WorldWideScience

Sample records for air transportation policy

  1. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  2. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  3. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  4. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  5. Usefulness of current international air transport statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    International air transportation is the fastest growing segment of transportation. It performs a major function in the globalization process and is a significant feature of the late 20th century. Public policy regarding international air transportati...

  6. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  7. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  8. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  9. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels.

  10. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko; Shukla, Priyadarshi R

    2015-01-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels. (letter)

  11. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  12. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  13. Climate impacts of air quality policy: switching to a natural gas-fueled public transportation system in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Conor C O; Kandlikar, Milind

    2008-08-15

    Between 2001 and 2003, public transport vehicles in New Delhi were required to switch their fuel to natural gas in an attemptto reduce their air pollution impacts. This study examines the climatic impacts of New Delhi's fuel switching policy, and outlines implications for such efforts in rapidly industrializing countries. Natural gas is mostly composed of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Emitted aerosols (black carbon, particulate organic carbon, and sulfate) also cause radiative forcing. We find that methane and black carbon emissions are critical contributors to the change in carbon dioxide equivalent [CO2(e)] emissions. In New Delhi, the switch to natural gas results in a 30% increase in CO2(e) when the impact of aerosols is not considered. However, when aerosol emissions are taken into account in our model, the net effect of the switch is estimated to be a 10% reduction in CO2(e), and there may be as much as a 30% reduction in CO2(e). There is significant potential for emissions reductions through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism for such fuel switching projects.

  14. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  15. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  16. Ancillary health effects of climate mitigation scenarios as drivers of policy uptake: a review of air quality, transportation and diet co-benefits modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelly M.; Hess, Jeremy J.; Balbus, John M.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Cleveland, David A.; Grabow, Maggie L.; Neff, Roni; Saari, Rebecca K.; Tessum, Christopher W.; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodward, Alistair; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Significant mitigation efforts beyond the Nationally Determined Commitments (NDCs) coming out of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement are required to avoid warming of 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. Health co-benefits represent selected near term, positive consequences of climate policies that can offset mitigation costs in the short term before the beneficial impacts of those policies on the magnitude of climate change are evident. The diversity of approaches to modeling mitigation options and their health effects inhibits meta-analyses and syntheses of results useful in policy-making. Methods/Design: We evaluated the range of methods and choices in modeling health co-benefits of climate mitigation to identify opportunities for increased consistency and collaboration that could better inform policy-making. We reviewed studies quantifying the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation related to air quality, transportation, and diet published since the 2009 Lancet Commission ‘Managing the health effects of climate change’ through January 2017. We documented approaches, methods, scenarios, health-related exposures, and health outcomes. Results/Synthesis: Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Air quality, transportation, and diet scenarios ranged from specific policy proposals to hypothetical scenarios, and from global recommendations to stakeholder-informed local guidance. Geographic and temporal scope as well as validity of scenarios determined policy relevance. More recent studies tended to use more sophisticated methods to address complexity in the relevant policy system. Discussion: Most studies indicated significant, nearer term, local ancillary health benefits providing impetus for policy uptake and net cost savings. However, studies were more suited to describing the interaction of climate policy and health and the magnitude of potential outcomes than to providing specific accurate estimates of health co-benefits. Modeling

  17. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable...... tool that may indeed help to move forward the transport policy agenda. However, there are major conditions and limitations. First of all it is not always so straightforward to delimit, measure and compare transport services in order to establish a clear benchmark. Secondly ‘sustainable transport......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  18. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    , Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts to...... contribution to the discussions within the Eusponsored BEST Thematic Network (Benchmarking European Sustainable Transport) which ran from 2000 to 2003....

  19. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  20. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service is...

  1. Incorporating Air Quality Improvement at a Local Level into Climate Policy in the Transport Sector: A Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Gunawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate policy has a strong influence on policy processes at national levels in Indonesia, while other policies with a focus on air quality improvement are being implemented at local levels. Indonesia as a developing country has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 29 percent by the year 2030. This calls into question the extent to which cities and local governments can cope with the challenges of climate change mitigation. The purpose of the research is to find out the extent to which local air pollution reduction policies can contribute to the climate change mitigation program. The research design involved an empirical case study on governance and policy relevant to climate change efforts to lower GHG in Bandung City, Indonesia. The study evaluated the air quality improvement and the climate change mitigation programs using the actor-based framework of the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT. The governance and stakeholder characteristic of climate change mitigation were also analysed using the structural context part of the CIT framework. The result shows that air quality improvement policy is implemented separately from climate policy; the latter operates at the national level and the former at the local level. By looking at the actor interaction analysis, the study concludes that a more holistic environmental policy approach would be more efficient at reducing local air pollution and contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

  2. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  3. Estimating emissions on vehicular traffic based on projected energy and transport demand on rural roads: Policies for reducing air pollutant emissions and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozan, Cenk; Haldenbilen, Soner; Ceylan, Halim

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the estimation of emissions caused by vehicular traffic based on transport demand and energy consumption. Projected transport demand is calculated with Genetic Algorithm (GA) using population, gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) and the number of vehicles. The energy consumption is modelled with the GA using the veh-km. The model age of the vehicles and their corresponding share for each year using the reference years is obtained. The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. All the calculations are made in line to meet the European standards. For this purpose, two cases are composed. Case 1: Emissions based on energy consumption, and Case 2: Emissions based on transport demand. The both cases are compared. Three policies are proposed to control demand and the emissions. The policies provided the best results in terms of minimum emissions and the reasonable share of highway and railway mode as 70% and 30% usage for policy I, respectively. The emission calculation procedure presented in this study would provide an alternative way to make policies when there is no adequate data on emission measurement in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Emissions caused by vehicular traffic are modelled. → The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. → All the calculations are made in line with to meet the European standards. → The calculation procedure will provide an alternative way to make policies. → The procedure will help planners to convince politicians to impose policies.

  4. Recent trends in air transport sustainibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Alonso, G.

    2016-07-01

    The target of this paper is to analyse the main elements of Air Transport sustainability, studying their evolution during the last years and establishing the future prevalent trends, which might be modified by the application of the adequate policies. Air Transport sustainability is considered as integrated by five basic characteristics: physical accessibility, economic affordability, safety, security and environmental impact. Each one of them has its own influence on the development of this transportation mode and all of them are required in order to achieve a sustainable development. After defining the structural elements of the five characteristics and the corresponding quantitative indicators, the paper studies the recent evolution of such indicators and extrapolates the most likely future trends, having taken into account the most relevant limitations presently existent or potentially appearing in the near future. The most important policies being presently studied (future aircraft designs, infrastructure developments, potential safety and security new rules and tentative environmental action programs) are evaluated, considering the potential repercussions on sustainability progress. Some combinations of them are suggested as the most efficient alternatives for preserving the sustainable development of XXI century air transport. (Author)

  5. Clearing the air. Air quality modelling for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis were performed to provide policy makers with more accurate information about the sources of air pollution and the possible consequences of future developments on air quality. This enables policy makers to make better informed decisions when formulating policies

  6. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Lucas, Sarah (Editor); Scarpellini-Metz, Nanette (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JA is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  7. Journal of Air Transportation; Volume 9, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  8. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  9. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Overview Learn about pollutants from vehicles and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Key issues, ...

  10. The transport of civil plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the review entitled ''The Transport of Civil Plutonium by Air'' reported by the Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (ACTRAM) 1988. The contents contain chapters on the following topics:- the reasons for air transport, the various regulations, packagings for plutonium transport, testing of the packagings, accidents, the consequences of a release, and emergency arrangements. (U.K.)

  11. Graduate course development : transportation policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Transportation, public policy, and politics are inextricably linked and have been, in the United States, from : at least 1956, with the birth of the federal highway system and the Interstate Highway Act, if not earlier. : Much of the transportation s...

  12. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  13. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Geetam

    2003-01-01

    Current transportation policies in mega-cities worldwide lead to major threats to health through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, reduction in physical activities, and adverse impact on urban quality of life. In addition, a large section of the population in cities in low-income countries has to live in informal-sector, substandard housing. Many transportation policies fail to take enough account of their impacts on poverty and social exclusion, and they neglect the access and transportation demands of the more economically disadvantaged groups of society, who rely mostly on public transportation, walking, and cycling. Delhi, the capital city of India, is an interesting case because failure to consider the broad spectrum of health effects that may result from transport and land-use policies and investments has resulted in decisions that penalize the least affluent groups of the population and make it more difficult for them to get to jobs, education, health care, amenities, and services.

  14. Liberalisation of air cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-02

    Over a period of many years, international air cargo demand has continued to increase more rapidly than international air passenger demand. Air cargo arrangements need to be as efficient and expeditious as possible, to meet user requirements for air ...

  15. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  16. Reducing Air Pollution from International Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of their reliance on petroleum-based fuels and their dramatic growth rates in recent decades, air and sea transport are responsible for significant emissions of both traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases.

  17. Injuries in air transport emergency evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Twelve air transport evacuations are reviewed. Injuries are discussed with emphasis on configurational and procedural contributing factors. Recommendations and information about possible methods of reducing injuries are provided.

  18. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  19. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    As part of the major WEC study on Scenarios to 2050, a specific investigation was undertaken on measures required in the transport sector to secure sustainable energy and sustainable mobility in the future. This report outlines the results conducted by a study group of international WEC transport experts and gives concrete policy recommendations to develop sustainable transport systems.

  20. Policy of air protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaczun, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    The changed political situation and recognition of the acute destruction of the natural environment in Poland have caused a series of actions aimed at preventing further deterioration of Polish environment. One of the most important events which took place in the last few years was the enactment by the Polish Parliament in May 1991 of the Act on the National Ecological Policy. The basic assumption of the new environmental policy is a declaration that sustainable development will in future direct economic development in Poland. The aim of the presented paper is to introduce existing policy of air protection and instruments which have been implemented to protect the air. Special attention is paid to legislation instruments, introduction and enforcement of proper economic mechanisms strengthening air protection and foreign policy aiming at increasing foreign assistance for this objective. Pollutants involved include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates from industry and coal-fired power plants. 9 refs

  1. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  2. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  3. Air medical transport of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essebag, Vidal; Halabi, Abdul R; Churchill-Smith, Michael; Lutchmedial, Sohrab

    2003-11-01

    The air medical transport of cardiac patients is a rapidly expanding practice. For various medical, social, and economic indications, patients are being flown longer distances at commercial altitudes, including international and intercontinental flights. There are data supporting the use of short-distance helicopter flights early in the course of a cardiac event for patients needing emergent transfer for percutaneous coronary intervention or aortocoronary bypass. When considering elective long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients for social or economic reasons, it is necessary to weigh the benefits against the potential risks of flight. A few recent studies suggest that long-distance air medical transport is safe under certain circumstances. Current guidelines for air travel after myocardial infarction do not address the use of medical escorts or air ambulances equipped with intensive care facilities. Further research using larger prospective studies is needed to better define criteria for safe long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients.

  4. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  5. 78 FR 59880 - Enhanced Consumer Protections for Charter Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Protections for Charter Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), U.S. Department of... charter air transportation. First, this proposal would require air taxis and commuter air carriers that sell charter air transportation but rely on others to perform that air transportation to make certain...

  6. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Himanshu; Mehta, Yatin; Dubey, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Long distance air travel for medical needs is on the increase worldwide. The condition of some patients necessitates specially modified aircraft, and monitoring and interventions during transport by trained medical personnel. This article presents our experience in domestic and international interhospital air medical transportation from January 2010 to January 2014. Hospital records of all air medical transportation undertaken to the institute during the period were analyzed for demographics, primary etiology, and events during transport. 586 patients, 453 (77.3%) males and 133 (22.6%) females of ages 46.7 ± 12.6 years and 53.4 ± 9.7 years were transported by us to the institute. It took 3030 flying hours with an average of 474 ± 72 min for each mission. The most common indication for transport was cardiovascular diseases in 210 (35.8%) and central nervous system disease in 120 (20.4%) cases. The overall complication rate was 5.3% There was no transport related mortality. Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  7. Effects of pricing policy in traffic and transport. Overview of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geilenkirchen, G.P.; Geurs, K.; Van Essen, H.P.; Schroten, A.; Boon, B.

    2010-05-01

    Pricing policies play an important role in transport policy making. The results of pricing policy studies, however, are often debated. This report presents a literature overview of the price sensitivities of transport demand and the effects of transport pricing policies in passenger transport, freight transport and aviation. The study concludes that the demand for passenger and freight transport is typically inelastic; the relative price change is greater than the resulting change in transport demand. Fuel demand for cars, public transport demand and air travel demand are, however, relatively sensitive to price changes. Car use is relatively insensitive to price changes. The demand for road freight is, in contrast to what is often assumed, relatively sensitive to changes in total transport costs. Relatively little empirical evidence is available on the impacts of pricing policies on rail freight transport, shipping and aviation. [nl

  8. Transport policy and health inequalities: a health impact assessment of Edinburgh's transport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, D; Douglas, M J; Conway, L; Noble, P; Hanlon, P

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) can be used to examine the relationships between inequalities and health. This HIA of Edinburgh's transport policy demonstrates how HIA can examine how different transport policies can affect different population groupings to varying degrees. In this case, Edinburgh's economy is based on tourism, financial services and Government bodies. These need a good transport infrastructure, which maintains a vibrant city centre. A transport policy that promotes walking, cycling and public transport supports this and is also good for health. The HIA suggested that greater spend on public transport and supporting sustainable modes of transport was beneficial to health, and offered scope to reduce inequalities. This message was understood by the City Council and influenced the development of the city's transport and land-use strategies. The paper discusses how HIA can influence public policy.

  9. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report......This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008...... challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters explain...

  10. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF WAYS TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE ORGANIZATION OF TRANSPORTATION ON AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In transport system of Russia air transport is one of main types of passenger and cargo transport. Demand for air transportation constantly increases that allows to consider reasonably improvement of transportations on air transport as the priority direction of development in civil aviation. The article considers issues of development of the branch air transport.

  12. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, C.

    2004-12-01

    While an integrated assessment approach will be required to achieve and sustain improvements in the air quality of Mexico City Metropolitan Area's (MCMA), policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air pollution. The required level of understanding can only be achieved by comprehensive atmospheric measurements followed by a coordinated atmospheric modeling program. The innovative, two-phase atmospheric measurement program, which was a collaborative effort between Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission, with exploratory measurements in February 2002 and extensive measurements from late March through early May of 2003, was an important step towards meeting these requirements. Although the extensive data sets from the two measurement programs are still being analyzed by the investigators, their preliminary analysis efforts have yielded important insights into the nature and extent of air pollution problem in the MCMA, which in turn will have important policy implications.

  13. Essays on Transportation Safety, Economics, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl, Patricia Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The rational allocation of transportation resources involves both the evaluation of the effectiveness of programs designed to improve transportation systems, as well as the formulation of policies representing a balance of competing public interests in those systems. Such interests often include: curbing automobile emissions, expanding highway infrastructure, providing affordable transit services for inner-city residents, and extending commuter rail services to sprawling suburban areas. Desig...

  14. An analysis of severe air transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Luna, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the severity of aircraft accidents that may involve the air transport of radioactive materials (RAM). One of the basic aims of this paper is to provide a numerical description of the severity of aircraft transport accidents so that the accident severity can be compared with the accident performance standards that are specified in IAEA Safety Series 6, the international packaging standards for the safe movement of RAM. The existing packaging regulations in most countries embrace the packaging standards developed by the IAEA. Historically, the packaging standards for Type B packages have been independent of the transport mode. That is, if the shipment occurs in a certified packaging, then the shipment can take place by any transport mode. In 1975, a legislative action occurred in the US Congress which led to the development of a package designed specifically for the air transport of plutonium. Changes were subsequently made to the US packaging regulations in 10CFR71 to incorporate the plutonium air transport performance standards. These standards were used to certify the air transport package for plutonium which is commonly referred to as PAT-1 (US NRC). The PAT-1 was certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in September 1978

  15. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  16. Transport Policy and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ricci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Transport-related Social inclusion’ is a specific naming of the complex set of interrelationships within which accessibility plays an important role in whether a citizen achieves the level of participation in socioeconomic life that he or she seeks. It has its origins in the United Kingdom of the early 2000s, but the diversity of theoretical perspectives, research methods and practical focus shown by the contributions to the present issue on this theme bears witness to the evolution and translation this concept and term has undergone over more than a decade. Nine papers are presented, concerning applications of the concept in three continents, and including some of the poorest and richest per capita income countries on the globe. As well as developing and applying the multi-faceted theories of the processes of exclusion and techniques for the quantitative identification of inclusion, they consider important topics such as the treatment of the less abled and more frail members of society when on the move and the potential for new technological design methods and practical solutions either to enhance inclusion or deepen inequality in our societies. Collectively their conclusions reinforce the message that social exclusion remains multi-dimensional, relational and dynamic, located both in the circumstances of the excluded individual as well as in the processes, institutions and structures that permeate wider society.

  17. The contribution of transport to air quality. TERM 2012: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vicente, A.; Pastorello, C.; Foltescu, V.L. [and others

    2012-11-15

    TERM 2012 (Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism) presents the most relevant and up to date information on the main issues regarding transport and environment in Europe, particularly in areas with specific policy targets such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, transport demand levels, noise and other issues. It also offers an overview of the transport sector's impact on air pollutant emissions and air quality. It discusses the contributions made by all modes of transport to direct air pollutant emissions and also to 'secondary' air pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Alongside the recently published Air quality in Europe - 2012 report, TERM 2012 aims to inform the European Commission's review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. (Author)

  18. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  19. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1996-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  20. The critical care air transport program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninati, William; Meyer, Michael T; Carter, Todd E

    2008-07-01

    The critical care air transport team program is a component of the U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation system. A critical care air transport team consists of a critical care physician, critical care nurse, and respiratory therapist along with the supplies and equipment to operate a portable intensive care unit within a cargo aircraft. This capability was developed to support rapidly mobile surgical teams with high capability for damage control resuscitation and limited capacity for postresuscitation care. The critical care air transport team permits rapid evacuation of stabilizing casualties to a higher level of care. The aeromedical environment presents important challenges for the delivery of critical care. All equipment must be tested for safety and effectiveness in this environment before use in flight. The team members must integrate the current standards of care with the limitation imposed by stresses of flight on their patient. The critical care air transport team capability has been used successfully in a range of settings from transport within the United States, to disaster response, to support of casualties in combat.

  1. Energy and transport policy for the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumpf, L.

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasises the role of financing research for the rational usage of energy. Independence of the industry from imports and nuclear power programme to cover the envisaged needs are considered before tackling the subject of financial aid to the railways. The future policy of transport development is also outlined. (I.G.)

  2. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  3. 14 CFR 399.86 - Payments for non-air transportation services for air cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments for non-air transportation... Enforcement § 399.86 Payments for non-air transportation services for air cargo. The Board considers that... air carriers for non-air transportation preparation of air cargo shipments are for services ancillary...

  4. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REPORTS § 234.13 Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. (a) Any air... during air transport provided by the air carrier. (b) The report shall be made in the form and manner set...

  5. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  6. An Analysis of Air Transportation in Nigeria | Ladan | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air Transportation is the transportation of passengers and cargo by aircraft and helicopters. An efficient air transport contributes to economic growth and development. However in Nigeria,lt ... Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  7. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  8. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  9. Assessment of LANL transportation policies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danna, J.G.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    In order to determine whether activities related to the transportation of waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were being conducted in accordance with DOE policy, requirements stated in applicable DOE Orders were reviewed and compared with LANL policies and procedures described in the Administrative Requirements and the On-Site Transportation Manual. The following DOE Orders were determined to pertain to waste transportation and thus reviewed to identify requirements for which LANL is responsible for satisfying: Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management; Order 1540.1 Materials Transportation and Traffic Management; and Order 5480.3 Safety Requirements for the Packaging and Transportation of Hazardous Materials, Hazardous Substances, and Hazardous Wastes. The LANL On-Site Transportation Manual and the Administrative Requirements contained in the LANL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual were reviewed to verify that each of the requirements identified through the review of the Orders and 10 CFR Part 71 were being satisfied. The following Administrative Requirements were considered in this task: Shipment of Radioactive Materials; Radioactive Liquid Waste; Low-Level Radioactive Solid Waste; Chemical, Hazardous, and Mixed Waste; Polychlorinated Biphenyls; and Transuranic (TRU) Solid Waste

  10. Air Transportation of Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Rodionov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Napoleonic wars, balloon evacuation of the wounded was the first to be made in the history when Paris was being defended. In the USA, casualty helicopters are being used in 20% of cases on evacuating the victims from the accident scene and in 80% during interhospital transportation. Russia also shows an ambiguous approach to employing air medical service — from the wide use of air transportation in the country’s regions that are difficult of access to its almost complete refusal in the regions with the well-developed transportation system. Long-distance transportation of critically ill patients by chartered or commercial planes is the reality of our time. In each region, continuing specialized teams of qualified medical workers who have a good knowledge of altitude pathophysiology and handle the obligatorily certified equipment should be created on the basis of large-scale medical centers.

  11. Panorama 2015 - Road passenger transport policies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, Benoit; Gastineau, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    For a long time synonymous with independence and freedom, the car and its different uses are now increasingly controlled - or even constrained - by European governments. In the most recent example, on 8 December 2014, the Mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo stated her wish to eradicate diesel from the streets of Paris (in the next five years) to combat air pollution. Going beyond the impact of the announcement itself, this pollution prevention plan comes on top of a whole series of measures recently implemented in Europe: reduction of the speed limit, congestion charging in London and Stockholm, eco-tax in France, 'environmental bonus' for electric vehicles, etc. These different policies, which are not always clearly aligned, aim to reduce the nuisances caused by road transport without compromising mobility. This note aims to explain them by offering an overview of the main transport policies in Europe. (authors)

  12. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  13. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  14. Transport and environment: policy directions for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinch, R.

    2001-01-01

    Transport externalities are among the most important environmental problems affecting quality of life in Europe. Forecasts suggest that past environmental improvements may now be rolled back by traffic growth, and current traffic trends are not sustainable. The theory of environmental policy proposes pricing external costs at their marginal social costs as one solution. Although full marginal social cost pricing is impracticable, advances in tolling technology and environmental valuation mean that it is now a viable option to approximate such charging. There are signs that the European Commission and other bodies are starting to favour pricing over regulatory instruments. However, often overlooked is the potential for non-convexities in the transport sector or between transport and the rest of the economy. For example it may be that small increases in resources for public transport would not result in welfare gains, whereas large increases would. Non-convexities would mean that market forces under marginal social cost pricing might lead away from the optimal transport system. This is one reason why pricing instruments cannot in themselves be a panacea for transport externalities or bring about a sustainable transport system. (Author)

  15. Air Transport and Travel Industry Training Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial Training Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Seeing its role as one of stimulating, guiding, and coordinating training activities rather than providing central training facilities, three programs have been developed by the Air Transport and Travel Industry Training Board: (1) an occupational program, (2) a company program, and (3) an industry program. (MW)

  16. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.

    1981-01-01

    The PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2) package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities, especially as used in international safeguards activities, and especially as transported by air. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The accident environments may be imposed upon the package singly or seqentially. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. Packaging, operational features, and contents of package, are discussed

  17. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaopeng Guo; Xiaodan Guo; Jiahai Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, s...

  18. 32 CFR 631.15 - Air Force policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Air Force policy. 631.15 Section 631.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.15 Air Force policy...

  19. Transport Choice Modeling for the Evaluation of New Transport Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Pijoan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impact of the application of sustainable transport policies is essential in order to mitigate effects of greenhouse gas emissions produced by the transport sector. One of the most common approaches used for this purpose is that of traffic modelling and simulation, which consists of emulating the operation of an entire road network. This article presents the results of fitting 8 well known data science methods for transport choice modelling, the area in which more research is needed. The models have been trained with information from Biscay province in Spain in order to match as many of its commuters as possible. Results show that the best models correctly forecast more than 51% of the trips recorded. Finally, the results have been validated with a second data set from the Silesian Voivodeship in Poland, showing that all models indeed maintain their forecasting ability.

  20. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  1. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  2. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  3. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  4. Imperiling urban environment through varying air pollution rein in measures and mass transit policies - a case study of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Gargantuan expansion of big cities has increased motor vehicular tremendously. Lahore, a primitive green city is now gripped with swelling motor vehicular air pollution. Mass public transport, a back bone of city transportation network, due to erroneous running significantly contributes toward motor vehicular air pollution. Policy initiatives of the Government to curb motor vehicular air pollution are merely focused upon reduction of air pollution at source by the use of technology and clean fuel programmes. The policies for introduction of mass transit remained imprecise which lead to rise in transportation demand and increase in surfeit emission; Half-baked policies normally stem out to get political popularity which imperils urban environment. The paper highlights inconsistent policy measures and unsound air pollution control strategies adopted in big cities of Pakistan. Furthermore it gives guidance for sustainable mass transit policy measures. (author)

  5. Global Scenarios of Air Pollution until 2030: Combining Air Quality, Climate Change and Energy Access Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S.; Dentener, F. J.; Klimont, Z.; Riahi, K.

    2011-12-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to global health outcomes. This has led to the implementation of a number of air quality policies worldwide, with total air pollution control costs in 2005 estimated at US$195 billion. More than 80% of the world's population is still found to be exposed to PM2.5 concentrations exceeding WHO air quality guidelines and health impacts resulting from these exposures estimated at around 2-5% of the global disease burden. Key questions to answer are 1) How will pollutant emissions evolve in the future given developments in the energy system and how will energy and environmental policies influence such emission trends. 2) What implications will this have for resulting exposures and related health outcomes. In order to answer these questions, varying levels of stringency of air quality legislation are analyzed in combination with policies on universal access to clean cooking fuels and limiting global temperature change to 2°C in 2100. Bottom-up methodologies using energy emissions modeling are used to derive sector-based pollutant emission trajectories until 2030. Emissions are spatially downscaled and used in combination with a global transport chemistry model to derive ambient concentrations of PM2.5. Health impacts of these exposures are further estimated consistent with WHO data and methodology. The results indicate that currently planned air quality legislation combined with rising energy demand will be insufficient in controlling future emissions growth in developing countries. In order to achieve significant reductions in pollutant emissions of the order of more than 50% from 2005 levels and reduce exposures to levels consistent with WHO standards, it will be necessary to increase the stringency of such legislations and combine them with policies on energy access and climate change. Combined policies also result in reductions in air pollution control costs as compared to those associated

  6. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) Duri...

  7. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff publications... Department's granting authority to perform the foreign air transportation covered by such tariff publications...

  8. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Two...

  9. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any..., whether for import, export, or domestic shipment, is not transported by air or delivered to a carrier for...

  10. Air pollution related to sea transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massin, J.M.; Hertz, O.

    1993-01-01

    Sea transportation contributes only 1-2% of world CO 2 emissions. Owing to the sulphur concentration in the bunker fuels, this transportation mode represents over 4% of the world SO 2 emissions. In addition, NO x emissions are likely to exceed 7% of the world emissions. SO 2 emissions in the North Sea and the Channel account for 15% of the whole French emissions, NO x emissions for about 10% and CO 2 emissions for about 3%. There are several potential measures to reduce the emissions of ship engines - propelling engines or generator driving engines - improvement of fuel quality, by desulphurizing and prohibiting the use of noxious additives such as PCB; use of alternative fuels; engine optimizing; exhaust gas processing; use of new propelling systems. A new organisation of world marketing of fuels with low or high sulphur levels could also be set up. The Sea Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussed this problem during its meeting in 1990. The 73/78 MARPOL convention provides the IMO with an international juridical tool, especially designed for the preclusion of pollution due to sea transportation. It can address the issue of air pollution which requires a concerted approach between seaside countries and the drawing up of international regulations relating to the protection of the sea world. Fuel quality is already controlled by international standards drawn up by ISO. These standards should be improved to reduce air pollution due to sea transportation

  11. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Involving Animals During Air Transport AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation... period of an NPRM on the reporting of incidents involving animals during air transport that was published... animal during air transport. The NPRM proposed to: (1) Expand the reporting requirement to U.S. carriers...

  12. Are Chinese Green Transport Policies Effective? A New Perspective from Direct Pollution Rebound Effect, and Empirical Evidence From the Road Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yi Qiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become a serious challenge in China. Emissions from motor vehicles have been found to be one main sources of air pollution. Although the Chinese government has undertaken numerous green policies to mitigate harmful emissions from road transport sector, it is still uncertain for both policy makers and researchers to know whether the policies are effective in the short and long terms. We propose a new concept of “pollution rebound effect” (PRE to estimate the effectiveness of green traffic policies. We estimate direct air PRE as a measure of the effectiveness of the policies of reducing air pollution from the transport sector based on time-series data from the period 1986–2014. We find that the short-term direct air PRE is −0.4105, and the corresponding long-run PRE is −0.246. The negative results indicate that the direct air PRE does not exist in the road passenger transport sector in China, both in the short term and in the long term during the period 1986–2014. This implies that the Chinese green transport policies are effective in terms of harmful emissions reduction in the transport sector. This research, to the best of our knowledge, is the first attempt to quantify the effectiveness of the green transport policies in the transitional period that China is currently undergoing.

