fires. Local air pollution in combination with recirculation of air masses was probably the main

  11. Noncontact ultrasonic transportation of small objects in a circular trajectory in air by flexural vibrations of a circular disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2010-06-01

    We have developed a noncontact ultrasonic technique for transporting small objects with a linear trajectory over long distances using a bending vibrating plate and a reflector. In this paper, noncontact transportation of small particles around a circular trajectory was investigated. A circular aluminum plate with a piezoelectric ring was employed as a vibrating plate. On the basis of finite element analysis (FEA) calculations, the electrodes of the piezoelectric ring were divided into 24 pieces to generate a flexural vibration mode with one nodal circle and four nodal lines at the resonance frequency of 47.8 kHz. A circular plate having the same dimensions as the vibrating plate was installed parallel to the vibrator. It was used as a reflector to generate an acoustic standing wave in the air between the two plates. The acoustic field between the vibrating plate and reflector was calculated by FEA and the distribution of the acoustic radiation force acting on a small rigid particle was calculated to predict the position of the trapped particle. Using a prototype of the vibrating plate, polystyrene particles with diameters of several millimeters could be trapped at regular intervals along the horizontal nodal line of the standing wave. The sound pressure distribution between the vibrating plate and reflector was measured by a fiber optic probe and the experimental and calculated results showed good agreement. By switching the driving conditions of the divided electrodes in the circumferential direction, the nodal lines of the vibrating plate could be rotated and the trapped particle could be manipulated with a circular trajectory in air. PMID:20529718

  12. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret Michael

    component. In order to apply the new emission factors to policy-relevant scenarios, a projection is made for the fleet inventory of infrastructure components necessary to distribute 21 billion gallons of ethanol (the 2022 federal mandate for advanced biofuels under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007) derived entirely from Miscanthus grass, for comparison to the baseline petroleum system. Due to geographic, physical and chemical properties of biomass and alcohols, the distribution system for Miscanthus-based ethanol is more capital- and energy-intensive than petroleum per unit of fuel energy delivered. The transportation of biofuels away from producer regions poses environmental, health, and economic trade-offs that are herein evaluated using a simplified national distribution network model. In just the last ten years, ethanol transportation within the contiguous United States is estimated to have increased more than ten-fold in total t-km as ethanol has increasingly been transported away from Midwest producers due to air quality regulations pertaining to gasoline, renewable fuel mandates, and the 10% blending limit (i.e., the E10 blend wall). From 2004 to 2009, approximately 10 billion t-km of ethanol transportation are estimated to have taken place annually for reasons other than the E10 blend wall, leading to annual freight costs greater than $240 million and more than 300,000 tonnes of CO2-e emissions and significant emissions of criteria air pollutants from the combustion of more than 90 million liters of diesel. Although emissions from distribution activities are small when normalized to each unit of fuel, they are large in scale. Archetypal fuel distribution routes by rail and by truck are created to evaluate the significance of mode choice and route location on the severity of public health impacts from locomotive and truck emissions, by calculating the average PM2.5 pollution intake fraction along each route. Exposure to pollution resulting from

  13. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for the 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are provided for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in such environments.

  14. Socio-economic impact of air transport in small island states : an evaluation of liberalisation gains for the Caribbean Community (Caricom)

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock-Smith, David

    2008-01-01

    As the primary output of the air transport sector, the flow of air passengers plays an important role in the economic and social welfare of nations, while the sector’s regulatory framework represents the main vehicle through which government can exert a given level of influence over the provision of such services. This research modifies and applies existing macroeconomic impact theory to the Caribbean Community (Caricom), before developing an improved method by which to evaluat...

  15. Modeling the Multi-layer Nature of the European Air Transport Network: Resilience and Passengers Re-scheduling under random failures

    CERN Document Server

    Cardillo, Alessio; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Romance, Miguel; del Amo, Alejandro J García; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the European Air Transport Network by using a multiplex network formalism. We will consider the set of flights of each airline as an interdependent network and we analyze the resilience of the system against random flight failures in the passenger's rescheduling problem. A comparison between the single-plex approach and the corresponding multiplex one is presented illustrating that the multiplexity strongly affects the robustness of the European Air Network.

  16. Development of policy papers for phase 2 of the transportation master plan for the City of Hamilton air quality policy paper : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams Davies, R. [RWDI Air Inc., Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    The City of Hamilton is now preparing its City-wide Transportation Master Plan, which forms part of the Growth Related Integrated Development Strategy (GRIDS). GRIDS is intended to identify the broad land use structure, infrastructure, and economic development strategy that will serve Hamilton for the next 30 years. The Transportation Master Plan included the development of 23 policy papers related to urban development, infrastructure and transportation. The focus of this policy paper is on air emissions as they pertain to local and regional air quality in the City of Hamilton. An overview of links between transportation, air quality, human health and the environment was provided, as well as an overview of the existing policy framework from a federal, provincial and local perspective. In addition, a review of existing Hamilton policies was presented. Supporting background information to guide the development of policies was included. Trends in air quality in Hamilton were reviewed, and comparisons were drawn with other regions. Details of emissions contributions were presented by mode. The impact of traffic congestion on air quality was evaluated. A future outlook was provided as well as a review of the experiences and pollution abatement practices of Halton, Peel, Waterloo and Toronto. Further development and refinement of policy options and supporting actions include reduction of vehicle use; less polluting modes of travel; reducing the impacts of vehicle use; improving education and awareness; and various mitigation initiatives. 7 figs.

  17. A fugacity approach for modeling the transport of airborne organic chemicals in an air/plant/soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important issue facing both public and private agencies is the identification and quantification of exposures by indirect pathways to toxic chemicals released to the atmosphere. With recent public concerns over pesticides such as malathion and alar in foods, greater attention is being given to the process of chemical uptake by plants. Whether chemicals taken up by plants can accumulate and ultimately enter the human food chain are important questions for determining health risks and safe levels of toxic air-pollutant emissions and pesticide application. A number of plant-toxicokinetic, or ''botanicokinetic,'' models have been developed to give estimates of how chemicals are partitioned and transported within plants. In this paper, we provide a brief review of these models, describing their main features and listing some of their advantages and disadvantages. We then describe and demonstrate a five-compartment air/plant/soil model, which builds on and extends the features included in previous models. We apply this model to the steady-state chemical partitioning of perchloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in grass as test cases. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the model

  18. Predicting soil, water, and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally: Multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water, and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results

  19. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air-Transportable Model 2) safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.A.; Davis, E.J.; Duffey, T.A.; Dupree, S.A.; George, O.L. Jr.; Ortiz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    The PAT-2 package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. This SAR presents design and oprational information including evaluations and analyses, test results, operating procedures, maintenance, and quality assurance information.

  20. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air-Transportable Model 2) safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PAT-2 package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. This SAR presents design and oprational information including evaluations and analyses, test results, operating procedures, maintenance, and quality assurance information

  1. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels. (letter)

  2. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of air thermal plasmas mixed with ablated vapors of Cu and polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, JunMin, E-mail: jmzhang@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: guanyg@tsinghua.edu.cn; Lu, ChunRong [School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Guan, YongGang, E-mail: jmzhang@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: guanyg@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, WeiDong [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Because the fault arc in aircraft electrical system often causes a fire, it is particularly important to analyze its energy and transfer for aircraft safety. The calculation of arc energy requires the basic parameters of the arc. This paper is mainly devoted to the calculations of equilibrium composition, thermodynamic properties (density, molar weight, enthalpy, and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity) of plasmas produced by a mixture of air, Cu, and polytetrafluoroethylene under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium composition is determined by solving a system of equations around the number densities of each species. The thermodynamic properties are obtained according to the standard thermodynamic relationships. The transport coefficients are calculated using the Chapman-Enskog approximations. Results are presented in the temperature range from 3000 to 30 000 K for pressures of 0.08 and 0.1 MPa, respectively. The results are more accurate and are reliable reference data for theoretical analysis and computational simulation of the behavior of fault arc.

  3. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of air thermal plasmas mixed with ablated vapors of Cu and polytetrafluoroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, JunMin; Lu, ChunRong; Guan, YongGang; Liu, WeiDong

    2015-10-01

    Because the fault arc in aircraft electrical system often causes a fire, it is particularly important to analyze its energy and transfer for aircraft safety. The calculation of arc energy requires the basic parameters of the arc. This paper is mainly devoted to the calculations of equilibrium composition, thermodynamic properties (density, molar weight, enthalpy, and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity) of plasmas produced by a mixture of air, Cu, and polytetrafluoroethylene under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium composition is determined by solving a system of equations around the number densities of each species. The thermodynamic properties are obtained according to the standard thermodynamic relationships. The transport coefficients are calculated using the Chapman-Enskog approximations. Results are presented in the temperature range from 3000 to 30 000 K for pressures of 0.08 and 0.1 MPa, respectively. The results are more accurate and are reliable reference data for theoretical analysis and computational simulation of the behavior of fault arc.

  4. A methodology for the evaluation of the turbine jet engine fragment threat to generic air transportable containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncontained, high-energy gas turbine engine fragments are a potential threat to air-transportable containers carried aboard jet aircraft. The threat to a generic example container is evaluated by probability analyses and penetration testing to demonstrate the methodology to be used in the evaluation of a specific container/aircraft/engine combination. Fragment/container impact probability is the product of the uncontained fragment release rate and the geometric probability that a container is in the path of this fragment. The probability of a high-energy rotor burst fragment from four generic aircraft engines striking one of the containment vessels aboard a transport aircraft is approximately 1.2 x 10-9 strikes/hour. Finite element penetration analyses and tests can be performed to identify specific fragments which have the potential to penetrate a generic or specific containment vessel. The relatively low probability of engine fragment/container impacts is primarily due to the low release rate of uncontained, hazardous jet engine fragments

  5. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels.

  6. Long-term climatology of air mass transport through the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL during NH winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krüger

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A long-term climatology of air mass transport through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL is presented, covering the period from 1962–2005. The transport through the TTL is calculated with a Lagrangian approach using radiative heating rates as vertical velocities in an isentropic trajectory model. We demonstrate the improved performance of such an approach compared to previous studies using vertical winds from meteorological analyses. Within the upper part of the TTL, the averaged diabatic ascent is 0.5 K/day during Northern Hemisphere (NH winters 1992–2001. Climatological maps show a cooling and strengthening of this part of the residual circulation during the 1990s and early 2000s compared to the long-term mean. Lagrangian cold point (LCP fields show systematic differences for varying time periods and natural forcing components. The interannual variability of LCP temperature and density fields is found to be influenced by volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO and the solar cycle. The coldest and driest TTL is reached during QBO easterly phase and La Niña over the western Pacific, whereas during volcanic eruptions, El Niño and QBO westerly phase it is warmer and less dry.

  7. Long-term climatology of air mass transport through the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL during NH winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krüger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A long-term climatology of air mass transport through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL is presented, covering the period from 1962–2005. The transport through the TTL is calculated with a Lagrangian approach using radiative heating rates as vertical velocities in an isentropic trajectory model. We demonstrate the improved performance of such an approach compared to previous studies using vertical winds from meteorological analyses. Within the TTL, the averaged diabatic ascent is 0.5 K/day during Northern Hemisphere (NH winters 1992–2001, close to observations from the tape recorder. Climatological maps show a cooling and strengthening of this part of the residual circulation during the late 1990s and early 2000s compared to the long-term mean. Lagrangian cold point (LCP fields show systematic differences for varying time periods and natural forcing components. The interannual variability of LCP temperature and density fields are found to be influenced by volcanic eruptions, ENSO, QBO and the solar cycle. The coldest and driest TTL is reached during QBOE and La Niña over the western Pacific, whereas during volcanic eruptions, El Niño and QBOW it is warmer and less dry.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Transport Enhancement in Convective Air Flow by the Use of a Vortex Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaluria, Yogesh; Gomes, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of placing a passive vortex generator in a flow and the resulting increase in transport rates. The flow circumstance considered is that of a flat plate with protruding heat sources, placed in a uniform flow, with a vortex generator located upstream of the leading edge. The study consists of three parts. In the first part, the flow due to the vortex promoter by itself is considered. The periodic or chaotic behavior in the wake behind the promoter is investigated. By studying different sizes and shapes of vortex promoters, it is determined which configuration offers the largest disturbance in the flow and the frequency at which it occurs. In the second part of the study, the flow over a plate with isolated, finite-sized, protruding heat sources, without a vortex promoter, is considered. Again, the frequency of the disturbance downstream is investigated to determine the nature of the resulting flow and the disturbance frequency. The effect of varying the dimensions and locations of the heat sources on the flow downstream is investigated. It is found that a larger separation distance between two sources leads to higher transport rates. In the last part of the study, tests are done for the combination of vortex promoter and the plate, placing a vortex promoter in front of the plate. An effort is made to match the frequencies of the disturbances due to the vortex generator with those due to the plate in an attempt to achieve resonance. From these results, an optimal promoter is chosen that would lead to maximum heat transfer rate.

  9. Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury is a toxic air and water pollutant that is of significant concern because of its effects on human health and ecosystems. A mechanistic representation of the atmospheric mercury cycle is developed for the state-of-the-art global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem (Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry. The model simulates the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg in three forms: elemental mercury (Hg(0, reactive mercury (Hg(II, and particulate mercury (PHg. Emissions of mercury include those from human, land, ocean, biomass burning and volcano related sources. Land emissions are calculated based on surface solar radiation flux and skin temperature. A simplified air–sea mercury exchange scheme is used to calculate emissions from the oceans. The chemistry mechanism includes the oxidation of Hg(0 in gaseous phase by ozone with temperature dependence, OH, H2O2 and chlorine. Aqueous chemistry includes both oxidation and reduction of Hg(0. Transport and deposition of mercury species are calculated through adapting the original formulations in CAM-Chem. The CAM-Chem model with mercury is driven by present meteorology to simulate the present mercury air quality during the 1999–2001 periods. The resulting surface concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM are then compared with the observations from worldwide sites. Simulated wet depositions of mercury over the continental United States are compared to the observations from 26 Mercury Deposition Network stations to test the wet deposition simulations. The evaluations of gaseous concentrations and wet deposition confirm a strong capability for the CAM-Chem mercury mechanism to simulate the atmospheric mercury cycle. The results also indicate that mercury pollution in East Asia and Southern Africa is very significant with TGM concentrations above 3.0 ng m−3. The comparison to wet deposition indicates that wet deposition patterns of

  10. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  11. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment.

  12. Transport of radioactive materials by air: a national approach to cope with denials and delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Around 300 nuclear medicine services in the Greater Caribbean depend, almost exclusively, on the airlines to receive radiopharmaceuticals. Less than 20 % of the regional airlines accept radioactive materials in addition to delays and denials, altogether, result in hardships to patients undergoing diagnosis and treatment, despite compliance with regulations. In the international framework leaded by the IAEA to alleviate the difficulties encountered, national approaches are needed to support this effort. The paper presents the Cuban experience regarding statistics of denials and delays by air, generic examples and classification of causes. The role of a Facilitation Working Group and actions taken in communication, awareness, harmonization of regulations, education and training are discussed. The results show a sensitive improvement in the reported instances of denials and delays at domestic level, strongly influenced by the corporative social responsibility of the main national airline and the actions underway. On the other hand, the increasing number of reported denials by international airlines in the last two years, demonstrate how much work must be done at regional and international level. (author)

  13. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment. PMID:25441528

  14. Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01

    The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

  15. Impacts of transported background ozone on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB period – a multi-scale modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale tracer and full-chemistry simulations with the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are used to analyze the effects of transported background ozone (O3 from the eastern Pacific on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB experiment conducted in June 2008. Previous work has focused on the importance of long-range transport of O3 to North America air quality in springtime. However during this summer experiment the long-range transport of O3 is also shown to be important. Simulated and observed O3 transport patterns from the coast to inland northern California are shown to vary based on meteorological conditions and the oceanic O3 profiles, which are strongly episodically affected by Asian inflows. Analysis of the correlations of O3 at various altitudes above the coastal site at Trinidad Head and at a downwind surface site in northern California, show that under long-range transport events, high O3 air-masses (O3>60 ppb at altitudes between about 2 and 4 km can be transported inland and can significantly influence surface O3 20–30 h later. These results show the importance of characterizing the vertical structure of the lateral boundary conditions (LBC needed in air quality simulations. The importance of the LBC on O3 prediction during this period is further studied through a series of sensitivity studies using different forms of LBC. It is shown that the use of the LBC downscaled from RAQMS global model that assimilated MLS and OMI data improves the model performance. We also show that the predictions can be further improved through the use of LBC based on NASA DC-8 airborne observations during the ARCTAS-CARB experiment. These results indicate the need to develop observational strategies to improve the representation of the vertical and temporal variations in the air over the eastern Pacific.

