WorldWideScience

Sample records for air traffic control facilities

  1. Distributed Air Traffic Control Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Radovanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During initial training air traffic control students acquire theoretical knowledge in various fields including air traffic management, aircraft performance, air traffic control equipment and systems, navigation and others. This paper proposes a simulator and explains its use and features that allows students to gain a practical insight into their coursework in order to complement their training. The goal of the simulator is to realistically implement all the key functionalities needed to cover the topics that were presented in class. The simulator offers a user friendly, distributed, and multi-role environment that can be deployed on regular PCs. Moreover, this paper discusses and resolves some of the main conceptual and implementational issues that were faced during simulator development.

  2. The Challenges of Field Testing the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) in an Operational Air Traffic Control Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Swenson, Harry N.

    1997-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), the sequence and schedule tool of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), was evaluated at the Fort Worth Center (ZFW) in the summer of 1996. This paper describes the challenges encountered during the various phases of the TMA field evaluation, which included system (hardware and software) installation, personnel training, and data collection. Operational procedures were developed and applied to the evaluation process that would ensure air safety. The five weeks of field evaluation imposed minimal impact on the hosting facility and provided valuable engineering and human factors data. The collection of data was very much an opportunistic affair, due to dynamic traffic conditions. One measure of the success of the TMA evaluation is that, rather than remove TMA after the evaluation until it could be fully implemented, the prototype TMA is in continual use at ZFW as the fully operational version is readied for implementation.

  3. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  4. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  5. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  6. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  7. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  8. INTEGRATED APPROACH TO LANGUAGE TRAINING OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Petrashchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of integrative approach to language training of air traffic controllers in air traffic control simulator. The integrative approach is viewed in terms of two elements of English communicative competency: oral speech skills (listening comprehension and speaking and language of radiotelephony communication (radiotelephony phraseology and plain English in aviation context.

  9. Effort and Collective Creation: Experience in Air Traffic Control Work

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Itani

    2015-01-01

    How can work also represent a perspective of creation? We start from the hypothesis that air traffic controllers make an effort to cope with very hard work and to develop improvement processes when carrying out the activity, which can be considered creation. Our objective is to analyze the working conditions of air traffic controllers starting from the experience of the controller. There is effort, which is above all both cognitive and physical, of an activity developed with mental representa...

  10. Team climate and safety culture in air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R; Ek, Åsa; Akselsson, Roland

    2003-01-01

    In a joint project – Human Factors in ANS, HUFA - between the Swedish Civil Aviation Administration and Lund University the aim is to find out how a new team-based organization and the introduction of a new air traffic control system will affect safety culture and psychosocial working environment by changes in organizational climate, team climate and leadership. All in all, four studies will be conducted, before and after the system introduction, involving the two air traffic control centers ...

  11. Air Traffic Control automation: for humans or people?

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Are air traffic controllers humans or people? At first sight, this seems a very odd question, given that ‘humans’ and ‘people’ are near-synonyms in the dictionary and everyday usage. However, in research on air traffic control (ATC) automation the phrase ‘human-centred’ is used to mean particular aspects of people: for example, it does not usually address their motivations for embracing change or cover organisational behaviour issues. The objective here is to try to understa...

  12. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient

  13. Trainer Interventions as Instructional Strategies in Air Traffic Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Inka; Palukka, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify methods of guidance and supervision used in air traffic control training. It also aims to show how these methods facilitate trainee participation in core work activities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper applies the tools of conversation analysis and ethnomethodology to explore the ways in which trainers…

  14. Using eye tracker data in air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, P.; Greef, T. de

    2011-01-01

    Motivation/Research approach - An exploratory study was conducted to investigate whether eye movement metrics discriminate between different air traffic control tasks. Findings/Design - The results show the three tasks elicit different eye movement, as Yarbus (1967) also showed in static pictures, a

  15. METHODS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ANTI-STRESS TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhokhina, O. V.; Grishchenko, Y.V.