  13. Assessing policies towards sustainable transport in Europe: an integrated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    A transport simulation and forecast model is presented, which is designed for the assessment of policy options aiming to achieve sustainability in transportation. Starting from a simulation of the economic behaviour of consumers and producers within a microeconomic optimisation framework and the resulting calculation of the modal split, the allocation of the vehicle stock into vintages and technological groups is modelled. In a third step, a technology-oriented algorithm, which incorporates the relevant state-of-the-art knowledge in Europe, calculates emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases as well as appropriate indicators for traffic congestion, noise and road accidents. The paper outlines the methodology and the basic data sources used in connection with work done so far in Europe, presents the outlook according to a 'reference case' run for the 15 current European Union Member States up to 2030, displays aggregate results from a number of alternative scenarios and outlines elements of future work

  14. When Are Transport Pricing Policies Fair and Acceptable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, Geertje; Steg, Linda; van Kruining, Monique

    This study examines the relative importance of six policy outcomes related to different fairness principles for the perceived fairness and acceptability of pricing policies aimed at changing transport behaviour. The fairness and acceptability of six different types of transport pricing policies were

  15. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  16. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  17. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: Taking off on an exciting journey into Air Transport Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM. JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, project management, quality, as well as regional development, economics, organizational behaviour, finance and accounting in air transport research.

  18. Analysis on policies text of air pollution control in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yujuan; WANG, Wen; ZHANG, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and it is also the inevitable result of the extensive economic development mode. The matter of air pollution in Beijing is becoming more and more serious since 2010, which has a great impact on the normal social production, living and human health. These hazards have been highly valued by the whole society. More than 30 years have been pasted since controlling the air pollution and the system of policies was relatively complete. These policies have improved the quality of atmospheric and prevented environment further deterioration. The policies performance is not obvious. It is urgent trouble to improve policy performance. This paper analyzes the 103 policies text of air pollution control in Beijing, and researches status, history and problems, and put forward suggestions on policy improvement and innovation at last.

  19. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  20. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  1. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC INTEREST RESEARCH TO TRANSPORTATION POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto ITOH

    2003-01-01

    Established in 1995 with the basic philosophy of serving as a bridge between research and practice, the Institute for Transport Policy Studies conducts activities in support of transportation policy research in the public interest. This paper aims to describe the contribution of public interest research to transportation policy as seen in the Institute's activities. Touching first on the context and events leading to its establishment, the paper then describes the Institute's guiding principl...

  2. Integrated policy analysis of sustainable urban and transportation development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Feng, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Fujiwara, A.; Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban and transportation development needs to balance economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This study conducts integrated policy analyses by explicitly incorporating these sustainability goals and optimizing the performance of transportation networks.

  3. 49 CFR 1510.7 - Air transportation advertisements and solicitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transportation advertisements and solicitations. 1510.7 Section 1510.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE...

  4. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, M.

    2004-11-01

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Water vapour (H 2 O) and NO x emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO 2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO 2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  5. Air Transport and Operations. Proceedings of the Third International Air Transport and Operations Symposium 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Fischer, L.; Pérez, D.; Klein, K.; Hoekstra, J.; Roling, P.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Air transport must evolve if it is to optimize its value in the 21st century. The mood in the aerospace industry is positive with regard to economic recovery, but the focus in this transitional time must be on sustaining value, without losing sight of environmental and safety priorities

  6. Characteristics of nontrauma scene flights for air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Margaret G; Fletcher, Erica N; Werman, Howard; McKenzie, Lara B

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the use of air medical transport for patients with medical, rather than traumatic, emergencies. This study describes the practices of air transport programs, with respect to nontrauma scene responses, in several areas throughout the United States and Canada. A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted of all nontrauma scene flights from 2008 and 2009. Flight information and patient demographic data were collected from 5 air transport programs. Descriptive statistics were used to examine indications for transport, Glasgow Coma Scale Scores, and loaded miles traveled. A total of 1,785 nontrauma scene flights were evaluated. The percentage of scene flights contributed by nontraumatic emergencies varied between programs, ranging from 0% to 44.3%. The most common indication for transport was cardiac, nonST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (22.9%). Cardiac arrest was the indication for transport in 2.5% of flights. One air transport program reported a high percentage (49.4) of neurologic, stroke, flights. The use of air transport for nontraumatic emergencies varied considerably between various air transport programs and regions. More research is needed to evaluate which nontraumatic emergencies benefit from air transport. National guidelines regarding the use of air transport for nontraumatic emergencies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0008 Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance Dina...July 2014 – November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Impact of Hypobarism During Simulated Transport on Critical Care Air Transport Team Performance 5a...During Critical Care Air Transport Team Advanced Course validation, three-member teams consisting of a physician, nurse, and respiratory therapist

  8. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions. PMID:27941665

  9. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM 2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  10. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1 The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2 During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ground level ozone (O3 emerged and worsened; (3 After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  11. Globalisation and Air Transportation Industry: A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin, Shahrul Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Air transportation remains a large and growing industry that is central to the globalisation process. The globalisation impact on the air transportation industry remains largely focused on the airlines, while the impact on airports is rarely defined. The objective of this research is to identify the processes of globalisation that impact the air transportation industry specifically on airport development and operations that will greatly influence the changing nature of airports. A survey ques...

  12. Energy policies for low carbon sustainable transport in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2015-01-01

    equivalent to 2 °C stabilization. Accounting for heterogeneity of national transport systems, these papers use diverse methods, frameworks and models to assess the response of the transport system to environmental policy, such as a carbon tax, as well as to a cluster of policies aimed at diverse development...

  13. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

  14. CO2 is in the air. Five myths about the role of air transport in climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication discusses and criticises some general opinions on air transport. Thus, it is often said that air transport is a minor contributor to greenhouse effect (whereas air transport emits as much CO 2 as Germany who is the sixth World emitter, and has various impacts on health), that air transport is doing a lot for the climate (whereas it in fact manages not to be affected by policies against climate change), that more air passengers result in less CO 2 (whereas traffic predictions would result in an increased oil consumption, and increased CO 2 emissions despite promised technological improvements), that technical progress is at the service of climate (whereas the sector is notably late to reach its defined objectives in terms of energy efficiency), and that air transport is the only way to travel (whereas other means emit much less CO 2 ). Some recommendations are made for measures to be adopted at the international, European and French levels for a better protection of the environment

  15. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  16. Transport and the global environment: Accounting for GHG reductions in policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Markanday, A.; Boyd, R.; Hunt, A.; Taylor, T. [Univ. of Bath, (United Kingdom); Sathaye, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (USS)

    2001-07-01

    That the transport sector is among the fastest growing economic sectors in both developed and developing countries is no surprise. The movement of people and goods is an essential part of modern society, and unlike some other economic goods the demand for transport largely coupled to income, so that as people become wealthier they demand ever more transport. Despite their many advantages of personal choice, convenience, and flexibility, modern transportation systems are not without problems, notably those that affect the environment and quality of life. The poor, even hazardous, air quality in many cities is often largely attributed to motor vehicle use, while the transport sector globally contributes one quarter of the greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere each year. Unfortunately, the environmental consequences of thransportation choices - both local and global - are often overlooked when transport planning decisions are made. This book attempts to remedy that deficiency by providing a guide to technical experts and policy makers concerned with environmental polices for the transport sector. It offers a consistent analytical structure for examining the environmental aspects of transport choices; defines the key economic and environmental concepts used in good policy analysis; and gives information on technologies, environmental impacts, and cost effectiveness of various policy options. The book also describes international financial mechanisms that can be used to support sustainable transportation policies and programmes. (au)

  17. Urban Transport Policies: The Dutch Struggle with Market Failures and Policy Failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet

    2004-01-01

    Transport is characterised by market failures that are of particular importance in urban settings. This paper reviews market failures and policy failures in The Netherlands for various transport markets, including road transport, public transport and biking. Special attention is paid to parking

  18. Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Brink, Corjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 ) and air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 and PM 2.5 ). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy. - Highlights: • This paper models bottom-up emission control in top-down CGE model. • We analyse interactions between air pollution and climate policies in Europe. • Structural changes induced by stringent air policies may make EU-ETS market obsolete

  19. Applying air pollution modelling within a multi-criteria decision analysis framework to evaluate UK air quality policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabi, Zaid; Milojevic, Ai; Doherty, Ruth M.; Stevenson, David S.; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Milner, James; Vieno, Massimo; Williams, Martin; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-10-01

    A decision support system for evaluating UK air quality policies is presented. It combines the output from a chemistry transport model, a health impact model and other impact models within a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework. As a proof-of-concept, the MCDA framework is used to evaluate and compare idealized emission reduction policies in four sectors (combustion in energy and transformation industries, non-industrial combustion plants, road transport and agriculture) and across six outcomes or criteria (mortality, health inequality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, crop yield and air quality legal compliance). To illustrate a realistic use of the MCDA framework, the relative importance of the criteria were elicited from a number of stakeholders acting as proxy policy makers. In the prototype decision problem, we show that reducing emissions from industrial combustion (followed very closely by road transport and agriculture) is more advantageous than equivalent reductions from the other sectors when all the criteria are taken into account. Extensions of the MCDA framework to support policy makers in practice are discussed.

  20. A Study on Public Opinion Poll and Policy on Indoor Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kong, S.Y.; Ku, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to review previous studies on indoor air pollution and to propose national strategies and policy measures for protecting public health from indoor air pollution based on the results of public survey research. Indoor air has the potential to be polluted by hazardous materials that might lead to serious health problems. It is well known that the indoor spaces are more polluted than outdoor ones, which can be a major health problem for those that live in urban areas who spend most of their time indoors. In Korea, studies on indoor air pollution are usually conducted under the auspices of academic research, which only focus on particular types of indoor spaces and certain concepts of indoor air quality. Thus, at present, the studies on the policies or policy measures concerning indoor air quality management are difficult to find in the country. The governmental agencies that are presently involved in the management of indoor air quality include: the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Construction and Transportation, Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, and Ministry of Environment. However, due to differing regulatory standards between the concerned agencies, the national management of indoor air quality has so far proven to be ineffective. Although the Ministry of Environment recently proposed a law to manage indoor air quality, it is only focuses on managing particular types of indoor spaces not regulated by other governmental bodies and is not effective in the effort towards a national managing system for indoor air pollution. According to a survey conducted by the Korea Environment Institute (KEI), the residents of the Seoul metropolitan area have been felt that environmental pollution negatively affects their health, and especially consider outdoor air pollution to be the most harmful type of pollution. Although these urban residents spend more than 20 hours a day indoors, the survey shows that they do not

  1. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. [Reserved] 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation...

  2. The rhetoric and realities of integrating air quality into the local transport planning process in English local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowoporoku, Dotun; Hayes, Enda; Longhurst, James; Parkhurst, Graham

    2012-06-30

    Regardless of its intent and purposes, the first decade of the Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) framework had little or no effect in reducing traffic-related air pollution in the UK. Apart from the impact of increased traffic volumes, the major factor attributed to this failure is that of policy disconnect between the process of diagnosing air pollution and its management, thereby limiting the capability of local authorities to control traffic-related sources of air pollution. Integrating air quality management into the Local Transport Plan (LTP) process therefore presents opportunities for enabling political will, funding and joined-up policy approach to reduce this limitation. However, despite the increased access to resources for air quality measures within the LTP process, there are local institutional, political and funding constraints which reduce the impact of these policy interventions on air quality management. This paper illustrate the policy implementation gaps between central government policy intentions and the local government process by providing evidence of the deprioritisation of air quality management compared to the other shared priorities in the LTP process. We draw conclusions on the policy and practice of integrating air quality management into transport planning. The evidence thereby indicate the need for a policy shift from a solely localised hotspot management approach, in which the LAQM framework operates, to a more holistic management of vehicular emissions within wider spatial administrative areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Models for Comparing Air-Only and Sea/Air Transportation of Wartime Deployment Cargo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theres, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ...) to an overseas Port of Debarkation (POD). This thesis evaluates a proposal to load air-transportable cargo aboard vessels at CONUS seaports and to ship that cargo to an appropriately located sea-air-interface (SAI...

  4. Air Quality Co-Benefits of a Carbon Policy: Regional Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Rausch, S.; Saari, R.; Selin, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    We use an integrated modeling framework to assess the air quality influence of climate change policies in the Northeast U.S. states for air pollution, and their relative health and economic benefits. We analyze three carbon policy scenarios, each reducing the same total amount of GHG emissions in the Northeast United States: an economy-wide Cap and Trade (CAT) program reducing emissions from all sectors of the economy, a Clean Energy Scenario (CES) reducing emissions from the electricity sector only, and a Transportation Scenario (TRN) reducing emissions from the transportation sector only. Regional CES policy and a regional TRN policy will cost about 10 times and 50 times more than a CAT policy, respectively. Regional CAT policy will lead to a 6% greater reduction in carbon emissions nationally in the year 2030 compared to an electric or transportation sector cap with the same regional targets. This is because, unlike a total economy cap, targeted policy options will likely cause increases in carbon emissions outside of the region covered (called carbon leakage). The human health benefits of the CAT, CES and TRN policies are 530%, 118%, and 10% of the costs of each policy respectively, meaning that the CAT and CES policies will likely fully pay for themselves in the NE U.S. We estimate that the value of human health co-benefits associated with reductions of ground level ozone and particulate matter of the CES scenario is twice that of the CAT and TRN scenarios. Economic welfare costs for each of three regionally applied carbon emissions reduction scenario are shown in blue. The calculated dollar amount of the human health benefits point estimate is shown in red with the 95% confidence interval, associated with human health response only, shown using the green line. Values are in billions of year 2006 US dollars.

  5. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  6. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE Camelia; SEBEA Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Air transport is an innovative industry that drives economic and social progress. It connects people, countries and cultures; provides access to global markets and generates trade and tourism. It also forges links between developed and developing nations. Like most human activities, air transport has an impact on the environment, mainly through noise and emissions that affect local air quality and the climate. The industry fully recognises its responsibility in this regard and is determined t...

  7. Road Transport Policy And Traffic Management In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road Transport Policy And Traffic Management In Nigeria. ... the attitude of the road driver to traffic engineering, control and management requirement. ... sources of data collection with simple percentage method of analysis and system theory ...

  8. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  9. Aligning California's Transportation Funding with Its Climate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    California has established itself as a leader in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation. At the same time, the state has not reflected its ambitious policies for GHG reduction and climate action in its practices for allo...

  10. Spatial Pattern, Transportation and Air Quality Nexus: The Case of Iskandar Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalia Mohd Yusop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial pattern, transportation, and air quality are three development entities which significantly affecting one another. This nexus exhibits the urbanization imprint accouter transportation generating air pollution as a reflection of spatial distribution. The integration among them is a vital part of development as it affects the societal living environment. It provides unfavorable air quality and directly cause health problems. The developing region of Iskandar Malaysia exhibits huge spatial distribution transformation accompanied by large percentage of urbanization rate, but seems less integration of land use and transportation planning which causes the exaggeration of air pollution. We carry out the research on the nexus of spatial distribution, transportation and air quality in Iskandar Malaysia by analyzing and evaluating the interconnectivity of these three entities. The spatial analysis and evaluation on the land use development pattern and spatial policy shows that the Iskandar development region are growing in the polycentric manners, where the spatial development policy drives the distributional growth of new sub-centers. We undertook a household-based travel survey that reveals the poly-centricity reflected by the de-concentration of workplaces which shifted from the single point towards multiple centers. On the other hand, this phenomenon has created a distributional traffic pattern amid the high dependency on the private vehicles of the citizens in Iskandar Malaysia. With a predominantly fossil fuel consuming vehicles, this has generated air pollution. Based on the traffic survey and the dependency of the citizens on private cars for their daily mobility, the concentration of air pollution is seemingly at risk. This research reflects that Iskandar Malaysia development region currently undergoes towards polycentric development with some new urban centers. We found that land use and transportation planning policies require serious

  11. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  12. European Transportation Policy for better Integration. Shifting the Balance between the Modes of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for transportation and mobility of citizen gives raises the importance oftransportation policy. The development of the European transportation policy has a great significance for theEuropean Union. The common transportation policy of the European Union is reviewed and updated everynine years. The first common transportation policy of the European Commission was published in December1992. Besides the railway sector, most of the objectives listed in this policy were realized in ten years. In2001, the European Commission proffered a new transportation policy with sixty new measures. Thus, thispaper shows the importance of transportation projects -especially in the field of railways- for European Unionmember states. In accounting, cross-border sections of projects are more or less neglected, as member statestend to prioritize the development of sections of the projects, which are economically viable for themselves,thereby delaying the overall connectivity of the trans-European network. The railway modal is the hardestmodal to interoperate between the member countries. Therefore it is not a surprise that the objectives listed inthe first European transportation policy were not realized in the railway sector. There were enormousdifferences between railway systems before the European Union. Some of them still have an influence oncurrent railway infrastructure and operations today. To sum up, this research shall deal with the crucialaspects of common transportation policies as well as problems of its implications.

  13. Energy impact of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.; Shi, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Air-conditioned office buildings are one of the biggest energy consumers of electricity in developed cities in the subtropical climate regions. A good energy policy for the indoor environment should respond to both the needs of energy conservation and the needs for a desirable indoor healthy environment with a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) generation. This study evaluates energy implications and the corresponding CO 2 generation of some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned office buildings in the subtropical climate. In particular, the thermal energy consumption in an air-conditioned office building was evaluated by the heat gains through the building fabric, the transport of outdoor fresh air for ventilation, and the heat generated by the occupant and equipment in the space. With the Monte-Carlo sampling technique and the parameters from the existing office building stocks of Hong Kong, the energy consumption profiles of air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong were evaluated. Energy consumption profiles were simulated for certain indoor environmental quality (IEQ) policies on indoor air temperature and CO 2 concentration settings in the offices, with other building parameters remaining unchanged. The impact assessment and the regression models described in this study may be useful for evaluation of energy performances of IEQ policies. They will also be useful for the promotion of energy-saving measures in air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong. This study presented a useful source of references for policymakers, building professionals and end users to quantify the energy and environmental impacts due to an IEQ policy for air-conditioned office buildings

  14. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME S. COUTO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  15. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  16. Theme 10: greenhouse effect transport policies and urban organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This document describes the reference framework of the theme 10 ''greenhouse effect, transport policies and urban organization'' which is a part of the urban transports interface. It presents the specific actions realized by the theme 10 for a future integration in theme 1, 5 and 8. (A.L.B.)

  17. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Suhan; Ren, Meng; Ma, Rui; He, Yiling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach. In addition, undesirable air quality is usually linked with the combination of high emissions and adverse weather conditions. However, few studies have been done on the influence of climate change on atmospheric chemistry in the global perspective. Available evidence suggested that climate change is likely to exacerbate certain kinds of air pollutants including ozone and smoke from wildfires. This has become a major public health problem because the interactions of global climate change, urban heat islands, and air pollution have adverse effects on human health. In this chapter, we first review the past and current circumstances of China's responses to air pollution. Then we discuss the control challenges and future options for a better air quality in China. Finally, we begin to unravel links between air pollution and climate change, providing new opportunities for integrated research and actions in China.

  18. Air quality: how to assess air quality management policies on a short and on a long term? The integration of the climate factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, Aurelie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the activities and works performed by the INERIS Institute in the development of tools for the assessment of air quality management policies including the climate factor. This comprises the development of simulations within the frame of the SALUT'AIR project, and also within the frame of the reviewing of the European policy on air quality (directives 2008/50/CE on ambient air quality and 2001/81/CE on national limits of emissions of some pollutants). The CHIMERE model of chemistry and transport is one of these tools. Simulations are performed to analyse the impact of scenarios of air quality management on a short term, in terms of pollutant emissions, pollutant concentration, and particle concentrations. The integration of a climate factor is justified by the existence of interactions between climate and air quality

  19. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  20. Measuring the Air Quality and Transportation Impacts of Infill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes three case studies. The analysis shows how standard forecasting tools can be modified to capture at least some of the transportation and air quality benefits of brownfield and infill development.

  1. Agenda and Presentations from Circumpolar Workshop: Transport and Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and its partners convened Transport and Clean Air, a Circumpolar Workshop held in December 2013. This seminar allowed leading experts to share best practices on reducing emissions of particulates and black carbon from diesel sources in the Arctic.

  2. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air transport... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transport agreements...

  3. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  4. Air versus terrestrial transport modalities: An energy and environmental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, M.; Ulgiati, S.; Basosi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, worldwide air transportation has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.5%. Forecasts confirm that this could be the average increase rate for the next 20 years, although recent oscillation of oil price translated into a slowing down of such a trend, with several air companies forced out of business. Within this framework, low cost airlines keep increasing their market share, in so making airplane to compete with terrestrial transport modalities, not only for medium and long distance, but also for short trips. This is because air transport is obviously faster than transport by trains and cars, and most often it also is a cheaper option in money terms. In spite of its apparent success, air transportation is a source of concern for many analysts, because it is considered as the more energy intensive and polluting transport modality. In order to explore the correctness of such an issue, we compared air transportation to high speed trains and other modern terrestrial modalities, by using a 'whole-system' approach. The present study applies an LCA-like approach, by taking into account all the energy and materials directly and indirectly required to make and operate infrastructures (i.e. tunnels, railways, highways) and vehicles. Efficiency and environmental loading are assessed by means of Material Flow Accounting, Embodied Energy Analysis and Emergy Synthesis methods. Results point out that the gap among the environmental performances of air, road and railway modalities is significantly narrower than expected. The thermodynamic and environmental costs of road and railway infrastructure cannot be disregarded as negligible. In a selected number of cases these transport modalities perform even worse than the air transportation mode, where infrastructures play a much smaller role.

  5. Air versus terrestrial transport modalities: An energy and environmental comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, M.; Basosi, R. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Complex Systems Investigation, University of Siena, via Alcide De Gasperi 2, 53100 Siena (Italy); Ulgiati, S. [Department of Sciences for the Environment, ' ' Parthenope' ' University of Napoli, Centro Direzionale, Isola C4, I-80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    In the last 15 years, worldwide air transportation has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.5%. Forecasts confirm that this could be the average increase rate for the next 20 years, although recent oscillation of oil price translated into a slowing down of such a trend, with several air companies forced out of business. Within this framework, low cost airlines keep increasing their market share, in so making airplane to compete with terrestrial transport modalities, not only for medium and long distance, but also for short trips. This is because air transport is obviously faster than transport by trains and cars, and most often it also is a cheaper option in money terms. In spite of its apparent success, air transportation is a source of concern for many analysts, because it is considered as the more energy intensive and polluting transport modality. In order to explore the correctness of such an issue, we compared air transportation to high speed trains and other modern terrestrial modalities, by using a ''whole-system'' approach. The present study applies an LCA-like approach, by taking into account all the energy and materials directly and indirectly required to make and operate infrastructures (i.e. tunnels, railways, highways) and vehicles. Efficiency and environmental loading are assessed by means of Material Flow Accounting, Embodied Energy Analysis and Emergy Synthesis methods. Results point out that the gap among the environmental performances of air, road and railway modalities is significantly narrower than expected. The thermodynamic and environmental costs of road and railway infrastructure cannot be disregarded as negligible. In a selected number of cases these transport modalities perform even worse than the air transportation mode, where infrastructures play a much smaller role. (author)

  6. 200 years of Dutch transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, J.A.; De Wee, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper eight stories are told about Dutch passenger transport history. The first story is from 1814 about building the first national paved road network suitable for stagecoaches; the last is from 1997 and is about the decision to construct a high speed rail link from Amsterdam to the

  7. International antiterrorist conventions concerning the safety of air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek BARCIK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the international law regulations are presented concerning the civilian safety of the air transport. The history concerning air terrorism and international antiterrorist conventions was described in detail, involving The Chicago Convention, The Tokyo Convention, The Hague Convention and Montreal Convention.

  8. INTERACTION OF AIR TRANSPORTATION AND FUEL-SUPPLY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zheleznaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of aviation fuel in the life of air transport. Fueling industry worldwide solves two main tasks - ensuring the safety and economy of air traffic. In Russia, there is one more task of airlines fuel supply. The article deals with fuel pricing taking into consideration today's realities.

  9. Saltsjoebaden V - Taking international air pollution policies into the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    24-26 June 2013, 130 leading international policy makers, scientists, experts and others met at an international workshop in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to discuss and outline future directions in air pollution science and policy. The workshop, which was organised in close collaboration with the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and the European Commission, involved several themes such as linkages to climate change including SLCP, nitrogen, global governance and effects to health and environment. The output is a series of recommendations for further actions with respect to effects to health, ecosystems and near-term climate actions. Recommendations were also given with respect to heavy metals and POPs. The recommendations are directed towards several international organisations and initiatives such as CLRTAP, European Commission, Climate and Clean Air Coalition and the Arctic Council. (Author)

  10. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how emissions reductions, advancements in fuels and fuel economy, and working with industry to find solutions to air pollution problems benefit human and environmental health, create consumer savings and are cost effective.

  11. The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.

  12. European Transportation in the Greenhouse — System and Policy Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The transport sector in Europe is growing in both absolute and relative terms. Not only because the number of European Union states have increased – 10 new members, including Cyprus welcomed in 2004 - but also because transport is a highly expansive sector in both old and new Member Countries....... The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overall account of the present situation and outlook in terms of transport energy use and GHG emissions in the context of European Union transport policy. The present assessment is based on a personal selection of some indicators that the author belives are key...

  13. the effect of air medical transport on survival after trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    region in the latter part of 1999. This empirical research assessed death rate data to ascertain if the air medical transport (AMT) of patients results in lower death rates than occur with road transportation of patients. Wits Business School ... the South African medical environment, patients were evaluated at the trauma units of ...

  14. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation..., their agents, and third party sellers of air transportation in view of recent amendments to 49 U.S.C...

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  16. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre....... Secondary endpoints included modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, 30-day and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included; 265 with ground transport and 65 with helicopter, of which 87 (33%) and 22 (34%), received thrombolysis, respectively (p=0.88). Time from contact to triaging...

  17. Analysis of air quality at Osoyoos, British Columbia border air quality station (Nov 2004 - Sep 2006) : an analysis of trans-boundary air pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, S.; Hay, J.; Vingarzan, R.; Farris, S.

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the border air quality study, under the Canada-United States (US) international airshed strategy, was to assess the transboundary transport of air pollutants between the US and Canada. This report presented an analysis of pollutants in ambient air and assessed their most likely source location and transport direction. The pollutants of most interest were fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone (O 3 ) due to their association with human health effects. The data analyzed in this report represent just under two years of meteorological, air quality, and traffic volume data. Data was collected at the Osoyoos Canada customs site from November 2004 to September 2006. Osoyoos is located at the southern Canadian extreme of the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia. The report provided data summaries and discussed meteorology and elevated concentration conditions of PM 2.5 ; O 3 ; nitric oxide (NO); nitrogen; and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). Next, the report provided a multi-pollutant analysis as well as an episode analysis consisting of 4 case studies. The report also included an analysis of transboundary pollutant transport such as a wind sector analysis of pollutant concentration and comparison with modeled transport. Last, the report provided a summary and a discussion of policy implications. It was concluded that US-Canada transboundary transport of pollutants occurs through the Okanagan Valley in which the Osoyoos Canada Customs border air quality station is located. The study recommended further investigation of air parcel trajectories and synoptic-scale conditions leading to elevated O 3 concentrations, as well as the collection of at least 3 full years worth of PM 2.5 and O 3 data to calculate and measure against Canada-wide standards/US national ambient air quality objectives. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  19. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  20. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  1. Nuclear Waste Policy Act transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The importance and magnitude of effort to put in place a safe, publicly acceptable transportation system for radioactive wastes are discussed. The importance of working openly, documenting efforts in a way that is objective and can be understood by the general public, and being particularly sensitive and responsive to public concerns is recognized. Key elements of current planning have been described, but numerous details remain to be worked out. These details will be worked out, proposed in programs plans, and made publicly available. The author looks forward to ideas and comments for improving these plans and their implementation

  2. Radiation doses arising from the air transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, R.; Shaw, K.B.; Wilson, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    There is a compelling need for the transport of radioactive material by air because of the requirement by hospitals throughout the world for urgent delivery for medical purposes. Many countries have no radionuclide-producing capabilities and depend on imports: a range of such products is supplied from the United Kingdom. Many of these are short lived, which explains the need for urgent delivery. The only satisfactory method of delivery on a particular day to a particular destination is often by the use of scheduled passenger air service. The International Civil Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO 1987-1988), prescribe the detailed requirements applicable to the international transport of dangerous goods by air. Radioactive materials are required to be separated from persons and from undeveloped photographic films or plates: minimum distances as a function of the total sum of transport indexes are given in the Instructions. A study, which included the measurement and assessment of the radiation doses resulting from the transport of radioactive materials by air from the UK, has been performed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) on behalf of the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the Department of Transport (DTp)

  3. Measurements of environmental policy for air pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    The first part of the study goes into the determination of efficient strategies for the reduction of air pollutants. The developed method is not only derived theoretically but is tested with the concrete example of emissions sources of a German state. The second part goes into the question what the government can do in order to attain that air pollution abatement measures recognized as being efficient will be put into practice. As market economy mechanisms have advantages over central state planning in the allocation of economic resources the question arises if not also for environmental protection market economy tools may contribute to an improvement of the efficiency of air pollution abatement. Therefore the suitability of different tools of environmental policy for the realization of efficient air pollution abatement is investigated and evaluated. This is again not done abstractly but with existing emission sources. (orig./HSCH). 32 figs., 12 tabs [de

  4. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  5. The Role of Budget Airlines in the Air Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasiuk Irina P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary air transport market has been considered and analyzed, key aspects of the emergence of budget airlines (low-cost in the air transport market have been highlighted. The main factors of influence on their functioning and international distribution have been allocated. On exploring the air transport market, it can be argued that low-cost airlines are gaining speed and spreading all around the world. This system was developed specifically for budget tourists and is particularly popular among students. Budget airlines are a profitable alternative to expensive airfares. As a rule, low-cost airlines refuse most traditional services to reduce the cost of transporting passengers, and hence the prices of flights. In the current phase of operation of the budget airlines, it is particularly necessary to study the reasons for such charity and the efficiency factor in providing cheap airfares. In spite of the tempting offer, there are some nuances that are subject of research.