  16. New airborne pathogen transport model for upper-room UVGI spaces conditioned by chilled ceiling and mixed displacement ventilation: Enhancing air quality and energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of bacteria transport is developed in CC/DV conditioned spaces with UVGI. • The model identifies buoyant, partially mixed, and fully mixed transport zones. • The predicted bacteria concentration agreed well with CFD results. • The higher the supply flow rate, the more restrictive is return air mixing ratio. • Upper-room UVGI results in higher return mixing and 33% in energy savings. - Abstract: The maximum allowable return air ratio in chilled ceiling (CC) and mixed displacement ventilation (DV) system for good air quality is regulated by acceptable levels of CO2 concentration not to exceed 700 ppm and airborne bacterial count to satisfy World Health Organization (WHO) requirement for bacterial count not to exceed 500 CFU/m3. Since the CC/DV system relies on buoyancy effects for driving the contaminated air upwards, infectious particles will recirculate in the upper zone allowing effective utilization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to clean return air. The aim of this work is to develop a new airborne bacteria transport plume-multi-layer zonal model at low computational cost to predict bacteria concentration distribution in mixed CC/DV conditioned room without and with upper-room UVGI installed. The results of the simplified model were compared with layer-averaged concentration predictions of a detailed and experimentally-validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The comparison showed good agreement between bacteria transport model results and CFD predictions of room air bacteria concentration with maximum error of ±10.4 CFU/m3 in exhaust air. The simplified model captured the vertical bacteria concentration distribution in room air as well as the locking effect of highest concentration happening at the stratification level. The developed bacteria transport model was used in a case study to determine the return air mixing ratio that minimizes energy consumption and maintains acceptable IAQ with

  17. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret Michael

    component. In order to apply the new emission factors to policy-relevant scenarios, a projection is made for the fleet inventory of infrastructure components necessary to distribute 21 billion gallons of ethanol (the 2022 federal mandate for advanced biofuels under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007) derived entirely from Miscanthus grass, for comparison to the baseline petroleum system. Due to geographic, physical and chemical properties of biomass and alcohols, the distribution system for Miscanthus-based ethanol is more capital- and energy-intensive than petroleum per unit of fuel energy delivered. The transportation of biofuels away from producer regions poses environmental, health, and economic trade-offs that are herein evaluated using a simplified national distribution network model. In just the last ten years, ethanol transportation within the contiguous United States is estimated to have increased more than ten-fold in total t-km as ethanol has increasingly been transported away from Midwest producers due to air quality regulations pertaining to gasoline, renewable fuel mandates, and the 10% blending limit (i.e., the E10 blend wall). From 2004 to 2009, approximately 10 billion t-km of ethanol transportation are estimated to have taken place annually for reasons other than the E10 blend wall, leading to annual freight costs greater than $240 million and more than 300,000 tonnes of CO2-e emissions and significant emissions of criteria air pollutants from the combustion of more than 90 million liters of diesel. Although emissions from distribution activities are small when normalized to each unit of fuel, they are large in scale. Archetypal fuel distribution routes by rail and by truck are created to evaluate the significance of mode choice and route location on the severity of public health impacts from locomotive and truck emissions, by calculating the average PM2.5 pollution intake fraction along each route. Exposure to pollution resulting from

  18. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  19. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina

    2013-04-01

    The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air toxic pollutants (ATPs), are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid, Spain. Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter (PM) translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality (CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents) impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution. First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid (used as a case study). The local air quality model (LAQM) is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) COPERT modeling system will provide GHGs and ATPs gridded and shaped emission data and mobile source parameters, available for Madrid from preliminary emission inventory records of the Municipality of Madrid and from disaggregated traffic counts of the Traffic Engineering Company and the Metropolitan Company of Metro (METRO-Madrid). The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, 24-hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid. The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors (e.g. fractional error, fractional bias and coefficient of determination). The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local

  20. Impacts of lindane usage in the Canadian prairies on the Great Lakes ecosystem. 1. Coupled atmospheric transport model and modeled concentrations in air and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianmin; Daggupaty, Sreerama; Harner, Tom; Li, Yifan

    2003-09-01

    A coupled atmospheric transport, soil-air, water-air exchange model was developed to investigate the impacts of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH or lindane) usage in the Canadian prairies over the Great Lakes region. The fate of gamma-HCH in air and soil is governed by atmospheric dynamics and physical and chemical processes that are described by the coupled model. These processes include transport and turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere, dry and wet deposition, exchange at the interfacial boundaries of air-water and soil-air, and removal processes from the soil such as diffusion, leaching, and degradation. Numerical experiments were conducted for the period of May 1, 1998-April 30, 1999, starting with application of lindane in the spring. The coupled model was executed with two lindane emission (usage) inventories in the model domain. The first scenario contained all known fresh emission sources in Canada-98% was usage in the prairies; the second excluded emission sources from Ontario and Quebec. The model showed that, in the absence of the reemission from past application of lindane, usage of lindane in Ontario and Quebec has a negligible impact on air concentrations in these regions and that the lindane budget in the Great Lakes ecosystem is mostly attributed to applications of lindane in the canola fields in Canadian prairie provinces. Model-predicted air concentrations and seasonal trends agreed well with measured data over the same time period for several background sites operated under the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network. Air temperature was shown to play a key role on surface-air exchange dynamics of gamma-HCH. A future paper will assess loadings to the Great Lakes based on these validated model results. PMID:12967095

  1. Review on mechanisms and continuum models of multi-phase transport phenomena in porous structures of non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinliang; Yu, Jong-Sung; Sundén, Bengt

    2015-03-01

    During recent years intensive research activities involving both experimental and modeling approaches have appeared for different aspects of Lithium-air (Li-air) battery. Multi-phase transport phenomena including dissolved oxygen and lithium ions (Li+) in the liquid electrolyte, as well as electrons in the solid materials, are strongly coupled with the porous structures and various reactions, particularly the solid product grown in the porous cathode during battery discharge. Understanding the mechanisms of transport phenomena and accurate evaluation of effective transport properties are significant for improving the battery capacities and design, especially at high rate conditions. In this paper, the transport governing equations commonly used for macroscopic continuum models at porous-average level are outlined and highlighted, with a purpose to provide a general overview of the validity and the limitation of these approaches. The most often used models in the open literature are reviewed and discussed focusing on the effective properties involving tortuosity factors, solid product morphologies, as well as effects on the void space clogging, surface area reduction and passivation. Comments and suggestions are also provided for better understanding of multi-phase transport phenomena and implementation of the detailed models for solid product generation and morphology growth in Li-air battery cathodes.

  2. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3] for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1 SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2 AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3 SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30% relative to Control experiments. [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern

  3. Transporte de arena en médanos litorales activos y colgados del sudeste de Buenos Aires Sand transport in active and hunged coastal dunes of southeastern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Bértola

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El transporte de arena por el viento es la principal fuente de suministro de sedimentos para la existencia de médanos litorales en playas arenosas, así como un importante componente en los cálculos de balance sedimentario entre la playa (la fuente y el médano (el destino. Para evaluar esto, se analizaron médanos del sudeste de la Provincia de Buenos Aires mediante un novedoso método de muestreo, que permite percibir diferencias en la dinámica y textura de la arena que conforman el perfil de velocidad, diferencias debido a su génesis y características. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar si había diferencias apreciables cuantificables en las características de médanos costeros colgados en acantilados de Mar del Plata y en médanos frontales, de costas abiertas al sur de la misma zona, en el arroyo de La Ballenera. Se observó que las arenas de médanos frontales son más gruesas que las de los médanos colgados, debido a las zonas de aporte y emplazamiento topográfico. Los mayores volúmenes de arena transportados son por la cara de barlovento y cresta. El perfil del arroyo La Ballenera se halla más influenciado por el efecto marino que el médano colgado, donde predomina la acción eólica. Se observó que cuando la velocidad del viento se duplica, el volumen transportado es 5 veces mayor, lo mismo que el t o. El coeficiente de arrastre fue prácticamente despreciable a 2,6 m. La metodología empleada para entrampar el sedimento resultó ser aceptable como una fase inicial para el monitoreo de la dinámica de sectores costeros dominados por el viento.The sand transport by wind is the main sediment source of supply of silts for the presence of coast dunes in sandy beaches, as well as an important component in the calculations of sedimentary balance among the beach (the source and the dune (the destination. To evaluate this action, dunes of the southeast of Buenos Aires Province were analyzed by means of a new sampling method that

  4. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  5. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  6. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  7. Climate impacts of air quality policy: switching to a natural gas-fueled public transportation system in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Conor C O; Kandlikar, Milind

    2008-08-15

    Between 2001 and 2003, public transport vehicles in New Delhi were required to switch their fuel to natural gas in an attemptto reduce their air pollution impacts. This study examines the climatic impacts of New Delhi's fuel switching policy, and outlines implications for such efforts in rapidly industrializing countries. Natural gas is mostly composed of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Emitted aerosols (black carbon, particulate organic carbon, and sulfate) also cause radiative forcing. We find that methane and black carbon emissions are critical contributors to the change in carbon dioxide equivalent [CO2(e)] emissions. In New Delhi, the switch to natural gas results in a 30% increase in CO2(e) when the impact of aerosols is not considered. However, when aerosol emissions are taken into account in our model, the net effect of the switch is estimated to be a 10% reduction in CO2(e), and there may be as much as a 30% reduction in CO2(e). There is significant potential for emissions reductions through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism for such fuel switching projects.

  8. Comparison of Land-Use Regression Modeling with Dispersion and Chemistry Transport Modeling to Assign Air Pollution Concentrations within the Ruhr Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hennig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two commonly used models to assess air pollution concentration for investigating health effects of air pollution in epidemiological studies are Land Use Regression (LUR models and Dispersion and Chemistry Transport Models (DCTM. Both modeling approaches have been applied in the Ruhr area, Germany, a location where multiple cohort studies are being conducted. Application of these different modelling approaches leads to differences in exposure estimation and interpretation due to the specific characteristics of each model. We aimed to compare both model approaches by means of their respective aims, modeling characteristics, validation, temporal and spatial resolution, and agreement of residential exposure estimation, referring to the air pollutants PM2.5, PM10, and NO2. Residential exposure referred to air pollution exposure at residences of participants of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, located in the Ruhr area. The point-specific ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts on Air Pollution Effects-LUR aims to temporally estimate stable long-term exposure to local, mostly traffic-related air pollution with respect to very small-scale spatial variations (≤100 m. In contrast, the EURAD (European Air Pollution Dispersion-CTM aims to estimate a time-varying average air pollutant concentration in a small area (i.e., 1 km2, taking into account a range of major sources, e.g., traffic, industry, meteorological conditions, and transport. Overall agreement between EURAD-CTM and ESCAPE-LUR was weak to moderate on a residential basis. Restricting EURAD-CTM to sources of local traffic only, respective agreement was good. The possibility of combining the strengths of both applications will be the next step to enhance exposure assessment.

  9. 锂电池航空运输安全风险管理研究%On the security risk management of the lithium batteries in air transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜珺; 梁晓瑜

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to come up with our analysis of the recently occurring accidents involving the air transportation of lithium batteries in hoping to heighten the aviation transportation safety level of such batteries. To put it in a theoretical way, the trouble involves two kinds of transportation modes of lithium batteries, that is, the passenger transport and freight transport of such batteries. According to the provisions of civil air transport both in China and abroad, it is necessary to identify the main risk factors in safety aviation transportation of such batteries. To be exact, in accordance with the "man-machine-environment-management" theory, it is necessary to establish the safety risk evaluation indicators' system for air transportation of such batteries. While considering the weight factor evaluation method, it would be easy to apply to high accuracy, and, therefore, we would like to adopt the weight factor evaluation method to determine the weight factor. And, then, we have to work out the weight value of each index, and put all the final sequences of the importance of all the indexes or factors. This analysis may help to find whish factors are bigger or greater and which are smaller and minor, so as to properly identify the right kind of lithium batteries, supervise and manage the shipment as well as the surrounding temperatures. In doing so, we have brought about our suggestions based on our analysis of the study results. In the first place, in accord with the Standard for air-transportation of lithium batteries, it is necessary to differentiate strictly lithium batteries and lithium metal batteries by putting clear marks with Watt-hour rating on the case-cover. All the lithium content should be made to meet the transportation demands. In the second place, great quantities of lithium batteries are to be air-transported specifically in conformity with air-traffic rules and done by the highly qualified shipping companies and shipping personnel, who

  10. Transport of Pollution and Air Quality experiment over the Mediterranean basin (TRAQA/ChArMEx campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attié, Jean-Luc; Ravetta, François; Durand, Pierre; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Di Biaggio, Claudia; Dulac, François; Sicard, Michael; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Fleury, Laurence; Bourdon, Aurélien; Verdier, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Surrounded by mountains and several continents and affected by different types of pollution, the Mediterranean Sea is a natural laboratory for studying the variability of the chemical composition in the lower atmospheric layers and the interaction between pollutants from distant regions. In the framework of the Chemistry and Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx), we carried out a field campaign using important instrumental means (instrumented aircraft including in situ and lidar measurements, pressurized constant level balloons with an O3 sonde and soundings with O3 and aerosol measurements, ground based aerosol remote sensing instruments) over the north-western Mediterranean basin during the summer 2012 (from 26 June to 11 July). We focused on four main objectives : 1. The characterization of the dynamic processes of export of polluted air masses from remote continental regions around the Mediterranean Sea 2. The quantification of exchanges between the boundary layer and the free troposphere above the Mediterranean basin 3. The study of ageing and mixing of pollution plumes in the lower troposphere (gases and aerosols) with Lagrangian tracking. 4. The analysis of representative case studies against long-term measurements to estimate the impact of plumes of pollution on air quality. The results are compared with simulations from several chemistry-transport models. The TRAQA field campaign was based on Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) triggered on alert when the conditions were favourable. A total of seven IOPs were conducted with nearly 60 hours of aircraft flights and 5 flights of constant level pressurized balloons in the boundary layer. We documented an episode of pollution in the Genoa gulf, an established moderate Mistral case, a strong African dust case, a case of export of pollution from Barcelona to the Mediterranean Sea, and an event of starting Mistral. The two remaining IOPs, conducted under standard summer anticyclonic conditions, were devoted

  11. Environmentally friendly air transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaff, A. de [National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) (Netherlands)

    1998-03-01

    This short article recalls 5 issues taken into account by aerospace industry to reduce the environmental impact of aviation. -1: reduction of the fuel consumption of aircraft engines, -2: favouring a clear understanding of the impact of aviation on our atmosphere, -3: reduction of pollutant emission, -4: reduction of noise pollution by both technical solutions and noise optimized flight procedures, -5: the progressive setting of clean manufacturing and maintenance. (A.C.)

  12. 航空运输地理学研究进展与展望%Geography of Air Transportation: Retrospect & Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姣娥; 莫辉辉

    2011-01-01

    航空地理学是交通地理学的重要组成部分,且是其最年轻的学科分支.本文以中国和欧美主流航空地理学研究为考察对象,从历史演进、技术变革和制度变迁的综合视角将近百年航空地理学的发展历程分为4个阶段:20世纪50年代前的学科起步发展阶段、50-70年代的基础体系建构阶段、80-90年代的理论框架完善阶段以及21世纪以来的理论与实践繁荣阶段.航空地理学传统研究主题包括史志与区域地理总图、机场格局与城镇关联体系、网络结构与组织效应及优化、航空布局与区域发展互动关系、机场布局规划及其影响因素、政策对航空业发展的影响等.近年来,国内外对航空运输地位与作用的重视程度与日俱增,加之航空数据可获得性不断提升,航空网络结构的复杂性、世界(中心)城市、机场体系与航空网络的演化规律与机理、航空系统的可持续发展等问题成为国际研究热点领域.早期,中国航空地理学研究与西方发达国家发展同步,但中期受历史原因的制约而大为滞后;近期,随着经济社会的快速发展,其研究任务与日俱增.国内学界不仅需要完成对20世纪50年代以来西方航空地理学基础理论的引入及实证研究,同时须建立航空地理学学科体系,并积极加入国际前沿性课题研究行列.%Geography of air transportation is an important part and also a young branch of transportation geography. Based on the study of air transportation in China, Europe and the US, this paper divided the air transportation research into four stages in terms of evolution process, technique innovation, and institutional change: (1)initial stage before the 1950s, (2) theory foundation stage from the 1950s to the 1970s, (3) theory improvement stage from the 1980s to the 1990s, and (4) theory and practice prosperity stage since the 21st century. The research theme of air transportation

  13. METODOLOGÍA PARA EVALUAR EL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL SOBRE LA CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN LOS PROYECTOS DE REDISEÑO DE RUTAS DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO COLECTIVO EN LAS CIUDADES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: MEDELLÍN METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY IN PROJECTS REDESIGNING COLLECTIVE PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES IN THE CITIES. CASE STUDY: MEDELLÍN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Echeverri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento establece la metodología y los procedimientos necesarios para evaluar el impacto ambiental sobre la calidad del aire en los proyectos de rediseño de rutas de transporte público colectivo en las principales ciudades del mundo. Para este propósito, se formuló un caso hipotético en la ciudad de Medellín teniendo en cuenta las rutas de transporte público colectivo complementarias al sistema integrado de transporte en el Valle de Aburrá, convirtiendo algunas rutas radiales en rutas transversales o de migración a otras cuencas. Con la reconfiguración propuesta para las rutas de transporte público colectivo la emisión de contaminantes proveniente de los buses no presentó cambios sustanciales. Sin embargo, la concentración de partículas aumentó en ciertos puntos de la zona de estudio y alcanzó valores que superan la norma anual de calidad del aire (50 µg/m³.This document provides the methodology and necessary procedures to assess the environmental impact on air quality in the projects of redesign of collective public transport routes in main cities around the world. For this purpose, it has been formulated a hypothetical case in the city of Medellin keeping in mind the public transport routes that are complementary to the integrated transport system in the Aburrá Valley, transforming some radial routes in transversal routes or migration to other basins. With the reconfiguration proposed for collective public transport routes, pollutant emissions from buses did not show substantial changes. However, the concentration of particles increased at certain points in the study area, reaching values that exceed the annual standard for air quality (50 µg/m³.