    2012-01-01

    Consider work features of air traffic controllers. The main negative factor in their work is stress. Proposed a combined method for determining the stress effect. It’s using anti-stress training on the software package "Anti-console" with noninvasive diagnostic blood parameters.

  16. Safety culture and organizational climate in air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Åsa; Akselsson, Roland; Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R

    2003-01-01

    Due to organizational changes in the Swedish air navigation services (ANS), which in extension could impact flight safety, the safety culture (SC), organizational climate (OC), and related areas are monitored. Study locations are the two main air traffic control centers in Sweden and parts of the central ANS office. This paper reports on a first attempt to investigate whether relationships exist between SC and OC. The findings show that such relationships exist.

  17. A New Approach to an Automated Air Traffic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patchev Dragoljub

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies areas of improvements of the air traffic control system and proposes modification of the concept of automation by using available technologies. With the proposed modification, the current Europe wide en route network structure can be modified in order to make routes more optimal. For this new route network structure, a new concept of automation will be used to manage with the air traffic. The first identified area of improvement is implementation of automation process that will enable decentralization of the air traffic control functionality to each individual aircraft and this will be achieved through automated routing of the aircrafts and CD&R (conflict detection and resolution). The FMS (flight management system) at the aircraft will make decisions for the optimal flight route based on the sensor inputs, information on selection of the routes, next hope points and flight levels, all received by ADS-B (automatic dependant surveillance-broadcast). The second area is processing the information about the deviation from the optimal route as in flight plan due to a traffic management (vectoring, level change) and taking it into consideration when further actions are undertaken. For each action, a cost factor will be calculated from the fuel burned for that action. This factor will be used to select conflict resolution protocol. The proposed concept shall increase the capacity of the network, and enable the air traff~c more efficient and more environmentally friendly while maintaining safe separation.

  18. An Agent-Based Model for Analyzing Control Policies and the Dynamic Service-Time Performance of a Capacity-Constrained Air Traffic Management Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2006-01-01

    Simple agent-based models may be useful for investigating air traffic control strategies as a precursory screening for more costly, higher fidelity simulation. Of concern is the ability of the models to capture the essence of the system and provide insight into system behavior in a timely manner and without breaking the bank. The method is put to the test with the development of a model to address situations where capacity is overburdened and potential for propagation of the resultant delay though later flights is possible via flight dependencies. The resultant model includes primitive representations of principal air traffic system attributes, namely system capacity, demand, airline schedules and strategy, and aircraft capability. It affords a venue to explore their interdependence in a time-dependent, dynamic system simulation. The scope of the research question and the carefully-chosen modeling fidelity did allow for the development of an agent-based model in short order. The model predicted non-linear behavior given certain initial conditions and system control strategies. Additionally, a combination of the model and dimensionless techniques borrowed from fluid systems was demonstrated that can predict the system s dynamic behavior across a wide range of parametric settings.

  19. Simulation of new Display Concepts for Air/Space Traffic Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Kaltenhäuser, Sven; Röder, Michael; Morlang, Frank; Hampe, Jens

    2015-01-01

    A long track record on research on display con-cepts is available in the domain to assist the Air Traffic Controller in his situation awareness. Most of the concepts were designed to reduce Air Traffic Management (ATM) complexity with respect to traffic density, identification and resolution of conflict situations as well as to enhance the efficiency of the air transport sys-tem. The existing concepts mostly do not take into consideration air traffic and space traffic above flight level 600. ...

  20. Design of air traffic control tower at Brnik airport

    OpenAIRE

    Štular, David

    2007-01-01

    Design of air traffic control tower at Brnik airport according to European Standard Eurocode is presented. The structure of tower is a concrete, 106 m high core, supported by 31 m long piles. Calculation of self weight, variable actions, snow and wind load has been examined. The main part of diploma thesis is earthquake analysis. The building belongs to importance class III which determinates the building to be designed for the earthquake with a longer return period as regular ...