  6. Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

  7. Climate policies for road transport revisited (II): Closing the policy gap with cap-and-trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachsland, Christian; Brunner, Steffen; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Creutzig, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Current policies in the road transport sector fail to deliver consistent and efficient incentives for greenhouse gas abatement (see companion article by ). Market-based instruments such as cap-and-trade systems close this policy gap and complement traditional policies that are required where specific market failures arise. Even in presence of strong existing non-market policies, cap-and-trade delivers additional abatement and efficiency by incentivizing demand side abatement options. This paper analyzes generic design options and economic impacts of including the European road transport sector into the EU ETS. Suitable points of regulation are up- and midstream in the fuel chain to ensure effectiveness (cover all emissions and avoid double-counting), efficiency (incentivize all abatement options) and low transaction costs. Based on year 2020 marginal abatement cost curves from different models and current EU climate policy objectives we show that in contrast to conventional wisdom, road transport inclusion would not change the EU ETS allowance price. Hence, industrial carbon leakage induced by adding road transport to the EU ETS may be less important than previously estimated. - Research highlights: → We analyze the rationale, design and economic impacts of including road transportation into GHG cap-and-trade systems. → Suitable points of regulation are up- and mid-stream. → Including European road transport into the EU ETS by 2020 would not change the EU allowance price.

  8. Modeling the impact of air transport on the economy - practices, problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Huderek-Glapska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of measuring the contribution of air transport to the regional economy is very important nowadays since many airport infrastructure projects are being implemented, using available European Union funds. As a result of growing transport needs and increasing incomes among the population, the air transport market is strongly developing.  This development results to many direct and indirect socio-economic benefits to locations in close proximity of an airport but also in the whole economy. The measurement of these benefits is important because the decisions made with respect to air transport influence local and regional economic performance. The most commonly used tool for measuring the positive effects associated with the operation of an airport is the input-output analysis. The aim of the article is to present the characteristics of the input-output method, to indicate its applications in Poland - the country with the most dynamic growth of air transport, to present the possible limitations of this method and propose improvements. Methods: The method used in this research is one that measures the effects of changes in the economy as a result of air transport activity. Particular input-output analysis is used. Results: On the background of the results of modeling the impact of polish airport on regional economy in 2009 the updated analysis in 2012 is provided. The economic impacts of Krakow, Katowice, Wroclaw and Szczecin airports are estimated. Then the limitations of input-output method are presented and suggestions of possible improvements are made. Comments: Proper measurement of the impact of airport's operation and investment on the economy, leads to more effective air transport policy development. For future research, the advanced input-output method to assess the positive impact of airports on regional development is recommended. However, a comprehensive assessment of the operation and expansion of airport

  9. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    Concerns about climate change, dependence on oil, and unstable gasoline prices have led to significant efforts by policymakers to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil consumption. The transportation sector is one of the principle emitters of CO2 in the US. It accounts for two-thirds of total U.S. oil consumption and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Within the transportation sector, the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet is the main culprit. It is responsible for more than 65 percent of the oil used and for more than 60 percent of total GHG emissions. If a significant fraction of the LDV fleet is gradually replaced by more fuel-efficient technologies, meaningful reductions in GHG emissions and oil consumption will be achieved. This dissertation investigates the potential benefits and impacts of deploying more fuel-efficient vehicles in the LDV fleet. Findings can inform decisions surrounding the development and deployment of the next generation of LDVs. The first essay uses data on 2003 and 2006 model gasoline-powered passenger cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles to investigate the implicit private cost of improving vehicle fuel efficiencies through reducing other desired attributes such as weight (that is valued for its perceived effect on personal safety) and horsepower. Breakeven gasoline prices that would justify the estimated implicit costs were also calculated. It is found that to justify higher fuel efficiency standards from a consumer perspective, either the external benefits need to be very large or technological advances will need to greatly reduce fuel efficiency costs. The second essay estimates the private benefits and societal impacts of electric vehicles. The findings from the analysis contribute to policy deliberations on how to incentivize the purchase and production of these vehicles. A spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the private benefits and societal impacts of purchasing and utilizing three electric vehicle

  10. An evaluation model for low carbon island policy: The case of Taiwan's green transportation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappey, Amy J.C.; Trappey, Charles; Hsiao, C.T.; Ou, Jerry J.R.; Li, S.J.; Chen, Kevin W.P.

    2012-01-01

    Conserving energy and reducing carbon emissions have become the common responsibility of the international community. During the year 2010, the Taiwan government planned a four-year project budgeted at 300 million US dollars, called “The Penghu Low Carbon Island Development Project.” The policy objective is to use Penghu Island (population 85,000) as a test platform to evaluate new ways to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions before attempting to replicate the policies on Taiwan Island. For Taiwan, a zero carbon island green transportation policy will regulate the total number of electric scooters, the total number of gasoline motorcycles, influence government subsidy incentives, and create the need for new motorcycle license issuing and control. These factors interact with each other to form a complex and dynamic system that impacts policy as well as the current way of life. In this study, a system dynamics approach is designed to construct a model for evaluating the green transportation policy on Penghu Island. Simulations are conducted to model green transportation system behavior and related policy effects in a smaller, controlled environment before creating policies for Taiwan Island that will impact the lives of over 23 million people. - Highlights: ► Provides an overview of Taiwan's Penghu Low Carbon Island Development Project. ► Develops a systems dynamics approach for green transportation policy assessment. ► Provides causal analysis of social, economic, and environmental factors. ► Demonstrates that the proposed policy cannot meet the CO 2 reduction goals. ► Alternative policies can be evaluated using the proposed approach.

  11. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition......Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular trac around and in all larger cities...

  12. Air Force IT System Security Compliance with Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    monetary burden on 3 system owners as there is “…a significant cost benefit to building in IA during the development phase” 4 of a system. Current...16 Option 4 : Cloud Computing to Eliminate Policy and Methodology Requirements ....17 Option 4 : Application...Assurance ( IA ) (data integrity) to support mission assurance. To ensure IA and to support the mission, changes need to be made to Air Force IT

  13. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  14. Real Costs of Transportation and Influence of Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    Sustainability of transportation depends on both behavior and technology. Behavior determines how much of various activities are undertaken; technology determines whether they are harmful to the environment. Policies can influence both: they provide behavior incentives, and they affect technological choices and guide technological change.

  15. Critical loads as a policy tool for protecting ecosystems from the effects of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Burns; Tamara Blett; Richard Haeuber; Linda H. Pardo

    2008-01-01

    Framing the effects of air pollutants on ecosystems in terms of a "critical load" provides a meaningful approach for research scientists to communicate policy-relevant science to air-quality policy makers and natural resource managers. A critical-loads approach has been widely used to shape air-pollutant control policy in Europe since the 1980s, yet has only...

  16. Developing self-cleaning and air purifying transportation infrastructure components to minimize environmental impact of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Creating transportation infrastructure, which can clean up itself and contaminated air surrounding it, can be a : groundbreaking approach in addressing environmental challenges of our time. This project has explored a possibility of : depositing coat...

  17. Intercontinental Transport of Aerosols: Implication for Regional Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 microns) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 microns), is one of the key atmospheric components that determine ambient air quality. Current US air quality standards for PM10 (particles with diameter air pollution problems, aerosols can be transported on a hemispheric or global scale. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to quantify contributions of long-range transport vs. local/regional pollution sources and from natural vs. anthropogenic sources to PM concentrations different regions. In particular, we estimate the hemispheric impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and dust from major source areas on other regions in the world. The GOCART model results are compared with satellite remote sensing and ground-based network measurements of aerosol optical depth and concentrations.

  18. 75 FR 50730 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement... consists of transportation conformity criteria and procedures related to interagency consultation and... meet a requirement of the Clean Air Act and Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: Comments must...

  19. Design aspects of plutonium air-transportable packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Moya, J.L.; Pierce, J.D.; Attaway, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recent worldwide interest in transporting plutonium powders by air has created a need for expanding the packaging technology base as well as improving their understanding of how plutonium air transport (PAT) packagings perform during severe accident tests. Historically it has not been possible to establish design rules for individual package components because of the complex way parts interacted in forming a successful whole unit. Also, computer analyses were only considered valid for very limited portions of the design effort because of large deformations, localized tearing occurring in the package during accident testing, and extensive use of orthotropic materials. Consequently, iterative design and experimentation has historically been used to develop plutonium air-transportable packages. Full-scale prototypes have been tested since scaling of packages utilizing wood as an energy absorber and thermal insulator has not proven to be very successful. This is because the wood grain and dynamic performance of the wood during crush do not always scale. The high cost of full-scale testing of large packages has certainly hindered obtaining additional data and development new designs. The testing criteria for PAT packages, as described in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Qualification Criteria to Certify a Package for Air Transport of Plutonium, NUREG-0360, 1978, are summarized. Computer modeling techniques have greatly improved over the last ten years, and there are some areas of opportunity for future applications to plutonium air-transportable package design problems. Having developed a better understanding of the performance of current packages, they have the opportunity to make major improvements in new packaging concepts. Each of these areas is explored in further depth to establish their impact on design practices for air-transportable packages

  20. Evaluation of the impact of transportation changes on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G.; Lyamani, H.; Drinovec, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2015-08-01

    Transport regulation at local level for the abatement of air pollution has gained significant traction in the EU. In this work, we analyze the effect of different transportation changes on air quality in two similarly sized cities: Granada (Spain) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Several air pollutants were measured at both sites before and after the implementation of the changes. In Ljubljana, a 72% reduction of local black carbon (BC), from 5.6 to 1.6 μg/m3, was observed after the restriction was implemented. In Granada, statistically significant reductions of 1.3 μg/m3 (37%) in BC and of 15 μg/m3 (33%) in PM10 concentrations were observed after the public transportation re-organization. However, the improvement observed in air quality was very local since other areas of the cities did not improve significantly. We show that closing streets to private traffic, renewal of the bus fleet and re-organization of the public transportation significantly benefit air quality.

  1. Plutonium air transportable package Model PAT-1. Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The document is a Safety Analysis Report for the Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, which was developed by Sandia Laboratories under contract to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The document describes the engineering tests and evaluations that the NRC staff used as a basis to determine that the package design meets the requirements specified in the NRC ''Qualification Criteria to Certify a Package for Air Transport of Plutonium'' (NUREG-0360). By virtue of its ability to meet the NRC Qualification Criteria, the package design is capable of safely withstanding severe aircraft accidents. The document also includes engineering drawings and specifications for the package. 92 figs, 29 tables

  2. A Study on establishment of air preservation policy strategy in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Kyu; Yoon, Jung Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    For the air preservation and entire global environmental preservation in 21st century, it was implemented as a pre-work to maintain clean and clear air quality and to prepare a preventive air preservation policy. This study was focused on proposing the basic strategy of air preservation policy by deriving problems and evaluating actual results. 34 refs., 2 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. Proposed design for the new SNL air-transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, A.R.; Kennedy, S.T.; Haberlin, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a prototype air-transporter suitable for remote operation in a size reduction facility is discussed. The first section describes the design concept selected for the transporter, that of a series of modular units within a simple rigid framework and the detailed design of the individual modules. The design has the following features: electrical drive units, self contained air-skates, electrical logic circuit placed outside the working area, pneumatic and electrical umbilicals and provision for specific items of ancilliary equipment. The second section describes the detailed evaluation of various cable handling systems for the umbilicals from the control console outside the facility to the transporter. It has been established that the optimum system is a single rail festoon complete with transporter mounted pivoting arm. (author)

  4. Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sarah Stock

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer

  5. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton proceeded along four avenues: Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; Application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; Computer aided control system design; and Effects of control saturation on closed loop stability and response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of prime concern.

  6. Estimates of health risks associated with uranium transportation by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Skagius, K.; Ericsson, A.M.; Karlsson, L.G.; Markstroem, A.

    1989-01-01

    There is today an increased interest for air transport of large quantities of uranium compounds. In this report the health risks from an aircrash where uraniumhexafluoride, uraniumdioxide powder, low enriched unirradiated fuel used in Swedish power reactors and unirradiated MTR-fuel used in the research reactor in Studsvik, is analysed. The radiation doses to personnel and the general public is calculated as well as the ground contamination from the spreaded material. Also air concentration of hydrogenflouride, from uraniumhexaflouride reacting with moisture in the air, is calculated. A number of intermediate results are presented. (authors) (69 refs.)

  7. Development of alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Naito, Susumu; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Fukumoto, Masahiko; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Alpha radioactivity Measurement using ionized Air Transportation technology (AMAT) is developed to measure alpha contaminated wastes with large and complex surfaces. An outline of this project was described in this text. A major problem of AMAT technology is that the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and observed ion current is unclear because of the complicated behavior of ionized air molecules. An ion current prediction model covering from ionization of air molecules to ion detection was developed based on atmospheric electrodynamics. This model was described in this text, too. (author)

  8. Socializing the policy on public transportation to the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, A.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This article discusses how public policies on transportation can be communicated to the society in Sukabumi City, West Java, Indonesia. It is important for the community because the development of transportation services has a very close relationship with social welfare and economic growth of the region. This can be demonstrated with an indication that the region whose better transportation system tends to have better levels of social welfare and economic growth. The study here used a multiple case method. The cases consist of activities which were the implementation of the government’s program of socialization to the people of Sukabumi City on transportation. This regency is a door to an expansion of West Java development to the Southwest area that there are things new in government services, including in the field of transportation. Interviews, observation and document analyses were used to collect the data. Face to face interviews using a list of questions were also developed for this study. The findings of the study indicate that in addition to its own designing and implementing transportation development plan in Sukabumi City itself, there is also a transportation development involving West Java provincial government, even the national government of Indonesia in the region. All of the transportation plans could be properly communicated to the public because it used a variety of media, including the traditional, the modern, and the social.

  9. Update of Nuclear Waste Policy Act transportation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    As directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nationwide system for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power plants to deep geologic repositories for disposal. Plans for the transportation system will consider the following factors: the President's 1985 decision to co-locate some defense high-level waste with commercial waste in a repository, the NWPA requirement that the private sector be used to the fullest extent possible in developing and operating the system, and the possible approval by Congress of the DOE's proposal for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, submitted in March 1987. (The MRS, if approved, would provide for the consolidation, packaging, and perhaps the temporary storage of spent fuel from reactors.) The ''Transportation Business Plan'', published in January 1986, reflects these considerations. The transportation system, when operational, will consist of two elements: (1) the cask system, which includes the transportation casks, the vehicular conveyances, tie-downs, and associated equipment for handling the casks; and (2) the transportation support system which is comprised of facilities, equipment, and services to support waste transportation. Development of the transportation system incorporates the following work elements: operational planning, support systems development, cash system development, systems analysis, and institutional activities. This paper focusses on the technical aspects of the system

  10. Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, David; Ryan, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

  11. Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

    extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability...... is represented, as well as how the framework is integrated with decision making processes. Japan is used as a case, because Japanese transport seems to perform well in certain aspects of ‘sustainability’, while Japanese transportation policy also faces significant management challenges. A range of governance...... evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance...

  12. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  13. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  14. Carbon emission allowance allocation with a mixed mechanism in air passenger transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rui; Xu, Jiuping; Zeng, Ziqiang

    2017-09-15

    Air passenger transport carbon emissions have become a great challenge for both governments and airlines because of rapid developments in the aviation industry in recent decades. In this paper, a mixed mechanism composed of a cap-and-trade mechanism and a carbon tax mechanism is developed to assist governments in allocating carbon emission allowances to airlines operating on the routes. Combined this mixed mechanism with an equilibrium strategy, a bi-level multi-objective model is proposed for an air passenger transport carbon emission allowance allocation problem, in which a government is considered as a leader and the airlines as the followers. An interactive solution approach integrating a genetic algorithm and an interactive evolutionary mechanism is designed to search for satisfactory solutions of the proposed model. A case study is then presented to show its practicality and efficiency in mitigating carbon emissions. Sensitivity analyses under different tradable and taxable levels are also conducted, which can give the government insights as to the tradeoffs between lowering carbon intensity and improving airlines' operations. The computational results demonstrate that the mixed mechanism can assist greatly in carbon emission mitigation for air passenger transport and therefore, it should be established as part of air passenger transport carbon emission policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.; Toguri, D.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport

  16. Impacts of potential CO2-reduction policies on air quality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Marcus A; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P; Liu, Peng; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Hu, Yongtao; Rudokas, Jason R; Miller, Paul J; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-04-21

    Impacts of emissions changes from four potential U.S. CO2 emission reduction policies on 2050 air quality are analyzed using the community multiscale air quality model (CMAQ). Future meteorology was downscaled from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE General Circulation Model (GCM) to the regional scale using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. We use emissions growth factors from the EPAUS9r MARKAL model to project emissions inventories for two climate tax scenarios, a combined transportation and energy scenario, a biomass energy scenario and a reference case. Implementation of a relatively aggressive carbon tax leads to improved PM2.5 air quality compared to the reference case as incentives increase for facilities to install flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. However, less capital is available to install NOX reduction technologies, resulting in an O3 increase. A policy aimed at reducing CO2 from the transportation sector and electricity production sectors leads to reduced emissions of mobile source NOX, thus reducing O3. Over most of the U.S., this scenario leads to reduced PM2.5 concentrations. However, increased primary PM2.5 emissions associated with fuel switching in the residential and industrial sectors leads to increased organic matter (OM) and PM2.5 in some cities.

  17. Contact Information for EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    You will find an EPA employee by name or by topic of interest, also, you will know who to contact if you want to find a specific transportation and air quality document, importing a vehicle to the US, and other frequently asked questions.

  18. The competitive landscape of air transport in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Malighetti, P.; Redondi, R.; Burghouwt, G.

    2016-01-01

    Competition between airlines and airports increased significantly since the deregulation of the intra-European air transport market in 1997. The passenger has a wider choice in terms of routings and departure airports than twenty-five years ago and pays a lower price. In this paper we investigate in

  19. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, M.A.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.; Verwer, J.G.; Chock, David P.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Brick, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species.

  20. A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; Lioen, W.; Verwer, J.G.

    In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a

  1. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  2. Solving Vertical Transport and Chemistry in Air Pollution Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, M.A.; Verwer, J.G.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species.

  3. A zooming technique for wind transport of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilsmeier, R.; Berkvens, P.J.F.; Benkhaldoun, F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; Lioen, W.M.; Haenel, D.; Verwer, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a

  4. Dynamic analysis of energy, environment and congestion effects of urban transport policy. Variabilisation of car taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dender, K Van [Center for Economic Studies (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    Road transport is an important cause of external costs. In general three types of external costs can be distinguished: congestion, air and noise pollution causing environment damage and health hazards, and road accidents. Policy measures aiming at the reduction of external costs mostly are limited to a specific cost-type. The lack of integration of policies causes inefficiencies, because external costs are strongly interlinked. In Ochelen and Proost, congestion, pollution and road accidents are treated as externalities. An optimal pricing and regulation policy for transport is calculated for Brussels in 2005. Regulation consists of prescriptions to car producers concerning the environmental characteristics of car-technology. Optimal prices charge transport users the social cost of their trips, with possibly a correction for the marginal cost of public funds. In a perfect pricing policy, prices would be differentiated according to conditions of congestion and pollution at each moment in time. The model is flexible enough to simulate the effects of more realistic policy packages. This flexibility has its cost in terms of degree of detail of the model. This paper deals with an extension of the Ochelen and Proost model, in two directions. The model is currently still a prototype. We concentrate on the main issues involved in making the model dynamic. The degree of detail therefore is rather limited. Magnitudes of policy effects must be interpreted carefully. We are more confident as to what concerns the directions of the effects. The paper first deals with the methodology of the model, calibration of the model and on the base case scenario, which serves as reference cases for the policy evaluation. (EG)

  5. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity... reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported items...

  6. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... surface carrier for transport. Otherwise, all shipments on the transit air cargo manifest shall be...

  7. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air.

  8. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM... General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a) The regulations in this part are supplemented by the regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board in...

  9. Age-of-Air, Tape Recorder, and Vertical Transport Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.-J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A numerical-analytic investigation of the impacts of vertical transport schemes on the model simulated age-of-air and the so-called 'tape recorder' will be presented using an idealized 1-D column transport model as well as a more realistic 3-D dynamical model. By comparing to the 'exact' solutions of 'age-of-air' and the 'tape recorder' obtainable in the 1-D setting, useful insight is gained on the impacts of numerical diffusion and dispersion of numerical schemes used in global models. Advantages and disadvantages of Eulerian, semi-Lagrangian, and Lagrangian transport schemes will be discussed. Vertical resolution requirement for numerical schemes as well as observing systems for capturing the fine details of the 'tape recorder' or any upward propagating wave-like structures can potentially be derived from the 1-D analytic model.

  10. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  11. Consequences of Inconsistency in Air Force Tobacco Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando-King, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Lando, Harry A; Jahnke, Sara A; Hawk, Nita; Smith, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Although the United States Air Force (USAF) has been a leader in efforts to reduce tobacco use among service members, tobacco continues to be a problem and initiatives to decrease tobacco use further require buy-in from leadership. We explored line leaderships' perspectives on tobacco. A diverse group of 10 senior commissioned and 10 non-commissioned personnel were interviewed. Respondents reported substantial changes in the culture of tobacco use during their years of service, from near ubiquity to restricted use areas. They also perceived mixed messages coming from the USAF, including simultaneous discouragement of and accommodations for tobacco use, and variability in policies and enforcement. Many respondents indicated that allowing tobacco use creates conflict and undermines military discipline and suggested that a tobacco-free policy would be the best way to eliminate these contradictions. Although there has been substantial movement away from a culture of tobacco in the USAF, current policies and variable enforcement of these policies create unnecessary contradictions. Establishing a tobacco-free service would resolve these issues in addition to improving the health of service members and veterans.

  12. An evaluation of the alternative transport fuel policies for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya; Tekin, Yuecel; Suermen, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The search for alternative fuels and new fuel resources is a top priority for Turkey, as is the case in the majority of countries throughout the world. The fuel policies pursued by governmental or civil authorities are of key importance in the success of alternative fuel use, especially for widespread and efficient use. Following the 1973 petroleum crisis, many users in Turkey, especially in transportation sector, searched for alternative fuels and forms of transportation. Gasoline engines were replaced with diesel engines between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. In addition, natural gas was introduced to the Turkish market for heating in the early 1990s. Liquid petroleum gas was put into use in the mid-1990s, and bio-diesel was introduced into the market for transportation in 2003. However, after long periods of indifference governmental action, guidance and fuel policies were so weak that they did not make sense. Entrepreneurs and users experienced great economical losses and lost confidence in future attempts to search for other possible alternatives. In the present study, we will look at the history of alternative fuel use in the recent past and investigate the alternative engine fuel potential of Turkey, as well as introduce possible future policies based on experience.

  13. Trade transport and environment linkages at the U.S.-Mexico border: which policies matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda; Das, Monica

    2011-03-01

    We apply a fixed-effects model to examine the impact of trade and environmental policies on air quality at ports along the U.S.-Mexico border. We control for other factors influencing air quality, such as air quality of cities near the border, volume of traffic flows and congestion. Results show the air quality improved after 2004, when the diesel engine policy was applied. We see mixed results for the trade policy, whose implementation time varies across ports along the international border. Controlling for air quality in cities near the border is essential for assessing the policy contributions to air quality. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  15. Maintenance Policy in Public-Transport Involving Government Subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, U. S.; Bayuzetra, Y.; Gunawan, L. E.; Husniah, H.

    2018-02-01

    A public transport with government subsidy is considered to encourage the sustainability of the transportation. The transportations revenue is determined by the maximum of the uptimes of the vehicle. In this paper, we study a one-dimensional maintenance policy for new vehicle which is characterized by age parameter. We consider that the degradation of the vehicle is affected by the age of the vehicle, and modelled by using a one-dimensional approach. The owner performs both preventive and corrective maintenance actions, and the preventive maintenance action will reduce the vehicle failure rate and hence it will decrease the corrective maintenance cost during the life time of the vehicle. The decision problem for the owner is to find the optimal preventive maintenance time of the vehicle of each subsidy option offered by maximizing the expected profit for each subsidy.

  16. Policy study: energy conservation in transportation in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, J

    1978-09-01

    The present study is an initial effort to apply social system analysis to transportation energy conservation, in order to prepare the ground for a team effort of transportation and energy specialists, regional planners, policy analysis and generalists, and government administrators - with additional imputs from commerce, industry and the community at large. The task of this study has been to inventory the principal factors and inputs in the field of transportation energy demand and possible conservation, estimate their magnitudes and relations, and arrange in a tentative but reasoned pattern - where there were before only so many scattered data, technical studies with a limited focus, sectoral programs and decisions, and vague impressions about the serviceability, the impacts and the social value of the product.

  17. Informal public transport driver behaviour and regulatory policy linkage: An expose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Dumba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature on the negative socio-economic and environmental externalities generated by informal public transport (IPT in developing countries is vast, vibrant and growing fast. These externalities include but are not limited to noise, air and land pollution, accidents and, more importantly, a source of congestion (human and vehicular because of poor driver behaviour. In this article, the research does not seek to reinstate these, but rather, it argues that poor driver behaviour is a dependent variable to some regulatory policy stimuli. Yet, an extensive literature survey has shown that the driver behaviour and urban transport regulation linkage remain little explored. Objective: The purpose of this article was to unpack the relationship between informal public transport driver behaviour and the prevailing regulatory framework. Method: Based on a case study of Harare, Zimbabwe, the researcher adopted a mixed-methods paradigm and interrogated the prevailing urban public transport regulatory regimes and applied professional judgement, oral interviews backed by some quantitative data and relate these to obtaining IPT driver behavioural characteristics. Results: Poor driver behaviour exhibited by IPT were generated, exacerbated and or eased by the prevailing regulatory policy. This is well depicted through an IPT driver behaviour and regulation loop reinforcing diagram. Conclusion: Following this argument, the article cautions policy makers and urban managers alike that direct approaches and interventions when trying to regulate IPT poor driver behaviour and its secondary negative effects will be futile as long as the regulatory policy remains the same. Failure to recognise and connect the dots between IPT driver behaviour and policy partly explains why globally, the IPT sector has proved difficult in prohibiting, restructuring or even formalising it.

  18. What should ''damaged'' mean in air transport of fissile packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Falci, F.P.; Blackman, D.

    1995-01-01

    It is likely that the ongoing process to produce the 1996 version of the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, IAEA Safety Series 6(SS 6) will result in a more stringent package qualification standard for air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) than is included in the 1990 version. During the process to define the scope of the new requirements there was extensive discussion of their impact on, and application to, fissile material package qualification criteria. Since fissile materials are shipped in a variety of packagings ranging from exempt to Type B, each packaging of each type must be evaluated for its ability to maintain subcriticality both alone and in arrays and in both damaged and undamaged condition. In the 1990 version of SS 6 ''damaged'' means the condition of a package after it had undergone the ''tests for demonstrating the ability to withstand accident conditions in transport,'' i.e., Type B qualification tests. These tests conditions are typical of severe accidents in surface modes, but are less severe than air mode qualification test environments to be applied to Type C packages. As a result, questions arose about the need for a corresponding change in the 1996 SS 6 to define ''damaged'' to include the Type C test regime for criticality evaluations of fissile packages in air transport

  19. [Transport characteristics of air pollutants over the Yangtze Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chai, Fa-He; Wang, Yong-Hong; Liu, Ming

    2008-05-01

    Meteorological field of January, April, July and October in 2004 was obtained by running MM5 with NCEP datasets. Then we used HYSPLIT 4.8 model to calculate the backward and forward trajectories of representative cities. Distributions of trajectories and the affected areas vary with seasons. Transport current affecting Yangtze River Delta is mainly from Mongolia, North China or Northeast region, via Yellow Sea area, Shandong, Jiangsu province or Shanghai. Another important transport path is current from southwest because of the Southwest monsoon. A movement of East Asia monsoon plays an important part in the mesoscale transport of pollutants in Yangtze Delta. Winter monsoon is a main mechanism which moves the air pollutants in Yangtze Delta to South China and West Pacific ocean. Another important transport system is the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific Ocean which controls the east coast of our country in spring and summer. This circulation system mainly affects the inland area of our country.