  14. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  15. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for an 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui

    1990-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are reviewed and supplemented for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium up to temperatures of 3000 K. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Curve fits are given for the various species properties for their efficient computation in flowfield codes. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in a high energy environment. Limitations of the approximate mixing laws are discussed for a mixture of ionized species. An electron number-density correction for the transport properties of the charged species is obtained. This correction has been generally ignored in the literature.

  16. User guide for the Air Force Base Automotive Transportation Simulation Model - BATS. Volume 2. Documentation. Final report Jun 78-Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandys, R.

    1979-09-01

    The Base Automotive Transportation Simulation (BATS) Model is a transportation planning and traffic flow model designed to simulate traffic volumes and flows on an air base. The principal model inputs are a road network, land use zones, demographic varibles, and gate counts. The land use zones and demographic variables are used to assign volumes to the road network, and these volumes are calibrated using the gate counts. The flow characteristics on each road in the network are simulated using the volumes assigned. Average speed and volumes are the results of the model and these may be directly input to the Air Quality Assessment Model (AQAM) to estimate pollutant emissions and dispersion from traffic sources. A volume flow plot of the network is an optional output of the model.

  17. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rockett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2 has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuel in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here we evaluate the impact of a future (2050 H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem. Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector, however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that with the adoption of H2 fuel cells decreases tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%, CO (14%, NOx (16%, soot (17%, sulfate aerosol (4%, and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12% in the A1FI scenario, and decreases those of ozone (5%, CO (4%, NOx (11%, soot (7%, sulfate aerosol (4%, and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9 % in the B1 scenario. The

  18. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2 has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuels in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here, we evaluate the impact of a future (2050 H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem. Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector; however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that the adoption of H2 fuel cells would decrease tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%, CO (14%, NOx (16%, soot (17%, sulfate aerosol (4%, and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12% in the A1FI scenario, and would decrease those of ozone (5%, CO (4%, NOx (11%, soot (7%, sulfate aerosol (4%, and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9% in the B1 scenario

  19. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  20. Impacts of transported background ozone on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB period – a multi-scale modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale tracer and full-chemistry simulations with the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are used to analyze the effects of transported background ozone (O3 from the eastern Pacific on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB experiment conducted in June, 2008. Previous work has focused on the importance of long-range transport of O3 to North America air quality in springtime. However during this summer experiment the long-range transport of O3 is also shown to be important. Simulated and observed O3 transport patterns from the coast to inland northern California are shown to vary based on meteorological conditions and the O3 profiles over the oceans, which are strongly episodically affected by Asian inflows. Analysis of the correlations of O3 at various altitudes above the coastal site at Trinidad Head and at a downwind surface site in northern California, show that under long-range transport events, high O3 air-masses (O3>60 ppb at altitudes between about 2 and 4 km can be transported inland and can significantly influence surface O3 20–30 h later. These results show the importance of characterizing the vertical structure of the lateral boundary conditions (LBC needed in air quality simulations. The importance of the LBC on O3 prediction during this period is further studied through a series of sensitivity studies using different forms of LBC. It is shown that the use of the LBC downscaled from RAQMS global model that assimilated MLS and OMI data improves the model performance. We also show that the predictions can be further improved through the use of LBC based on NASA DC-8 airborne observations during the ARCTAS-CARB experiment. These results indicate the need to develop observational strategies to provide information on the three-dimensional nature of pollutant distributions, in order to improve our capability to predict

  1. Impacts of transported background ozone on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB period - a multi-scale modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; Spak, S. N.; Kulkarni, S.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Tang, Y.; Parrish, D. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; D'Allura, A.; Kaduwela, A.; Cai, C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wong, M.; Pierce, R. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-07-01

    Multi-scale tracer and full-chemistry simulations with the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are used to analyze the effects of transported background ozone (O3) from the eastern Pacific on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB experiment conducted in June, 2008. Previous work has focused on the importance of long-range transport of O3 to North America air quality in springtime. However during this summer experiment the long-range transport of O3 is also shown to be important. Simulated and observed O3 transport patterns from the coast to inland northern California are shown to vary based on meteorological conditions and the O3 profiles over the oceans, which are strongly episodically affected by Asian inflows. Analysis of the correlations of O3 at various altitudes above the coastal site at Trinidad Head and at a downwind surface site in northern California, show that under long-range transport events, high O3 air-masses (O3>60 ppb) at altitudes between about 2 and 4 km can be transported inland and can significantly influence surface O3 20-30 h later. These results show the importance of characterizing the vertical structure of the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) needed in air quality simulations. The importance of the LBC on O3 prediction during this period is further studied through a series of sensitivity studies using different forms of LBC. It is shown that the use of the LBC downscaled from RAQMS global model that assimilated MLS and OMI data improves the model performance. We also show that the predictions can be further improved through the use of LBC based on NASA DC-8 airborne observations during the ARCTAS-CARB experiment. These results indicate the need to develop observational strategies to provide information on the three-dimensional nature of pollutant distributions, in order to improve our capability to predict pollution levels and to better quantify the influence of these Asian inflows on the US west coast air quality.

  2. Colorado air quality impacted by long-range-transported aerosol: a set of case studies during the 2015 Pacific Northwest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie M.; Neiman, Paul J.; Coleman, Timothy; Senff, Christoph J.; Kirgis, Guillaume; Alvarez, Raul J.; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Biomass burning plumes containing aerosols from forest fires can be transported long distances, which can ultimately impact climate and air quality in regions far from the source. Interestingly, these fires can inject aerosols other than smoke into the atmosphere, which very few studies have evidenced. Here, we demonstrate a set of case studies of long-range transport of mineral dust aerosols in addition to smoke from numerous fires (including predominantly forest fires and a few grass/shrub fires) in the Pacific Northwest to Colorado, US. These aerosols were detected in Boulder, Colorado, along the Front Range using beta-ray attenuation and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and corroborated with satellite-borne lidar observations of smoke and dust. Further, we examined the transport pathways of these aerosols using air mass trajectory analysis and regional- and synoptic-scale meteorological dynamics. Three separate events with poor air quality and increased mass concentrations of metals from biomass burning (S and K) and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ti) occurred due to the introduction of smoke and dust from regional- and synoptic-scale winds. Cleaner time periods with good air quality and lesser concentrations of biomass burning and mineral metals between the haze events were due to the advection of smoke and dust away from the region. Dust and smoke present in biomass burning haze can have diverse impacts on visibility, health, cloud formation, and surface radiation. Thus, it is important to understand how aerosol populations can be influenced by long-range-transported aerosols, particularly those emitted from large source contributors such as wildfires.

  3. Designing a Choice Modelling Survey to Value the Health and Environmental Impacts of Air Pollution from the Transport Sector in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Poor air quality in Indonesia's capital city is having a significant impact on residents' health and there is an urgent need to introduce new initiatives to deal with the problem. To help justify investment in such new strategies, a recent EEPSEA study has looked at the value that citizens in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA) place on pollution reduction policies for the transportation sector. The study shows that, although many residents are mistrustful of the government's ability to clean...

  4. Study on the formation and transport of ozone in relation to the air quality management and vegetation protection in Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Juan-Carlos; Rodríguez, Sergio; Arencibia, M-Teresa; García, M-Dolores

    2004-09-01

    An experimental study on the formation and transport of ozone in ambient air was performed in Tenerife (Canary Islands) in order to investigate the processes affecting ozone levels and air quality. The special features of Tenerife (prevalence of the trade wind pattern (NE), orography and the specific location of the local ozone sources) permit to quantify the role of the 'long-range transport from northern latitudes' versus the 'formation and transport of ozone downwind of the main urban areas' of Tenerife. Levels of O(3), NO(2) and O(X) were monitored in different types of environments to achieve this purpose. The results showed that: (1) upwind of the urban areas ozone is mainly transported from the ocean by trade winds, (2) local ozone titration (by NO) and ozone replenishment from the ocean are the main causes of ozone variations in urban and suburban areas, and (3) photochemical ozone production occurs downwind of the urban areas. Photochemical production causes daylight O(3) and O(X) levels downwind of urban areas to be frequently (60% and 35% days/year, respectively) higher than upwind of the urban sites (O(3) and O(X) excess frequently in the range 5-20 ppbv). Due to the above processes, different daily ozone cycles occur in short distances (Tenerife.

  5. Three-dimensional Simulations of the Mean Air Transport During the 1997 Forest Fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia Using a Mesoscale Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswintiarti, O.; Raman, S.

    - This paper describes the meteorological processes responsible for the mean transport of air pollutants during the ENSO-related forest fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia from 00 UTC 21 September to 00 UTC 25 September, 1997. The Fifth Generation of the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) is used to simulate three-dimensional winds at 6-hourly intervals. A nonhydrostatic version of the model is run using two nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 45 km and 15 km. From the simulated wind fields, the backward and forward trajectories of the air parcel are investigated using the Vis5D model.The results indicate that the large-scale subsidence over Indonesia, the southwest monsoon low-level flows (2-8 m s-1), and the shallow planetary boundary layer height (400-800 m) play a key role in the transport of air pollutants from Kalimantan to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei.

  6. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen papers (presentations) from the 8th World Conference on Transportation Research are presented. Topics include European Airline competition, cost analyses, performance evaluations, deregulation; aviation policy in Southeast Asia; corporate involvement in European business transportation; and cycles in the airline industry.

  7. Using Neutron Radiography to Quantify Water Transport and the Degree of Saturation in Entrained Air Cement Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Catherine L.; Bentz, Dale P.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; Weiss, W. Jason

    Air entrainment is commonly added to concrete to help in reducing the potential for freeze thaw damage. It is hypothesized that the entrained air voids remain unsaturated or partially saturated long after the smaller pores fill with water. Small gel and capillary pores in the cement matrix fill quickly on exposure to water, but larger pores (entrapped and entrained air voids) require longer times or other methods to achieve saturation. As such, it is important to quantitatively determine the water content and degree of saturation in air entrained cementitious materials. In order to further investigate properties of cement-based mortar, a model based on Beer's Law has been developed to interpret neutron radiographs. This model is a powerful tool for analyzing images acquired from neutron radiography. A mortar with a known volume of aggregate, water to cement ratio and degree of hydration can be imaged and the degree of saturation can be estimated.

  8. The new Internet tool: the information and evaluation system by flight, of exposure to cosmic radiation in the new air transports S.I.E.V.E.R.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, the public authorities put a new Internet tool at air companies disposal, in order they can evaluate the radiations doses received by their flying crews during their flights. This tool called information and evaluation system by flight of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (S.I.E.V.E.R.T.). (N.C.)

  9. Analysis of long-range transport of particulate matters in connection with air circulation over Central and Eastern part of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Sabina; Necula, Cristian; Georgescu, Florinela

    The aim of this paper is to establish a practical methodology for examining the long-range transport of particulate matters (PM), named TSP. The daily concentration values of TSP from years 2001 and 2002, for three sites, Baia Mare (RO), Vienna (AU), Aosta (IT), were analyzed. In order to connect the main air circulation types with the aerosol concentrations at the selected sites, the catalogues of Circulation and Weather type Classification (COST733) were used. Spectral analysis was made using spectrum software based on Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and multiresolution analysis (MRA) technique based on Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) with Fejer-Korovkin in 22 points wavelet filter (waveslim package). Spectral analysis shows a dominant one-year periodicity for all the time series with a variance around 22% for each time series. In addition, several winters TSP pollution episodes from each city were analyzed using a back trajectory model (HYSPLIT4), in order to compare with the resulted air circulation types. Two important concluding remarks emerge: (i) the Eastern part of Europe shows a dominant easterly air circulation and central Europe is characterized by south-west air circulations, which drive the maxima of pollutant concentrations; (ii) the choice of the domain for analysis of the circulation types is very important.

  10. Long-range transport, air quality and climate impacts of volcanic sulfur from the 2014-2015 eruption at Holuhraun (Bárðarbunga, Iceland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Leadbetter, S. J.; Theys, N.; Carboni, E.; Witham, C. S.; Thordarson, T.; Stevenson, J. A.; Gettelman, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014-2015 effusive Holuhraun flood lava eruption produced about 1.5 km3 of lava, making it the largest eruption in Iceland in more than 200 years. Over the course of the eruption, daily sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from Holuhraun exceeded daily SO2 emissions from all anthropogenic sources in Europe in 2010 by at least a factor of 3. We present surface air quality observations from across Northern Europe together with satellite remote-sensing data and model simulations of volcanic SO2. These datasets highlight that despite Holuhraun emitting SO2 into the lowermost troposphere, volcanic SO2 was transported over long distances and detected by air quality monitoring stations up to 2750 km away from the source. We will also discuss how and to what degree this eruption and other continuously degassing volcanoes emitting SO2 into the troposphere can affect the brightness of low-level clouds and regional climate.

  11. Shelf life stability comparison in air for solution processed pristine PDPP3T polymer and doped spiro-OMeTAD as hole transport layer for perovskite solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Dubey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data in brief includes forward and reverse scanned current density–voltage (J–V characteristics of perovskite solar cells with PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL, stability testing conditions of perovskite solar cell shelf life in air for both PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL as per the description in Ref. [1], and individual J–V performance parameters acquired with increasing time exposed in ambient air are shown for both type of devices using PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL. The data collected in this study compares the device stability with time for both PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD based perovskite solar cells and is directly related to our research article “solution processed pristine PDPP3T polymer as hole transport layer for efficient perovskite solar cells with slower degradation” [2].

  12. Quantification of Soil-to-Plant Transport of Recombinant Nucleopolyhedrovirus: Effects of Soil Type and Moisture, Air Currents, and Precipitation†

    OpenAIRE

    Fuxa, James R.; Richter, Arthur R.

    2001-01-01

    Significantly more occlusion bodies (OB) of DuPont viral construct HzSNPV-LqhIT2, expressing a scorpion toxin, were transported by artificial rainfall to cotton plants from sandy soil (70:15:15 sand-silt-clay) than from silt (15:70:15) and significantly more from silt than from clay (15:15:70). The amounts transported by 5 versus 50 mm of precipitation were the same, and transport was zero when there was no precipitation. In treatments that included precipitation, the mean number of viable OB...

  13. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  14. A prospective observational study of the association between cabin and outside air temperature, and patient temperature gradient during helicopter transport in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Richmond, C; Ware, S; Habig, K; Burns, B

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of hypothermia in patients following helicopter transport varies widely. Low outside air temperature has been identified as a risk factor. Modern helicopters are insulated and have heating; therefore outside temperature may be unimportant if cabin heat is maintained. We sought to describe the association between outside air, cabin and patient temperature, and having the cabin temperature in the thermoneutral zone (18-36°C) in our helicopter-transported patients. We conducted a prospective observational study over one year. Patient temperature was measured on loading and engines off. Cabin and outside air temperature were recorded for the same time periods for each patient, as well as in-flight. Previously identified risk factors were recorded. Complete data was obtained for 133 patients. Patients' temperature increased by a median of 0.15°C (P=0.013). There was no association between outside air temperature or cabin temperature and patient temperature gradient. The best predictor of patient temperature on landing was patient temperature on loading (R2=0.86) and was not improved significantly when other risk factors were added (P=0.63). Thirty-five percent of patients were hypothermic on loading, including those transferred from district hospitals. No patient loaded normothermic became hypothermic when the cabin temperature was in the thermoneutral zone (P=0.04). A large proportion of patients in our sample were hypothermic at the referring hospital. The best predictor of patient temperature on landing is patient temperature on loading. This has implications for studies that fail to account for pre-flight temperature. PMID:27246941

  15. Free Trade in Airline Services: Assessing the Proposals to Liberalize the Canada – U.S. Air Transport Bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Gillen, David W.; Hansen, Mark; Ramos, Robson

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we examine the consequences of changes to the bilateral agreement which regulates air transport between Canada and the United States. A hubbing competition model based on an n-player non-cooperative game is used to simulate six alternative bilateral scenarios including the current positions of Canada and the U.S.. We find that changes to the bilateral does not have a significant effect on the total amount of traffic but it does effect the distribution of traffic between countrie...

  16. The ECJ’s Judgment in Air Transport Association of America and the International Legal Context of the EU’s Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, G.; Ryngaert, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present article discusses the international legal context of the EU's emissions trading scheme in the light of the judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU in Air Transport Association of America. After ascertaining the effect in the EU legal order of the relevant international norms invoked in that case, the focus of the present article lies on the discussion of the substantive issues that arise when reviewing the scope of Directive 2008/101 in light of the applicable norms. The articl...

  17. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  18. USE OF TERRITORY AND CONSOLIDATION OF AGRIBUSINESS IN REGION CENTER-WEST: A STUDY ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION THROUGH SYSTEM OF AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gallo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to make some reflections on the use of small aircrafts for the integration and modernization of the Brazilian territory. The system of air transport, in a country of large territorial extension, is very important to narrow the regional ties and it is an important  element of the productive space circuit of the modern agriculture developed in the Brazilian Center-West. The small aircrafts of not-regular routes, act as basic vector of the interactional fluidity, speeding the transport of people, in function of its flexibility of displacement and time, act as basic vector of the productivity integration of the Brazilian territory, a time that the production properly said and corporative command if had separated given to the possibilities techniques of the actual technician-scientific and informational period. 

  19. Short circuit of water vapor and polluted air to the global stratosphere by convective transport over the Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Rong; Hu, Yuanlong; Wright, Jonathon S.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Chen, Mingxuan; Filipiak, Mark; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Wu, Dong L.