  1. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1995-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  2. Identification of Communication and Coordination Issues in the US Air Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John

    2001-01-01

    Today's air traffic control system is approaching the point of saturation, as evidenced by increasing delays across the National Airspace System (NAS). There exists an opportunity to enhance NAS efficiency and reduce delays by improving strategic communication throughout the ATC system. Although several measures have been taken to improve communication (e.g., Collaborative Decision Making tools), communication issues between ATC facilities remain. It is hypothesized that by identifying the key issues plaguing inter-facility strategic communication, steps can be taken to enhance these communications, and therefore ATC system efficiency. In this report, a series of site visits were performed at Boston and New York ATC facilities as well as at the Air Traffic Control System Command Center. The results from these site visits were used to determine the current communication and coordination structure of Traffic Management Coordinators, who hold a pivotal role in inter-facility communications. Several themes emerged from the study, including: ambiguity of organizational structure in the current ATC system, awkward coordination between ATC facilities, information flow issues, organizational culture issues, and negotiation behaviors used to cope with organizational culture issues.

  3. Trajectory Specification for Automation of Terminal Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    "Trajectory specification" is the explicit bounding and control of aircraft tra- jectories such that the position at each point in time is constrained to a precisely defined volume of space. The bounding space is defined by cross-track, along-track, and vertical tolerances relative to a reference trajectory that specifies position as a function of time. The tolerances are dynamic and will be based on the aircraft nav- igation capabilities and the current traffic situation. A standard language will be developed to represent these specifications and to communicate them by datalink. Assuming conformance, trajectory specification can guarantee safe separation for an arbitrary period of time even in the event of an air traffic control (ATC) sys- tem or datalink failure, hence it can help to achieve the high level of safety and reliability needed for ATC automation. As a more proactive form of ATC, it can also maximize airspace capacity and reduce the reliance on tactical backup systems during normal operation. It applies to both enroute airspace and the terminal area around airports, but this paper focuses on arrival spacing in the terminal area and presents ATC algorithms and software for achieving a specified delay of runway arrival time.

  4. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  5. Minimizing the Disruptive Effects of Prospective Memory in Simulated Air Traffic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Remington, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating pro...

  6. Control of Future Air Traffic Systems via Complexity Bound Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the present system for managing air traffic has led to "discreteness" in approaches to creating new concepts: new concepts are created as point designs, based on experience, expertise, and creativity of the proposer. Discrete point designs may be highly successful but they are difficult to substantiate in the face of equally strong substantiation of competing concepts, as well as the state of the art in concept evaluation via simulations. Hybrid concepts may present a compromise - the golden middle. Yet a hybrid of sometimes in principle incompatible concepts forms another point design that faces the challenge of substantiation and validation. We are faced with the need to re-design the air transportation system ab initio. This is a daunting task, especially considering the problem of transitioning from the present system to any fundamentally new system. However, design from scratch is also an opportunity to reconsider approaches to new concept development. In this position paper we propose an approach, Optimized Parametric Functional Design, for systematic development of concepts for management and control of airspace systems, based on optimization formulations in terms of required system functions and states. This reasoning framework, realizable in the context of ab initio system design, offers an approach to deriving substantiated airspace management and control concepts. With growing computational power, we hope that the approach will also yield a methodology for actual dynamic control of airspace

  7. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405...

  8. A passive brain-computer interface application for the mental workload assessment on professional air traffic controllers during realistic air traffic control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, P; Borghini, G; Di Flumeri, G; Colosimo, A; Pozzi, S; Babiloni, F