  20. The role of transportation control measures in California's air pollution control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guensler, R.; Burmich, P.; Geraghty, A.

    1992-01-01

    In California, significant progress has been made to control emissions from industrial sources as well as from motor vehicles. Nonetheless, policy analysts still debate over whether it makes sense to control motor vehicle emissions through legislated reductions in vehicle use, especially when new vehicle emission standards are becoming even more stringent in California. In this paper, the emission reduction benefits of California's new low-emission vehicles and clean fuels program are reviewed. The air quality management plans of three major metropolitan areas in California are examined, to identify emission reductions needed to meet federal and state air quality standards. For each of these three areas, emission reductions expected from transportation control measure implementation are presented. Then, the extent to which the reductions are open-quotes significantclose quotes and relied upon in each of the local attainment efforts is analyzed. The emission reductions expected from the stringent exhaust emission standards of California's new low-emission vehicles and clean fuels program will not be sufficient to meet mandated clean air standards in the study areas. Based upon our review, transportation control measures appear to be necessary components of the air quality management plans in California's major metropolitan areas. The paper concludes that cost-effective transportation control measures (TCMs) will be needed as a complementary strategy to California's stringent tail-pipe standards in moderate to extreme nonattainment areas

  1. Development of alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A novel alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology has been developed for future constitution of 'Clearance Level' for uranium and TRU radioactive waste. We carried out optimum design and realized two kinds of practical alpha activity monitor, combining with radiation detector technology, ionized air physics and computational fluid dynamics. The results will bring paradigm shift on the alpha-ray measurement such as converting 'closely contacting and scanning measurement' to 'remotely measurement in the block', and drastically improve the efficiency of measurement operation. We hope that this technology will be widely endorsed as the practical method for the alpha clearance measurement in future. (author)

  2. Conflict Detection and Resolution for Future Air Transportation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krozel, Jimmy; Peters, Mark E.; Hunter, George

    1997-01-01

    With a Free Flight policy, the emphasis for air traffic control is shifting from active control to passive air traffic management with a policy of intervention by exception. Aircraft will be allowed to fly user preferred routes, as long as safety Alert Zones are not violated. If there is a potential conflict, two (or more) aircraft must be able to arrive at a solution for conflict resolution without controller intervention. Thus, decision aid tools are needed in Free Flight to detect and resolve conflicts, and several problems must be solved to develop such tools. In this report, we analyze and solve problems of proximity management, conflict detection, and conflict resolution under a Free Flight policy. For proximity management, we establish a system based on Delaunay Triangulations of aircraft at constant flight levels. Such a system provides a means for analyzing the neighbor relationships between aircraft and the nearby free space around air traffic which can be utilized later in conflict resolution. For conflict detection, we perform both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analyses based on the penetration of the Protected Airspace Zone. Both deterministic and non-deterministic analyses are performed. We investigate several types of conflict warnings including tactical warnings prior to penetrating the Protected Airspace Zone, methods based on the reachability overlap of both aircraft, and conflict probability maps to establish strategic Alert Zones around aircraft.

  3. Improving policy responses to the risk of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Nathwani, Jatin; Pandey, Mahesh; Hurley, Fintan

    2007-02-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the need for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the available policy instruments for air pollution. To prioritize different possible actions, one needs to know which source of pollution causes how much damage. This requires an impact pathway analysis, that is, an analysis of the chain emission --> dispersion --> dose-response function --> monetary valuation. The methodology for this is described and illustrated with the results of the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) project series of the European Commission. Two examples of an application to CBA are shown: one where a proposed reduction of emission limits is justified, and one where it is not. It is advisable to subject any proposed regulation to a CBA, including an analysis of the uncertainties. Even if the uncertainties are large and a policy decision may have to take other considerations into account, a well-documented CBA clarifies the issues and provides a basis for rational discussion. One of the main sources of uncertainty lies in the monetary valuation of premature mortality, the dominant contribution to the damage cost of air pollution. As an alternative, an innovative policy tool is described, the Life Quality Index (LQI), a compound indicator comprising societal wealth and life expectancy. It is applied to the Canada-wide standards for particulate matter and ozone. Regardless of monetary valuation, a 50% reduction of PM10 concentrations in Europe and North America has been shown to yield a population-average life expectancy increase on the order of 4 to 5 mo.

  4. A study on contaminant transport in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujala, Usha; Sen, Soubhadra; Subramanian, V.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In case of an accidental release of radioactive contaminant inside a well-ventilated room, the same will be transported to the different parts of the room due to the circulation of indoor air. To ensure safety of the operating personnel, it is important to identify the ideal locations for keeping the warning alarm systems. To address the problem, a detailed study is required where numerical simulation has to be supported by experimental verification. A computational methodology has already been verified for this purpose (IGC report-no.323). In this work, a study on the transport of an inert aerosol inside a well-ventilated isolated room has been carried out

  5. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along four avenues during 1984: (1) guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; (2) application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; (3) effects of control saturation on closed loop stability; and (4) response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as to general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of principle concern. These areas of investigation are briefly discussed.

  6. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050 (Executive Summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council

    2007-01-01

    Transport is one of the major global consumers of energy, currently representing between 20 and 25 percent of aggregate energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. Strong growth in energy consumption to 2050 in all sectors, with the transport proportion projected to remain stable up to 2050. Transport therefore has an important role to lay in contributing to the primary objective of the World Energy Council: sustainable energy for all. Passenger vehicle technology is expected to remain dependent on petroleum fuels and internal combustion engines (ICE) for the foreseeable future, since these elements remain the most convenient and affordable for mass personal mobility. Enhancement of ICEs through clean diesels, hybrids and new combustion techniques will ensure increased efficiency, continuing the consistent historical annual improvement in vehicle efficiency. Policy makers must first agree on the overall objective, whether it be a reduction in energy consumption or greenhouse gas emissions. Technological development must be complemented by rational policy that will encourage and enable the technologies to emerge

  7. Outsourcing in air transportation industry: the case of Turkish Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, Vildan; Adiller, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    Air transportation industry, in all over the world, is developing and changing day by day in a very competitive environment. Airline companies have to adopt themselves using different strategies to give more efficient and effective services to survive in that market. Outsourcing is one of these strategies to be able to reach the sustainability of airline companies. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the importance of outsourcing for the airline companies. For this reason, first outso...

  8. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  9. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  10. New developments in the air transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A new package for the air transport of plutonium has been developed in response to a United States Public Law which restricts the U.S. air transport of plutonium except for small medical devices. This new package, called PAT-1 for plutonium air transportable package model 1, is the result of the NRC-sponsored (NRC=U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.) PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque. The PAT-1 package is designed to meet or exceed new criteria specified in NUREG-0360. These inclued a severe test sequence of impact (>250 knots) on an unyielding target, crush, puncture, slash, a large JP-4 fire for 1 hour, followed by water immersion, with stringent acceptance standards on plutonium release, nuclear shielding, and nuclear criticality. The PAT-1 package design features a high energy absorption capability with high-level fire protection. It weighs approximately 227 kg (500 lb) when loaded with 2 kg PuO 2 , and can accommodate up to 25 watts thermal energy from the plutonium load

  11. Structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network (ATMN). • We compare two main types of layers corresponding to major and low-cost airlines. • It is found that small-world property and rich-club effect of the Chinese ATMN are mainly caused by major airlines. - Abstract: Recently multilayer networks are attracting great attention because the properties of many real-world systems cannot be well understood without considering their different layers. In this paper, we investigate the structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network (ATMN) by progressively merging layers together, where each commercial airline (company) defines a layer. The results show that the high clustering coefficient, short characteristic path length and large collection of reachable destinations of the Chinese ATMN can only emerge when several layers are merged together. Moreover, we compare two main types of layers corresponding to major and low-cost airlines. It is found that the small-world property and the rich-club effect of the Chinese ATMN are mainly caused by those layers corresponding to major airlines. Our work will highlight a better understanding of the Chinese air transportation network.

  12. New developments in the air transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A new package for the air transport of plutonium has been developed in response to a United States Public Law which restricts the US air transport of plutonium except for small medical devices. This new package, called PAT-1 for plutonium air transportable package model 1, is the result of the NRC-sponsored PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque. The PAT-1 package is designed to meet or exceed new criteria specified in NUREG-0360. These include a severe test sequence of impact (greater than 250 KTS) on an unyielding target, crush, puncture, slash, a large JP-4 fire for 1 hour, followed by water immersion, with stringent acceptance standards on plutonium release, nuclear shielding, and nuclear criticality. The PAT-1 package design features a high energy absorption capability with high-level fire protection. It weighs approximately 227 kg (500 lb) when loaded with 2 kg PuO 2 , and can accommodate up to 25 watts thermal energy from the plutonium load

  13. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  14. Overview of NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the research for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Included is a review of the current air transportation system and the challenges of air transportation research. Also included is a review of the current research highlights and significant accomplishments.

  15. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of... consumer protection and civil rights laws and regulations related to air transportation. The Enforcement... travelers, and to ensure safe and adequate service in air transportation. Filing a complaint using a web...

  16. 14 CFR 399.40 - Tariffs for domestic air transportation on or after January 1, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tariffs for domestic air transportation on... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.40 Tariffs for domestic air transportation on or after January 1, 1983. The Board will not approve or accept any tariff filings for interstate of overseas air transportation...

  17. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on the authority of all direct U.S. and foreign carriers to operate in air transportation that they have...

  18. 77 FR 44551 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arizona; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... related to the evaluation of impacts of interstate transport of air pollutants. In this action, EPA is... the 2011 Transport Rule (also known as the ``Cross- State Air Pollution Rule'' or ``CSAPR'').\\5\\ In...\\ Within that submittal, Appendix B, ``Clean Air Act Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)-- Interstate Transport...

  19. 75 FR 12328 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc... interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Charter Air Transport, Inc., fit, willing, and able, and awarding it Commuter Air Carrier Authorization. DATES: Persons wishing to file...

  20. 78 FR 15664 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter... (August 8, 2011, 76 FR 48208). The Transport Rule was intended to replace the earlier Clean Air Interstate..., 2005); and Transport Rule or Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, 76 FR 48208 (August 8, 2011). \\4\\ CAIR...

  1. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, Andres; Guerrero, Maria-Jose [Transport Department, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, C. y P., Caminos, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants.This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use.

  2. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzon, Andres; Guerrero, Maria-Jose

    2004-01-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use

  3. Transport and energy policy. Looking to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T [European Commission (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    In the quest of filling human needs, transport and energy do not appear to be the most exciting territories. They come in only later in the vast chain of commodities and services necessary in the smooth operation of a modern market economy. However, current concerns about pollution and the future of our planet have lifted these issues to the top of the agenda. The objective of this paper is to give a glance at the complexity of possible futures facing us. Indeed, one of the main objectives is to show that there are different paths to be taken and we can influence our future. Furthermore, it will be shown that a key element in planning for different futures is the proper choice of energy policy objectives and instruments. An even bigger impact could be expected from the changing paradigms in transport demand patterns. (au)

  4. CIRCO Y POLÍTICA CULTURAL EN BUENOS AIRES / Circus and cultural policies in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Infantino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo propongo analizar el lanzamiento de una política cultural de fomento  para las artes del circo en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, iniciada en 2009 a través del I Festival Internacional de Circo de Buenos Aires. A partir del estudio de la formulación e implementación de la política pública, presentaré algunas de las controversias que se desataron ante la intervención estatal en el campo artístico circense local en relación a ciertos conceptos clave: qué se entiende por políticas culturales, por democratización/popularización de la cultura y acerca del rol atribuido al Estado en dicha área. A través del análisis propuesto pretendo problematizar el entramado de diversos y desiguales agentes involucrados en el campo de las políticas (culturales.   Así, propongo analizar los discursos oficiales que inspiraron la creación de la política en estudio y los rechazos y negociaciones que generó la implementación de esta nueva modalidad de intervención pública en el ámbito cultural circense.  Abstract  In this paper I propose to analyze the release of a cultural policy to promote circus arts in the city of Buenos Aires, started in 2009 through the First Buenos Aires International Circus Festival. Through the analysis of the formulation and implementation of the public policy, I will present some of the controversies that emerged from state intervention in the local circus art field in relation to certain key concepts: what is meant by cultural policies, by democratization / popularization of culture and about the role attributed to the State in this area. Through the analysis proposed I intend to problematize the diverse and unequal actors involved in the field of (cultural policies. Thus, I intend to analyze the official speeches that inspired the creation of the policy under study and the rejections and negotiation generated by the implementation of this new way of public intervention in the circus cultural field. 

  5. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  6. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    stringent emission levels of the gasoline fleet; update the detention of pollutant vehicles program; partial exemption of the inspection and maintenance program for cleaner and or highly efficient vehicles; substitution of 3,000 microbuses, 40,000 taxis and 1,200 buses; commissioning of the first Bus Rapid Transit system; implementation of a program for the emissions reduction for the 300 most polluted industrial facilities; and continuous update of the air quality environmental management programs. To continue improving the air quality in the MCMA, the environmental authorities will continue the implementation of the 2002-2010 Air Quality Improvement Program. In 2007 the Green Program was started, this includes those actions that have proven to be effective reduction of pollutant emissions and incorporates new actions for the reduction of local and global pollutant emissions. The most important of these new actions are: substitution of 9,500 microbuses; renewal of all the taxis fleet; commissioning of 10 Bus Rapid Transit lines; commissioning of Line 12 of the underground system; schedules and routes limitations to the cargo fleet; increase 5 percent the number of non-motorized trips (bicycling and walking); regulation of the private public transport passenger stops; requirement of private schools to provide school transport; regulation of non-occupied taxis in circulation; modifications to the circulation of 350 critical crossing points in the city; adoption of intelligent traffic lights systems; complete substitution of the local government vehicle's fleet; implement the inspection and maintenance of the cargo fleet; introduction of low- sulfur diesel, among other measures.

  7. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  8. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Int Panis, L.; De Nocker, L.; Cornelis, E.; Torfs, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO 2 . To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic

  9. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  10. Evaluating policy-relevant emission inventories for transportation and electricity (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Bickford, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the challenges and opportunities in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories for transportation and electricity. These anthropogenic emissions respond in complex ways to technology and activity changes. Thus, it is essential that inventories capture historic emissions consistent with observations, as well as future emissions consistent with policy scenarios. For transportation, we focus on freight-related trucking emissions, represented by the Wisconsin Inventory for Freight Emissions (WIFE), developed with activity data from the U.S. Federal Highway Administration Freight Analysis Framework and emission factors from the EPA MOVES model. Because WIFE is linked to commodity flows and roadway speeds, it offers a useful data set to evaluate policy changes such as truck-to-rail modal shifts and alternative fuel choices. However, the value of the inventory in assessing these scenarios depends on its skill in calculating frieght-related emissions. Satellite data of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the OMI instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite is used to evaluate truck and rail NOx emissions, especially on rural highways away from ground-based monitors. For electricity, we use the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and power generation in response to policy and technology changes. These include renewable portfolio standards, conservation, increased natural gas, and response to building demand. To evaluate MyPower, we compare with the Clean Air Markets database, and 2007 calculated daily afternoon emissions with satellite-derived NO2 from OMI. Drawing on the results of these studies, we discuss strategies to meet the information demands of both historically correct air quality inputs and future-relevant policy scenarios.

  11. A strategic assessment tool for evaluating European Transport Policies - the High-Tool approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szimba, E.; Ihrig, J.; Kraft, M.; Kiel, J.; Smith, R.; Laparidou, T.; Grol, R. van; Ulied, A.; Larrea, E.; Chen, M.T.; Chahim, M.; Boonman, H.J.; Puranto, J.; Mandel, B.; Corthout, R.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions on transport policy measures proposed by the European Union (EU) have long-term and important impacts on economy, environment and society. Transport policy measures can lock up capital for decades and cause manifold external effects – thus, policy measures may have a tremendous scope,

  12. Comparison of Air Transportation Systems of Turkey and Spain as the Competitors in Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan OKTAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of air transportation in a country affects positively the development of other industries especially tourism. Turkey and Spain rank among the top countries in the world with their most developed air transportation and tourism sectors. In this study, the similarities and differences of air transportation systems of both countries and their dependency on tourism are examined. In this framework, the structure and the development process of Turkish and Spanish air transportation is revealed, then the future development trends of air passenger and air freight demands are estimated by using trend and regression analyses. Finally, the factors which may accelerate the development of air transportation and tourism sectors and the threats against the growth of these sectors are explored. The analysis results show that the tourism is crucial for the development of air transportation in both countries.

  13. Inventory of conventional air pollutants emissions from road transportation for the state of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Cristiane Duarte Ribeiro de; Silva, Suellem Deodoro; Silva, Marcelino Aurélio Vieira da; D’Agosto, Márcio de Almeida; Barboza, Arthur Prado

    2013-01-01

    Road transportation has contributed to increased emissions of conventional air pollutants and, consequently, to the increase in problems associated with the environment and human health, depending on the type of pollutant and the concentration of it. To support the development of public policies aimed to decrease total tonnes of emissions, we used a bottom-up approach to estimate the amount of air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter (PM), and aldehydes (RCHO), that are emitted by road transportation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) from 1980 to 2010. The results from 2010 show that cars are responsible for 55% of CO emissions, 61% of THC emissions, and 93% of RCHO emissions. Due to the use of hydrated ethanol and compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of petroleum based fuels during the period analyzed, 1,760,370 t of air pollutant emissions were avoided. Compared to Brazil, in 2010, RJ had a quantity of emissions per vehicle from 12% (CO) to 59% (PM) smaller than the national average. As strategies to reduce air pollutant emissions, we consider reducing the intensity of use, with a proportional reduction in emissions, and increased the use of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► We estimate road transportation emissions for Rio de Janeiro from 1980 to 2010. ► C gasoline was most responsible for CO (74%) and diesel for PM (91%). ► Emissions/vehicle for Rio de Janeiro are (12% to 59%) smaller than Brazilian. ► 1,760,370 t of emissions was avoided using non-petroleum-based fuels. ► Strategies to reduce the emissions of these air pollutants were proposed.

  14. A Freight Transport Model for Integrated Network, Service, and Policy Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.

    2013-01-01

    “The goal of the European Transport Policy is to establish a sustainable transport system that meets society’s economic, social and environmental needs…” (ECE, 2009). This statement indicates the challenges that the European transport policy makers are faced with when facilitating an increasing

  15. Dusty air masses transport between Amazon Basin and Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euphrasie-Clotilde, Lovely; Molinie, Jack; Prospero, Joseph; Feuillard, Tony; Brute, Francenor; Jeannot, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Depend on the month, African desert dust affect different parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Saharan dust outbreaks are often reported over the amazon basin and from May to November over the Caribbean islands and the southern regions of USA. This annual oscillation of Saharan dust presence, related to the ITCZ position, is perturbed some time, during March. Indeed, over Guadeloupe, the air quality network observed between 2007 and 2012 several dust events during March. In this paper, using HISPLIT back trajectories, we analyzed air masses trajectories for March dust events observed in Guadeloupe, from 2007 to 2012.We observed that the high pressure positions over the Atlantic Ocean allow the transport of dusty air masses from southern region of West Africa to the Caribbean Sea with a path crossing close to coastal region of French Guyana. Complementary investigations including the relationship between PM10 concentrations recorded in two sites Pointe-a-Pitre in the Caribbean, and Cayenne in French Guyana, have been done. Moreover we focus on the mean delay observed between the times arrival. All the results show a link between pathway of dusty air masses present over amazon basin and over the Caribbean region during several event of March. The next step will be the comparison of mineral dust composition for this particular month.

  16. Lithium battery fires: implications for air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frank; Mills, Gordon; Howe, Robert; Zobell, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries provide more power and longer life to electronic medical devices, with the benefits of reduced size and weight. It is no wonder medical device manufacturers are designing these batteries into their products. Lithium batteries are found in cell phones, electronic tablets, computers, and portable medical devices such as ventilators, intravenous pumps, pacemakers, incubators, and ventricular assist devices. Yet, if improperly handled, lithium batteries can pose a serious fire threat to air medical transport personnel. Specifically, this article discusses how lithium-ion batteries work, the fire danger associated with them, preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of a lithium battery fire, and emergency procedures that should be performed in that event. Copyright © 2012 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An integrated approach to transportation policy in BC : assessing greenhouse gas reductions opportunities in freight transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouge, B.; Ries, F.; Reynolds, C.; Mazzi, E. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Resources, Environment and Sustainability; Lim, C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering, Bureau of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Freight Security; Dowlatabadi, H. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Resources, Environment and Sustainability; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Liu Inst. for Global Issues

    2008-11-15

    This paper presented an integrated assessment for the design of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction policies in British Columbia (BC) with particular reference to the drivers of GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Transportation services are central to the movement of goods and people in modern economies and their provision involves tradeoffs between economic benefits, health effects, and social and environmental impacts. More than a dozen BC initiatives were reviewed, with a specific focus on freight movement. The paper emphasized that consequences of proposals such as low carbon fuel standards need to be carefully assessed, along with mandated vehicle technologies, congestion fees and investment in alternative transportation infrastructure. The Activity, Modal Share, Intensity and Fuel (ASIF) framework was shown to provide insight into drivers of GHG emissions and the potential impact of policy decisions. The framework refers to factors such as the amount of kilometres traveled, share of activity per mode of travel, energy intensity, and GHG emissions per unit of energy for fuel type used in the transportation mode. The relationship between factors indicates that GHG emissions increase as energy intensity increases and as the carbon intensity of fuel increases. The overall intensity of the fleet depends greatly on vehicle composition and the share of travel between different modes. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. State and market in post-reform Brazilian air transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fonseca Monteiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes that have taken place in Brazilian air transportation following the cycle of “market reforms” have turned this sector into an object of growing interest. This interest, in turn, has led to the emergence of a broad literature on the subject, characterized by the emphasis on an agenda of liberalization and the critique of State activism. The goal of the present article is to promote a confrontation between the different interpretations that have been made, incorporating the contributions of approaches inspired in Economic Sociology and in institutionalist analyses in order to draw attention to the importance that political variables, and the State in particular, have for economic performance. The post-reform context is characterized by an initial moment of greater State activism regarding air transportation, through re-initiation of stricter regulatory mechanisms and the re-opening of channels of dialog between state actors and firms. This is followed by a second moment in which state activism is abandoned, at the same time that the sector demonstrates expressive rates of growth, pushing it beyond its existing capacity and flight support infrastructure. This culminated in the episode known as the “apagão aéreo” (aerial black out Analysis of testimonies of state and private sector actors regarding the “blackout” enables us to identify the flaws in the responsible state apparatus as one of the factors that led to the “blackout”. Our conclusions draw attention to the importance of taking political factors into consideration, and particularly the role of the State, in the development of air transportation in Brazil. Keywords: commercial aviation, politics and economics, regulation, Economic Sociology, Historical Institutionalism.

  19. Liberalism in foreign trade versus liberalism in air transportation - is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancay Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a statistically significant link between regulation of international civil aviation and protectionism against foreign trade. We use weighted air liberalization index (WALI as a proxy for the level of regulation in a country’s foreign aviation relations; trade tariff restrictiveness index (TTRI and overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI as proxies for the level of protectionism in a country’s foreign trade. Correlation analysis shows that there is no statistically significant link between the indicators. Hence, our research confirms the view that air transportation is a specific sector and it is subject to a different kind of policies than trade in goods. We also demonstrate that large high-income countries tend to have a more liberal approach to international civil aviation than small low-income countries.

  20. Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Tobie

    Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies…

  1. Air transport and tourism of Montenegro in terms of global recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's dynamic environment can be characterized as unstable and unpredictable, which significantly affects the development of tourism and the flow of air traffic management which is why the tourism industry should be understood as a process based on continuous research, analysis and understanding of the interactions between the identified changes. Starting from the geographical position and strategic documents on Transport and Tourism, Montenegro is positioned as a air traffic destination whose success in the tourism market is conditioned by the willingness and ability of the holder of the tourist and transport policy pursuant to the challenges of today's approaches to planning and precisely define the development goals and courses of action. Based on the above and due recognition of the economic crisis as the challenges that face our country emphasized the need to analyze the effects of the global economic crisis on the performance of air traffic and future development of tourism in Montenegro. With the intention of the comprehensive observation of the current situation, this paper will present quantitative data from the previous period with the development of air traffic forecasts, organized under the development of Montenegrin tourism. In this way we want the consequences of the global economic crisis displayed as a serious threat to the development of air traffic and tourism in Montenegro, with the ultimate aim of highlighting the importance of establishing high-quality air traffic as part of an integrated approach to tourism development of our country that can achieve a certain degree of resistance to contemporary challenges.

  2. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The program proceeded along five avenues during 1985. Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear, application of artificial intelligence in flight control and air traffic control systems, the use of voice recognition in the cockpit, the effects of control saturation on closed-loop stability and response of open-loop unstable aircraft, and computer aided control system design are among the topics briefly considered. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is the subject of principal concern.

  3. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  4. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The Effects of Safety Information on Aeronautical Decision Making; Design, Development, and Validation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats; Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP; An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances; and Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-level Airport Operations and Management Personnel.

  5. Neutron and gamma-ray transport experiments in liquid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Accurate estimates of neutron and gamma radiations from a nuclear explosion and their subsequent transport through the atmosphere are vital to nuclear-weapon employment studies: i.e., for determining safety radii for aircraft crews, casualty and collateral-damage risk radii for tactical weapons, and the kill range from a high-yield defensive burst for a maneuvering reentry vehicle. Radiation transport codes, such as the Laboratory's TARTNP, are used to calculate neutron and gamma fluences. Experiments have been performed to check and update these codes. Recently, a 1.3-m-radius liquid-air (21 percent oxygen) sphere, with a pulsed source of 14-MeV neutrons at its center, was used to measure the fluence and spectra of emerging neutrons and secondary gamma rays. Comparison of measured radiation dose with TARTNP showed agreement within 10 percent

  6. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  7. United States Transportation Command Compliance with DoD Policy on the Use of Commercial Sealift

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Mehlman, Benjamin A; Lippolis, Susan J; Avers, Marc E; Brake, Chrispian M; Lyons, Amber M; Alvarez Torres, Zorayma; Groubert, Christopher S; Milner, Jillisa H

    2007-01-01

    .... The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether USTRANSCOM was complying with DoD policies in the use of commercial transport during wartime and whether those policies provide optimal...

  8. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Verwer, J.G.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.

    2000-01-01

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species. This complicates the chemistry solution, easily causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we focus on the problem formed by chemistry and vertical transport, which is based on diffusion, cloud-related vertical winds, and wet deposition. Its specific nature leads to full Jacobian matrices, ruling out standard implicit integration. We compare Strang operator splitting with two alternatives: source splitting and an (unsplit) Rosenbrock method with approximate matrix factorization, all having equal computational cost. The comparison is performed with real data. All methods are applied with half-hour time steps, and give good accuracies. Rosenbrock is the most accurate, and source splitting is more accurate than Strang splitting. Splitting errors concentrate in short-lived species sensitive to solar radiation and species with strong emissions and depositions. 30 refs

  9. Air transportation and tourism in the Croatian littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Gašparović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse and explain the impact of air transportation on the development of tourism in the Croatian littoral. The analysis was made by using the data collected from flight schedules and airport authorities. The data on frequency of lines and number of passengers were analysed in order to correlate the distribution of the number of passengers with the number of tourists during the year. In this case, the correlation between the number of passengers and the number of arrivals/number of overnight stays is observed. Data for the time period from 2008 till 2010 were analysed in more detail by dividing the passengers into four categories: full-service passengers, low-cost passengers, charter passengers and general aviation passengers. Major touristic markets are identified on the basis of the number of connections between European and Croatian littoral airports. The last part of the paper deals with the increasing impact of low-cost services on the development of tourism in the Croatian littoral region. This is due to the fact that low-cost carriers have accounted for a considerable part of air transport in the last few years.

  10. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  11. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation required to be filed by §§ 221.20 and 221.30 and/or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air...