    2006-01-01

    During boreal summer, much of the water vapor and CO entering the global tropical stratosphere is transported over the Asian monsoon/Tibetan Plateau (TP) region. Studies have suggested that most of this transport is carried out either by tropical convection over the South Asian monsoon region or by extratropical convection over southern China. By using measurements from the newly available National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aura Microwave Limb Sounder, along with observations from ...

  20. Quantification of soil-to-plant transport of recombinant nucleopolyhedrovirus: effects of soil type and moisture, air currents, and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxa, J R; Richter, A R

    2001-11-01

    Significantly more occlusion bodies (OB) of DuPont viral construct HzSNPV-LqhIT2, expressing a scorpion toxin, were transported by artificial rainfall to cotton plants from sandy soil (70:15:15 sand-silt-clay) than from silt (15:70:15) and significantly more from silt than from clay (15:15:70). The amounts transported by 5 versus 50 mm of precipitation were the same, and transport was zero when there was no precipitation. In treatments that included precipitation, the mean number of viable OB transported to entire, 25- to 35-cm-tall cotton plants ranged from 56 (clay soil, 5 mm of rain) to 226 (sandy soil, 50 mm of rain) OB/plant. In a second experiment, viral transport increased with increasing wind velocity (0, 16, and 31 km/h) and was greater in dry (-1.0 bar of matric potential) than in moist (-0.5 bar) soil. Wind transport was greater for virus in a clay soil than in silt or sand. Only 3.3 x 10(-7) (clay soil, 5 mm rain) to 1.3 x 10(-6) (sandy soil, 50 mm rain) of the OB in surrounding soil in experiment 1 or 1.1 x 10(-7) (-0.5 bar sandy soil, 16-km/h wind) to 1.3 x 10(-6) (-1.0 bar clay soil, 31-km/h wind) in experiment 2 were transported by rainfall or wind to cotton plants. This reduces the risk of environmental release of a recombinant nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), because only a very small proportion of recombinant virus in the soil reservoir is transported to vegetation, where it can be ingested by and replicate in new host insects. PMID:11679341

  1. Hydrogen sulphide, odor, and VOC air emission control systems for heavy oil storage, transport, and processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, H.P. [APC Technologies, Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, companies have to control their air emissions in compliance with regulatory and process improvement objectives. The industry therefore operates air emission control systems to eliminate odor complaints, reduce personnel exposure to H2S and remove BTEX and VOC emissions. This paper studies different cases of companies which have chosen to use a fixed activated carbon adsorption unit. The study was conducted on three cases of heavy oil industries which installed the CarbonPure adsorption system and describes their objectives, processes, emissions, technology options and performances. Results showed an elimination of odor complaints, a reduction of personnel exposure to harmful air contaminants and a reduction of VOC concentrations in a reliable, low maintenance and economic manner. This study presents the greater benefits of the CarbonPure adsorption system combined with an ultra high efficiency unit over those of other adsorption systems.

  2. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  3. Variability of Compet itive Factors in Air Transportation and Improving Customer Satisfaction with Service Innovation: A New "Mile + Time Score" Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Can Yıldırır

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As in all the world, airlines transportation in our country is increasing every day. Rapid transport, reasonable price and high quality service is the reaso n for this increase. Both local and foreign airline companies have accelerated their activities as result of this rapid growth in air transportation sector. Over the time, these enterprises reached a level to go head to head with each other about the quality, price, transport network and they have begun to use similar applications as element of competition. The aim of this study is; to determinate the factors that influence to the customer’s preferences about airline companies and to be a source for enter prises to increase customer satisfaction. For this reason, in addition to “bonus miles” application which is used of almost all airline companies, example of “miles+time score” application was made and evaluated the impact of eliminating in terms of custom er victimization. As a result of the survey applied to 444 people; it is also identified that the impact of the “miles + time” application at the preferences of customers as well as positive and negative factors affecting the enterprises of preferences.

  4. Large scale air pollution estimation method combining land use regression and chemical transport modeling in a geostatistical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akita, Yasuyuki; Baldasano, Jose M.; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; De Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Serre, Marc L.; De Nazelle, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    In recognition that intraurban exposure gradients may be as large as between-city variations, recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have become increasingly interested in capturing within-city exposure gradients. In addition, because of the rapidly accumulating health data, recent studies also

  5. A Lagrangian view of convective sources for transport of air across the Tropical Tropopause Layer: distribution, times and the radiative influence of clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzella

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical tropopause layer (TTL is a key region controlling transport between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The efficiency of transport across the TTL depends on the continuous interaction between the large-scale advection and the small-scale intermittent convection that reaches the Level of Zero radiative Heating (LZH. The wide range of scales involved presents a significant challenge to determine the sources of convection and quantify transport across the TTL. Here, we use a simple Lagrangian model, termed TTL detrainment model, that combines a large ensemble of 200-day back trajectory calculations with high-resolution fields of brightness temperatures (provided by the CLAUS dataset in order to determine the ensemble of trajectories that are detrained from convective sources. The trajectories are calculated using the ECMWF ERA-Interim winds and radiative heating rates, and in order to establish the radiative influence of clouds, the latter rates are derived both under all-sky and clear-sky conditions.

    We show that most trajectories are detrained near the mean LZH with the horizontal distributions of convective sources being highly-localized, even within the space defined by deep convection. As well as modifying the degree of source localization, the radiative heating from clouds facilitates the rapid upwelling of air across the TTL. However, large-scale motion near the fluctuating LZH can lead a significant proportion of trajectories to alternating clear-sky and cloudy regions, thus generating a large dispersion in the vertical transport times. The distributions of vertical transport times are wide and skewed and are largely insensitive to a bias of about ±1 km (∓5 K in the altitude of cloud top heights (the main sensitivity appearing in the times to escape the immediate neighbourhood of the LZH while some seasonal and regional transport characteristics are apparent for times up to 60 days. The strong horizontal

  6. HTAP_v2: a mosaic of regional and global emission gridmaps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Janssens-Maenhout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, vegetation and climate, to identify emission mitigation options across the regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and to guide future policies on these aspects. The harmonization and improvement of regional emission inventories is imperative to obtain consolidated estimates on the formation of global-scale air pollution. An emissions dataset has been constructed using regional emission gridmaps (annual and monthly for SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC for the years 2008 and 2010, with the purpose of providing consistent information to global and regional scale modelling efforts. This compilation of different regional gridded inventories, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA's for USA, EPA and Environment Canada's for Canada, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP and Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO's for Europe, and the Model Inter-comparison Study in Asia (MICS-Asia's for China, India and other Asian countries, was gap-filled with the emission gridmaps of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3 for the rest of the world (mainly South-America, Africa, Russia and Oceania. Emissions from seven main categories of human activities (power, industry, residential, agriculture, ground transport, aviation and shipping were estimated and spatially distributed on a common grid of 0.1° × 0.1° longitude–latitude, to yield monthly, global, sector-specific gridmaps for each substance and year. The HTAP_v2.2 air pollutant gridmaps are considered to combine latest available regional information within a complete global dataset. The disaggregation by sectors, high spatial and temporal

  7. HTAP_v2: a mosaic of regional and global emission gridmaps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F.; Muntean, M.; Pouliot, G.; Keating, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Wankmüller, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Klimont, Z.; Frost, G.; Darras, S.; Koffi, B.

    2015-04-01

    The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, vegetation and climate, to identify emission mitigation options across the regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and to guide future policies on these aspects. The harmonization and improvement of regional emission inventories is imperative to obtain consolidated estimates on the formation of global-scale air pollution. An emissions dataset has been constructed using regional emission gridmaps (annual and monthly) for SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC for the years 2008 and 2010, with the purpose of providing consistent information to global and regional scale modelling efforts. This compilation of different regional gridded inventories, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s for USA, EPA and Environment Canada's for Canada, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)'s for Europe, and the Model Inter-comparison Study in Asia (MICS-Asia)'s for China, India and other Asian countries, was gap-filled with the emission gridmaps of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3) for the rest of the world (mainly South-America, Africa, Russia and Oceania). Emissions from seven main categories of human activities (power, industry, residential, agriculture, ground transport, aviation and shipping) were estimated and spatially distributed on a common grid of 0.1° × 0.1° longitude-latitude, to yield monthly, global, sector-specific gridmaps for each substance and year. The HTAP_v2.2 air pollutant gridmaps are considered to combine latest available regional information within a complete global dataset. The disaggregation by sectors, high spatial and temporal resolution and

  8. The Pathway for Oxygen: Tutorial Modelling on Oxygen Transport from Air to Mitochondrion: The Pathway for Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Gary M. Raymond; Dash, Ranjan K.; Beard, Daniel A.; Nolan, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The ‘Pathway for Oxygen’ is captured in a set of models describing quantitative relationships between fluxes and driving forces for the flux of oxygen from the external air source to the mitochondrial sink at cytochrome oxidase. The intervening processes involve convection, membrane permeation, diffusion of free and heme-bound O2 and enzymatic reactions. While this system’s basic elements are simple: ventilation, alveolar gas exchange with blood, circulation of the blood, pe...

  9. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    OpenAIRE

    B. Aouizerats; G. R. van der Werf; Balasubramanian, R; R. Betha

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aeroso...

  10. Electron Transport Coefficients and Effective Ionization Coefficients in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air Mixtures Using Boltzmann Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Linsheng; Xu, Min; Yuan, Dingkun; Zhang, Yafang; Hu, Zhaoji; Tan, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    The electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function (EEDF), density-normalized effective ionization coefficient and density-normalized longitudinal diffusion velocity are calculated in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures. The experimental results from a pulsed Townsend discharge are plotted for comparison with the numerical results. The reduced field strength varies from 40 Td to 500 Td (1 Townsend=10-17 V·cm2) and the SF6 concentration ranges from 10% to 100%. A Boltzmann equation associated with the two-term spherical harmonic expansion approximation is utilized to gain the swarm parameters in steady-state Townsend. Results show that the accuracy of the Boltzmann solution with a two-term expansion in calculating the electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient is acceptable. The effective ionization coefficient presents a distinct relationship with the SF6 content in the mixtures. Moreover, the E/Ncr values in SF6-Air mixtures are higher than those in SF6-O2 mixtures and the calculated value E/Ncr in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures is lower than the measured value in SF6-N2. Parametric studies conducted on these parameters using the Boltzmann analysis offer substantial insight into the plasma physics, as well as a basis to explore the ozone generation process.

  11. Electron Transport Coefficients and Effective Ionization Coefficients in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air Mixtures Using Boltzmann Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function (EEDF), density-normalized effective ionization coefficient and density-normalized longitudinal diffusion velocity are calculated in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures. The experimental results from a pulsed Townsend discharge are plotted for comparison with the numerical results. The reduced field strength varies from 40 Td to 500 Td (1 Townsend=10−17 V·cm2) and the SF6 concentration ranges from 10% to 100%. A Boltzmann equation associated with the two-term spherical harmonic expansion approximation is utilized to gain the swarm parameters in steady-state Townsend. Results show that the accuracy of the Boltzmann solution with a two-term expansion in calculating the electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient is acceptable. The effective ionization coefficient presents a distinct relationship with the SF6 content in the mixtures. Moreover, the E/Ncr values in SF6-Air mixtures are higher than those in SF6-O2 mixtures and the calculated value E/Ncr in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures is lower than the measured value in SF6-N2. Parametric studies conducted on these parameters using the Boltzmann analysis offer substantial insight into the plasma physics, as well as a basis to explore the ozone generation process. (low temperature plasma)

  12. The new Internet tool: the information and evaluation system by flight, of exposure to cosmic radiation in the new air transports S.I.E.V.E.R.T; Un nouvel outil internet: le systeme d'information et d'evaluation par vol, de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aeriens SIEVERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In France, the public authorities put a new Internet tool at air companies disposal, in order they can evaluate the radiations doses received by their flying crews during their flights. This tool called information and evaluation system by flight of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (S.I.E.V.E.R.T.). (N.C.)

  13. Principle Component Analysis of the Evolution of the Saharan Air Layer and Dust Transport: Comparisons between a Model Simulation and MODIS Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S.; Colarco, P. R.; Dessler, A.

    2006-01-01

    The onset and evolution of Saharan Air Layer (SAL) episodes during June-September 2002 are diagnosed by applying principal component analysis to the NCEP reanalysis temperature anomalies at 850 hPa, where the largest SAL-induced temperature anomalies are located. The first principal component (PC) represents the onset of SAL episodes, which are associated with large warm anomalies located at the west coast of Africa. The second PC represents two opposite phases of the evolution of the SAL. The positive phase of the second PC corresponds to the southwestward extension of the warm anomalies into the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, and the negative phase corresponds to the northwestward extension into the subtropical to mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean and the southwest Europe. A dust transport model (CARMA) and the MODIS retrievals are used to study the associated effects on dust distribution and deposition. The positive (negative) phase of the second PC corresponds to a strengthening (weakening) of the offshore flows in the lower troposphere around 10deg - 20degN, causing more (less) dust being transported along the tropical to subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. The variation of the offshore flow indicates that the subseasonal variation of African Easterly Jet is associated with the evolution of the SAL. Significant correlation is found between the second PC time series and the daily West African monsoon index, implying a dynamical linkage between West African monsoon and the evolution of the SAL and Saharan dust transport.

  14. On Making Scientific and Reasonable Operating Campaign Troops for Air Transportation Plan Optimization%战役部队航空输送总方案编制优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛同民; 李庆辉; 徐通; 任云飞; 水忠明

    2012-01-01

    着眼未来战争特点,空中投送能力已成为衡量军队战斗力的重要指标,制订科学合理的战役部队航空输送总方案,是战役条件下组织多支部队顺利实施航空输送的有效保证。结合战役部队航空输送总方案的特点,建立战役部队航空输送总方案编制优化模型,并进行案例分析。%Looking forward to the future war characteristic, the strategic ability of air transportation has already been an important standard to measure the fighting capacity, and delivering campaign troops from strategic backside into strategic forward by plane will be an important subject of Chinese army's logistical modernization. Making scientific and reasonable operating campaign troops air transportation plan is the available guarantee of campaign troops air transportation. This dissertation analyzed the characteristic of operate campaign troops air transportation plan, established the organizing optimization model of operate campaign troops air transportation plan and made the instance analyzing.

  15. HTAP_v2.2: a mosaic of regional and global emission grid maps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F.; Muntean, M.; Pouliot, G.; Keating, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Wankmüller, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Kuenen, J. J. P.; Klimont, Z.; Frost, G.; Darras, S.; Koffi, B.; Li, M.

    2015-10-01

    The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, vegetation and climate, to identify emission mitigation options across the regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and to guide future policies on these aspects. The harmonization and improvement of regional emission inventories is imperative to obtain consolidated estimates on the formation of global-scale air pollution. An emissions data set has been constructed using regional emission grid maps (annual and monthly) for SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC for the years 2008 and 2010, with the purpose of providing consistent information to global and regional scale modelling efforts. This compilation of different regional gridded inventories - including that of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for USA, the EPA and Environment Canada (for Canada), the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) for Europe, and the Model Inter-comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia III) for China, India and other Asian countries - was gap-filled with the emission grid maps of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3) for the rest of the world (mainly South America, Africa, Russia and Oceania). Emissions from seven main categories of human activities (power, industry, residential, agriculture, ground transport, aviation and shipping) were estimated and spatially distributed on a common grid of 0.1° × 0.1° longitude-latitude, to yield monthly, global, sector-specific grid maps for each substance and year. The HTAP_v2.2 air pollutant grid maps are considered to combine latest available regional information within a complete global data set. The disaggregation by sectors, high spatial and

  16. Coupled modeling of water transport and air-droplet interaction in the electrode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Angelo; Pianese, Cesare; Guezennec, Yann G.

    In this work, an accurate and computationally fast model for liquid water transport within a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) electrode is developed by lumping the space-dependence of the relevant variables. Capillarity is considered as the main transport mechanism within the gas diffusion layer (GDL). The novelty of the model lies in the coupled simulation of the water transport at the interface between gas diffusion layer and gas flow channel (GFC). This is achieved with a phenomenological description of the process that allows its simulation with relative simplicity. Moreover, a detailed two-dimensional visualization of such interface is achieved via geometric simulation of water droplets formation, growth, coalescence and detachment on the surface of the GDL. The model is useful for optimization analysis oriented to both PEMFC design and balance of plant. Furthermore, the accomplishment of reduced computational time and good accuracy makes the model suitable for control strategy implementation to ensure PEM fuel cells operation within optimal electrode water content.

  17. Coupled modeling of water transport and air-droplet interaction in the electrode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Angelo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (SA) (Italy); Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University, 930 Kinnear Rd, Columbus, 43212 OH (United States); Pianese, Cesare [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (SA) (Italy); Guezennec, Yann G. [Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University, 930 Kinnear Rd, Columbus, 43212 OH (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, an accurate and computationally fast model for liquid water transport within a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) electrode is developed by lumping the space-dependence of the relevant variables. Capillarity is considered as the main transport mechanism within the gas diffusion layer (GDL). The novelty of the model lies in the coupled simulation of the water transport at the interface between gas diffusion layer and gas flow channel (GFC). This is achieved with a phenomenological description of the process that allows its simulation with relative simplicity. Moreover, a detailed two-dimensional visualization of such interface is achieved via geometric simulation of water droplets formation, growth, coalescence and detachment on the surface of the GDL. The model is useful for optimization analysis oriented to both PEMFC design and balance of plant. Furthermore, the accomplishment of reduced computational time and good accuracy makes the model suitable for control strategy implementation to ensure PEM fuel cells operation within optimal electrode water content. (author)

  18. 上海国内航空客运市场特征分析%Structural Analysis of Shanghai Domestic Air Passenger Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宇; 李擎

    2013-01-01

      文章基于产业组织经济学的理论,计算了上海国内航空客运市场集中度,以此分析市场结构,得出上海国内航空客运市场是一个竞争激烈的寡头垄断市场。在此基础上,引入了市场细分理论,根据日均客流量指标将上海国内航空客运市场细分为快线、大客流、中客流和低客流四类,对每类细分市场分别从总体规模和航线机型匹配两方面进行定量分析。结果表明,快线市场规模庞大,是一个快速发展的干线市场;大客流市场属于一个过渡型市场;中客流市场规模较小,但增长迅速;低客流市场潜力巨大,但运营机型座级偏大导致其发展缓慢。%This paper analyzes the structure of Shanghai domestic air passenger transportation market by using the concentration rate of the industrial organization theory, draws a conclusion that Shanghai domestic air passenger transportation market is an oligopoly market with intense competition. On that basis,Shanghai domestic air passenger transportation market was segmented into four different areas,that is,the express market, the large passenger flow market, the medium passenger flow market and the low passenger market by bringing into the market segmentation theory. The paper carried out a quantitative analysis for each market segment from the overall size and aircraft type matching. It turns out that the express market is a well-developed and mature artery market, the large passenger flow market is transitory, the medium passenger flow market is rising rapidly but small, the low passenger market is potential, but the large aircraft is not fit for the development of the low passenger market.

  19. Modelling the influence of intermittent rain events on long-term fate and transport of organic air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    ? Is there an expression which can provide an accurate approximation to be used in steady state multimedia models? Assuming a periodically intermittent rain, the mass of an emitted substance which is present in the air compartment is calculated as a function of the deposition rate constants during dry and wet periods......, and the durations of these periods. In this paper results for 300 different organic chemicals are presented and illustrated in more detail for four typical substances, showing that: 1) Deposition velocities can be up to four orders of magnitude higher during rain events than during dry periods, especially...

  20. Characterizing a persistent Asian dust transport event: Optical properties and impact on air quality through the ground-based and satellite measurements over Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Wu, Yonghua; Wang, Tijian; Xie, Chenbo; Zhao, Kun; Zhuang, Bingliang; Li, Shu

    2015-08-01

    The optical properties, time-height distribution and impact on the local air quality from a heavy Asian dust transport episode are investigated with a synergistic ground-based, satellite sensors and transport model on 1 May, 2011 at Nanjing (32.05° N, 118.78° E, and 94 m ASL) in southeast China. Two dust layers located in the planetary-boundary-layer (PBL, deserts and the higher one from the Taklimakan deserts. The dust aerosol layer shows the depolarization ratios at 0.1-0.2 and strong extinction coefficients of 1.0 km-1 at 532-nm, while the extinction-to-backscatter ratios (e.g. lidar ratios) of dust are 47.3-55 sr below 2.5 km. During this dust intrusion period, the aerosol optical depths (AOD) dramatically increase from 0.7 to 1.6 at 500-nm whereas the Angstrom exponents decrease from 1.2 to 0.2. Meanwhile, surface PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations show a significant and coincident increase with the peak value reaching 767 μg/m3 and 222 μg/m3, respectively, indicating the mixture of dust with the anthropogenic aerosols. Regional influences of the transported dust in east China are further illustrated by the AERONET-sunphotometer at Taihu and Xianghe sites (downwind and upwind from Nanjing), satellites MODIS, CALIPSO and model products. Furthermore, the model product of dust profile and surface concentration are evaluated with the ground-based and CALISPO observation. The results indicate the model is capable of simulating the right timing of dust transport event and most loading below 3-km altitude; normalization of model dust with the PM10 near the Gobi deserts improves modeling surface dust concentration in Nanjing.

  1. Application of improved air transport data and wall transmission/reflection data in the SKYSINE code to typical BWR turbine skyshine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three basic sets of data, i.e. air transport data and material transmission/reflection data, included in the SKYSHINE program have been improved using up-to-data and methods, and applied to skyshine dose calculations for a typical BWR turbine building. The direct and skyshine dose rates with the original SKYSHINE code show good agreements with MCNP Monte-Carlo calculations except for the distances less than 0.1 km. The results for the improved SKYSHINE code also have agreements with the MCNP code within 10-20%. The discrepancy of 10-20% can be due to the improved concrete transmission data at small incident and exit angles. We still improve the three sets of data and investigate with different calculational models to get more accurate results. (author)

  2. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, XF; Zhao, X; Huang, K

    2015-04-15

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JIVIAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H-2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery. part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinfang; Zhao, Xuan; Huang, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated.

  4. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  5. Modelin the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and Their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Hanna

    2008-10-16

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop an innovative modeling technique to adequately model the offshore/onshore transport of pollutants. The variable-grid modeling approach that was developed alleviates many of the shortcomings of the traditionally used nested regular-grid modeling approach, in particular related to biases near boundaries and the excessive computational requirements when using nested grids. The Gulf of Mexico region contiguous to the Houston-Galveston area and southern Louisiana was chosen as a test bed for the variable-grid modeling approach. In addition to the onshore high pollution emissions from various sources in those areas, emissions from on-shore and off-shore oil and gas exploration and production are additional sources of air pollution. We identified case studies for which to perform meteorological and air quality model simulations. Our approach included developing and evaluating the meteorological, emissions, and chemistry-transport modeling components for the variable-grid applications, with special focus on the geographic areas where the finest grid resolution was used. We evaluated the performance of two atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes, and identified the best-performing scheme for simulating mesoscale circulations for different grid resolutions. Use of a newly developed surface data assimilation scheme resulted in improved meteorological model simulations. We also successfully ingested satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs) into the meteorological model simulations, leading to further improvements in simulated wind, temperature, and moisture fields. These improved meteorological fields were important for variable-grid simulations, especially related to capturing the land-sea breeze circulations that are critical for modeling offshore/onshore transport of pollutants in the Gulf region. We developed SMOKE-VGR, the variable-grid version of the SMOKE emissions processing model, and tested and

  6. Transportation vehicle energy intensities. A joint DOT/NASA reference paper. [energy consumption of air and ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascy, A. C.; Paullin, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of data on the energy consumption of air and ground vehicles is presented. The ratio BTU/ASM, British Thermal Units/Available Seat Mile, is used to express vehicle energy intensiveness, and related to the energy consumed directly in producing seat-mile or ton-mile productivity. Data is presented on passenger and freight vehicles which are in current use or which are about to enter service, and advanced vehicles which may be operational in the 1980's and beyond. For the advanced vehicles, an estimate is given of the date of initial operational service, and the performance characteristics. Other key considerations in interpreting energy intensiveness for a given mode are discussed, such as: load factors, operations, overhead energy consumption, and energy investments in new structure and equipment.

  7. Study of cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coykendall, R. E.; Curry, J. K.; Domke, A. E.; Madsen, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Economic studies were conducted for three general fuel conserving options: (1) improving fuel consumption characteristics of existing aircraft via retrofit modifications; (2) introducing fuel efficient derivations of existing production aircraft and/or introducing fuel efficient, current state-of-the-art new aircraft; and (3) introducing an advanced state-of-the-art turboprop airplane. These studies were designed to produce an optimum airline fleet mix for the years 1980, 1985 and 1990. The fleet selected accommodated a normal growth market by introducing somewhat larger aircraft while solving for maximum departure frequencies and a minimum load factor corresponding to a 15% investment hurdle rate. Fuel burnt per available-seat-mile flown would drop 22% from 1980 to 1990 due to the use of more fuel efficient aircraft designs, larger average aircraft size, and increased seating density. An inflight survey was taken to determine air traveler attitudes towards a new generation of advanced turboprops.

  8. A global airport-based risk model for the spread of dengue infection via the air transport network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gardner

    Full Text Available The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases.

  9. Engineering Schottky contacts in open-air fabricated heterojunction solar cells to enable high performance and ohmic charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Heffernan, Shane; Ievskaya, Yulia; Sadhanala, Aditya; Flewitt, Andrew; Friend, Richard H; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Musselman, Kevin P

    2014-12-24

    The efficiencies of open-air processed Cu2O/Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O heterojunction solar cells are doubled by reducing the effect of the Schottky barrier between Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O and the indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact. By depositing Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O with a long band-tail, charge flows through the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O/ITO Schottky barrier without rectification by hopping between the sub-bandgap states. High current densities are obtained by controlling the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O thickness to ensure that the Schottky barrier is spatially removed from the p-n junction, allowing the full built-in potential to form, in addition to taking advantage of the increased electrical conductivity of the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O films with increasing thickness. This work therefore shows that the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O window layer sub-bandgap state density and thickness are critical parameters that can be engineered to minimize the effect of Schottky barriers on device performance. More generally, these findings show how to improve the performance of other photovoltaic system reliant on transparent top contacts, e.g., CZTS and CIGS. PMID:25418326

  10. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on air and water transport, communications, and utilities systems in south-central Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1967-01-01

    The earthquake of March 27, 1964, wrecked or severely hampered all forms of transportation, all utilities, and all communications systems over a very large part of south-central Alaska. Effects on air transportation were minor as compared to those on the water, highway, and railroad transport systems. A few planes were damaged or wrecked by seismic vibration or by flooding. Numerous airport facilities were damaged by vibration or by secondary effects of the earthquake, notably seismic sea and landslide-generated waves, tectonic subsidence, and compaction. Nearly all air facilities were partly or wholly operational within a few hours after the earthquake. The earthquake inflicted enormous damage on the shipping industry, which is indispensable to a State that imports fully 90 percent of its requirements—mostly by water—and whose largest single industry is fishing. Except for those of Anchorage, all port facilities in the earthquake-affected area were destroyed or made inoperable by submarine slides, waves, tectonic uplift, and fire. No large vessels were lost, but more than 200 smaller ones (mostly crab or salmon boats) were lost or severely damaged. Navigation aids were destroyed, and hitherto well-known waterways were greatly altered by uplift or subsidence. All these effects wrought far-reaching changes in the shipping economy of Alaska, many of them to its betterment. Virtually all utilities and communications in south-central Alaska were damaged or wrecked by the earthquake, but temporary repairs were effected in remarkably short times. Communications systems were silenced almost everywhere by loss of power or by downed lines; their place was quickly taken by a patchwork of self-powered radio transmitters. A complex power-generating system that served much of the stricken area from steam, diesel, and hydrogenerating plants was disrupted in many places by vibration damage to equipment and by broken transmission lines. Landslides in Anchorage broke gas

  11. Estimation of spatially resolved road transport emissions for air quality management applications in the North West region of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatially resolved estimates of combustion and non-combustion related emissions of CO, NOx, VOCs and PM from road transport sources have been made for the North West region of England in 1994. These have been generated using detailed emissions models for combustion related emissions of CO, NOx, VOCs and PM which take into account the different emissions profiles associated with particular vehicle groups, different road types and journeys under cold start conditions. Emissions estimates have been generated for a 1x1 km grid covering the region's urban and industrial zones and a 5x5 km grid for the whole study area. Emissions models have been generated and applied within a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. Areas of uncertainty in the estimation procedure have been examined and the results compared with alternative data sources. Although the work centres upon the North West region of England, as far as possible the methods and data sources used are intended to be generic, particularly in respect to other administrative areas of the UK. In this way, this work can be considered to be of wider interest than at the local level alone

  12. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and 133Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of 133Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 x 1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 x 1016 to 2.4 x 1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 x 1013 to 3.7 x 1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases

  13. El transporte urbano entre la globalización y la fragmentación: El caso de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Kralich

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la consolidación del capitalismo avanzado se deslocalizan las cadenas productivas, a la par que se internacionalizan los oligopolios del capital. Ellos florecen en el mundo subdesarrollado estimulados por la suburbanización, las políticas de ajuste, la flexibilización laboral, el desempleo, la privatización y desregulación de los servicios públicos, la hegemonía de las leyes de mercado y la gradual desaparición de la concepción keynesiana del Estado, exacerbándose la segregación y la exclusión y creciendo la violencia urbana hasta límites impensados. La concentración demográfica intensifica y complejiza las demandas, en especial las de transporte, complicándose la gestión de los servicios y dificultándose la compatibilización de intereses contradictorios. Puja en la cual indefectiblemente se ven perjudicadas las crecientes franjas de menores recursos, profundizándose las inequidades propias del modelo, cuyo resultado son ciudades cada vez más dualizadas. En este marco, la gestión de servicios urbanos requiere ser repensada y rediseñada, particularmente en las grandes aglomeraciones, ya que aparece cada vez como más acuciante la resolución de la pluralidad y superposición de administraciones que funcionan fragmentadas, dispersando la responsabilidad sobre los problemas integrales a afrontar. Tal el caso de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (RMBA, a la que nos referiremos enfocando la cuestión relativa a la gestión del transporte urbanoWith the consolidation of the advanced capitalism, the productive chains are dislocalizated, as well as the internacionalization of the capital oligopolies. They blossom in the underdeveloped world, stimulated by the suburbanization, the adjustment policies, the occupational flexibilization, the unemployment, the privatization and the desregulation of the public services, the hegemony of the market laws and the gradual disappearance of the Welfare State. All items previously

  14. Spatial spread of infectious diseases and air-transportation networks%基于中国航空网络的传染病大规模传播研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐致靖; 祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    航空网络在传染病区域性扩散中扮演着重要角色,研究航空网络结构及其对传染病区域扩散的影响对重大传染病应急防控具有重要的现实意义.本文研究了中国及全球航空网络的拓扑结构,并以中国航空网络为载体,模拟了类流感疾病在网络上的传播过程.结果显示,航空网络加快了疫情的区域性扩散,在不施加控制的情况下,很短的时间内,疫情就可以蔓延至整个网络.%Many studies have suggested that air-transportation networks contribute a lot to the spatial spread of infectious diseases. A good understanding of air-transportation networks and their effect on the dynamics of infectious diseases will be of great significance to the emergency response and preparedness during serious biological incidents. Here we studied the topology of air-transportation networks both in China and abroad, as well as the spatial spread of a hypothetical outbreak of influenza-like diseases via air-transportation networks in China.

  15. Visualization of an adsorption model for surfactant transport from micelle solutions to a clean air/water interface using fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing; Yuan, Mingjun

    2011-05-01

    This work pertains to visualizing a transport model for adsorption of surfactants from micelle solutions onto a clean air/water interface. Under the condition of surfactant adsorption from very dilute solutions, the time scale for diffusion of a surfactant monomer is much slower than the time scale for kinetic breakdown of the aggregates. A theoretical model predicts two regimes for the adsorption dynamics. We visualize these two regimes under the mechanism of solubilization using fluorescence microscopy, in which an insoluble fluorescent probe, NBD-HAD (4-(hexadecylamino)-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole), is used to illuminate the micelles. The dye fluoresces in the microenvironment of micelles but is quenched in the aqueous solution on laser excitation. The region containing micelles is illuminated, but the region which does not contain micelles appears dark. For surfactant solution of C(14)E(6) at concentration just above the critical micelle concentration (C(CMC)), C(CMC)=4.4 mg/L, a dark region between the bright image of the air/water interface and the micelle-containing zone is observed. This dark region becomes smaller with time and finally disappears once equilibrium is reached. For a surfactant solution of C(14)E(6) at the concentration of 4.74C(CMC), which is higher than a critical total surfactant concentration (C(T)(c)) of 4.25C(CMC), we observe bright images through surfactant solutions during the adsorption process. Fluorescence images validate the theoretical model. PMID:21349535

  16. IMPACT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM OPERATION AND LEAKAGE ON VENTILATION AND INTERCOMPARTMENT TRANSPORT: STUDIES IN UNOCCUPIED AND OCCUPIED TENNESSEE VALLEY HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced-air heating and air conditioning (HAC) systems caused an average and maximum increase in air infiltration rates of 1.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively, during brief whole-house studies of tracer gas decay In 39 occupied houses. An average Increase in air infiltration rate of 0...