  12. Reducing air pollution in Europe : a study of boundaries between science and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, W.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the communication process between science and policy actors in assessment processes in the field of air quality policy inEurope. It focuses on the boundaries between science and policy and on the processes that shape assessments. It uses a

  13. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  14. Air medical transport personnel experiences with and opinions about research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jolene; Thomas, Frank; Carpenter, Judi; Handrahan, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined air medical transport (AMT) personnel's experiences with and opinions about prehospital and AMT research. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to eight randomly selected AMT programs from each of six Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS) regions. Responders were defined by university association (UA) and AMT professional role. Forty-eight of 54 (89%) contacted programs and 536 of 1,282 (42%) individuals responded. Non-UA responders (74%) had significantly more work experience in emergency medical services (EMS) (13.5 +/- 8.5 vs. 10.8 +/- 8.3 years, P = .002) and AMT (8.3 +/- 6.3 vs. 6.8 +/- 5.7 years, P = .008), whereas UA responders (26%) had more research training (51% vs. 37%, P = .006), experience (79% vs. 59%, P < .001), and grants (7% vs. 2%, P = .006). By AMT role, administrators had the most work experience, and physicians had the most research experience. Research productivity of responders was low, with only 9% having presented and 10% having published research; and UA made no difference in productivity. A majority of responders advocated research: EMS (66%) and AMT (68%), program (53%). Willingness to participate in research was high for both EMS research (87%) and AMT research (92%). Although AMT personnel were strong advocates of and willing to participate in research, few had research knowledge. For AMT personnel, disparity exists between advocating for and producing research. Copyright 2010 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-07-25

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children.

  16. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children. PMID:28757577

  17. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  18. 77 FR 50420 - Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Air Transportation System (NextGen) Transition to Performance-Based Navigation (PBN); Disposition of... safety, minimize economic impacts from GPS outages within the NAS and support air transportation's timing... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 91, 97, 121, 125, 129...

  19. 10 CFR 71.74 - Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. 71.74 Section 71.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.74 Accident conditions for air transport of...

  20. Sensitivity of neutron air transport to nitrogen cross section uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiler, A.; Beverly, W.B.; Banks, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The sensitivity of the transport of 14-MeV neutrons in sea level air to uncertainties in the ENDF/B-III values of the various Nitrogen cross sections has been calculated using the correlated sampling Monte Carlo neutron transport code SAMCEP. The source consisted of a 14.0- to 14.9-MeV band of isotropic neutrons and the fluences (0.5 to 15.0 MeV) were calculated at radii from 50 to 1500 metres. The maximum perturbations, assigned to the ENDF/B-III or base cross section set in the 6.0- to 14.5-MeV energy range were; (1) 2 percent to the total, (2) 10 percent to the total elastic, (3) 40 percent to the inelastic and absorption and (4) 20 percent to the first Legendre coefficient and 10 percent to the second Legendre coefficient of the elastic angular distribtuions. Transport calculations were carried out using various physically realistic sets of perturbed cross sections, bounded by evaluator-assigned uncertainties, as well as the base set. Results show that in some energy intervals at 1500 metres, the differential fluence level with a perturbed set differed by almost a factor of two from the differential fluence level with the base set. 5 figures

  1. Ruthenium transport experiments in air ingress accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teemu, Karkele; Ulrika, Backman; Ari, Auvinen; Unto, Tapper; Jorma, Jokiniemi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fine Particles (Finland); Riitta, Zilliacus; Maija, Lipponen; Tommi, Kekki [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Accident Management (Finland); Jorma, Jokiniemi [Kuopio Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Lab. (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    In this study the release, transport and speciation of ruthenium in conditions simulating an air ingress accident was studied. Ruthenium dioxide was exposed to oxidising environment at high temperature (1100-1700 K) in a tubular flow furnace. At these conditions volatile ruthenium species were formed. A large fraction of the released ruthenium was deposited in the tube as RuO{sub 2}. Depending on the experimental conditions 1-26 wt% of the released ruthenium was trapped in the outlet filter as RuO{sub 2} particles. In stainless steel tube 0-8.8 wt% of the released ruthenium reached the trapping bottle as gaseous RuO{sub 4}. A few experiments were carried out, in which revaporization of ruthenium deposited on the tube walls was studied. In these experiments, oxidation of RuO{sub 2} took place at a lower temperature. During revaporization experiments 35-65 % of ruthenium was transported as gaseous RuO{sub 4}. In order to close mass balance and achieve better time resolution 4 experiments were carried out using a radioactive tracer. In these experiments ruthenium profiles were measured. These experiments showed that the most important retention mechanism was decomposition of gaseous RuO{sub 3} into RuO{sub 2} as the temperature of the furnace was decreasing. In these experiments the transport rate of gaseous ruthenium was decreasing while the release rate was constant.

  2. Planning, climate change, and transportation : thoughts on policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Ideally, policy should be informed by social welfare analyses that carefully assess costs and benefits. In the context of : GHG policies, such analyses face particular challenges. The decades-long span of GHG policy-making will require introduction :...

  3. Kansas City Transportation and Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Kansas City Transportation Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) to learn more about local community air quality in three neighborhoods in Kansas City, KS.

  4. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  5. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies (book chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing meteo...

  6. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  7. Fused electron deficient semiconducting polymers for air stable electron transport

    KAUST Repository

    Onwubiko, Ada

    2018-01-23

    Conventional semiconducting polymer synthesis typically involves transition metal-mediated coupling reactions that link aromatic units with single bonds along the backbone. Rotation around these bonds contributes to conformational and energetic disorder and therefore potentially limits charge delocalisation, whereas the use of transition metals presents difficulties for sustainability and application in biological environments. Here we show that a simple aldol condensation reaction can prepare polymers where double bonds lock-in a rigid backbone conformation, thus eliminating free rotation along the conjugated backbone. This polymerisation route requires neither organometallic monomers nor transition metal catalysts and offers a reliable design strategy to facilitate delocalisation of frontier molecular orbitals, elimination of energetic disorder arising from rotational torsion and allowing closer interchain electronic coupling. These characteristics are desirable for high charge carrier mobilities. Our polymers with a high electron affinity display long wavelength NIR absorption with air stable electron transport in solution processed organic thin film transistors.

  8. Economic and Legal Aspects of Air Transport in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisoo Mihandoust

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aviation sector has highlighted the importance of economic and legal regulations in conjunction with the changes in the conditions of competition with the acceleration of globalization. The regulations in the aviation sector directly or indirectly affect the airline operators, which is critical as a result of its effects on the economic systems of the countries. Legal responsibilities in terms of influencing passenger rights and competition law issues; has a natural impact on shaping aviation regulations, sector dynamics and competitive conditions which is effecting the dynamic structure of the sector. This study aims to examine the economic and legal aspects of air transportation carried out in Turkey and to contribute to the literature as a result of the researches.

  9. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α=2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  10. Plutonium transport for the oxide form. Air and road accidentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Hubert, P.; Pages, P.

    1989-07-01

    The aim of the study is to define the probability of accident that can be applied to a packaging for plutonium oxide transport. The analysis is designed essentially for packagings of few tons with impact resistance corresponding to a speed of 10 m/s but can be used for packagings with a resistance corresponding to IAEA tests. This work is based on analysis and processing of 2 accident files: one on road accidents, the other on air accidents. Computer codes are developed, from one hand, to obtain stress indicator distribution by Monte Carlo methods and on the other hand to link these distributions to itinerary parameters. Previous similar studies are examined and compared to figures obtained here and explained as far as possible [fr

  11. Fused electron deficient semiconducting polymers for air stable electron transport

    KAUST Repository

    Onwubiko, Ada; Yue, Wan; Jellett, Cameron; Xiao, Mingfei; Chen, Hung-Yang; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Hanifi, David A.; Knall, Astrid-Caroline; Purushothaman, Balaji; Nikolka, Mark; Flores, Jean-Charles; Salleo, Alberto; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Sirringhaus, Henning; Hayoz, Pascal; McCulloch, Iain

    2018-01-01

    Conventional semiconducting polymer synthesis typically involves transition metal-mediated coupling reactions that link aromatic units with single bonds along the backbone. Rotation around these bonds contributes to conformational and energetic disorder and therefore potentially limits charge delocalisation, whereas the use of transition metals presents difficulties for sustainability and application in biological environments. Here we show that a simple aldol condensation reaction can prepare polymers where double bonds lock-in a rigid backbone conformation, thus eliminating free rotation along the conjugated backbone. This polymerisation route requires neither organometallic monomers nor transition metal catalysts and offers a reliable design strategy to facilitate delocalisation of frontier molecular orbitals, elimination of energetic disorder arising from rotational torsion and allowing closer interchain electronic coupling. These characteristics are desirable for high charge carrier mobilities. Our polymers with a high electron affinity display long wavelength NIR absorption with air stable electron transport in solution processed organic thin film transistors.

  12. Fused electron deficient semiconducting polymers for air stable electron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwubiko, Ada; Yue, Wan; Jellett, Cameron; Xiao, Mingfei; Chen, Hung-Yang; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Hanifi, David A; Knall, Astrid-Caroline; Purushothaman, Balaji; Nikolka, Mark; Flores, Jean-Charles; Salleo, Alberto; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Sirringhaus, Henning; Hayoz, Pascal; McCulloch, Iain

    2018-01-29

    Conventional semiconducting polymer synthesis typically involves transition metal-mediated coupling reactions that link aromatic units with single bonds along the backbone. Rotation around these bonds contributes to conformational and energetic disorder and therefore potentially limits charge delocalisation, whereas the use of transition metals presents difficulties for sustainability and application in biological environments. Here we show that a simple aldol condensation reaction can prepare polymers where double bonds lock-in a rigid backbone conformation, thus eliminating free rotation along the conjugated backbone. This polymerisation route requires neither organometallic monomers nor transition metal catalysts and offers a reliable design strategy to facilitate delocalisation of frontier molecular orbitals, elimination of energetic disorder arising from rotational torsion and allowing closer interchain electronic coupling. These characteristics are desirable for high charge carrier mobilities. Our polymers with a high electron affinity display long wavelength NIR absorption with air stable electron transport in solution processed organic thin film transistors.

  13. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  14. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary factors critical to successful emergency perinatal air transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Regionalization of specialized perinatal care is a fully viable and progressing concept. The two major components of regionalized care are the level III care facility and the air transport service. In descending importance, the medical transport team...

  15. Evaluation of Triple Containment Method for Air Transport of Contaminated Human

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, J

    2003-01-01

    A triple containment system intended for transport of biologically contaminated human remains was tested for its ability to maintain integrity during exposure to altitude changes representative of air transport...

  16. How Does Transport Policy Cope with Climate Challenges? Experiences from the UK and Other European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Lawler, Mary; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Transport is one of the fastest growing sources of emissions of greenhouse gases. Some European countries have adopted comprehensive “sustainable transport” policies, in which climate change is addressed. This paper looks into how sustainable transport policy frameworks deal with climate change c...

  17. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  18. Do driving restriction policies effectively motivate commuters to use public transportation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunxia; Hong, Zaisheng; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Driving restriction policies have been implemented in some large Chinese cities to cope with severe urban smog pollution. We explored the roles of policy acceptance and other factors in commuters' transport mode decisions, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Tianjin, China. A structural equation model was developed to test eight hypotheses, two of which were rejected. The results indicate that a driving restriction policy alone cannot effectively motivate commuters to use public transport if the policymakers fail to improve public transport, enhance commuters' awareness of consequences, increase commuters' perceived behavior control, and encourage car owners to change driving behavior. Comparisons between car owners and non-owners indicated that car owners view driving restriction policy and public transport more negatively. These negative views could be a barrier for the promotion of public transport among car owners. In addition, attitude toward public transport was found to have positive correlation with commuting time. - Highlights: • Attitude towards public transport has an impact on policy acceptance. • Driving habit indirectly affects policy acceptance and perceived behavior control. • Driving restriction policy and public transport are not popular among car owners. • Attitude towards public transport correlates positively with commuting time.

  19. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  20. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-01-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  1. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-07-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  2. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  3. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3 and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon air pollutants for the period 1970–2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport, which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3 higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27, demonstrating the large

  4. Evaluation of life-cycle air emission factors of freight transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facanha, Cristiano; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-10-15

    Life-cycle air emission factors associated with road, rail, and air transportation of freight in the United States are analyzed. All life-cycle phases of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuels are accounted for in a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA). It includes not only fuel combustion, but also emissions from vehicle manufacturing, maintenance, and end of life, infrastructure construction, operation, maintenance, and end of life, and petroleum exploration, refining, and fuel distribution. Results indicate that total life-cycle emissions of freight transportation modes are underestimated if only tailpipe emissions are accounted for. In the case of CO2 and NOx, tailpipe emissions underestimate total emissions by up to 38%, depending on the mode. Total life-cycle emissions of CO and SO2 are up to seven times higher than tailpipe emissions. Sensitivity analysis considers the effects of vehicle type, geography, and mode efficiency on the final results. Policy implications of this analysis are also discussed. For example, while it is widely assumed that currently proposed regulations will result in substantial reductions in emissions, we find that this is true for NOx, emissions, because fuel combustion is the main cause, and to a lesser extent for SO2, but not for PM10 emissions, which are significantly affected by the other life-cycle phases.

  5. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  6. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  7. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  8. The Role of Air Transport in the Development of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zajac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are close links between air transport and international tourism. The latter, in a significant way has an impact on the development and stimulation of changes in aviation and, in particular, this applies to establishing new routes or increasing competition by the emergence of new air carriers. The essence of aviation is manifested in the aviation business travel and learning about the new States. Therefore, a change that has been made in aviation in the second half of the 20th century is a breakthrough. It is about a liberalization of this sector, which has enabled the development of international tourism. There are plenty of benefits for the development of tourism coming from the liberalization of aviation sector. Thanks to competitive prices and continually increasing offer of air connections to various places in the world, demand for tourism is growing trend. Among the factors hampering the development of aviation tourism, the following should be included: maintaining the visa requirement for many countries, the threat of terrorist attacks, a set of factors in the structure of tourism and safety issue. When it comes to Europe, along with the implementation of the common policy of the European Union, the sector of the tourism industry started to develop. Eliminating internal barriers and the gradual implementation of the freedom of movement of persons, services and capital has led to an increase in the demand for tourism in the EU. Europe is an attractive tourist destination in the world.

  9. Smoke-free air policies: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Andrew; Barnoya, Joaquin; Corral, Juan E

    2012-03-01

    Smoke-free policies have been an important tobacco control intervention. As recently as 20 years ago, few communities required workplaces and hospitality venues to be smoke-free, but today approximately 11% of the world's population live in countries with laws that require these places to be smoke-free. This paper briefly summarises important milestones in the history of indoor smoke-free policies, the role of scientific research in facilitating their adoption, a framework for smoke-free policy evaluation and industry efforts to undermine regulations. At present, smoke-free policies centre on workplaces, restaurants and pubs. In addition, many jurisdictions are now beginning to implement policies in outdoor areas and in shared multiunit housing settings. The future of smoke-free policy development depends on credible scientific data that documents the health risks of secondhand smoke exposure. Over the next 20 years smoke-free policies will very likely extend to outdoor and private areas, and changes in the types of tobacco products that are consumed may also have implications for the nature and scope of the smoke-free policies of the future.

  10. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  11. Traffic-related air pollution and health co-benefits of alternative transport in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Nitschke, Monika; Zhang, Ying; Shah, Pushan; Crabb, Shona; Hansen, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of the world's energy-related greenhouse gases and cause non-negligible air pollution, primarily in urban areas. Changing people's travel behaviour towards alternative transport is an efficient approach to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large number of vehicles. Such a strategy also provides an opportunity to gain health co-benefits of improved air quality and enhanced physical activities. This study aimed at quantifying co-benefit effects of alternative transport use in Adelaide, South Australia. We made projections for a business-as-usual scenario for 2030 with alternative transport scenarios. Separate models including air pollution models and comparative risk assessment health models were developed to link alternative transport scenarios with possible environmental and health benefits. In the study region with an estimated population of 1.4 million in 2030, by shifting 40% of vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) by passenger vehicles to alternative transport, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by approximately 0.4μg/m(3) compared to business-as-usual, resulting in net health benefits of an estimated 13deaths/year prevented and 118 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented per year due to improved air quality. Further health benefits would be obtained from improved physical fitness through active transport (508deaths/year prevented, 6569DALYs/year prevented), and changes in traffic injuries (21 deaths and, 960 DALYs prevented). Although uncertainties remain, our findings suggest that significant environmental and health benefits are possible if alternative transport replaces even a relatively small portion of car trips. The results may provide assistance to various government organisations and relevant service providers and promote collaboration in policy-making, city planning and infrastructure establishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect; Transport aerien de passagers et effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, M

    2004-11-01

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Water vapour (H{sub 2}O) and NO{sub x} emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO{sub 2} emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  13. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Briggs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (inactivity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality: 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.

  14. The role of the railways in the future of air transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Banister, D.

    2007-01-01

    The role of the railways in the air transport industry is usually limited to provision of access to airports. However, the development of high-speed rail networks and the congestion and environmental problems faced by the air transport industry suggest the railways could have a greater role in

  15. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  16. 76 FR 77939 - Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 91, 121, 125, 129, and 135 Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (Next...) navigation infrastructure to enable performance-based navigation (PBN) as part of the Next Generation Air...

  17. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  18. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  19. A survey of the transport of radioactive materials by air to, from and within the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Watson, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive materials are frequently transported overseas by air for medical and industrial purposes. Among the advantages of this mode of transport is that urgent delivery is often required because some radionuclides are short lived. There are also a limited number of shipments by air within the UK. Scheduled passenger services or freight only aircraft may be used. Packages of radioactive materials are transported in aircraft holds at recommended segregation distances from areas occupied by passengers and crew. Many workers are involved in air transport and it is necessary to have procedures in place to minimise their exposure to ionising radiation

  20. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  1. Catching air? Climate change policy in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonis-Helf, Theresa

    2003-01-01

    Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan have each participated actively in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conferences of the Parties, and each is developing domestic rules and institutions to address UN obligations under the treaties. Russia and Ukraine are each Annex I/Annex B countries. Kazakhstan will become Annex I upon ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, but has not yet established itself as Annex B. Each state has evolved a distinct set of policies and priorities in the domestic and the international arena. Drawing largely on interviews in each country, this article presents brief histories of the evolution of climate policy, focusing on each state's behavior in the international arena, the sources of domestic policy leadership, and the forces that led to change in each national approach. Current policies and practices are evaluated with an eye towards learning from the successes and failures in each state

  2. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Korea’s air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. Methods In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. Results This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Conclusions Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts. PMID:25300297

  3. 78 FR 40966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter... a State Implementation Plan (SIP) submittal from the State of New Mexico to address Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) requirements that prohibit air emissions which will contribute significantly to...

  4. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material as type A package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Kageyama, Tomio; Suzuki, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Special law on nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to nuclear disaster countermeasures low) that is domestic law for dealing with measures for nuclear disaster, was enforced in June, 2000. Therefore, nuclear enterprise was obliged to report accidents as required by nuclear disaster countermeasures law, besides meeting the technical requirement of existent transport regulation. For overseas procurement of plutonium reference materials that are needed for material accountability, A Type package must be transported by air. Therefore, concept of air transport of nuclear fuel materials according to the nuclear disaster countermeasures law was discussed, and the manual including measures against accident in air transport was prepared for the oversea procurement. In this presentation, the concept of air transport of A Type package containing nuclear fuel materials according to the nuclear disaster countermeasures law, and the experience of a transportation of plutonium solution from France are shown. (author)

  5. Effects of burstiness on the air transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The effects of burstiness in complex networks have received considerable attention. In particular, the effects on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system are significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, the temporal distance of empirical U.S. flight schedule data is compared with that of regularized data without burstiness to analyze the effects of burstiness. The temporal distance is calculated by a graph analysis method considering flight delays, missed connections, flight cancellations, and congestion. In addition, we propose two temporal distance indexes based on passengers' behavior to quantify the effects. As a result, we find that burstiness reduces both the scheduled and the actual temporal distances for business travelers, while delays caused by missed connections and congestion are increased. We also find that the decrease of the scheduled temporal distance by burstiness is offset by an increase of the delays for leisure passengers. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules are overcrowded.

  6. Effects of burstiness on the air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The effects of burstiness in complex networks have received considerable attention. In particular, the effects on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system are significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, the temporal distance of empirical U.S. flight schedule data is compared with that of regularized data without burstiness to analyze the effects of burstiness. The temporal distance is calculated by a graph analysis method considering flight delays, missed connections, flight cancellations, and congestion. In addition, we propose two temporal distance indexes based on passengers' behavior to quantify the effects. As a result, we find that burstiness reduces both the scheduled and the actual temporal distances for business travelers, while delays caused by missed connections and congestion are increased. We also find that the decrease of the scheduled temporal distance by burstiness is offset by an increase of the delays for leisure passengers. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules are overcrowded.

  7. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    for underlying sets of values and norms to enter the policy process more freely and explicitly. However, do we then have the cultures and moral force to build effective sustainable transport policies and plans? The article therefore also looks into a range of overlapping approaches that may potentially aid...... in rethinking and rebuilding transport policy-making and planning processes in terms of cultural learning processes. Finally, the role of the planner as a ‘cultural entrepreneur’ and ‘cultural story-teller’ is presented as potential tool to push through new agendas or ideas, such as more sustainable transport...

  8. A policy instruments working paper on reducing CO2 emissions from the transportation sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The cost effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing CO 2 emissions from transportation was studied. Cost effectiveness analyzed the impact of the policy instruments in reducing CO 2 emissions against the costs that were incurred while obtaining CO 2 reductions. The approach to defining sustainable transportation was identified which integrates three different visions of the transportation challenge: (1) changing urban form to reduce the need for transportation, (2) advancing technology to reduce the ecological impact of transportation, and (3) changing prices of transportation so that users pay for the full social and environmental costs of their decisions. The general consensus was that while fuel tax on gasoline for automobiles appeared to be the most cost effective option available, all revenue generating options, (e.g.,parking pricing, reference energy factor-related rebates, full cost road pricing and taxation) rated higher on the cost effectiveness indexes than any of the other policy instruments considered. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  10. Air bubbles and hemolysis of blood samples during transport by pneumatic tube systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Garrett R; Bruns, David E

    2017-10-01

    Transport of blood samples through pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) generates air bubbles in transported blood samples and, with increasing duration of transport, the appearance of hemolysis. We investigated the role of air-bubble formation in PTS-induced hemolysis. Air was introduced into blood samples for 0, 1, 3 or 5min to form air bubbles. Hemolysis in the blood was assessed by (H)-index, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and potassium in plasma. In an effort to prevent PTS-induced hemolysis, blood sample tubes were completely filled, to prevent air bubble formation, and compared with partially filled samples after PTS transport. We also compared hemolysis in anticoagulated vs clotted blood subjected to PTS transport. As with transport through PTSs, the duration of air bubble formation in blood by a gentle stream of air predicted the extent of hemolysis as measured by H-index (pair space in a blood sample prevented bubble formation and fully protected the blood from PTS-induced hemolysis (ptransport and was partially protected from hemolysis vs anticoagulated blood as indicated by lower LD (ptransport. Prevention of air bubble formation in blood samples during PTS transport protects samples from hemolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Some considerations for air transportation analysis to non-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the problems associated with air transportation to and from nonurban areas. While a significant proportion of public transportation needs of nonurban areas are met by aircraft, there are indications that improvement in air transportation service are called for and would be rewarded by increased patronage. However, subsidized local service carriers are attracted by large aircraft operation, and there is a tendency to discontinue service to low density areas. Prospects and potential means for reversing this trend are discussed.

  12. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. This report discusses issues associated with air transport regulations

  13. Member States in Top Gear. Opportunities for national policies to reduce GHG emissions in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Den Boer, E.; Warringa, G.

    2012-10-15

    National sustainable transport policies in EU Member States are compared, with a focus on both current legislation and long-term climate policy. The study is input for the conference 'Keep moving, towards sustainable mobility' to be held in Rotterdam, October 11, 2012, and organised by the European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC) and the Dutch Council for the Environment and Infrastructure (Rli). The study reviews the main trends in transport and climate policy in EU Member States, for ten of which an in-depth analysis of relevant policies was also performed.

  14. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  15. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  16. 75 FR 20922 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... with the January 2009, ``Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation Plans... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Transportation Conformity Requirement for... Transportation Conformity? II. What Is the Background for This Action? III. What Did the State Submit and How Did...

  17. An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Hers, Sebastiaan; Van der Zwaan, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal climate change and air pollution policy, the world's oil reserves will not be depleted, at least not before our modeling horizon well into the 22nd century: total cumulative demand for oil decreases by about 24%. More generally, we demonstrate that there are multiple other benefits of combining climate change, air pollution, and energy security policies and exploiting the possible synergies between them. These benefits can be large: for Europe the achievable CO 2 emission abatement and oil consumption reduction levels are significantly deeper for integrated policy than when a strategy is adopted in which one of the three policies is omitted. Integrated optimal energy policy can reduce the number of premature deaths from air pollution by about 14,000 annually in Europe and over 3 million per year globally, by lowering the chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter. Only the optimal strategy combining the three types of energy policy can constrain the global average atmospheric temperature increase to a limit of 3 C with respect to the pre-industrial level. (author)

  18. Online media coverage of air pollution risks and current policies in India: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Negi, Nalin S; Puri, Pallavi; Mullin, Sandra; Onyon, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    Background Air pollution is of particular concern in India, which contains 11 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world. Media coverage of air pollution issues plays an important role in influencing public opinion and increasing citizen demand for action on clean air policy. Hence, this study was designed to assess news coverage of air pollution in India and its implications for policy advancement. Methods Articles published online between 1 January 2014 and 31 October 2015 that discussed air pollution in India were systematically content analysed. From 6435 articles in the national media and 271 articles in the international media, a random selection of 500 articles (400 from national and 100 from international media) were analysed and coded by two independent coders, after high inter-rater reliability (kappa statistic above 0.8) was established. Results There was an increase in the number of news stories on air pollution in India in the national media over the study period; 317 (63%) stories described the risk to health from air pollution as moderately to extremely severe, and 393 (79%) stories described the situation as needing urgent action. Limited information was provided on the kinds of illnesses that can result from exposure. Less than 30% of stories in either media specifically mentioned the common illnesses resulting from air pollution. Very few articles in either media mentioned the population groups most at risk from air pollution, such as children or older people. Vehicles were presented most often as the cause of air pollution in India (in over 50% of articles in both national and international media). Some of the most important sources of air pollution were mentioned less often: 6% of national and 18% of international media articles mentioned unclean sources of household energy; 3% of national and 9% of international media articles mentioned agricultural field burning. Finally, the majority of articles (405; 81%) did not mention any specific

  19. Heterogeneity of passenger exposure to air pollutants in public transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fenhuan; Kaul, Daya; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Sun, Li; Ho, Kin-fai; Tian, Linwei; Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked human exposure to pollutants with adverse health effects. Passenger exposure in public transport systems contributes an important fraction of daily burden of air pollutants. While there is extensive literature reporting the concentrations of pollutants in public transport systems in different cities, there are few studies systematically addressing the heterogeneity of passenger exposure in different transit microenvironments, in cabins of different transit vehicles and in areas with different characteristics. The present study investigated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP) and carbon monoxide (CO) pollutant concentrations in various public road transport systems in highly urbanized city of Hong Kong. Using a trolley case housing numerous portable air monitors, we conducted a total of 119 trips during the campaign. Transit microenvironments, classified as 1). busy and secondary roadside bus stops; 2). open and enclosed termini; 3). above- and under-ground Motor Rail Transport (MTR) platforms, were investigated and compared to identify the factors that may affect passenger exposures. The pollutants inside bus and MTR cabins were also investigated together with a comparison of time integrated exposure between the transit modes. Busy roadside and enclosed termini demonstrated the highest average particle concentrations while the lowest was found on the MTR platforms. Traffic-related pollutants BC, UFP and CO showed larger variations than PM2.5 across different microenvironments and areas confirming their heterogeneity in urban environments. In-cabin pollutant concentrations showed distinct patterns with BC and UFP high in diesel bus cabins and CO high in LPG bus cabins, suggesting possible self-pollution issues and/or penetration of on-road pollutants inside cabins during bus transit. The total passenger exposure along selected routes, showed bus

  20. Overview of mitigation policies and measures in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, J. [IIEC-ASIA, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the author looks at the general question of what can be done in the transportation sector to address the problem of greenhouse gas emissions. Obviously, fewer vehicles is less emission. But on a global scale he reviews the population growth in major cities, the type of transport employed, the correlation of vehicle ownership and gross national product, as well as the costs, direct and indirect of letting more personal wealth drive one to personal vehicles as a way to transport oneself to work. The increased speed comes with many costs for the individual and for society. The development of mass transportation systems provides a number of benefits, in the form of urban development, less reliance on imported fuels, transport system health, general health and productivity of work force, and reduced costs to government to support transportation systems.