  17. Feature Analysis and Evaluation of Air Transportation Market Structure in China%中国航空运输市场结构特征分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天睿; 胡荣; 李东亚; 江超

    2015-01-01

    At present, civil aviation industry in China has been developing fast. In order to investigate current air transportation market structure in China more exactly, this study adopts data statistics to calculate passenger trans⁃port volume, fleet and share holdings status of each domestic airline after getting the absolute concentration of mar⁃ket CRn and Herfindahl--Hirschman Index (HHI), researching the type of domestic air transportation market struc⁃ture and evolution trends of recent years from different perspectives. On the basis of features of air transportation market, it compares and analyzes the results of CRn and HHI index, maintaining the results of HHI index for the analysis of the domestic air transportation market structure more appropriate. According to oligopoly market theo⁃ry, it discusses the features and natures of domestic air transport market and finds out that the domestic air trans⁃portation market is a multi-oligopoly competitive market. It suggests that game theory can be applied in research⁃ing air transport market.%当前中国民用航空运输业发展迅速,为深入研究中国航空运输市场结构特征,运用市场绝对集中度CRn和赫芬达尔—赫希曼HHI指数,对国内各航空公司的旅客运输量、机队规模和相互持股、参股状况等情况进行计算分析,从不同角度研究了中国航空运输市场结构类型及近年来演化趋势;并根据航空运输市场特征,对比分析了CRn和HHI指数的计算结果,认为HHI指数更适用于我国航空运输市场结构分析。同时根据寡头市场理论分析我国航空运输市场的特点和性质,研究结论表明中国航空运输市场结构具有多寡头竞争性垄断特征,分析并证实了博弈理论应用于航空运输市场竞争研究的可行性。

  18. PARADOJAS ENTRE OBJECTIVOS Y RESULTADOS DE POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS. ANÁLISIS COMPARADO DEL AUTO TRANSPORTE COLECTIVO DE BUENOS AIRES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gutiérrez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El autotransporte público de Buenos Aires trascendió internacionalmente por su buen nível de servicio siendo gestionado por pequeñas y medianas empresas bajo regulación estatal y sin subvención. La regulación se revisa en los 90, al igual que en otras partes del mundo, con el objetivo de promover mejoras sin cambios estructurales.Los resultados a diez años muestran paradojas. Por un lado, la subvención no motiva la revisión pero tiene lugar trás ella. Por el otro, la regulación introduce cambios menores y más bien formales, pero emerge un perfil de empresa y de servicio diferente. Por último, se comparten resultados com revisiones internacionales de distinta orientación. El trabajo busca interpretar las paradojas entre objetivos y resultados de las políticas públicas, organizando la evidencia empírica mediante la aplicación de un esquema metodológico al análisis integrado (servicios públicos y de oferta libre y comparativo (con experiencias internacionales del caso. Finalmente, intenta una reflexión teórica sobre el auto transporte colectivo urbano, observando tendencias compartidas e identificando continuidades y rupturas respecto a momentos anteriores.

  19. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  20. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle-component-based factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Stroud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007 in southern Ontario (ON, Canada, were used to evaluate Environment Canada's regional chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA. Environment Canada's operational numerical weather prediction model and the 2006 Canadian and 2005 US national emissions inventories were used as input to the chemical transport model (named AURAMS. Particle-component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA factors. Co-located carbon monoxide (CO, PM2.5 black carbon (BC, and PM1 SO4 measurements were also used for evaluation and interpretation, permitting a detailed diagnostic model evaluation.

    At the urban site, good agreement was observed for the comparison of daytime campaign PM1 POA and HOA mean values: 1.1 μg m−3 vs. 1.2 μg m−3, respectively. However, a POA overprediction was evident on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer. Biases in model POA predictions trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. This trend has several possible explanations, including (1 underweighting of urban locations in particulate matter (PM spatial surrogate fields, (2 overly-coarse model grid spacing for resolving urban-scale sources, and (3 lack of a model particle POA evaporation process during dilution of vehicular POA tail-pipe emissions to urban scales. Furthermore, a trend in POA bias was observed at the urban site as a function of the BC/HOA ratio, suggesting a possible association of POA underprediction for diesel combustion sources. For several time periods, POA overprediction was also observed for sulphate-rich plumes, suggesting that our model POA fractions for the PM2.5 chemical

  1. A comparative analysis of hierarchy and regional system of domestic air passenger transport network between China and USA%中美航空客运网络层次结构和地域系统对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶倩; 吴殿廷; 戴特奇; 郭谦; 鲍捷

    2013-01-01

    美国民航1978年彻底市场化以来已经历30多年的发展,航空网络趋于成熟.我国民航也在经历市场化改革,机场属地化完成至今已近10年,运量快速增长、高铁建设等因素正剧烈地影响着网络演变.对比中美两国航空网络有利于判断我国航线网络和机场体系的演变趋势,对于我国民航发展具有借鉴意义.以中国大陆地区和美国本土48个州作为研究区,运用交通地理信息系统和VBA等技术,从绝对联系和首位联系两个角度,对当前中美两国航空客运网络层次结构和地域系统进行分析与对比.研究发现:中国航空客运网络已表现出一定的轴辐体系,但一级枢纽较少、客运压力过大,且航空枢纽重东南、轻中西;美国航空客运网络的轴辐体系已趋向完善,各大枢纽和重要城市之间的内部空间联系非常密切.进而,提出了一些政策性建议,以期对我国航空客运网络未来的空间发展形式和方向提供借鉴.%Geography of air transportation is one of the youngest branches of geography.As the hub-and-spoke system becomes mature in the United States of America (USA) and China's air transportation and network are developing rapidly in recent years,modes and overall efficiency of air transport network have drawn attention of geographers and become a research focus.Over three decades has passed since the airline deregulation of USA in 1978.America's air transport network has been well developed since then.China's civil aviation is also experiencing market-oriented reforms.Around ten years ago,China's Civil Aviation Authority announced the achievement of airport localization.Recently China's air passenger flow is growing rapidly and its air transport network is changing due to factors such as construction of high-speed railway.It is helpful for estimating trends of China's future air network and airport system to compare air transport networks between China and USA.This paper

  2. The incidence and risk factors for shipping fever in horses transported by air to Hong Kong: Results from a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M J; Riggs, C M; Cogger, N; Rosanowski, S M

    2016-08-01

    A 2 year prospective study was performed between February 2011 and January 2013 to determine the incidence and risk factors for shipping fever (SF) in horses transported by air to Hong Kong (HK). Using a questionnaire, data were collected from professional flying grooms regarding the journey to HK and horses in the shipment. Horses were monitored in quarantine for 2 weeks after arrival in HK, and clinical signs of SF recorded. Poisson and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for SF at the horse and shipment levels. The study analysed data from 869 horses on 81 flights arriving from Australia (n = 24), New Zealand (NZ; n = 18), the United Kingdom (UK; n = 33) and the United States of America (USA; n = 6). The incidence risk of SF was 10.8 per 100 horses and the proportion of shipments with at least one horse that developed SF was 49/81 (60%). The study identified that the rate per shipment of SF in shipments of horses originating from NZ, the USA and the UK was 2.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.71), 2.43 (95% CI 0.66-8.89) and 3.08 (95% CI 1.60-5.93) times the rate of SF compared to Australia. Shipments arriving in HK during March and May were 5.61 (95% CI 1.55-20.31) and 4.51 (95% CI 1.43-14.26) times more likely to contain horses that developed SF compared to shipments arriving in January. The identification of these risk factors and the recognition of at-risk shipments will help focus attention on preventative strategies. PMID:27387724

  3. CDF modeling of flow and transport processes in the reactor core of a modular high temperature reactor during an air ingress accident; CFD-Modellierung der Stroemungs- und Transportprozesse im Reaktorkern eines modularen Hochtemperaturreaktors waehrend eines Lufteinbruchstoerfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggemann, Johannes

    2015-05-22

    Generation IV of reactor design is supposed to include inherent safety systems that allow accident management using passive processes (without external energy). The VTR (very high temperature reactor) is graphite moderated with helium cooling. The design concept assumes that in any operational situation the after heat is removed by thermal conduction and radiation. Air ingress is beyond-design accident assuming a leak in the primary circuit triggering oxygen reaction with the hot graphite that could damage the barriers for fission product release. Using 3D CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes the air ingress scenario is simulated, the flow and transport processes in the reactor core are analyzed. For validation of the modeling heat transport processes were investigated in specific test facilities.

  4. Estimates of Cl atom concentrations and hydrocarbon kinetic reactivity in surface air at Appledore Island, Maine (USA), during International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Fischer, Emily V.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley C.; Varner, Ruth K.

    2007-05-01

    Average hydroxyl radical (OH) to chlorine atom (Cl·) ratios ranging from 45 to 119 were determined from variability-lifetime relationships for selected nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in surface air from six different transport sectors arriving at Appledore Island, Maine, during July 2004. Multiplying these ratios by an assumed average OH concentration of 2.5 × 106 cm-3 yielded estimates of Cl· concentrations of 2.2 to 5.6 × 104 cm-3. Summed reaction rates of methane and more than 30 abundant NMHCs with OH and Cl· suggest that Cl· reactions increased the kinetic reactivity of hydrocarbons by 16% to 30% over that due to OH alone in air associated with the various transport sectors. Isoprene and other abundant biogenic alkenes were the most important hydrocarbon contributors after methane to overall kinetic reactivity.

  5. Development of International Air Transport Management System and It’ s Basic Trend%论国际航空运输管理体制发展历程及基本走向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺富永; 王盛蕾

    2015-01-01

    国际航空运输管理体制是国家间通过签订航空运输协定,规范它们之间国际航空运输活动所形成的结构和组成方式。在第一次世界大战前,国际航空运输管理体制单边主义盛行;第一次世界大战结束到20世纪70年代末,多边主义和双边主义并存是国际航空运输管理体制的主要表现形式;从20世纪70年代末开始,国际航空运输管理体制呈现出区域化和全球化的倾向。通过对双边管理体制和多边管理体制的利弊分析,预测在未来较长时期内,二者并存依然是国际航空运输管理体制发展的基本走向。%International air management system is structural rules forthe standardization of international air transport activities by the air transport agreements signed by different countries.Before the First World War,the unilateralism of international air transport management system prevailed.From the First World War to the end of the 1970s, multi-lateralism became the main mode.From the end of 1970s, the international air transport management system showed a tendency of regionalization and globalization.Through the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of bilateral and multilateral management system, the paper predicts that the coexistence of the bilateral and multilateral systems remains the basic trend of international air transport management system.

  6. The Evolution of Turkish Air Transport Industry: Significant Developments and the Impacts of 1983 Liberalization(Türk Havayolu Taşımacılığı Sektörünün Gelişimi: Önemli Gelişmeler ve 1983 Liberalleşmesinin Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender GEREDE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization in 1983 constitutes a turning point in the development process of Turkish Air Transport Industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evolution of Turkish Air Transport Industry after 1983 liberalization from the perspective of liberalization process. To this end, the first part of the study examines the significant developments and changes which have occurred since 1983. The second part covers the impacts of 1983 liberalization on both Turkish Air Transport Industry and Airline Management. The final part is an overview of failures in 1983 liberalization.

  7. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  8. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  9. Arctic aerosol life cycle: linking aerosol size distributions observed between 2000 and 2010 with air mass transport and precipitation at Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of more the 10 yr of aerosol number size distribution data observed in the Arctic environment (Mt Zeppelin (78°56' N, 11°53' E, 474 m a.s.l., Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. We provide statistics on both seasonal and diurnal characteristics of the aerosol observations and conclude that the Arctic aerosol number size distribution and auxiliary parameters such as integral mass and surface have a very pronounced seasonal variation. This seasonal variation seems to be controlled by both dominating source as well as meteorological conditions in general. In principle, three distinctly different periods can be identified during the Arctic year: the haze period characterized by a dominating accumulation mode aerosol (March–May followed by the sunlit summer period with low abundance of accumulation mode particles but high concentration of small particles which likely are recently and locally formed (June–August. The rest of the year is characterized by comparably low concentration of accumulation mode particles and negligible abundance of ultra fine particles (September–February. Minimum aerosol mass and number concentration is usually observed during September/October. We further show that the transition between the different regimes is fast, suggesting rapid change in conditions defining their appearance. A source climatology based on trajectory analysis is provided and it is shown that there is a strong seasonality of dominating source areas, with dominance of Eurasia during the autumn-winter period and dominance of North Atlantic air during the summer months. We also show that new particle formation events seem to be a rather common phenomenon during the Arctic summer, and this is the result of both photochemical production of nucleating/condensing species and low condensation sink. It is also suggested that wet removal play a key role in defining the Arctic aerosol year, and plays a

  10. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle component-based factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Stroud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007 in Southern Ontario, Canada, were used to evaluate predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA and two other carbonaceous species, black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO, made for this summertime period by Environment Canada's AURAMS regional chemical transport model. Particle component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA factors. A novel diagnostic model evaluation was performed by investigating model POA bias as a function of HOA mass concentration and indicator ratios (e.g. BC/HOA. Eight case studies were selected based on factor analysis and back trajectories to help classify model bias for certain POA source types. By considering model POA bias in relation to co-located BC and CO biases, a plausible story is developed that explains the model biases for all three species.

    At the rural sites, daytime mean PM1 POA mass concentrations were under-predicted compared to observed HOA concentrations. POA under-predictions were accentuated when the transport arriving at the rural sites was from the Detroit/Windsor urban complex and for short-term periods of biomass burning influence. Interestingly, the daytime CO concentrations were only slightly under-predicted at both rural sites, whereas CO was over-predicted at the urban Windsor site with a normalized mean bias of 134%, while good agreement was observed at Windsor for the comparison of daytime PM1 POA and HOA mean values, 1.1 μg m−3 and 1.2 μg m−3, respectively. Biases in model POA predictions also trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. Periods of POA over-prediction were most evident at the urban site on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer

  11. Desarrollo y mejoramiento reciente en el sistema de empaque de peces ornamentales para transporte aéreo = Recent developments and improvements in ornamental fish packaging systems for air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Sorgeloos, P

    2003-01-01

    Current ornamental fish packaging systems are characterized by very high fish loading densities and high metabolic wastes in the transport water after shipment. They focus mainly on management of the quality of transport water. Recent studies using the guppy as a model fish showed that post-shipment mortality could be reduced through enhancement of the stress resistance of the fish, and hence emphases should also be placed on the preparation of the fish for transport and recovery of the fish ...

  12. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  13. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants, Annual report for 2011; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaeriske tilfoersler, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Wenche; Solberg, Sverre; Manoe, Stein; Yttri, Karl Espen

    2012-07-01

    This report presents the 2011 monitoring results from the rural air- and precipitation chemistry monitoring network in Norway. In 2011, main components in precipitation were measured at 15 sites. Trace elements were determined at four sites. Air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds were measured at six sites, and ozone concentrations at eight sites. Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in air are determined at three sites. Measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass are also determined at three sites, including measurements of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC). An overview of the measurement programme is given in Appendix B2. (Author)

  14. Selection of Hub Location in an Era of Multimodal Air Logistics Transportation%航空联运时代物流中枢机场选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵延峰

    2014-01-01

    The global economy, E-commerce, and third party logistics, among other factors are spurring a rapid growth in air transportation services and reshaping the freight air transportation network in China. This paper first analyzes the necessity and developing trend of multimodal air transportation in China in several aspects:growing participation in global economic, transition and optimization of industrial type in urban cluster, and rapid development of air freight transportation services. A model is developed to analyze the selection of international and national logistics hub airports, which shows that Zhengzhou Xinzheng In-ternational Airport and Wuhan Tianhe International Airport are well-equipped and well situated for func-tioning as hub airport. By analyzing the existing conditions and prospects of these two airports, the paper points out that those airports have different advantages in becoming an international and national freight transportation hub airport, and they should be developed in a coordinated and complementary way.%经济全球化、电子商务、第三方物流等多种因素促使中国航空联运业务快速增长,正在重塑中国航空货运网络。首先从中国参与全球经贸一体化程度加深、城市群产业转型升级与布局优化、航空物流快速发展等方面对中国现阶段发展航空联运的必要性及趋势进行分析。然后建立模型对国际与国内物流中枢机场选择进行分析,显示郑州新郑、武汉天河两机场具备中枢机场建设条件。进而对两机场的现状基础及潜力进行深度考察,认为二者在建设国际与国内物流中枢机场方面各具优势,应当考虑错位发展。

  15. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Sawanta S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-19

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  16. p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid structure of highly efficient perovskite solar cells towards improved air stability: synthetic strategies and the role of p-type hole transport layer (HTL) and n-type electron transport layer (ETL) metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Hong, Chang Kook

    2016-05-01

    There has been fast recent progress in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) towards low cost photovoltaic technology. Organometal mixed halide (MAPbX or FAPbX) perovskites are the most promising light absorbing material sandwiched between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL). These two layers play a critical role in boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and maintaining air stability. However, the device stability is a serious issue in regular as well as p-i-n inverted type perovskite solar cells. This mini-review briefly outlines the state-of-art of p-i-n/n-i-p type planar hybrid perovskite solar cells using MAPbX/FAPbX perovskite absorbing layers. Later, we will focus on recent trends, progress and further opportunities in exploring the air stable hybrid planar structure PSCs.

  17. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants and precipitation. Monitoring programme for forest damage. Abstract of annual reports 1996; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Overvaakingsprogram for skogskader. Sammendrag av aarsrapporter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report sums up the results for 1996 of two monitoring programmes: `` Norwegian Monitoring Programme for Long-Range Transported Air Pollutants`` and ``Norwegian forest monitoring programme``. The atmospheric pollution is monitored by measurements of chemical main components in the air and in precipitation. The effects of the pollutants on water quality are followed by monitoring of rivers, lakes and field research areas. The effects on fish are followed by regional investigations on benthic organisms, zooplankton and fish populations in rivers and lakes. Water chemical samples are taken each month from 16 rivers and acid material is monitored at seven field research areas. Samples are also taken from 200 lakes every autumn. The biological monitoring programme comprises fish in lakes and streams and benthic animals in lakes. The monitoring of forest damage uses three nation-wide areas from which registrations have been taken over a period of ten years. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  19. Évaluer les services rendus par les dépendances vertes des infrastructures linéaires de transport : une démarche exploratoire

    OpenAIRE

    Labarraque, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Les dépendances vertes des infrastructures linéaires de transport, par les processus écologiques qui s’y exercent, peuvent rendre des services à la société humaine. Quels sont-ils ? Peut-on, et y a-t-il un intérêt à faire varier, en nombre et/ou en quantité, ces services ? L’article, sur la base d’un cas concret, propose une évaluation préliminaire des services produits par les habitats naturels des dépendances de l’infrastructure. Pour une infrastructure de transport routier et ferroviaire, ...

  20. Packaging of hazardous materials and their transport in national and international road, rail, sea and air transport. Summaries of papers. Gefahrgutverpackung und deren Befoerderung im nationalen und internationalen Strassen-, Schienen-, See- und Luftverkehr. Kurzfassungen der Referate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The packaging and transport of hazardous goods demands a high degree of knowledge and responsibility from those involved. The symposium aims to refresh and bring up to date this knowledge with contributions about the legal fundamentals for packaging for the transport of hazardous goods; classification of materials; examination, licensing and identification of packaging; responsibilities, hability, irregularities, insurance; compatibility of filling materials; hazardous goods as additional packaging; re-use, re-conditioning, recycling, waste management, etc. (orig./HSCH).

  1. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  2. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  3. Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Compliance Data Register your Unmanned Aircraft or Drone DOT Careers TIGER Discretionary Grants Disadvantaged Business Enterprise ( ... Zero Emissions Distracted Driving Drive Sober FAA: NextGen Air Scenic Byways Transportation Library Helpful links on... Vehicle ...

  4. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants. Annual report for 1995; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaerisk tilfoersel, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toerseth, K.

    1996-06-01

    Air and precipitation chemistry is determined though various monitoring programmes at several sites located in the rural areas of Norway. This report describes the results for 1995, and these are compared to the previous years. 52 refs., 32 figs., 80 tabs.

  5. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants, Annual report for 1996; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaerisk tilfoersel, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toerseth, K.; Manoe, S.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the results from the rural air- and precipitation chemistry network in Norway. In 1996, main components in precipitation were measured at 32 sites and trace elements were determined at 13 sites. The concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air were determined at 12 sites, and concentrations of ozone at 15 sites. The highest mean concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and strong acid in precipitation occurred along the southern coast. Low values were found from Moere og Romsdal to Troms counties. The largest wet deposition of sulphate, nitrogen components and strong acid occurred along the coast of the southernmost tip of the country. All over the country the mean concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and strong acid in precipitation had in general increased from 1995 to 1996. Because of small annual precipitation amounts the wet depositions were the lowest measured so far at most places in Norway. The highest content of particulate sulphate and of nitrogen components in air and in precipitation were measured in Southern Norway. The mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide were highest in Finnmark due to the nickel smelters in Russia. The largest annual mean concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc in precipitation were measured in Southern Norway. Mercury in air decreased from 1992 to 1996 while the concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc increased. This is opposite to the trend observed in precipitation chemistry and is probably due to emissions in Eastern Europe. 47 refs., 34 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. Estimating emissions on vehicular traffic based on projected energy and transport demand on rural roads: Policies for reducing air pollutant emissions and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the estimation of emissions caused by vehicular traffic based on transport demand and energy consumption. Projected transport demand is calculated with Genetic Algorithm (GA) using population, gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) and the number of vehicles. The energy consumption is modelled with the GA using the veh-km. The model age of the vehicles and their corresponding share for each year using the reference years is obtained. The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. All the calculations are made in line to meet the European standards. For this purpose, two cases are composed. Case 1: Emissions based on energy consumption, and Case 2: Emissions based on transport demand. The both cases are compared. Three policies are proposed to control demand and the emissions. The policies provided the best results in terms of minimum emissions and the reasonable share of highway and railway mode as 70% and 30% usage for policy I, respectively. The emission calculation procedure presented in this study would provide an alternative way to make policies when there is no adequate data on emission measurement in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Emissions caused by vehicular traffic are modelled. → The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. → All the calculations are made in line with to meet the European standards. → The calculation procedure will provide an alternative way to make policies. → The procedure will help planners to convince politicians to impose policies.

  7. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 3. The potential of dual mode. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.

    1974-12-01

    Interdependence of goals of the three agencies, EPA, UMTA, and FEA generates this four-volume study. The common issue around which all three agencies' policies revolve is the use of the private auto involving both incentives and penalties to catalyze a change in existing urban travel characteristics. This third volume expresses INTERPLAN's judgment about the applicability, timing, and impact of dual mode urban transportation technologies. A three-system, three-phase, gradual evolution of demand for dual mode is suggested. The dual mode essay is prefaced by a short overview and comparison of the propulsion and energy use characteristics of conventional and future urban transportation modes.

  8. Transportation, Air Pollution And Physical ActivitieS ; an integrated health risk assessment programme of climate change and urban policies (TAPAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rueda, David, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Introducci??nLas intervenciones para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero ycambio clim??tico, pueden conllevar co-beneficios para la salud. En especial laspol??ticas de transporte activo (caminar, viajar en bicicletas o en transporte p??blico)pueden tener la capacidad de proveer beneficios para el medioambiente y lasalud.M??todosMediante el abordaje de la evaluaci??n de impactos en salud se ha utilizado unamodelo cuantitativo par estimar los impactos en salud de diferentes int...

  9. Elasticidad-precio de la demanda del transporte público urbano: un análisis para los servicios de ómnibus y subterráneo de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Montalvo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estiman distintas elasticidades de la demanda del transporte público urbano, específicamente de los servicios de subterráneo y ómnibus que realizan su recorrido dentro de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA. Para ello se utiliza una base de datos con periodicidad mensual entre los años 1993-2013 y, mediante el uso de dos metodologías diferentes –modelos dinámicos y el de cointegración y modelos de corrección de errores, se estiman– los coeficientes de corto y largo plazo, haciendo hincapié en las elasticidades-precio de la demanda de cada servicio. En línea con estudios existentes, se encuentran demandas inelásticas con coeficientes de largo plazo mayores a los corto plazo. En el caso del subte, donde fue posible utilizar más variables explicativas, ambos métodos de estimación arrojan valores que rondan una elasticidad-precio negativa entre 0,1 y 0,2. Por su parte, en relación al ómnibus, con más dificultades de estimación, la velocidad de ajuste de la demanda a su propio precio es mucho menor, implicando mayores diferencias entre las elasticidades de corto y largo plazo, si bien los valores estimados de estas últimas son cercanos a los estimados en la experiencia internacional (-0,5.Clasificación JEL: C5, R40.Palabras claves: elasticidad, demanda, transporte público, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Price elasticity of demand for urban public transport:An analysis for bus and underground services of the Autonomous City of Buenos AiresAbstractThis paper estimates the demand elasticity of two urban public transport services within the limits of the City of Buenos Aires, i.e., underground subway services and buses whose entire route runs within the boundaries of the city. I use a monthly database from 1993 until 2013 and, by using two different methodologies –dynamic models and cointegration and error correction models–, different regressions are analyzed to

  10. AN AIR POLLUTION EPISODE CAUSED BY REGIONALLY TRANSPORTED SMOKE IN FINLAND ON 21 AUG 2006: A CASE STUDY USING MESOSCALE NWP MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Rantamäki, Minna; Niemelä, Sami; Karppinen, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the prevailing synoptic and mesoscale conditions related to severe air quality episode in Finland utilizing AROME mesoscale NWP model. The summer of 2006 was exceptionally dry in the areas surrounding the Gulf of Finland; this resulted in frequently occurring wild land fires, especially in north-western part of Russia and Estonia. Easterly winds were prevailing with an exceptional long period in August and spread occasionally smoke t...

  11. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  12. Research advances on air contaminant transport in ship cabin%船舶舱室污染物传播研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱民; 余涛; 沈旭东

    2014-01-01

    According to the characteristics of ship cabin, this paper has systematically summarized the related researches for indoor contaminant transport into three kinds of typical methods, and evaluated their advantages and disadvantages. Through analyzing above ship theory models in the application situation and prospect, points out that their integration use is the development direction to simulate the ship cabin contaminant transport law. Finally this paper suggests the next step research direction, which has import reference value for the cabin contaminant transport.%针对船舶舱室特点,将相关室内污染物传播研究成果系统地总结成3类典型方法,并评价各自优缺点。通过分析各类理论模型在船舶领域的应用现状和前景,指出将其整合运用是模拟船舶舱室污染物传播规律的发展方向,并提出下一步的研究方向,对开展传播舱室污染物的研究具有重要参考价值。

  13. Fate and aqueous transport of mercury in light of the Clean Air Mercury Rule for coal-fired electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzuman, Anry

    Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant emitted to the atmosphere in large amounts. Mercury emissions from electric power generation sources were estimated to be 48 metric tons/year, constituting the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury in the U.S. Settled mercury species are highly toxic contaminants of the environment. The newly issued Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule requires that the electric power plants firing coal meet the new Maximum Achievable Mercury Control Technology limit by 2018. This signifies that all of the air-phase mercury will be concentrated in solid phase which, based on the current state of the Air Pollution Control Technology, will be fly ash. Fly ash is utilized by different industries including construction industry in concrete, its products, road bases, structural fills, monifills, for solidification, stabilization, etc. Since the increase in coal combustion in the U.S. (1.6 percent/year) is much higher than the fly ash demand, large amounts of fly ash containing mercury and other trace elements are expected to accumulate in the next decades. The amount of mercury transferred from one phase to another is not a linear function of coal combustion or ash production, depends on the future states of technology, and is unknown. The amount of aqueous mercury as a function of the future removal, mercury speciation, and coal and aquifer characteristics is also unknown. This paper makes a first attempt to relate mercury concentrations in coal, flue gas, fly ash, and fly ash leachate using a single algorithm. Mercury concentrations in all phases were examined and phase transformation algorithms were derived in a form suitable for probabilistic analyses. Such important parameters used in the transformation algorithms as Soil Cation Exchange Capacity for mercury, soil mercury selectivity sequence, mercury activity coefficient, mercury retardation factor, mercury species soil adsorption ratio, and mercury Freundlich soil adsorption isotherm

  14. Air sea ratio reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberle, Jean

    2010-09-15

    Airfreight is the most expensive mode of transportation as well as the most impacting in terms of CO{sup 2} emissions. It is 7 times more expensive on average to ship by air than shipping by sea 1. Airfreight transportation mode emits 30 times more CO{sup 2} than sea freight mode 2. These elements provided a compelling platform to design a global logistics program to initiate a modal shift from air to sea freight without compromising service to customers.

  15. Observation of Asian dust and air-pollution aerosols using a network of ground-based lidars (ADNet): Realtime data processing for validation/assimilation of chemical transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Network observations of Asian dust and air-pollution aerosols are being conducted with automatic two-wavelength (1064nm, 532nm) polarization (532nm) lidars. Currently, the lidars are operated at 20 locations including cooperative stations. Aiming at real-time validation/assimilation of chemical transport models, an automatic data processing system was developed. A method using the lidar depolarization ratio is employed to estimate the extinction coefficient profiles of Asian dust and spherical aerosols. At the same time, the attenuated backscattering coefficients at 1064nm and 532nm, and the total depolarization ratio at 532nm are derived. A data assimilation system based on 4-dimensional variational (4DVAR) method was developed for the lidar-network Asian dust data. In the assimilation, the dust emission factor was used as the control parameter. The results show the data assimilation is effective not only for improving the model results but also for estimating the emission in the dust source region.

  16. Inspirations from the Training Program of Critical Care Air Transport Team of the American Army%美军重症空运救护队训练方案对我军的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 张鹭鹭

    2012-01-01

    The article introduced the basic training processes of the U. S. Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) , which included staff selection, primary training, skill strengthening, and so on. Based on these experiences , the author proposed some suggestions on the training and building of aeromedical evacuation forces of our army, combining with our current situations.%本文在借鉴美空军重症空运救护队的人员选择、初级训练、技能巩固的专业培训流程的基础上,结合我军空运医疗后送力量建设与训练现状,提出我军空运医疗后送力量的建设与训练的几点建议.

  17. Electron transport and stability of oxygen subsystem of YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals at the prolonged exposure to the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conducting properties in the basal ab-plane of the optimally oxygen doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals are investigated before and after a prolonged exposure to the air. The prolonged exposure causes the increase of the number of the effective scattering centers of the normal carriers. The excess conductivity of the samples studied in a wide temperature range is an exponential function of temperature, and near the critical point Tc it can be satisfactorily described by the Aslamazov.Larkin theoretical model. It is found that the prolonged exposure results in a considerable ex-tension of the temperature range for pseudogap state realization, thus narrowing the linear section of the dependence ρab(T).

  18. Transpacific transport of ozone pollution and the effect of recent Asian emission increases on air quality in North America: an integrated analysis using satellite, aircraft, ozonesonde, and surface observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble of aircraft, satellite, sonde, and surface observations for April–May 2006 (NASA/INTEX-B aircraft campaign to better understand the mechanisms for transpacific ozone pollution and its implications for North American air quality. The observations are interpreted with a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. OMI NO2 satellite observations constrain Asian anthropogenic NOx emissions and indicate a factor of 2 increase from 2000 to 2006 in China. Satellite observations of CO from AIRS and TES indicate two major events of Asian transpacific pollution during INTEX-B. Correlation between TES CO and ozone observations shows evidence for transpacific ozone pollution. The semi-permanent Pacific High and Aleutian Low cause splitting of transpacific pollution plumes over the Northeast Pacific. The northern branch circulates around the Aleutian Low and has little impact on North America. The southern branch circulates around the Pacific High and some of that air impacts western North America. Both aircraft measurements and model results show sustained ozone production driven by peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN decomposition in the southern branch, roughly doubling the transpacific influence from ozone produced in the Asian boundary layer. Model simulation of ozone observations at Mt. Bachelor Observatory in Oregon (2.7 km altitude indicates a mean Asian ozone pollution contribution of 9±3 ppbv to the mean observed concentration of 54 ppbv, reflecting mostly an enhancement in background ozone rather than episodic Asian plumes. Asian pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 5–7 ppbv over western North America in spring 2006. The 2000–2006 rise in Asian anthropogenic emissions increased this influence by 1–2 ppbv.

  19. The Impact of Uncertainties in African Biomass Burning Emission Estimates on Modeling Global Air Quality, Long Range Transport and Tropospheric Chemical Lifetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido R. van der Werf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the troposphere in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere (SH is significantly influenced by gaseous emissions released from African biomass burning (BB. Here we investigate how various emission estimates given in bottom-up BB inventories (GFEDv2, GFEDv3, AMMABB affect simulations of global tropospheric composition using the TM4 chemistry transport model. The application of various model parameterizations for introducing such emissions is also investigated. There are perturbations in near-surface ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO of ~60–90% in the tropics and ~5–10% in the SH between different inventories. Increasing the update frequency of the temporal distribution to eight days generally results in decreases of between ~5 and 10% in near-surface mixing ratios throughout the tropics, which is larger than the influence of increasing the injection heights at which BB emissions are introduced. There are also associated differences in the long range transport of pollutants throughout the SH, where the composition of the free troposphere in the SH is sensitive to the chosen BB inventory. Analysis of the chemical budget terms reveals that the influence of increasing the tropospheric CO burden due to BB on oxidative capacity of the troposphere is mitigated by the associated increase in NOx emissions (and thus O3 with the variations in the CO/N ratio between inventories being low. For all inventories there is a decrease in the tropospheric chemical lifetime of methane of between 0.4 and 0.8% regardless of the CO emitted from African BB. This has implications for assessing the effect of inter-annual variability in BB on the annual growth rate of methane.

  20. Multidisciplinary investigation of the fate, transport, and remediation of chlorinated solvents in fractured rocks at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC): Scientific and management challenges, and strategies for a successful research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeman, C. R.; Goode, D. J.; Shapiro, A. M.; Lacombe, P. J.; Chapelle, F. H.; Bradley, P. M.; Imbrigiotta, T. E.; Williams, J. H.; Curtis, G. P.; Hsieh, P. A.

    2008-12-01

    At the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton NJ, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Navy and under support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), is investigating the fate, transport, and remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its daughter products in dipping, fractured mudstones underlying the site. TCE concentrations in ground water are as high as ~100 mg/L. Objectives of multidisciplinary research at the NAWC include (1) understanding the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes and properties affecting the fate, transport, and removal of chlorinated solvents in fractured rocks, (2) assessing the efficiency of different remediation methods (pump and treat, natural and enhanced biodegradation), and (3) transferring the results to help remediate other contaminated fractured rock aquifers. There are numerous scientific and technical challenges to meeting these goals, including the extreme spatial variability of flow and transport properties at the NAWC and the complex distribution of contaminants, geochemical constituents, and microorganisms in fractures and the rock matrix. In addition, there are management challenges that are equally important to address in order to achieve a successful research program. These include balancing the requirements of the many parties involved at the site, including researchers, the site owner, and regulatory agencies; and ensuring that limited research funds are directed towards work that addresses the most important scientific questions as well as stakeholder concerns. Strategies for the scientific challenges at NAWC include developing a carefully planned program to characterize spatial variability in rock properties and groundwater constituents so that the data obtained are applicable to solving research questions focused on remediation. Strategies for the management challenges include fostering open lines of communication among all parties and

  1. Transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  2. Veterinary management of horse transport

    OpenAIRE

    Des Leadon; Natalie Waran; Conny Herholz; Mariann Klay

    2008-01-01

    Enormous numbers of horses are transported locally, nationally and internationally every year. National legislation and international guidelines set standards for the health and welfare of animals during transport. As a consequence, equine clinicians have major responsibilities in safeguarding the horse industry against the spread of disease and in being aware of the problems inherent in horse transport. The authors explore road, sea and air transport and their effect on horses. Various types...