  1. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  2. Economic and Environmental Effects of Public Transport Subsidy Policies: a Spatial CGE Model of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays an important role in the environment. This study established a Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (SCGE model to examine the economic and environmental effects of public transport subsidy policies. The model includes firms, consumers, and traffic modules in one framework. Statistical data from Beijing were used in calibration to obtain benchmark equilibrium. Based on the equilibrium, simulations compared citywide social welfare, jobs-housing spatial population distribution, and environmental outputs under four subsidy policies: fare subsidy, cash grants, road expansion, and public transport speedup. Based on the results regarding the effects of public transport policies, conclusions can be drawn about which policies will have greater overall social influence and should therefore be used.

  3. The Impact of Transport Mode and Carbon Policy on Low-Carbon Retailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon retail has become a strategic target for many developed and developing economies. This study discusses the impact of transport mode and carbon policy on achieving this objective. We investigated the retailer transportation mode, pricing, and ordering strategy, which all consider carbon-sensitive demand under the carbon cap-and-trade policy. We analyzed the optimal decision of retailer and their maximum profit affected by transport mode and cap-and-trade policy parameters. Results show that the two elements (cap-and-trade policy and consumer low-carbon awareness could encourage the retailer to choose low-carbon transportation. The two elements also influence the profit and optimal decision of retailer. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the applicability of the model.

  4. Sustainable transportation : developing a framework for policy innovation December 14, 1993 summary of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the future. How can sustainable development be linked meaningfully to transportation planning and policies? On December 14, 1993, the Department of Transp...

  5. Freight Transportation Information Systems and Their Implications for R&D Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    The current use of computerized management information and control systems in intercity freight transportation are examined. Each of the four modes (railroad, motor carrier, maritime and air cargo industries) is investigated. In each case, computer i...

  6. Benefits of European climate policies for mercury air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafaj, P.; Cofala, J.; Kuenen, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Zyśk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix

  7. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific

  8. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  9. Indicators for sustainable transport policy in Denmark - why, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Cornet, Yannick

    in the Danish transport policy, using policy goals, sustainability indicators and performance measures. The paper represents a first step in the SUSTAIN project aiming to develop a framework for national sustainable transport planning. The paper will draw on analysis of experience with the development and use......Denmark and other countries have the ambition to move towards a sustainable transport system. However it is challenging to achieve and credibly demonstrate progress towards sustainability in transport. The paper will specify foundations for monitoring and reporting progress towards sustainability...... of sustainability indicators to report transport policy performance, in Europe, North America and other parts of the world. The experience will be connected to critical literature in the areas of sustainability theory, knowledge utilization, and implementation in order to identify challenges to overcome...

  10. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Rienstra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologiesmay be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this

  11. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation: the case of Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vad Mathiesen, B.; Kappel, J.

    2013-03-15

    This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark's dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008 and 2009 with a change - not only in the wording and in the political visions - but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milestone was set by the Government, to have Denmark based on 100% renewable energy in 2050. This entails large challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters explain in further debt these policies and their effects as well as a number of additional policies and initiatives related to climate mitigation and transport. The private sector and local government has proven important in connection with an efficient transport sector. Hence selected local and regional projects and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report is prepared as one of many inputs to the analyses conducted in The Swedish Government's Commission on fossil-free road transport. The task of this Commission is to: ''review alternative developments of fuels and vehicles for fossil-free road transport, to consider measures and policy options that would enable the Swedish road transport system to become climate neutral by 2050, and to propose intermediate emission reduction targets for years such as

  12. Climatological variability in modeling of long-term regional transport and deposition of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    In a growing number of emission policy analyses, regulatory proceedings, and cost/benefit assessments, numerical models of long-range transport and deposition of air pollutants have been exercised to estimate source-receptor (S-R) relationships--for the particular meteorological conditions input to the model. The representativeness of the meteorological conditions, or the variability of the model estimates with climatological input from different years or corresponding seasons from different years, is seldom evaluated. Here, two full years (1980 and 1981) of meteorological data, as well as data from January and July of 1978, are used in the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model (Shannon, 1981), one of the eight Memorandum of Intent (MOI) models, to estimate deposition for the S-R matrix combination of eleven source regions and nine receptors used in the MOI reports. (S-R matrices of dimensions 40 by 9 were also examined in the MOI reports.) Improvements in the ASTRAP model and in the emission inventory since the earlier work require recalculation of the two-month 1978 simulation in order for the comparison to isolate the effect of meteorological variability. The source regions are listed, and the receptor regions are provide. For completeness, an additional source region, the western states and provinces, has been added, as well as a total for the 48 contiguous states and 10 provinces. 4 references, 9 tables

  13. Vision on Scarcity of Transportation. Policy with regard to scarcity of transportation capacity in the electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, K.; Fransen, M.; Kranenburg, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Competitive Authority NMa established increasing problems that are related to the (possible future) scarcity in transportation capacity in the electricity grid. This vision document aims to inform market parties about the general vision of NMa in relation to the scarcity issue. This document first addresses the problems related to scarcity in transport capacity in the electricity grid. Next policy developments in this area are discussed and NMa's vision is elaborated and explained [nl

  14. Incorporating traveler response to pricing policies in comprehensive activity-based models of transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademi, E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of studies and continued policy interest in road pricing strategies and technologies represent new challenges to transportation researchers in their attempt to better understand and predict the impact of various pricing strategies on travel behavior. We contend that these policies

  15. The role of revenue use in the acceptability of transport pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, Geertje; Steg, Linda

    Generally, pricing policies are believed to be effective in reducing problems of massive car use. However, pricing policies are not easily implemented, as they are hardly acceptable to the public. Studies indicate that revenue allocation is important for the acceptability of transport pricing.

  16. Measuring the impact of urban policies on transportation energy saving using a land use-transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Kii

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of a land-use transport model to the assessment of urban policies for building smart communities. First, we outline a model that explicitly formulates the actors' location-related decisions and travel behavior. Second, we apply this model to two urban policies – road pricing and land-use regulation – to assess their long-term impact on energy saving and sustainability using the case of a simplified synthetic city. Our study verifies that, under assumed conditions, the model has the capacity to assess urban policies on energy use and sustainability in a consistent fashion.

  17. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  18. Transportation and information trends in technology and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Piyushimita

    2013-01-01

    Transformations in wireless connectivity and location-aware technologies hold the promise of bringing a sea-change in the way transportation information is generated and used in the future. Sensors in the transportation system, when integrated with those in other sectors (for example, energy, utility and health) have the potential to foster novel new ways of improving livability and sustainability.The end-result of these developments has been somewhat contradictory. Although automation in the transportation environment has become increasingly widespread, the level of involvement and active par

  19. Public policies of struggle against air pollution. A survey requested by the National Assembly Committee for assessment and control of public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This report focuses on the assessment and perspectives of French public policies of struggle against outdoor air pollution, out of problems related to greenhouse gas emissions. It is based on a sectoral analysis of actions undertaken by public authorities, but also and more particularly on measures adopted within the frame of pollution peak management in March 2014 and March 2015, as well as on plans for atmosphere protection adopted in Ile-de-France, in the Arve river valley, in Bouches-du-Rhone, in Haute-Normandie, and in the Grenoble region, as these regions display very different characteristics in terms of atmospheric pollution. A questionnaire was also sent to regional authorities, and measures adopted for air quality control in some neighbouring countries (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Switzerland) have been examined. The report shows that stakes are always better identified and addressed (general improvement of regulated pollutants, confirmed risks for health, a constraining regulatory framework, and pollutants still to be better controlled). However, it shows that measures are not coherent enough. It highlights contradictions with other national policies, badly organised governance, the existence of multiple legal and financial tools but with not well known expenses, and a not very convincing management of pollution peaks. It discusses efforts to be amplified: a wider scope of application of the polluter-pay principle, a better distribution of efforts among activity sectors, an implementation of more ambitious arrangements in the transport sector, and a better communication for a better change acceptance

  20. The Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT): Using the Estimating Supplies Program (ESP) to Validate Clinical Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-05

    Disease, Severe. 0249 Peptic Ulcer , Gastric or Duodenal, Penetrating and/or Perforating . 0250 Peptic Ulcer , Gastric or Duodenal, Uncomplicated. 0251...in US Air Force (USAF) Allowance Standard (AS) development and management . The Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) Unit Type Code (UTC) AS was...tasks enabling the management of the critically ill or injured en route to the appropriate level of care (LOC) or medical treatment facility (MTF

  1. Managing energy demand through transport policy: What can South Africa learn from Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderschuren, Marianne; Lane, T.E.; Korver, W.

    2010-01-01

    For years, the world has enjoyed the luxury of inexpensive transport fuels, resulting in the continuous expansion of transport demand and vast improvements in mobility levels. The threat of peak oil and other environmental concerns, however, are forcing a paradigm shift in terms of transport planning. In recent times, many developed nations have been investigating alternative ways and means of weaning themselves off oil as the main transport energy source and managing transport energy demand. South Africa is a developing nation that, in terms of transportation technology and policy, lags behind developed countries. This presents South Africa with the opportunity to learn from other countries' triumphs and mistakes and to skip over obsolete investment patterns and ineffective policy. It needs to be determined what South Africa can do to bend the stream of continuously growing transport (energy) demand, without hampering growth in mobility. Solutions can potentially be found by looking at the European Union's past and present situation and responses. This paper summarises various European energy management transport policies. These policies are translated into a South African context-pros, cons and implementation viability are identified.

  2. Managing energy demand through transport policy. What can South Africa learn from Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderschuren, Marianne [Centre for Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, 7701 Rondebosch (South Africa); Lane, T.E. [Centre for Transport Studies, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Korver, W. [Goudappel Coffeng BV (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    For years, the world has enjoyed the luxury of inexpensive transport fuels, resulting in the continuous expansion of transport demand and vast improvements in mobility levels. The threat of peak oil and other environmental concerns, however, are forcing a paradigm shift in terms of transport planning. In recent times, many developed nations have been investigating alternative ways and means of weaning themselves off oil as the main transport energy source and managing transport energy demand. South Africa is a developing nation that, in terms of transportation technology and policy, lags behind developed countries. This presents South Africa with the opportunity to learn from other countries' triumphs and mistakes and to skip over obsolete investment patterns and in effective policy. It needs to be determined what South Africa can do to bend the stream of continuously growing transport (energy) demand, without hampering growth in mobility. Solutions can potentially be found by looking at the European Union's past and present situation and responses. This paper summarises various European energy management transport policies. These policies are translated into a South African context - pros, cons and implementation viability are identified. (author)

  3. Managing energy demand through transport policy: What can South Africa learn from Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderschuren, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.vanderschuren@uct.ac.z [Centre for Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, 7701 Rondebosch (South Africa); Lane, T.E., E-mail: lane.tanya@gmail.co [Centre for Transport Studies, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Korver, W., E-mail: WKorver@goudappel.n [Goudappel Coffeng BV (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    For years, the world has enjoyed the luxury of inexpensive transport fuels, resulting in the continuous expansion of transport demand and vast improvements in mobility levels. The threat of peak oil and other environmental concerns, however, are forcing a paradigm shift in terms of transport planning. In recent times, many developed nations have been investigating alternative ways and means of weaning themselves off oil as the main transport energy source and managing transport energy demand. South Africa is a developing nation that, in terms of transportation technology and policy, lags behind developed countries. This presents South Africa with the opportunity to learn from other countries' triumphs and mistakes and to skip over obsolete investment patterns and ineffective policy. It needs to be determined what South Africa can do to bend the stream of continuously growing transport (energy) demand, without hampering growth in mobility. Solutions can potentially be found by looking at the European Union's past and present situation and responses. This paper summarises various European energy management transport policies. These policies are translated into a South African context-pros, cons and implementation viability are identified.

  4. Trans-Continental Transport of Air Pollution from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, I.; Chen, B.; Carmichael, G.; Solomon, P.; Sofiev, M.; Sitnov, S.; Rubinstein, K.; Maximenkov, L.; Artamonova, M.; Pogarski, F.

    2009-04-01

    was made in adjoint mode, aiming at evaluation of the footprint of the two observations sites - Bishkek and Lidar stations. Here the footprint is the area, which sources affected the observations within the selected period. The analysis of carry of aerosol particles on Central Tien-Shan and further on the basis of construction 4- day time back and direct trajectories is carried out, which were calculated for all days of realization of lidar measurements. The resulting trajectory air mass and density distribution of impurities, which is regionally polluted continental (RPC) air masses transported from Western air flow from Central Asia contributed significantly to the level of pollution at Japanese station Happo. Measuring the content of aerosols in the atmosphere in Central Asia held in a small number of items, and currently available data are insufficient to specify the initial conditions and / or verification of long-range transport models. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

  5. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  6. Transport Flow Control and Connection Admission Policies for Reliable Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamont, Louise

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to determine transport protocol performance characteristics over high speed trans-Atlantic ATM connections, using national High Speed Test Networks and Teleglobe's trans...

  7. Sign Life-Cycle Policies and Practices : Transportation Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    MnDOT Metro District Traffic Engineering is interested in the practices that other state departments of transportation (DOTs) use to determine traffic sign life expectancy and replacement. Of particular interest is the state of the practice regarding...

  8. Transport sector strategies and their impact on the air quality and on greenhouse gasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Portillo Jimenez-Landi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The transport sector plays on essential role in our society, but generates non desired effects on the air quality as well on climate change. This is the reason why the transport and the environment governmental actions are crucial to mitigate them. In this article we introduced the most important resources and regulations to control and to evaluate the air quality and emissions, and also the most relevant objectives in transport actions to reduce them, not only in Spain but also in the European Union. We discuss herein their compliance degree and their effectiveness in relation with the transport emissions evolution during 1990-2006 in spain. (Author) 11 refs

  9. Tariff Policy and Transport Costs under Reciprocal Dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Oshiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes tariff competition by investigating the strategic interactions among firms that are highly mobile across national boundaries. Although high transport costs yield a geographic dispersion of the industry, sufficiently low transport costs result in a core-periphery location where nobody bears tariff burdens. In any case, the world economy would be in a much better position under an international coordination scheme. An economy is only required to enforce a weak international ...

  10. Transportation systems to support the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, E.L.; Philpott, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Late in 1982, the United States Congress enacted legislation for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The policy, embodied in Public Law 97-425 and referred to as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), mandates that the Department of Energy (DOE) be responsible for the transport of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste from their points of origin to facilities constructed under provisions of the NWPA. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the preliminary transportation policies and plans developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), within the DOE, to respond to the NWPA mandate

  11. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    and sustainable development goals. Essential, uncertain and limited interactions are mapped out as a result, their overview indicates that a full reconciliation between these policies and sustainability goals is not always attainable. The careful alignment and contextual examination of interactions between...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development.......Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...

  12. Air-to-vegetation transport of /sup 131/I as hypoiodous acid (HOI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voilleque, P G [Science Applications, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA); Keller, J H [Exxon Nuclear Idaho Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)

    1981-01-01

    A significant fraction of the /sup 131/I in ventilation air in both BWRs and PWRs is present as hypoiodous acid (HOI). While HOI has been observed in the atmosphere its transport through the critical pathway has not been studied in detail. Of particular importance and interest is the deposition velocity used to characterize air-to-vegetation transport. This note describes the measurement of air-to-vegetation transport of HOI in a laboratory environmental chamber. The deposition velocity for HOI is compared with those for elemental I/sub 2/, methyl iodide and iodine associated with airborne particulates to show the relative importance of HOI in transport of /sup 131/I through the air-grass-cow-milk food chain. The data can be used to estimate relative contributions of the four /sup 131/I species to doses via the critical pathway.

  13. RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION BY AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN THE STREETS OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhneva, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of the atmospheric air of residential area roadside territory at functioning of motor transport are presented. Architectural and planning activities to improve the environmental performance of the local area of Kharkiv are offered.

  14. Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Vincenzo; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Capri, Salvatore; Inturri, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The volume of air traffic worldwide is still in constant growth despite unfair events that sometimes occur. The demand for regional air transport is also increasing, thanks in part to the use of new vehicles purposely designed for short range flights which make this means of transport more attractive than in the past. This paper studies the possibility of using aircraft capable of vertical or short takeoff or landing (V/STOL), in particular the tiltrotor, in the regional air transport market and the impact on airport capacity that the use of this craft would have. With this in mind the advantages and disadvantages of using this vehicle are identified, as well as the changes to be made to the air transport system in order to exploit its full potential.

  15. Problems and issues for short-haul air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of developing an efficient short-haul air system are not primarily technical, but economic and political. The key issues are whether the community will accept new and expanded air facilities, what standards of service the passengers will demand and how the system will evolve. The solutions recommended are national in scope and require the federal government to take a leading role.

  16. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  17. The environmental policy of the EC. An analysis exemplified by air pollution abatement policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspari, S.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early seventies the European Community has reacted to increasing ecological damage with complex and comprehensive common environmental policies. In this study, the author analyzes and evaluates the theoretical conception and the instrumental application of the EC Environmental Policy using four criteria: (1) Ecological effectiveness, (2) economic efficiency, (3) conformity with a market order - viewpoint of 'Ordnungspolitik', (4) 'sustainability'. The study shows that there is a large discrepancy between the demands and the reality of the EC Environmental Policy. In addition to grave ecological deficiencies it reveals an increse in rent-seeking activities and an interventionist trend which have resulted in the erosion of the competitive incentive system of the market order in the Community. In view of various deficits the author perceives a basic 'regulation paradox' and a 'policy failure'. Based on a diagnosis of the causes of these deficiencies, he outlines some proposals for a reform of the EC Environmental Policy, indicating that a central prerequisite for a more effective and efficient environmental protection is a reorientation in the system ('Ordnungspolitik') which determines the common Environmental Policy. In addition, he maintains that in view of the clear asymmetry in the representation of interests in favour of particularist interests it is necessary to strengthen public interest in order to enable a more effective protection of the options future generations will have regarding their lives and their behaviour. (orig.) [de

  18. PROBLEMS OF THE EFFICIENCY INCREASING OF TRANSPORTATION BY AIR OF UKRAINIAN SSR (1960-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Gorban

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the efficiency increasing of the air transportation. The difficulties of increasing the efficiency of transportation by air in Ukrainian SSR in 1960-1980 were researched, factors that adversely affected the organization of the transport sector were determined and depicted. The article analyzes what caused such difficulties and it was found out that the causes of these difficulties are connected with the organizational problems of air transport of Ukrainian SSR, which negatively affected the operation of the industry. The central aim of the research is to focus on the main problems of air transport of Ukrainian SSR. So, we should say that the transport operation of those years was distributed too unevenly and was dependent on the population density of the territory of the republic. Purpose of the article is to determine, compile and analyze the factors that negatively affected the organization of air transportation of the Ukrainian republic and reduced the efficiency of its operation. Results of the research shows technical, organization and economical deficiency of air transport of Ukrainian SSR which caused the ineffectiveness of this type of transport and determines the nature of such difficulties. Statement of the problem. During the specified period (1960–1980 the air transport had undergone rapid development. Many new airlines were opened, airports were being built and reconstructed, the terms of exploiting of turbojet aircrafts were increased, the speed of planes was increasing. All these facts ensured safe and reliable air connection of all district centers, connected Ukraine with the other Soviet republics and foreign countries by air corridors. Ukrainian Department of Civil Aviation became the biggest regional Department of the Ministry of Civil Aviation of the USSR. But, at the same time the intensity of the increase of cargo and passenger transportation since 1970s led to accumulation of

  19. Lower air temperature is associated with ambulance transports and death in Takamatsu area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochimasu, Kazumi Dokai; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Naoko; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the linkage among ambulance transports, the number of death and air temperature in Takamatsu area, Japan. Monthly data of ambulance transports (total and acute disease) and the number of death from 2004 to 2012 were obtained from Fire Department Service in Takamatsu and Takamatsu city official website, Japan. Climate parameters for required period were also obtained from Japan Meteorological Agency. Population data in Takamatsu area were also used to adjust ambulance transports and the number of death. The linkage among ambulance transports, the number of death and climate parameters was evaluated by ecological analysis. Total ambulance transports (/a hundred thousand people/day) and ambulance transports due to acute disease (/a hundred thousand people/day) were 12.3 ± 0.9 and 6.8 ± 0.7, respectively. The number of death (/a hundred thousand people/day) was 2.5 ± 0.4. By quadratic curve, ambulance transports due to acute disease and the number of death were significantly correlated with the parameters of air temperature. However, the number of death was the highest in January and the lowest in August. Although higher air temperature was only associated with higher ambulance transports, lower air temperature was associated with both higher ambulance transports and the number death in Takamatsu area, Japan.

  20. The transport of neutrons and gamma-rays in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the infinite homogeneous air has been investigated. For the calculations has been used the Multigroup One Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Transport Code ANISN-W. The calculations have been performed for three types of neutron sources. The neutrons and gamma ray doses in the air have been analyzed, and comparison to the other authors' results has been given. (author)

  1. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  2. Body temperature change and outcomes in patients undergoing long-distance air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mikio; Aso, Shotaro; Yasunaga, Hideo; Shirokawa, Masamitsu; Nakano, Tomotsugu; Miyakuni, Yasuhiko; Goto, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro

    2018-04-30

    Short-distance air medical transport for adult emergency patients does not significantly affect patients' body temperature and outcomes. This study aimed to examine the influence of long-distance air medical transport on patients' body temperatures and the relationship between body temperature change and mortality. We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients transferred via helicopter or plane from isolated islands to an emergency medical center in Tokyo, Japan between April 2010 and December 2016. Patients' average body temperature was compared before and after air transport using a paired t-test, and corrections between body temperature change and flight duration were calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Multivariable logistic regression models were then used to examine the association between body temperature change and in-hospital mortality. Of 1253 patients, the median age was 72 years (interquartile range, 60-82 years) and median flight duration was 71 min (interquartile range, 54-93 min). In-hospital mortality was 8.5%, and average body temperature was significantly different before and after air transport (36.7 °C versus 36.3 °C; difference: -0.36 °C; 95% confidence interval, -0.30 to -0.42; p 38.0 °C) or normothermia (36.0-37.9 °C) before air transport and hypothermia after air transport (odds ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.63; p = 0.009), and (ii) winter season (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-4.27; p = 0.030). Physicians should consider body temperature change during long-distance air transport in patients with not only hypothermia but also normothermia or hyperthermia before air transport, especially in winter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bridging gaps : governing conflicts between transport and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Zuidema, Christian; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Developing new road infrastructure can be problematic in the face of environmental quality ambitions. These conflicts can even undermine the development of such new infrastructure, as occurred for example in the Netherlands in the mid-2000s as a result of European Union air quality standards. To

  4. Sense and Sustainability. Smart thinking to restart European transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication is intended to be a useful guide to what needs to be done and what can be done at EU level in the transportation sector. Six themes are covered and part of the five years work programme: true prices, climate change and energy use, aviation, shipping, health and quality of life, and European investment in transport. Each corresponding chapter explains the problems, gives an overview of recent developments, and explains why action is important. The chapters conclude with a series of specific recommendations for the Commission and Parliament

  5. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  6. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  7. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PM x , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 . Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5, NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring Potential ADS-B Vulnerabilites in the FAA’s Nextgen Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    an online database of aircraft and the camera is used to filter the data, based on field of view, for display on the phone’s screen. The developers...34 December 28, 2009. [Online]. abcnews.go.com [5] P. Dempsey and L. Gesell , Air Transportation: Foundations for the 21st Century. Arizona: Coast Aire

  9. The Relationship of Land Use and Transportation Planning to Air Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagevik, George, Ed.

    Due to a lack of communication between urban, regional, and transportation planning agencies and air pollution control agencies, cooperative efforts in environmental planning have been nearly non-existent. This traditional lack of communication and understanding serves to obscure the fact that air pollution control agencies and planning agencies…

  10. Electronic transport properties of pentacene single crystals upon exposure to air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurchescu, OD; Baas, J; Palstra, TTM; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the effect of air exposure on the electronic properties of pentacene single crystals. Air can diffuse reversibly in and out of the crystals and influences the physical properties. We discern two competing mechanisms that modulate the electronic transport. The presence of oxygen increases

  11. Budget, fiscal and monetary policy in Poland and demand for transport – forwarding – logistics industry services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic policy of a country does not always have an effect on the demand for transport. The lack of a clear relation between the nature of macroeconomic policy and changes in demand for transport services is a consequence of the overall complexity of the economic system. It can also be a result of the lack of consistency between budget and monetary policy. Macroeconomic policy as a tool to control global demand only indirectly affects the changes in demand for transport. Transport activity is in fact determined by changes in the real economy, which directly influence the increase or decrease in demand for transport services.

  12. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of any agricultural land that would result from the disapproval. The environmental and economic effects on productive...

  13. Military Readiness: Air Transport Capability Falls Short of Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ..., For example, during fiscal years 1997 through 1999, on average only 55 percent of the C-5 fleet, the Air Force's largest cargo aircraft, was mission capable-significantly short of the 75 percent expected for wartime...

  14. Air Transport Liberalization in Europe: The Progress So Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The gradual liberalization of intra-community air services began when Europe's airlines were going through a profitable period (1983-1989), but the more fundamental changes arising from the second (effective November 1990) and especially the third (e...

  15. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  16. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  17. Ministerial Order of 22 August 1957 on the transport of dangerous materials by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1957-01-01

    This Order provides for the conditions of transport of dangerous materials by air. Materials regarded as dangerous to handle or transport by aircraft from a safety or health standpoint may possibly not be accepted, or only accepted under certain conditions. These materials include radioactive materials in Class IV(b). (NEA) [fr

  18. 75 FR 13332 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority Correction In notice document 2010-5555 appearing on page 12328 in the issue of Monday, March 15, 2010, make the following correction: In the second column, in the first paragraph, in...

  19. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  20. Analyzing the cost effectiveness of Santiago, Chile's policy of using urban forests to improve air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; John E. Wagner; David J. Nowak; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodriguez; Daniel E. Crane

    2008-01-01

    Santiago, Chile has the distinction of having among the worst urban air pollution problems in Latin America. As part of an atmospheric pollution reduction plan, the Santiago Regional Metropolitan government defined an environmental policy goal of using urban forests to remove particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) in the Gran...

  1. Exploring policy strategies for mitigating HFC emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    The growing demand for cooling throughout the world, possibly increased by global climate change, requires the implementation of policies to mitigate the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy and refrigerant use in the refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC) sector. This article aims

  2. Air quality management: evolution of policy and practice in the UK as exemplified by the experience of English local government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, C. I.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Woodfield, N. K.

    The air quality management (AQM) framework in the UK is designed to be an effects-based solution to air pollutants currently affecting human health. The AQM process has been legislated through The Environment Act 1995, which required the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published. AQM practice and capability within local authorities has flourished since the publication of the NAQS in March 1997. This paper outlines the policy framework within which the UK operates, both at a domestic and European level, and reviews the air quality management process relating to current UK policy and EU policy. Data from questionnaire surveys are used to indicate the involvement of various sectors of local government in the air quality management process. These data indicate an increasing use of monitoring, and use of air dispersion modelling by English local authorities. Data relating to the management of air quality, for example, the existence and work of air quality groups, dissemination of information to the public and policy measures in place on a local scale to improve air quality, have also been reported. The UK NAQS has been reviewed in 1999 to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the socio-economic issues involved. The AQM process, as implemented by UK local authorities, provides an effective model for other European member states with regards to the implementation of the Air Quality Framework Directive. The future direction of air quality policy in the UK is also discussed.

  3. Policies and initiatives for carbon neutrality in nordic heating and transport systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Jakob Glarbo; Wu, Qiuwei; Ostergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the propagation of heat pumps while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding electric vehicles (EVs). It is found that conversion...... to heat pumps in the Nordic region rely on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality....

  4. Turner's prize[London transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrington, M.

    2000-10-26

    The article describes Ken Livingstone's plans for solving London's traffic problems: Derek Turner will be 'in charge of the capital's streets' but Livingstone will chair the board meetings. The radical new scheme will apply to both the Greater London Authority, its transport branch Transport for London (TfL) and 33 London Boroughs. Within TfL there is a core division called 'street management services' which has five area teams for day-to-day street management including road maintenance and street lighting. Other departments are communications, support services, traffic technology services, service development and performance, a London bus department and a department concentrating on congestion charging. There are plans to support pedestrians and cyclists but 'bus travel is really what it is all about'.

  5. How to manage barriers to formation and implementation of policy packages in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerman, Jonas; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to explore success factors and barriers to the formation and implementation of single policy measures and policy packages in transport, and to identify strategies to manage such barriers. As a first step, we developed a typology of barriers and success factors...... for policy formation and implementation. Secondly, we carried out an empirical analysis of barriers and success factors in four cases of policy packaging: Urban Congestion Charging; National Heavy Vehicle Fees; Aviation in the European Emissions Trading System and The EU’s First Railway Package. The third...... and final task was to identify more general strategies to manage barriers in policy formation and implementation. A main conclusion in this report is that a conscious application of these strategies may contribute significantly to successful formation and implementation of even controversial policies...