  3. Transpacific transport of ozone pollution and the effect of recent Asian emission increases on air quality in North America: an integrated analysis using satellite, aircraft, ozonesonde, and surface observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble of aircraft, satellite, sonde, and surface observations for April–May 2006 (NASA/INTEX-B aircraft campaign to better understand the mechanisms for transpacific ozone pollution and its implications for North American air quality. The observations are interpreted with a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. OMI NO2 satellite observations constrain Asian anthropogenic NOx emissions and indicate a factor of 2 increase from 2000 to 2006 in China. Satellite observations of CO from AIRS and TES indicate two major events of Asian transpacific pollution during INTEX-B. Correlation between TES CO and ozone observations shows evidence for transpacific ozone pollution. The semi-permanent Pacific High and Aleutian Low cause splitting of transpacific pollution plumes over the Northeast Pacific. The northern branch circulates around the Aleutian Low and has little impact on North America. The southern branch circulates around the Pacific High and impacts western North America. Both aircraft measurements and model results show sustained ozone production driven by peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN decomposition in the southern branch, roughly doubling the transpacific influence from ozone produced in the Asian boundary layer. Model simulation of ozone observations at Mt. Bachelor Observatory in Oregon (2.7 km altitude indicates a mean Asian ozone pollution contribution of 9±3 ppbv to the mean observed concentration of 54 ppbv, reflecting mostly an enhancement in background ozone rather than episodic Asian plumes. Asian pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 5–7 ppbv over western North America in spring 2006. The 2000–2006 rise in Asian anthropogenic emissions increased the influence by 1–2 ppbv.

  4. Source, Transportation and Removal of Indoor Air Microbes: a Review of Recent Researches%室内空气微生物污染来源、传播和去除方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳菊; 祁建城; 张宗兴; 侯丽丽

    2011-01-01

    室内微生物污染对人体健康、室内环境、公共卫生安全等方面产生巨大影响.该文介绍了室内空气微生物的种类、来源,分析了污染现状、微生物传播规律的实验和数值模拟研究的进展,阐述了通风过滤、化学熏蒸、光催化反应、臭氧、溶菌酶、紫外灯等控制微生物污染的方法.基于目前情况,今后需在微生物调查研究、抗菌技术、消毒评价、灭菌设备等方面开展更多研究.%The indoor air microbial pollution has huge impacts on human health,indoor environment and public hygiene safety. This paper presented the species and source of indoor microbes,analyzed the status of indoor microbial pollution and transportation research carried out by experimental and numerical simulation method,expatiated several removal methods on indoor microbes, such as air filtration, chemical fumigant, photocatalytie reaction, ozone,lysozyme, UV lights. In terms of presented condition,more studies,related with microbe investigated research,antibacterial techniques,disinfection evaluation and sterilization equipments, should be conducted on in the future.

  5. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Suzana K; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Michel BEUTHE; Gasca, Jorge; Greene, David; Lee, David S.; Muromachi, Yasunori; Newton, Peter J.; Plotkin, Steven; Sperling, Daniel; Wit, Ron; Zhou, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Transport activity, a key component of economic development and human welfare, is increasing around the world as economies grow. For most policymakers, the most pressing problems associated with this increasing transport activity are traffic fatalities and injuries, congestion, air pollution and petroleum dependence. These problems are especially acute in the most rapidly growing economies of the developing world. Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can take its place among these other ...

  6. The Impact of Coal-fired Pollutants Through Long-Range Transport on Air Quality%煤炭污染物经由沙尘长途传输对大气质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏星; 张蓉; 庄国顺

    2011-01-01

    燃煤产生的大量污染物与沙尘不断混合和相互作用,并传输至下游区域,对大气质量可能产生显著影响.利用地面以及高山采样点组成的气溶胶监测网络采集颗粒物样品.结果表明,As在各地气溶胶中的含量均在沙尘暴(DS)期间比非沙尘(NDS)期间增加了3~4倍,甚至数十倍.S的含量均增加了几倍乃至十几倍.气溶胶中PAH(4)/PAH(5,6)比值在其传输下游区域城市DS期间明显高于NDS期间,证明沙尘能吸附并携带燃煤产生的有机污染物.上海的As,Se,S的含量在DS期间比在NDS期间高出几倍以上,甚至几十倍,说明了煤炭污染物经由沙尘传输对沿海大城市的大气质量产生了严重的影响.在海岛采样点,As和S即使在弱DS期间也比在NDS期间含量增加了2~3倍,可见沙尘携带的煤炭污染物将影响海洋气溶胶并影响海洋生态系统.As,Pb在全国各地气溶胶中的富集系数均高达1 000以上,表明我国煤炭污染物已经污染了我国几乎所有地区的大气和土壤.%Coal-fired pollutants constantly mix and interact with dust,further transport to downwind areas,will exert a significant impact on air quality and marine ecosystems.A sampling network was configured including ground and mountain sites to collect aerosol samples.The concentration of As in aerosol increased 3—4 folds,even 10 folds,during DS compared to NDS in all these sites.The concentration of S all increased several to more than ten times during DS.The ratio of PAH(4)/PAH(5,6) in aerosol in downwind city is obviously higher during DS compared to NDS,showing dust can absorb and carry coal-fired organic pollutants.The concentration of As,Se,S in Shanghai increased several times even several tens during DS,verifying the coal-fired pollutants through long-range transport have severe impact on the air quality of coastal mega-cities.On the island,even during weak DS,As and S increase 2-3 times

  7. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  8. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  9. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  10. Information systems strategy in air transport .

    OpenAIRE

    McGlade, Desmond P.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Seeking to improve the role of Information Technology (IT) and business practices in the Department of Defense, organizations were sought to serve as a model to aid in the improvement process. Southwest Airlines, a major U.S. carrier based in Dallas, Texas was chosen because of its record of profitability and its unique use of information technology. This case study describes Southwest's mission, goals, organization, business decision...

  11. 利用核磁共振成像技术分析胡萝卜干燥过程中内部水分传递%Moisture transport in carrot during hot air drying using magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建国; 徐刚; 张绪坤; 顾震; 张森旺; 李华栋

    2013-01-01

    not an accurate method because of low precision and moisture loss during cutting process, although it could give inside moisture distribution. In recent years, the applicability of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure mass transport phenomena in porous systems, especially in foodstuffs and biological materials, including drying processes, has been demonstrated. NMR imaging as a non-destructive, non-invasive, promising technique has been used to obtain moisture profiles during drying of vegetables and fruits. In this paper, the moisture transport in a cylindrical carrot sample was visualized and studied using nuclear magnetic resonance images obtained from the drying experiments. The transient moisture profile distributions in carrot were measured during the hot-air drying process with air temperatures of 40 and 70℃, respectively. Experimental results showed that the moisture profiles moved irregularly toward the center of the carrot sample in both the axial and radial directions, indicating a muti-dimensional and unsteady-state mass transfer process that has non-Fickian moisture transport characteristics. In the initial drying stage, a sharp moisture gradient was found indicating significant moisture flux at the surface of the carrot. With the process of drying, the ratio of the MRI diameter declined faster than that of the optical diameter, which indicated that the dried layer appeared at the surface and moisture profile moved inside. The Henderson-Pabis model (MR=1.003e-0.01114t, R2=0.9994) achieved better predictive accuracy than other models and satisfactorily described drying characteristics of the carrot cylinder at 70℃. The maximum relative error of prediction compared with the measured results was 7.69%, with relative errors during the drying process at 70℃ commonly remaining less than 4%. The moisture transport of the carrot center layer was simulated by the Henderson-Pabis model (MR=1.005e-0.00286t,R2=0.9978) during the drying process at

  12. Energy and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Banister, David; Edwards, Phil; Prentice, Andrew M; Roberts, Ian

    2007-09-22

    We examine the links between fossil-fuel-based transportation, greenhouse-gas emissions, and health. Transport-related carbon emissions are rising and there is increasing consensus that the growth in motorised land vehicles and aviation is incompatible with averting serious climate change. The energy intensity of land transport correlates with its adverse health effects. Adverse health effects occur through climate change, road-traffic injuries, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, energy-related conflict, and environmental degradation. For the world's poor people, walking is the main mode of transport, but such populations often experience the most from the harms of energy-intensive transport. New energy sources and improvements in vehicle design and in information technology are necessary but not sufficient to reduce transport-related carbon emissions without accompanying behavioural change. By contrast, active transport has the potential to improve health and equity, and reduce emissions. Cities require safe and pleasant environments for active transport with destinations in easy reach and, for longer journeys, public transport that is powered by renewable energy, thus providing high levels of accessibility without car use. Much investment in major road projects does not meet the transport needs of poor people, especially women whose trips are primarily local and off road. Sustainable development is better promoted through improving walking and cycling infrastructures, increasing access to cycles, and investment in transport services for essential needs. Our model of London shows how increased active transport could help achieve substantial reductions in emissions by 2030 while improving population health. There exists the potential for a global contraction and convergence in use of fossil-fuel energy for transport to benefit health and achieve sustainability. PMID:17868817

  13. Uncertainty estimation and global forecasting with a chemistry-transport model - application to the numerical simulation of air quality; Estimation de l'incertitude et prevision d'ensemble avec un modele de chimie transport - Application a la simulation numerique de la qualite de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, V.

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the quality of a chemistry-transport model, not by a classical comparison with observations, but by the estimation of its uncertainties due to the input data, to the model formulation and to the numerical approximations. The study of these 3 sources of uncertainty is carried out with Monte Carlo simulations, with multi-model simulations and with comparisons between numerical schemes, respectively. A high uncertainty is shown for ozone concentrations. To overcome the uncertainty-related limitations, a strategy consists in using the overall forecasting. By combining several models (up to 48) on the basis of past observations, forecasts can be significantly improved. This work has been also the occasion of developing an innovative modeling system, named Polyphemus. (J.S.)

  14. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  15. 76 FR 16469 - Application of Air Charter, Inc. D/B/A Air Flamenco for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Air Charter, Inc. D/B/A Air Flamenco for Commuter Authority AGENCY... it should not issue an order finding Air Charter, Inc. d/b/a Air Flamenco fit, willing, and able,...

  16. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Gotzon; Millán, Millán M.; Salvador, Rosa; Mantilla, Enrique

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millán et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high O 3 concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project—Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area—are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65 ppb of O 3 of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O 3 concentrations up to 100 ppb and even more.

  17. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  19. Transport policy

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Transport is a fundamental component of all modern economies. Transport Policy presents a wide ranging collection of previously published articles which aim to provide the reader with an understanding of the main elements of transport policy.

  20. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  1. The new context for transport of radioactive nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne, Catherine; Galtier, Jerome [Transnucleaire, F-75008 Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials, involves all modes of transportation (road, air, sea, rail) with predominance for road and for air (air for radioisotopes). In this paper we examine the impact of new evolutions in the fields of safety, security, logistics means, public acceptance and quality assurance.

  2. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  3. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  4. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  5. Transports and the environment: European comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For different issues (freight transport, passenger transport, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, fuel consumption in transport and energy efficiency), and illustrated by data tables and figures, this report proposes assessments and comments of the impact on the environment, an overview of the French situation, a comparison with European countries, and an analysis of French peculiarities

  6. 42 CFR 9.11 - Animal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.11 Animal transport. The transportation of chimpanzees by surface or air must be in accordance with the requirements set forth in the Animal Welfare Act... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal transport. 9.11 Section 9.11 Public...

  7. 14 CFR 375.35 - Free transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free transportation. 375.35 Section 375.35 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... transportation. (a) Foreign civil aircraft may be navigated in the United States by a foreign air carrier for...

  8. Multicomponent transport in weakly ionized mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovangigli, V [CMAP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Graille, B [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France); Magin, T [Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Massot, M, E-mail: vincent.giovangigli@polytechnique.f [Laboratoire EM2C, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-06-15

    We discuss transport coefficients in weakly ionized mixtures. We investigate the situations of weak and strong magnetic fields as well as electron temperature nonequilibrium. We present in each regime the Boltzmann equations, examples of transport fluxes, the structure of transport linear systems and discuss their solution by efficient iterative techniques. Numerical simulations are presented for partially ionized high-temperature air.

  9. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  10. Air leakage in refrigerated vans. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Air Leakage in Refrigerated Vans Project was initiated by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of air leakage on fuel consumption of highway transport refrigeration equipment. The project, conducted from September of 1977 to December of 1978 collected air leakage data on refrigerated trailers, containers and truck bodies. A Prototype Air Leakage Test Set was developed, designed and constructed to take measurements, and a total of 92 representative vehicles were examined. The results of the study indicate that air leakage causes a 25% increase in the average refrigeration load. However, the majority of transport refrigeration units are equipped with control systems that require the power to be supplied continuously, so that the potential reduction in fuel consumption that can be expected by reduced air leakage is limited. Alternative control techniques and power sources for the control and operation of refrigeration unit components other than the compressor could reduce fuel consumption by approximately 60%.

  11. The crazy economics of air freight

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Measured by value of goods transported, about one third of all international trade today is moved by air. Severe cyclical fluctuations around the generally strong growth trend of the last decade have meant considerable problems for air freight companies, however. How have they attempted to deal with these problems? How would they be advised to behave in future?

  12. Airborne rotary air separator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  13. Cabin Air Sampling Study Functionality Test.

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, Helen; Walton, Christopher; McKeown, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The Department for Transport (DFT), on behalf of the Government’s Aviation Health Working Group (AHWG), commissioned Cranfield University to organise, manage and deliver a functionality test of a variety of air sampling devices capable of detecting a wide range of compounds in a cabin air environment. The functionality test was to be the preliminary stage of a major monitoring study of the cabin air environment, which the Department intends to conduct. Report prepared for the Department f...

  14. European Private Law: Up in the Air?

    OpenAIRE

    Luzak, J.; Bobek, M.; Prassl, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the existing rights granted to consumers when they purchase services in the EU, whether in a shop or within a distance selling scheme, with the provisions of Regulation 261/2004. While the works on the new European rules on air passengers’ rights are still ongoing it is important to examine what protection measures the air passengers are currently missing that European consumers may already be enjoying while concluding contracts other than for air transport services. Addit...

  15. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  16. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Land transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uherek, Elmar; Halenka, Tomas; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Balkanski, Yves; Berntsen, Terje; Borrego, Carlos; Gauss, Michael; Hoor, Peter; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Lelieveld, Jos; Melas, Dimitrios; Rypdal, Kristin; Schmid, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from land transport, and from road transport in particular, have significant impacts on the atmosphere and on climate change. This assessment gives an overview of past, present and future emissions from land transport, of their impacts on the atmospheric composition and air quality, on human health and climate change and on options for mitigation. In the past vehicle exhaust emission control has successfully reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter. This contributed to improved air quality and reduced health impacts in industrialised countries. In developing countries however, pollutant emissions have been growing strongly, adversely affecting many populations. In addition, ozone and particulate matter change the radiative balance and hence contribute to global warming on shorter time scales. Latest knowledge on the magnitude of land transport's impact on global warming is reviewed here. In the future, road transport's emissions of these pollutants are expected to stagnate and then decrease globally. This will then help to improve the air quality notably in developing countries. On the contrary, emissions of carbon dioxide and of halocarbons from mobile air conditioners have been globally increasing and are further expected to grow. Consequently, road transport's impact on climate is gaining in importance. The expected efficiency improvements of vehicles and the introduction of biofuels will not be sufficient to offset the expected strong growth in both, passenger and freight transportation. Technical measures could offer a significant reduction potential, but strong interventions would be needed as markets do not initiate the necessary changes. Further reductions would need a resolute expansion of low-carbon fuels, a tripling of vehicle fuel efficiency and a stagnation in absolute transport volumes. Land transport will remain a key sector in climate change mitigation during the next decades.

  17. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  18. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  19. Co-evolution and disparities between inbound tourism flow and air transport network in Southwest China%入境旅游流与航空运输网络协同演化及差异分析——以西南地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆峰

    2012-01-01

    区域入境旅游流与航空运输网络协同演化规律及差异是值得研究的问题。文章探讨了入境旅游流与航空运输网络空间演化的协同关系和动力机制,并利用相关分析、回归分析和重心模型,从入境旅游流和航空运输网络的客流关联度、空间结构、网络结点连接强度等层面,对1999~2009年西南地区入境旅游流与航空运输网络的协同演化规律及差异性进行深入分析。结果显示:(1)西南地区入境旅游流与航空客流之间具有显著的相关关系,互动效应明显,但入境旅游流对航空客流的促进作用更强;(2)入境旅游流和航空客流的空间结构变动特征和趋势表现出较高的一致性;(3)入境旅游流和航空运输网络中的结点连接强度存在着较强的耦合性,其耦合程度受到了其它交通运输方式的影响;(4)西南6省区中仅有西藏的入境旅游流流量与航空客流量相关关系不显著,而其他5省区则较显著,但区域内部也存在较大差异。%One of the typical characteristics of inbound tourist behavior is that tourists often travel for a long distance in the tourism destination and choose efficient and convenient transportation mode. Air transport, a timely, convenient, efficient and comfortable mode, is playing an increasingly important role in inbound tourists" travel. As a result, airport becomes an important and basic condition for cities to develop inbound tourism industry. Improvement in air transport condition can enhance the possibility of inbound tourists" entry. Meanwhile, growth of inbound tourist flow also results in increasing demand for air transport, which in turn improves the flow efficiency of inbound tourists. Although there is a close relationship between inbound tourism industry and air transport, there have been few researches on disparities and co-evolution between inbound tourist flow and air transport network

  20. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M;

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...