  6. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  7. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  8. Relationships between Atmospheric Transport Regimes and PCB Concentrations in the Air at Zeppelin, Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-09-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent hazardous chemicals that are still detected in the atmosphere and other environmental media, although their production has been banned for several decades. At the long-term monitoring site, Zeppelin at Spitsbergen, different PCB congeners have been continuously measured for more than a decade. However, it is not clear what factors determine the seasonal and interannual variability of different (lighter versus heavier) PCB congeners. To investigate the influence of atmospheric transport patterns on PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations at Zeppelin, we applied the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART and calculated "footprints" that indicate the potential source regions of air arriving at Zeppelin. By means of a cluster analysis, we assigned groups of similar footprints to different transport regimes and analyzed the PCB concentrations according to the transport regimes. The concentrations of both PCB congeners are affected by the different transport regimes. For PCB-101, the origin of air masses from the European continent is primarily related to high concentrations; elevated PCB-101 concentrations in winter can be explained by the high frequency of this transport regime in winter, whereas PCB-101 concentrations are low when air is arriving from the oceans. For PCB-28, in contrast, concentrations are high during summer when air is mainly arriving from the oceans but low when air is arriving from the continents. The most likely explanation of this finding is that local emissions of PCB-28 mask the effect of long-range transport and determine the concentrations measured at Zeppelin.

  9. Economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank is analyzing the role of economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland, in cooperation with Polish and international experts. The first stage, covering Poland as a whole, was recently completed, jointly financed with the U.S. E.P.A. and the Government of the Netherlands. The second stage, now under way, will extend the analysis into a specific regional framework. Stage 2 is financed by the World Bank, the Polish Government, and the U.K. Environment Know-How Fund. Air Pollution in Poland is overwhelmingly caused by energy production and uses, due to the fact that the Polish economy depends heavily on coal and lignite. At present, vehicles contribute less to total emissions than do coal burning and industrial processes, although they account for 25-35% of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and lead; and the concentrated in areas of high population density. The paper shows how economic, technical and meteorological modelling can be used, to reach conclusions about cost-effective strategies for the control of emissions and the improvement of ambient air quality. A simulation approach is presented, to compare alternative policy instruments, in terms of their impact on emissions and control costs for Poland as a whole. The main instruments considered are open-quotes command-and-controlclose quotes regimes (C ampersand C) and economic incentives, namely fuel taxes, emissions taxes and emissions trading. Next, the paper describes how the analysis is being extended, to link emissions with ambient air quality, using air dispersion modelling, based on a case study for Krakow. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the importance of sound economic policies for air quality management, the costs of alternative standards, C ampersand C approaches versus economic incentives, a practical strategy to develop an effective role for emissions taxes and trading, and the regional differentiation of policy instruments

  10. Simulating the dynamic effect of land use and transport policies on the health of populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Roderick J; Adriazola-Steil, Claudia; Mulvihill, Christine; Fitzharris, Michael; Salmon, Paul; Bonnington, C Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We identified the features of a land use-transportation system that optimizes the health and well-being of the population. We developed a quantitative system dynamics model to represent relationships among land use, transport, economic development, and population health. Simulation experiments were conducted over a 10-year simulation period to compare the effect of different baseline conditions and land use-transport policies on the number of motor vehicle crash deaths and disability-adjusted life years lost. Optimal reduction in the public health burden attributable to land transport was demonstrated when transport safety risk reduction policies were combined with land use and transport polices that minimized reliance on individual motorized transport and maximized use of active transport modes. The model's results were particularly sensitive to the level of development that characterized each city at the start of the simulation period. Local, national, and international decision-makers are encouraged to address transport, land use, and health as an integrated whole to achieve the desired societal benefits of traffic safety, population health, and social equity.

  11. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  12. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.or [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  13. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia. Underlying factors and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes. (author)

  14. Nordic air quality co-benefits from European post-2012 climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Astroem, Stefan; Karvosenoja, Niko; Aunan, Kristin; Bak, Jesper L.; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Kukkonen, Jaakko

    2007-01-01

    Although climate policies target primarily CO 2 , they may indirectly have an impact on air pollutants and thus on air quality. Here we look specifically at the co-benefits of various European post-2012 climate policy scenarios related to air quality in the Nordic region. We analyse how caps on emissions, expansion of the European Union (EU) Emissions Trading System, carbon taxes, and Russian and non-EU Eastern Europe participation after 2012 will influence emissions, air quality, avoided abatement costs, welfare effects, the regional environment and human exposure to particulate matter in the Nordic countries. We find that stricter targets will contribute to reduced emissions of air pollutants, and benefits to ecosystems and human health, which would have required substantial abatement costs if achieved by application of 'end-of-pipe' measures. Due to the assumed use of the flexibility mechanisms, reductions in emissions in the Nordic countries are smaller than in other regions, but the Nordic countries benefit from reductions in emissions in nearby regions. The more sectors that are included in the emissions trading scheme, the greater the emission of air pollutants. If Eastern Europe and Russia were to abandon participation in a climate agreement, the EU and Norway would have to undertake more emission cuts at home in order to meet the same targets. This would benefit ecosystems in southern Scandinavia, but acidification would increase in the north because of increased emissions in Russia

  15. Optimal policy for mitigating emissions in the European transport sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Piera, Patrizio; Sennai, Mesfun; Igor, Staritsky; Berien, Elbersen; Tijs, Lammens; Florian, Kraxner

    2017-04-01

    A geographic explicit techno-economic model, BeWhere (www.iiasa.ac.at/bewhere), has been developed at the European scale (Europe 28, the Balkans countries, Turkey, Moldavia and Ukraine) at a 40km grid size, to assess the potential of bioenergy from non-food feedstock. Based on the minimization of the supply chain from feedstock collection to the final energy product distribution, the model identifies the optimal bioenergy production plants in terms of spatial location, technology and capacity. The feedstock of interests are woody biomass (divided into eight types from conifers and non-conifers) and five different crop residuals. For each type of feedstock, one or multiple technologies can be applied for either heat, electricity or biofuel production. The model is run for different policy tools such as carbon cost, biofuel support, or subsidies, and the optimal mix of technologies and biomass needed is optimized to reach a production cost competitive against the actual reference system which is fossil fuel based. From this approach, the optimal mix of policy tools that can be applied country wide in Europe will be identified. The preliminary results show that high carbon tax and biofuel support contribute to the development of large scale biofuel production based on woody biomass plants mainly located in the northern part of Europe. Finally the highest emission reduction is reached with low biofuel support and high carbon tax evenly distributed in Europe.

  16. Science-policy interplay: Air quality management in the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liuju; Louie, Peter K. K.; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Yue, Dingli; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-09-01

    The information provided by the scientific studies and control measures implemented in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China reveals that tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of regional air pollution issues and the deployment of mitigation measures for alleviating these problems. Given the unparalleled rapid economic growth in the PRD over the past two decades, such progress was only made possible by strong, science-based support and the partnerships between government and research institutions in the region and overseas. Researchers from these partnership programs and related studies have deployed cutting-edge expertise and experience in various crucial mainland China and mainland China/Hong Kong-level projects. China recognizes the importance of protecting the environment and cleaning up the air in the pursuit of sustainable growth and economic development. To avoid falling into a cycle of event-driven clean-up efforts, China has recently taken a major step and updated the national ambient air quality standards. Clearly, China is implementing an increasing number of evidence-based policies to address air pollution problems. Thus, to bring a fresh impetus at a national level, the PRD must maintain and augment the Hong Kong-mainland collaborative momentum, inducing a "whole-China" effort to clean up air pollution. To strengthen the science-based support system and ensure continuous and concerted effort in implementing the regional multi-pollutant control strategy, there must be an overarching and integral Hong Kong-Guangdong science consortium framework supporting the formulation of regional policy and control measures built on common goals under the "one country, two systems" principle. The "PRD Approach" of the air quality management regime reflected regional cooperative efforts in synchronous air pollutant control, catalyzed the crucial role of information disclosure and subtly transformed the air quality management approach to overcome

  17. INVESTIGATION INTO ADVANCED AIR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Udzhukhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach allowing one to predict the development of air-route network is proposed. It proceeds from the principle of increasing the accessibility of points of destination, that is to make available for passengers non-stop flights or flights with one transit landing in case of the largest number of routes. With comparative analysis of possible variants of extending the structure of air-route network, it is reasonable to take into account a generalized time parameter and a number of alternative routes for passenger delivery from departure point to point of destination.

  18. First experience in international air transportation of RR SFA in Russian-made TUK-19 casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashov, B.A.; Barinkov, O.P.; Dorofeev, A.N.; Komarov, S.V.; Smirnov, A.V.; Biro, L.; Budu, M.; Ciocanescu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, spent fuel assemblies (SFA) have been transported across the Russian Federation by rail in special railcars. New conditions required SFA shipments by other conveyance, i.e. road, sea and even air transport. The air shipment of the VVR-S research reactor SNF in TUK-19 casks from Magurele, Romania in June 2009 was the first experience after new Russian and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material came into effect. The preparatory stage of the shipment focused on the issues associated with radiation and nuclear safety both during the loading and transport operations. The project covered development of a technology and equipment for SFA loading into TUK-19 casks and that for the air shipment. The SFAs were loaded into the TUK-19 casks with a specially designed transfer cask, and the SFA-containing packages were transported in specialized freight 20-foot ISO-containers. The safety of the loading and transport operations was ensured both by reliable engineering solutions, and selected conveyances and routes. The paper shows that the loading and the air shipment of the Romanian SFAs in TUK-19 casks does not contradict Romanian, Russian and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. The outcomes of the SNF shipment from Romania confirmed correctness of the solutions and demonstrated high environmental safety. (author)

  19. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 235 [Docket No. DOT-OST... AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of proposed..., regardless of whether the cat or dog is transported as a pet by its owner or as part of a commercial shipment...

  20. Inclusive planning in transport and energy STI-policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Hansen, Meiken; Selin, Cynthia Lea

    2017-01-01

    Transition to a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system is of global interest, and implies social challenges for the developed world including the European Union. In particular, the energy consumption related to transport constitutes a significant challenge. If not serious changes are made...... of securing a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system. Furthermore, responsible research and innovation should take into account both the required changes in all citizens’ daily life due to this transition as well as the driving force of grassroot innovation movements....

  1. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  2. Health impact assessment of transport policies in Rotterdam: Decrease of total traffic and increase of electric car use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobollik, Myriam, E-mail: mtobollik@uni-bielefeld.de [School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany); German Environment Agency, Section Exposure Assessment and Environmental Health Indicators, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Keuken, Menno [Netherlands Applied Research Organization (TNO), Utrecht (Netherlands); Sabel, Clive [School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cowie, Hilary [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Tuomisto, Jouni [National Institute for Health and Welfare Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Sarigiannis, Denis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Künzli, Nino; Perez, Laura [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Mudu, Pierpaolo, E-mail: mudup@ecehbonn.euro.who.int [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Background: Green house gas (GHG) mitigation policies can be evaluated by showing their co-benefits to health. Method: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was used to quantify co-benefits of GHG mitigation policies in Rotterdam. The effects of two separate interventions (10% reduction of private vehicle kilometers and a share of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometers) on particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}), elemental carbon (EC) and noise (engine noise and tyre noise) were assessed using Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). The baseline was 2010 and the end of the assessment 2020. Results: The intervention aimed at reducing traffic is associated with a decreased exposure to noise resulting in a reduction of 21 (confidence interval (CI): 11–129) YLDs due to annoyance and 35 (CI: 20–51) YLDs due to sleep disturbance for the population per year. The effects of 50% electric-powered car use are slightly higher with a reduction of 26 (CI: 13–116) and 41 (CI: 24–60) YLDs, respectively. The two interventions have marginal effects on air pollution, because already implemented traffic policies will reduce PM{sub 2.5} and EC by around 40% and 60% respectively, from 2010 to 2020. Discussion: The evaluation of planned interventions, related to climate change policies, targeting only the transport sector can result in small co-benefits for health, if the analysis is limited to air pollution and noise. This urges to expand the analysis by including other impacts, e.g. physical activity and well-being, as a necessary step to better understanding consequences of interventions and carefully orienting resources useful to build knowledge to improve public health. - Highlights: • We estimated co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction policies from 2010 to 2020. • The city scale health impact assessment base on real transport policy scenarios. • Effects of particulate matter, elemental carbon and noise on health are assessed. • The effects are

  3. Health impact assessment of transport policies in Rotterdam: Decrease of total traffic and increase of electric car use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobollik, Myriam; Keuken, Menno; Sabel, Clive; Cowie, Hilary; Tuomisto, Jouni; Sarigiannis, Denis; Künzli, Nino; Perez, Laura; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green house gas (GHG) mitigation policies can be evaluated by showing their co-benefits to health. Method: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was used to quantify co-benefits of GHG mitigation policies in Rotterdam. The effects of two separate interventions (10% reduction of private vehicle kilometers and a share of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometers) on particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), elemental carbon (EC) and noise (engine noise and tyre noise) were assessed using Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). The baseline was 2010 and the end of the assessment 2020. Results: The intervention aimed at reducing traffic is associated with a decreased exposure to noise resulting in a reduction of 21 (confidence interval (CI): 11–129) YLDs due to annoyance and 35 (CI: 20–51) YLDs due to sleep disturbance for the population per year. The effects of 50% electric-powered car use are slightly higher with a reduction of 26 (CI: 13–116) and 41 (CI: 24–60) YLDs, respectively. The two interventions have marginal effects on air pollution, because already implemented traffic policies will reduce PM 2.5 and EC by around 40% and 60% respectively, from 2010 to 2020. Discussion: The evaluation of planned interventions, related to climate change policies, targeting only the transport sector can result in small co-benefits for health, if the analysis is limited to air pollution and noise. This urges to expand the analysis by including other impacts, e.g. physical activity and well-being, as a necessary step to better understanding consequences of interventions and carefully orienting resources useful to build knowledge to improve public health. - Highlights: • We estimated co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction policies from 2010 to 2020. • The city scale health impact assessment base on real transport policy scenarios. • Effects of particulate matter, elemental carbon and noise on health are assessed. • The effects are rather

  4. Summary and recommendations for the NASA/MIT workshop on short haul air transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The material is summarized that was covered by the MIT/NASA Waterville Valley workshop which dealt with the institutional, socio-economic, operational and technological problems associated with introducing new forms of short haul domestic air transportation. It was found that future air systems hold great potential in satisfying society's needs for a low noise, low landspace, high access, high speed, large network system for public travel over distances between 5 and 500 miles. It is concluded that quiet air systems are necessary for obtaining community approval, and is recommended that extremely high priority be assigned to the development of quiet aircraft for future short haul air systems.

  5. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Transport, spatio-economic equilibrium and global sustainability. Markets, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Dep. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    Interdependencies between transport, spatial economy, technology and environment are investigated in the context of regulatory environmental policies aiming at meeting a global environmental target, defined in terms of the environmental utilization space as a prerequisite for global sustainability. A small scale model, based on the adapted spatial price equilibrium methodology presented elsewhere was discussed, serving as an illustration of the formal analysis discussed there. Notwithstanding the model`s simplicity, the simulation results are found to be interesting in that they provide some revealing comparative static insights into issues that are believed to be quite important in the formulation of environmental and transport policies. 12 figs., 12 refs.

  7. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  8. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  9. Retrospective Review of Air Transportation Use for Upper Extremity Amputations at a Level-1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, W Jeffrey; To, Philip; Watson, Jeffry T; Brywczynski, Jeremy; Lee, Donald H

    2016-08-01

    Air transportation to tertiary care centers of patients with upper extremity amputations has been utilized in hopes of reducing the time to potential replantation; however, this mode of transportation is expensive and not all patients will undergo replantation. The purpose of this study is to review the appropriateness and cost of air transportation in upper extremity amputations. Consecutive patients transported by aircraft with upper extremity amputations in a 7-year period at a level-1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. The distance traveled was recorded, along with the times of the injury, referral, transportation duration, arrival, and start of the operation. The results of the transfer were defined as replantation or revision amputation. Overall, 47 patients were identified with 43 patients going to the operating room, but only 14 patients (30%) undergoing replantation. Patients arrived at the tertiary hand surgery center with a mean time of 182.3 minutes following the injury, which includes 105.2 minutes of transportation time. The average distance traveled was 105.4 miles (range, 22-353 miles). The time before surgery of those who underwent replantation was 154.6 minutes. The average cost of transportation was $20,482. Air transportation for isolated upper extremity amputations is costly and is not usually the determining factor for replantation. The type of injury and patients' expectations often dictate the outcome, and these may be better determined at the time of referral with use of telecommunication photos, discussion with a hand surgeon, and patient counseling. III.

  10. Efficiency assessment of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    To reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through thermal energy conservation, air-conditioned offices in the subtropics are recommended to operate within specified ranges of indoor temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. As thermal discomfort leads to productivity loss, some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned offices in Hong Kong are investigated in this study with relation to thermal energy consumption, CO 2 emissions from electricity use, and productivity loss due to thermal discomfort. Occupant thermal response is specifically considered as an adaptive factor in evaluating the energy consumption and productivity loss. The energy efficiency of an office is determined by the productivity which corresponds to the CO 2 generated. The results found that a policy with little impact on occupant thermal comfort and worker productivity would improve the office efficiency while the one with excessive energy consumption reduction would result in a substantial productivity loss. This study is a useful reference source for evaluating an indoor thermal environmental policy regarding the energy consumption, CO 2 emissions reduction, thermal comfort and productivity loss in air-conditioned offices in subtropical areas.

  11. Assessing emissions levels and costs associated with climate and air pollution policies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneman, Lucas R.F.; Rafaj, Peter; Annegarn, Harold J.; Klausbruckner, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Affordable energy supply and reductions in emissions of local air pollution and greenhouse gases are each important aspects of South Africa's goals. Many traditional solutions, however, work in contradiction to one another. This work investigates effects on estimated emissions and costs of mitigation strategies using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interaction Synergies (GAINS) model to identify policies that satisfy multiple goals. Eight scenarios that describe air pollution control options and mixes of energy production technologies are implemented in GAINS, which quantifies country-wide air pollution and greenhouse emissions and costs of controls. Emissions and costs trajectories are compared to the business as usual case, which projects CO_2 emissions to increase by 60% by 2050 compared to 2015. Results show that replacing all coal generation with renewables reduces CO_2 emissions in 2050 by 8% compared to 2015, and that aggressive policy targeting the whole energy sector reduces CO_2 emissions in 2050 by 40%. GAINS is used to show co-benefits and tradeoffs of each scenario, such as reductions in emissions control costs that accompany a switch to renewables. The approach provides supporting evidence for policies that exploit co-benefits and avoid contradictions by assessing multiple aspects of the energy sector within the integrated framework provided by the GAINS modeling platform.

  12. Tripartite equilibrium strategy for a carbon tax setting problem in air passenger transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Qiu, Rui; Tao, Zhimiao; Xie, Heping

    2018-03-01

    Carbon emissions in air passenger transport have become increasing serious with the rapidly development of aviation industry. Combined with a tripartite equilibrium strategy, this paper proposes a multi-level multi-objective model for an air passenger transport carbon tax setting problem (CTSP) among an international organization, an airline and passengers with the fuzzy uncertainty. The proposed model is simplified to an equivalent crisp model by a weighted sum procedure and a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) transformation method. To solve the equivalent crisp model, a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm with entropy-Bolitzmann selection (FLC-GA with EBS) is designed as an integrated solution method. Then, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization method. Results show that the cap tax mechanism is an important part of air passenger trans'port carbon emission mitigation and thus, it should be effectively applied to air passenger transport. These results also indicate that the proposed method can provide efficient ways of mitigating carbon emissions for air passenger transport, and therefore assist decision makers in formulating relevant strategies under multiple scenarios.

  13. Health impact assessment of transport policies in Rotterdam: Decrease of total traffic and increase of electric car use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobollik, Myriam; Keuken, Menno; Sabel, Clive; Cowie, Hilary; Tuomisto, Jouni; Sarigiannis, Denis; Künzli, Nino; Perez, Laura; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Green house gas (GHG) mitigation policies can be evaluated by showing their co-benefits to health. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was used to quantify co-benefits of GHG mitigation policies in Rotterdam. The effects of two separate interventions (10% reduction of private vehicle kilometers and a share of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometers) on particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC) and noise (engine noise and tyre noise) were assessed using Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). The baseline was 2010 and the end of the assessment 2020. The intervention aimed at reducing traffic is associated with a decreased exposure to noise resulting in a reduction of 21 (confidence interval (CI): 11-129) YLDs due to annoyance and 35 (CI: 20-51) YLDs due to sleep disturbance for the population per year. The effects of 50% electric-powered car use are slightly higher with a reduction of 26 (CI: 13-116) and 41 (CI: 24-60) YLDs, respectively. The two interventions have marginal effects on air pollution, because already implemented traffic policies will reduce PM2.5 and EC by around 40% and 60% respectively, from 2010 to 2020. The evaluation of planned interventions, related to climate change policies, targeting only the transport sector can result in small co-benefits for health, if the analysis is limited to air pollution and noise. This urges to expand the analysis by including other impacts, e.g. physical activity and well-being, as a necessary step to better understanding consequences of interventions and carefully orienting resources useful to build knowledge to improve public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Air transport pilot involvement in general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    General aviation (GA) fatal accident records of airport transport pilots (ATPs) : were : compared to those of private pilots (PVTs). : ATPs are safer GA pilots than the PVTs. : They have comparable exposure in GA airplanes and account for 7.5% of all...

  15. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  16. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration, and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 is reduced by ∼ 2 µg m−3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ∼ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (∼ 74 200 lives saved. The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone, leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is  ∼ 0.04 W m−2 over the globe, and ∼ 0.8 W m−2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22

  17. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  18. Regional Air Pollutions in Three Different Regions of Asia From a Transcontinental Transport Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    Asia is known as one of the regions with the fastest rate of growing in industrialization and urbanization. As a result, the rapid increases of large-scale air pollution in Asia emerge as a serious concern at both domestic and international levels. Apart from the problems of air quality degradation, emission control, environmental risk, and health effect in a domestic level, evidences from scientific studies indicate that by the long-range transport, Asian air pollution is becoming a global problem. Observations and model studies confirm that air pollution from Asia could be transported to North America or farther. In this work, we investigate the Asian air pollutions, in particular ozone and some other atmospheric components such as carbon monoxide and black carbon, from the ground- based observations in the three different regions, namely 1) background region of Siberia and central Asia, 2) highly anthropogenic region in eastern China, and 3) the rim region of the Asia-Pacific. In a transcontinental transport perspective, these regions are regarded as the inflow region, source region, and outflow region of Asia, respectively. From the results, it is found that the influences from large-scale emission in East Asia are observed clearly in the source region, and to the significant extent in the outflow region. For the inflow region of Asia, our data in Siberia and Kyrgyzstan indicate that air masses in this region are mostly intact from large-scale anthropogenic emission, and remain much of the global background atmospheric pollution characteristic. When the air masses are transported to source region, the air pollutants level increased sharply and frequent episodes of extremely high pollutions have been observed. Our results show good correlation between the residence time of air masses over the source region in eastern China and the observed levels of air pollutants verifying the strong enhancements by anthropogenic emissions from industrialization and

  19. Light duty vehicle transportation and global climate policy: The importance of electric drive vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Longden, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on the interaction between long-term climate targets and personal transport we review the electrification of light duty vehicles (LDVs) within a model that utilizes a learning-by-researching structure. By modeling the demand of vehicles, the use of fuels and emissions implied, the model solves for the optimum RD and D investments that decrease the cost of hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. A range of technology and climate policy scenarios provide long term projections of vehicle use that highlight the potential synergies between innovation in the transportation sector and the energy sector. We find that even when the capital cost of electric drive vehicles (EDVs) remains higher than that of traditional combustion engine alternatives, EDVs are likely to play a key role in the decarbonisation implied by stringent climate policy. Limited innovation in batteries results in notable increases in policy costs consistent with a two degree climate policy target. - Highlights: • Significant increase in vehicles across regions in the medium to long term future. • Climate policy costs are sensitive to a lack of electric drive vehicles (EDVs). • Achieving 450ppm with no change in battery costs has a policy cost that is 2.86 percentage points higher than the base 450ppm scenario. • Climate policy hastens the introduction of electrified vehicles, however EDVs do not become the dominant vehicle of choice before the middle of the century

  20. Sensor Deployment for Air Pollution Monitoring Using Public Transportation System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, James J. Q.; Li, Victor O. K.; Lam, Albert Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution monitoring is a very popular research topic and many monitoring systems have been developed. In this paper, we formulate the Bus Sensor Deployment Problem (BSDP) to select the bus routes on which sensors are deployed, and we use Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) to solve BSDP. CRO is a recently proposed metaheuristic designed to solve a wide range of optimization problems. Using the real world data, namely Hong Kong Island bus route data, we perform a series of simulations an...

  1. Net private benefits of purchasing eco-labeled air conditioners and subsidization policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Junxiu; Yin, Haitao; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Built on a data set of 527 air conditioner models collected from an online retailer, this study investigates whether the savings that consumers realize on their private electricity bills from purchasing energy-efficient appliances compensate for the additional cost of the appliances on the market, and if not, the size of the gap between the savings and the cost. Our findings show that, except for the most energy-efficient category, the cost savings from using energy-efficient air conditioners does compensate for their higher price. Therefore, any government subsidy should be reserved for the most efficient products. For less energy-efficient appliances, the best policy may be to provide more effective information instead of a subsidy because the subsidy might attract consumers away from more energy-efficient air conditioners and result in an unwanted effect. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the net private benefits of purchasing eco-labeled air conditioners in China. • There is no need to subsidize less energy-efficient air conditioners. • The most recently proposed policy development in China is a reform headed in the right direction

  2. Could sustainable transport policies lead to behavioural change? - A user's point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polain, Celine; Lannoy, Pierre [Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Implementing sustainable transport policies can among others be achieved by encouraging shifts from car to public transport. Several cities have therefore carried out free public transport experiences, especially in Belgium. The federal research on which we will base our account is intended to assess the (expected) results of a free transit policy on a focus group: students from higher institutions located in Brussels. Dutch speaking students can indeed benefit from free season tickets within Brussels whereas French speaking students do not have this opportunity. Through this natural laboratory situation, we wish to analyse from a sociological perspective, by means of qualitative and comprehensive methods, the cognitive logics guiding mobility behaviours of students and particularly, the reasons why free public transport could or not change their behaviours. Our account is divided into four parts, which will analyse: The context, the objectives and techniques of the survey, The role of environmental concerns in users' talks, The role of price concerns in students' arguments, Users' global assessment of a 'free transit policy' and their behavioural (expected) changes. Sociological types emerging from the different lines of arguments used will be described. Transport experts generally consider the second and third topics analysed as essential components of any efficient free public transport policy. We will however show that few students regard these as crucial when reasoning about mobility behaviours. More practical factors are referred to. The last point will present a 'mixed' assessment of this kind of policy, mentioning some unexpected arguments.

  3. Assessment of policy options with regard to air pollution from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, F.; Veldeman, N.; Lodewijks, P.; Duuerinck, J.; Janssen, L.; Campling, P.; Janssen, S.; Vanherle, K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a study has been carried out for DG Environment of the European Commission titled 'Market-based instruments for Reducing Air Pollution. Assessment of Policy Options to reducing air pollution from shipping'. Within this study it was decided to study the environmental impact of two legally possible trading systems: a voluntary emissions trading system for all sea areas belonging to the European Union and a mandatory emissions trading system for the ports and territorial waters of EU Member States. If the emissions in ports and coastal waters will be made part of such a trading system it can result in lower environmental exposure for the population. [nl

  4. Accelerating Energy Efficiency Improvements in Room Air Conditioners in India: Potential, Costs-Benefits, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyankar, N; Shah, N; Park, WY; Phadke, AA

    2017-01-01

    Rising incomes, increasing urbanization, and large cooling demand prompted by India’s hot, humid climate are driving increasing uptake of room air conditioners (ACs). Air conditioning already accounts for 40-60% of summer peak load in large Indian cities such as Delhi and is on track to contribute 140 gigawatts (GW) ( 30%) to peak demand in 2030. India’s standards and labeling policies improved the market average efficiency of room ACs by about 35% between 2006 and 2016 (3% per year) even as ...

  5. Tasks Facing European Transport Policy in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable rise of Europe following the NapoleonicWars during the early JIY" centwy favouring the spread of therailway systems and- subsequent to this new mode of transport-leading to almost complete industrialisation and urbanisationin the political frame of nation states has suffered severe setbacksduring the 2rJ" century deplorably highlighted by WorldWar I and World War Jl, by various civil wars and the ColdWar, by lwge scale expellations, and substantial alternations ofpolitical borders. At the same time much has changed, toothroughout the extensive continental regions around Europe.Consequently, prospects for future development in the 21" centwydiffer widely. Extraordinary effort is demanded to satisfysocial expectations not known so far avoiding, howeve1~ bothnew warlike conflicts and additional exploitations of the naturalenvironment. To solve this task traffic plays a key role by optimalevaluation of all its modes and by applt:cation of the besttechnical achievements along with stepwise adaptation of theurban settlements which represent the most important locationsof living and working.

  6. Quantifying air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport in an aircraft cabin mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun

    The health, safety and comfort of passengers during flight inspired this research into cabin air quality, which is closely related to its airflow distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport. The experimental facility is a full-scale aircraft cabin mockup. A volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (VPTV) technique was enhanced by incorporating a self-developed streak recognition algorithm. Two stable recirculation regions, the reverse flows above the seats and the main air jets from the air supply inlets formed the complicated airflow patterns inside the cabin mockup. The primary air flow was parallel to the passenger rows. The small velocity component in the direction of the cabin depth caused less net air exchange between the passenger rows than that parallel to the passenger rows. Different total air supply rate changed the developing behaviors of the main air jets, leading to different local air distribution patterns. Two indices, Local mean age of air and ventilation effectiveness factor (VEF), were measured at five levels of air supply rate and two levels of heating load. Local mean age of air decreased linearly with an increase in the air supply rate, while the VEF remained consistent when the air supply rate varied. The thermal buoyancy force from the thermal plume generated the upside plume flow, opposite to the main jet flow above the boundary seats and thus lowered the local net air exchange. The airborne transport dynamics depends on the distance between the source and the receptors, the relative location of pollutant source, and air supply rate. Exposure risk was significantly reduced with increased distance between source and receptors. Another possible way to decrease the exposure risk was to position the release source close to the exhaust outlets. Increasing the air supply rate could be an effective solution under some emergency situations. The large volume of data regarding the three-dimensional air velocities was

  7. Report of the National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission : transportation for tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower had the foresight : to understand how a system of Interstate highways : would transform the Nation. If there was ever a : time to take a similarly daring look at a broadened : surface transportation network, it is now! ...

  8. Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on the southeast side of Colorado Springs in El Paso County (Figure 1-1). Peterson AFB is bordered by the Colorado Springs Municipal Airport on the...outside of their existing boundaries has changed.  El Paso County is evaluating potential improvements to Marksheffel Road. These changes and...require 7,600 spaces in remote parking lots served by a shuttle system.  Identify Motorized and Non- Motorized Transportation Systems – Future personnel

  9. Regional and long-range transport of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandroni, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Course lectures presented are organised in four sections: atmospheric transport, conversion, deposition of atmospheric trace constituents and associated problems; conventional and sophisticated techniques for atmospheric sounding (e.g., Sodar, Lidar, Cospec, tetroons, instrument-carrying aircraft) and simulation techniques (non-reactive tracers); models available for various applications (long-range episodes, long-term averages, photochemical and deposition processes); a comparison of performances of different models and the linearity problem in the formation of acid deposition

  10. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. Few technical issues remain in determining the shape of the IAEA's revision of its regulations to accommodate air transport of large quantities of radioactive material. In the next two years the detailed wording of the regulations will be fully worked out and proposed for inclusion in SS6. Considering the breadth of the member state participation in the process, it seems likely that the approved version of the 1995 revision of SS6 will contain air mode revisions that move away from the predominantly mode independent character that characterized their first 30 years. (J.P.N.)

  11. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis. PMID:24212104

  12. Estimates of health risks associated with uranium hexafluoride transport by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Skagius, K.

    1990-01-01

    In Sweden air transport is considered as an alternative for the shipment of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). The radiological consequences of an aeroplane accident involving UF 6 transport have been estimated and are presented as the dose from acute exposure and the dose from long-term exposure caused by ground contamination. Chemical effects of a UF 6 release are also discussed. A number of limiting scenarios have been defined, resulting in different mechanical and thermal impacts on the transport packages. The expected accident environment and the physical and chemical behaviour of the material have been used to derive a source term for the release to the air. A Gaussian dispersion model has been used to calculate the expected air concentration downwind from the accident site. The radiation dose from short-term exposure was found to be higher than the long-term exposure from uranium deposited on the ground. (author)

  13. Fuelling clean air : municipal fuel purchasing policies that reduce emissions contributing to poor air quality and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, K.

    2003-03-01

    Air quality can be improved by low sulphur fuels in two ways: through the direct reduction of sulphates, sulphur dioxide and PM; and by improving the effectiveness of existing emission control devices. This report examined three case studies involving the fuel purchasing policies in three Ontario municipalities: Toronto, Waterloo, and Brampton. Toronto favors purchasing conventional fuels with lower sulphur levels. Waterloo will purchase on-road diesel for its off-road diesel fleet; ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) for buses; and 10 per cent ethanol blended with 90 per cent gasoline (E10) for its gasoline-fuelled fleet. Brampton purchased 20 per cent biodiesel blended with 80 per cent on-road diesel (B20). Two approaches were examined for lowering emissions from gasoline fuelled vehicles: favouring gasoline with the lowest sulphur levels, and purchasing E10. It was recommended that the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) Clean Air Council look into: ownership of emissions trading credits created as a result of fuel purchasing policies; the benefits of, and mechanisms available for, pooling fuel purchases; and, establishing a subcommittee to monitor developments related to fuels, vehicles and emission control technologies. 48 refs., 18 tabs

  14. Transport Demand Management Policy Integration in Chinese Cities : A Proposed Analysis of Its Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.; Veeneman, W.; de Jong, W.M.

    2018-01-01

    Transport demand management (TDM) measures are widely regarded as essential tools to deal with traffic issues. Their effectiveness has been under scrutiny. Packaging of TDM measures has recently received much attention from researchers and governments because it can achieve more complex policy goals

  15. Keeping Kids Moving: How Equitable Transportation Policy Can Prevent Childhood Obesity--What It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…

  16. The Quest for Gender-Sensitive and Inclusive Transport Policies in Growing Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thynell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In cities all over the world, growing numbers of women are working or studying further away from home than ever before. This article presents policies by the World Bank and recommendations by the United Nations to improve conditions for women’s mobility in cities. Although these stress different factors affecting women’s experiences of traffic and transport, they all agree about the importance of enabling women’s mobility. However, gender-sensitive policies have been largely unsuccessful. This article presents examples of conditions for women in New Delhi and other rapidly growing Asian cities that illustrate how gender norms operate. This study uses the perspectives of development research and gender studies to examine economic and political initiatives and the way women act and interact with transport in local contexts. It facilitates critical reflection upon existing transport policies and suggests ‘how’ women’s needs may be effectively addressed. More in-depth knowledge about women’s needs and the problems they face when travelling will be useful for designing of policies that address more than simply the harassments of women. More inclusive urban access would enhance conditions for women and enable them to make choices according to their needs. In this way, social science and policy will cross-pollinate one another.

  17. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); EspiritoSanto, Jr. Respicio (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The following topics were covered: How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?; Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model; Consequences of Feeder Delays for the Success of A380 Operations; Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic; The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs; Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using System Safety Tools; A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Activities in Airline Hubs; and The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One- Historical Foundation.

  18. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  19. Tracking Oxidation During Transport of Trace Gases in Air from the Northern to Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, S. A.; Moore, F. L.; Atlas, E. L.; Parrish, D. D.; Miller, B. R.; Sweeney, C.; McKain, K.; Hall, B. D.; Siso, C.; Crotwell, M.; Hintsa, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Claxton, T.; Hossaini, R.

    2017-12-01

    Trace gas mole fractions contain the imprint of recent influences on an air mass such as sources, transport, and oxidation. Covariations among the many gases measured from flasks during ATom and HIPPO, and from the ongoing NOAA cooperative air sampling program enable recent influences to be identified from a wide range of sources including industrial activity, biomass burning, emissions from wetlands, and uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. In this work we explore the evolution of trace gas concentrations owing to atmospheric oxidation as air masses pass through the tropics, the atmospheric region with the highest concentrations of the hydroxyl radical. Variations in C2-C5 hydrocarbon concentrations downwind of source regions provide a measure of photochemical ageing in an air mass since emission, but they become less useful when tracking photochemical ageing as air is transported from the NH into the SH owing to their low mixing ratios, lifetimes that are very short relative to transport times, non-industrial sources in the tropics (e.g., biomass burning), and southern hemispheric sources. Instead, we consider a range of trace gases and trace gas pairs that provide a measure of photochemical processing as air transits the tropics. To be useful in this analysis, these trace gases would have lifetimes comparable to interhemispheric transport times, emissions arising from only the NH at constant relative magnitudes, and concentrations sufficient to allow precise and accurate measurements in both hemispheres. Some anthropogenically-emitted chlorinated hydrocarbons meet these requirements and have been measured during ATom, HIPPO, and from NOAA's ongoing surface sampling efforts. Consideration of these results and their implications for tracking photochemical processing in air as it is transported across the tropics will be presented.

  20. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  1. Clearing the air: improving smoke-free policy compliance at the national oncology hospital in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Petrosyan, Diana; Stillman, Frances

    2014-12-13

    Smoke-free policies shown to reduce population exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are the norm in hospitals in many countries around the world. Armenia, a transition economy in the South Caucasus, has one of the highest male smoking rates in the European region. Although smoking in healthcare facilities has been banned since 2005, compliance with this ban has been poor due to lack of implementation and enforcement mechanisms and social acceptability of smoking. The study aimed to develop and test a model intervention to address the lack of compliance with the de jure smoking ban. The national oncology hospital was chosen as the intervention site. This study used employee surveys and objective measurements of respirable particles (PM2.5) and air nicotine as markers of indoor air pollution before and after the intervention. The intervention developed in partnership with the hospital staff included an awareness campaign on SHS hazards, creation of no-smoking environment and building institutional capacity through training of nursing personnel on basics of tobacco control. The survey analysis included paired t-test and McNemar's test. The log-transformed air nicotine and PM2.5 data were analyzed using paired t-test. The survey showed significant improvement in the perceived quality of indoor air, reduced worksite exposure to SHS and increased employees' awareness of the smoke-free policy. The number of employees reporting compliance with the hospital smoke-free policy increased from 36.0% to 71.9% (p Armenia that have failed to implement the adopted smoke-free policies.

  2. Analysis of Transport Policy Effect on CO2 Emissions Based on System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emission from the transport sector attracts the attention of both transport and climate change policymakers because of its share in total green house gas emissions and the forecast of continuous growth reported in many countries. This paper takes the urban transport in Beijing as a case and builds a system dynamics model for analysis of the motorization trend and the assessment of CO2 emissions mitigation policy. It is found that the urban transport condition and CO2 emissions would be more serious with the growth of vehicle ownership and travel demand. Compared with the baseline do-nothing scenario, the CO2 emissions could be reduced from 3.8% to 24.3% in 2020 by various transport policies. And the policy of controlling the number of passenger cars which has been carried out in Beijing and followed by some cities could achieve good results, which may help to increase the proportion of public transit to 55.6% and reduce the CO2 emission by 18.3% compared with the baseline scenario in 2020.

  3. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. The impetus for this effort was spawned in part by the decision of the Japanese government to move large quantities of reprocessed plutonium by air from France to Japan. The exploration of options for overflights of United States and Canadian airspace (among others) and landings in Anchorage, Alaska, generated intense debate in the US and countries that might have been overflown. The debate centered on general questions of the need to air transport plutonium in large quantities, package survival in an accident, prenotification, emergency response, routing, safeguards and other facets of the proposed operations. In the US, which already had the most stringent regulations for packaging of plutonium shipped by air (NUREG-0360), there was immediate additional legislative action to increase the stringency by requiring demonstration that an aircraft carrying plutonium in certified packagings could undergo a severe crash without release of plutonium (the Murkowski amendment). In the United Kingdom there was an official inquiry that resulted in a high visibility report (ACTRAM 88) and a conclusion that the IAEA should examine regulatory needs in the general area of air transport

  4. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  5. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  6. Particle modeling of transport of α-ray generated ion clusters in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Lizhu; Nanbu, Kenichi; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    A particle model is developed using the test-particle Monte Carlo method to study the transport properties of α-ray generated ion clusters in a flow of air. An efficient ion-molecule collision model is proposed to simulate the collisions between ion and air molecule. The simulations are performed for a steady state of ion transport in a circular pipe. In the steady state, generation of ions is balanced with such losses of ions as absorption of the measuring sensor or pipe wall and disappearance by positive-negative ion recombination. The calculated ion current to the measuring sensor agrees well with the previous measured data. (author)

  7. Assessing Impact of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport on Regional Air Quality and Climate: What Satellites Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence for intercontinental transport of aerosols suggests that aerosols from a region could significantly affect climate and air quality in downwind regions and continents. Current assessment of these impacts for the most part has been based on global model simulations that show large variability. The aerosol intercontinental transport and its influence on air quality and climate involve many processes at local, regional, and intercontinental scales. There is a pressing need to establish modeling systems that bridge the wide range of scales. The modeling systems need to be evaluated and constrained by observations, including satellite measurements. Columnar loadings of dust and combustion aerosols can be derived from the MODIS and MISR measurements of total aerosol optical depth and particle size and shape information. Characteristic transport heights of dust and combustion aerosols can be determined from the CALIPSO lidar and AIRS measurements. CALIPSO liar and OMI UV technique also have a unique capability of detecting aerosols above clouds, which could offer some insights into aerosol lofting processes and the importance of above-cloud transport pathway. In this presentation, I will discuss our efforts of integrating these satellite measurements and models to assess the significance of intercontinental transport of dust and combustion aerosols on regional air quality and climate.

  8. Economic conditions of technical changes in world civil air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world economic environment of the turn of the century produced many new challenges to civil aviation in expectation of a continued growth in the transportation of passengers and cargo. To meet this growing demand, it will be necessary to increase the fleet and to modernise infrastructure – a process hampered by finances and capacity constraints.Such constraints are especially pressing with regard to the acquisition of new types of large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 and 747-8. Future dominance of the market is, however, difficult to predict, as this will be the outcome of a combination of uncertain parameters.

  9. Transportation of Organs by Air: Safety, Quality, and Sustainability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantecchini, L; Paganelli, F; Morabito, V; Ricci, A; Peritore, D; Trapani, S; Montemurro, A; Rizzo, A; Del Sordo, E; Gaeta, A; Rizzato, L; Nanni Costa, A

    2016-03-01

    The outcomes of organ transplantation activities are greatly affected by the ability to haul organs and medical teams quickly and safely. Organ allocation and usage criteria have greatly improved over time, whereas the same result has not been achieved so far from the transport point of view. Safety and the highest level of service and efficiency must be reached to grant transplant recipients the healthiest outcome. The Italian National Transplant Centre (CNT), in partnership with the regions and the University of Bologna, has promoted a thorough analysis of all stages of organ transportation logistics chains to produce homogeneous and shared guidelines throughout the national territory, capable of ensuring safety, reliability, and sustainability at the highest levels. The mapping of all 44 transplant centers and the pertaining airport network has been implemented. An analysis of technical requirements among organ shipping agents at both national and international level has been promoted. A national campaign of real-time monitoring of organ transport activities at all stages of the supply chain has been implemented. Parameters investigated have been hospital and region of both origin and destination, number and type of organs involved, transport type (with or without medical team), stations of arrival and departure, and shipping agents, as well as actual times of activities involved. National guidelines have been issued to select organ storage units and shipping agents on the basis of evaluation of efficiency, reliability, and equipment with reference to organ type and ischemia time. Guidelines provide EU-level standards on technical equipment of aircrafts, professional requirements of shipping agencies and cabin crew, and requirements on service provision, including pricing criteria. The introduction in the Italian legislation of guidelines issuing minimum requirements on topics such as the medical team, packaging, labeling, safety and integrity, identification

  10. Institutional interactions in developing a transportation system under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes that the success of its efforts to develop and operate a system for transporting nuclear waste under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) depends in large measure on the effectiveness of Departmental interactions with the affected parties. To ensure the necessary network of communication, the DOE is establishing lines of contact with those who are potential participants in the task of developing the policies and procedures for the NWPA transportation system. In addition, a number of measures have been initiated to reinforce broad-based involvement in program development. The Transportation Institutional Plan provides a preliminary road map of DOE's projected interactions over the next decade and is discussed in this paper

  11. Achieving greater public confidence in the application of transportation policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Stevens, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Transportation policies deserve a higher level of priority in the national repository siting program. Affected Indian Tribes and States hold that transportation policies and activities are critical to all stages of the program. They are concerned that the lessening of public confidence brings into question the ability of DOE to successfully carry out the Congressionally-directed effort to find two suitable sites for national repositories. DOE must strive to develop a technically-excellent program and treat, with equal importance, the critical need for a more open participatory process. There are a number of ways in which program improvements can be made to assist in regaining the level of public confidence needed. An improved program will result from the application of earlier and continuous opportunities for Tribes and States to participate. The rewards will lessen delay, deal with conflict in a participatory context, and build incremently improved public confidence in the transportation element of the repository program

  12. Association between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not…

  13. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  14. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio; Del Rio, Pablo; Jorge-Garcia, Marta; Burguillo, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  15. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Goods and Policies (IPP), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz, 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Jorge-Garcia, Marta [Universidad de Leon (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  16. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  17. Concept of Operations for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-13

    instrument flight rules [ IFR ]), and communication with the ANSP via voice radio. In airspace where TBO is used (see Section 2.4), the minimum...GENERATION AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (NEXTGEN) JOINT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICE 2-32 VERSION 2.0 Transport category IFR -capable rotorcraft...disapproval, or a recommendation to amend the plan to include easements, noise mitigation, and disclosure requirements. The jurisdiction seeking to approve

  18. 03. Disruption Management in PassengerTransportation - from Air to Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular traffic around and in all larger cities of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportatio...

  19. Minimizing Air Pollution Exposure: A Practical Policy to Protect Vulnerable Older Adults from Death and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Nick; Levine, Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Air pollution causes an estimated 200,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Older adults are at greater risk of mortality caused by air pollution. Here we quantify the number of older adult facilities in Los Angeles County that are exposed to high levels of traffic derived air pollution, and propose policy solutions to reduce pollution exposure to this vulnerable subgroup. Distances between 20,362 intersections and 858 elder care facilities were estimated, and roads or highways within 500 of facilities were used to estimate traffic volume exposure. Of the 858 facilities, 54 were located near at least one major roadway, defined as a traffic volume over 100,000 cars/day. These 54 facilities house approximately 6,000 older adults. Following standards established for schools, we recommend legislation mandating the placement of new elder care facilities a minimum of 500 feet from major roadways in order to reduce unnecessary mortality risk from pollution exposure.

  20. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9.3 million in 1980, the total carbon dioxide emissions tripled. At regional level, PM2.5 measurements have been carried out systematically since 1999 in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city, the largest Brazilian city, with 19.7 million inhabitants, and more than 7 million vehicles powered mainly by fossil fuels. Although the numbers are still above the state standard to be reached (10µg.m-3, there was a decrease on the annual average in 2008-2015 compared with 2001-2007. This was partially due to the limits established for new vehicles by federal programs. The analysis indicated that the reduction of air pollutants emission will be more easily achieved based on strategies that combine policies supported by current laws, government and private sector agreements and the community engagement.

  1. The dimensions of the policy debate over transportation energy: The case of hydrogen in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and politico-strategic concerns have driven the increase in policy activity related to energy that the United States witnessed in the last few years. The nature of the issues at stake and the level of stakeholder involvement result in a highly complex policy debate. The broad concern of this paper is the study of this energy-policy process and the identification of the main policy issues. Specifically, multivariate analysis is applied to data on a wide variety of stakeholders' policy beliefs and policy preferences to identify the policy dimensions that characterize the debate over energy policy in the United States. The focus is on the policy debate over hydrogen as a transportation fuel, although many results are applicable to the debate over transportation energy at large. The analysis uses a dataset of 502 individuals from 323 different stakeholder organizations obtained via a web-based survey specifically designed for this study

  2. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, R. A.; Lock, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the da...... ¿ short sea or deep-sea shipping. Key Words: Air Pollution, Maritime Transport, Air Pollutant Emissions......This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated...... encountered since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission results per port and vessel type, to aggregate results for different types of movements...

  3. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  4. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  5. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model with which allows us to measure not only the changes in equilibrium outcomes and welfare consequences of liberalizing a bilateral air transport agreement, but also the distribution of the gains and losses to carriers and consumers of each bilateral country and those of the third foreign countries. Our model also allows to measure the effects of changes in a bilateral agreement on the amount of traffic diversion between the direct bilateral routes and the indirect routes via a third country. We also provide an extension of our model to a case of oligopoly market outcome (Coumot Nash equilibrium). In our model, quality aspects are treated in the framework of hedonic price theory by specifying the quality-adjusted price (quantity) as a multiplication of the observed price (quantity) by the reciprocal quality index function (the quality index function). Numerical simulations were conducted to measure the effects of changing the following major policy levers in a bilateral air transport agreement: 1) Removing price regulation while retaining frequency and entry restrictions; 2) Removing price and entry regulation while retaining frequency restrictions; 3) Removing frequency regulations while retaining price and entry regulations; 4) Removing frequency and entry regulations while retaining price regulation; 5) Removing price and frequency regulations while retaining entry restriction; and 6) Removing all price, frequency and entry regulations (de facto, open skies).

  6. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  7. Inventory and Policy Reduction Potential of Greenhouse Gas and Pollutant Emissions of Road Transportation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emissions from the road transportation industry in China have been increasing rapidly. To evaluate the reduction potential of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of the industry in China, its emission inventory was calculated and scenario analysis was created for the period between 2012 and 2030 in this paper. Based on the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP model, the development of China’s road transportation industry in two scenarios (the business-as-usual (BAU scenario and the comprehensive-mitigation (CM scenario was simulated. In the Comprehensive Mitigation scenario, there are nine various measures which include Fuel Economy Standards, Auto Emission Standards, Energy-saving Technology, Tax Policy, Eco-driving, Logistics Informatization, Vehicle Liquidation, Electric Vehicles, and Alternative Fuels. The cumulative energy and emission reductions of these specific measures were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that China’s road transportation produced 881 million metric tons of CO2 and emitted 1420 thousand tons of CO, 2150 thousand tons of NOx, 148 thousand tons of PM10, and 745 thousand tons of HC in 2012. The reduction potential is quite large, and road freight transportation is the key mitigation subsector, accounting for 85%–92% of the total emission. For energy conservation and carbon emission mitigation, logistics informatization is the most effective method, potentially reducing 1.80 billion tons of coal equivalent and 3.83 billion tons of CO2 from 2012 to 2030. In terms of air pollutant emission mitigation, the auto emission standards measure performs best with respect to NOx, PM10, and HC emission mitigation, and logistic informatization measure is the best in CO emission reduction. In order to maximize the mitigation potential of China’s road transportation industry, the government needs to implement various measures in a timely and strict fashion.

  8. EU policies on car emissions and fuel quality. Reducing the climate impact from road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Anne Raaum; Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2012-07-01

    Transport is the second biggest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU, and contributes about one-quarter of the EU's total emissions of CO{sub 2}. Significant reductions in GHG emissions from transport are required if the EU is to achieve its long-term climate goals. This report examines the making and implementation of two of the regulations the EU has put in place to lower emissions from the transport sector: the EU's revised Fuel Quality Directive (Directive 2009/30/EC) and the cars/CO{sub 2} regulation (Regulation (EC) 443/2009). It was found that the relevance of various theories of policymaking in the EU varies with different policy phases. A policy-network understanding of EU policymaking is strengthened when assessing the policy-initiation phase. The Commission played a key role in this phase and drafted legislation in close collaboration with the car and oil refining industries. An intergovernmentalist understanding of EU policy-making is strengthened when assessing the decision-making phase. In this phase, member states defending the interests of their domestic industries had strong influence, but the European Parliament played an important role in this phase too, employing its power in the co-decision procedure. Finally, the implementation process is best understood as a multi-level governance process in which several actors and institutions - notably the Commission, member states, industries, and NGOs - influenced the process. (Author)

  9. A methodology for evaluating environmental impacts of railway freight transportation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Javier; Buron, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Railway freight transportation presents a degree of complexity which frequently makes impossible to model it with sufficient precision. Currently, energetic and environmental impacts of freight transportation are usually modelled following average data, which do not reflect the characteristics of specific lines. These models allow qualitative approximations which may be used as criteria for designing high-level transportation policies: road-train modal shift, regional energetic planning or environmental policies. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating railway consumption associated to a specific railway line which yields a new degree of precision. It is based on estimating different contributions to railway consumption by a collection of factors, mobility, operation, or infrastructure-related. This procedure also allows applying the methodology for designing transportation policies in detail: evaluating impact of modal shift, consumption and pollutant emissions on a specific line, as well as the effect of building tunnels, reducing slopes, improving traffic control, etc. A comparison of the estimations given by the conventional approach and the proposed methodology is offered, as well as further comments on the results.

  10. Air Quality and Health Benefits of China's Recent Stringent Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; He, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by China's central and local governments after the promulgation of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in 2013. We evaluated the air quality and health benefits of this ever most stringent air pollution control policy during 2013-2015 by utilizing a two-stage data fusion model and newly-developed cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions (IER) developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). The two-stage data fusion model predicts spatiotemporal continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) concentrations by integrating satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, PM2.5 concentrations from measurement and air quality model, and other ancillary information. During the years of analysis, PM2.5 concentration dropped significantly on national average and over heavily polluted regions as identified by Mann-Kendall analysis. The national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased by 72.8 (95% CI: 59.4, 85.2) thousand (6%) from 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.39) million in 2013 to 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.31) million in 2015 due to considerable reduction (i.e. 18%) of population-weighted PM2.5 from 61.4 to 50.5 µg/m3. Meteorological variations between 2013 and 2015 were estimated to raise the PM2.5 levels by 0.24 µg/m3 and national mortality by 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) thousand through sensitivity tests, which implies the dominant role of anthropogenic impacts on PM2.5 abatement and attributable mortality reduction. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China's recent air quality policy, however, due to the possible supralinear shape of C-R functions, health benefits induced by air quality improvement in these years are limited. We therefore appeal for continuous implementation of current policies and further stringent measures from both air quality improvement and public health protection perspectives.

  11. Surgical support of Operation Sea Signal: adaptability of the 59th Air Transportable Hospital in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Jeffrey J; Buehrer, Jeffrey L; Cull, David L

    2003-12-01

    The attempted migration of approximately 50,000 Cubans in the summer of 1994 created a large patient population detained at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. This study examined the roles and results of the 59th Air Transportable Hospital (ATH) in treating surgical problems within that population during Operation Sea Signal. The surgical case log of the 59th ATH was used to identify all patients operated on at the 59th ATH during the interval of August 1994 to April 1995. These case records and the individual records of the three 59th ATH surgeons were used to determine the types of cases performed, complications, and outcomes. A total of 333 operations were performed at the 59th ATH in three types of surgery: (1) elective (267); (2) emergency for nonself-inflicted conditions (46); and (3) emergency for self-inflicted conditions (20). The total perioperative complication rate was 2.4% (8/333), and the wound infection rate for clean surgical cases was 0.87% (2/229). Elective surgery may be performed in a field environment with acceptable complication and wound infection rates. Humanitarian missions will be faced with considerable pathology from pre-existing conditions within the population cared for. The humanitarian mission may be complicated by political situations that may encourage malingering and self-injurious behavior within the population cared for. The latter events have not been previously encountered in humanitarian missions involving the U.S. military and must be considered by policy makers and mission planners in planning future humanitarian missions.

  12. Transport of radioactive material by air, proposal for a revision of the regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Ringot, C.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation should be modified in such a way that the packages used for the air transport of radioactive material presenting a high level of potential danger be designed to fulfill their safety functions for a large fraction of the conditions likely to be encountered in an aircraft accident

  13. Agent-based modeling and simulation of emergent behavior in air transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, S.; Blom, H.A.P.; Curran, R.; Everdij, M.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Commercial aviation is feasible thanks to the complex socio-technical air transportation system, which involves interactions between human operators, technical systems, and procedures. In view of the expected growth in commercial aviation, significant changes in this socio-technical system

  14. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  15. A model for the estimation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport. It is based on the estimation of energy consumption from a matirx describing the distribution of speeds and accelerations for operation. It is shown that calculations can be performed...

  16. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  17. Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation of Safety and Resilience in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In order to improve the safety, capacity, economy, and sustainability of air transportation, revolutionary changes are required. These changes might range from the introduction of new technology and operational procedures to unprecedented roles of human operators and the way they interact.

  18. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  19. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  20. In the wake of liberalisation: long-term developments in the EU air transport market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Using a 24-year analysis period (1990-2013), a new perspective is offered on long-term first- and second-order developments following liberalisation of the intra-EU air transport market. The focus of the analysis is on supply-side issues, such as airline output, structure of supply, yields, business