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been a fast-growing concept in the neuroscience field. The passive brain-computer interface (p-BCI) systems allow to improve the human-machine interaction (HMI) in operational environments, by using the covert brain activity (eg, mental workload) of the operator. However, p-BCI technology could suffer from some practical issues when used outside the laboratories. In particular, one of the most important limitations is the necessity to recalibrate the p-BCI system each time before its use, to avoid a significant reduction of its reliability in the detection of the considered mental states. The objective of the proposed study was to provide an example of p-BCIs used to evaluate the users' mental workload in a real operational environment. For this purpose, through the facilities provided by the École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse (France), the cerebral activity of 12 professional air traffic control officers (ATCOs) has been recorded while performing high realistic air traffic management scenarios. By the analysis of the ATCOs' brain activity (electroencephalographic signal-EEG) and the subjective workload perception (instantaneous self-assessment) provided by both the examined ATCOs and external air traffic control experts, it has been possible to estimate and evaluate the variation of the mental workload under which the controllers were operating. The results showed (i) a high significant correlation between the neurophysiological and the subjective workload assessment, and (ii) a high reliability over time (up to a month) of the proposed algorithm that was also able to maintain high discrimination accuracies by using a low number of EEG electrodes (~3 EEG channels). In conclusion, the proposed methodology demonstrated the suitability of p-BCI systems in operational environments and the advantages of the neurophysiological measures with respect to the subjective ones. PMID:27590973

  9. An error-resistant linguistic protocol for air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The research results described here are intended to enhance the effectiveness of the DATALINK interface that is scheduled by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to be deployed during the 1990's to improve the safety of various aspects of aviation. While voice has a natural appeal as the preferred means of communication both among humans themselves and between humans and machines as the form of communication that people find most convenient, the complexity and flexibility of natural language are problematic, because of the confusions and misunderstandings that can arise as a result of ambiguity, unclear reference, intonation peculiarities, implicit inference, and presupposition. The DATALINK interface will avoid many of these problems by replacing voice with vision and speech with written instructions. This report describes results achieved to date on an on-going research effort to refine the protocol of the DATALINK system so as to avoid many of the linguistic problems that still remain in the visual mode. In particular, a working prototype DATALINK simulator system has been developed consisting of an unambiguous, context-free grammar and parser, based on the current air-traffic-control language and incorporated into a visual display involving simulated touch-screen buttons and three levels of menu screens. The system is written in the C programming language and runs on the Macintosh II computer. After reviewing work already done on the project, new tasks for further development are described.

  10. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  11. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  12. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training

    OpenAIRE

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trai...

  13. THE REMOTE AND MOBILE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER AND ITS POSSIBLE APPLICATION TO THE OPERATIONAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea VAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of remote and mobile Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC TWR and its development has started in Europe, Australia and also in the USA, in order to improve the efficiency of Air Traffic Management (ATM systems in terms of air transportation safety. These new technologies are applicable in many countries in peace time, but on mobility reasons these are promoted to achieve commitments in the operational area. This article describes the devices and range of equipment of mobile and remote tower, and their specifications, which can even serve a medium sized airport, furthermore examines, whether how can those provide the air traffic services at an operational airfield.

  14. Use of Structure as a Basis for Abstraction in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John

    2004-01-01

    The safety and efficiency of the air traffic control domain is highly dependent on the capabilities and limitations of its human controllers. Past research has indicated that structure provided by the airspace and procedures could aid in simplifying the controllers cognitive tasks. In this paper, observations, interviews, voice command data analyses, and radar analyses were conducted at the Boston Terminal Route Control (TRACON) facility to determine if there was evidence of controllers using structure to simplify their cognitive processes. The data suggest that controllers do use structure-based abstractions to simplify their cognitive processes, particularly the projection task. How structure simplifies the projection task and the implications of understanding the benefits structure provides to the projection task was discussed.

  15. Multilevel Control & Optimization of Future Air Traffic Systems via Managem Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Controlling air traffic on all temporal and spatial scales – from a single aircraft to the entire airspace – can be formally stated as a dynamic,...

  16. Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salden, Ron; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Salden, R.J.C.M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (2006). Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer. Learning and Instruction, 16, 350-362

  17. Improving air traffic control: Proving new tools or approving the joint human-machine system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Irene; Leroux, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    From the description of a field problem (i.e., designing decision aids for air traffic controllers), this paper points out how a cognitive engineering approach provides the milestones for the evaluation of future joint human-machine systems.

  18. Visual Problem Solving and Self‐regulation in Training Air Traffic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Meeuwen van, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W. (2013). Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  19. Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W. (2013). Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  20. Aeronautical mobile satellite service: Air traffic control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Canada's history both in aviation and in satellite communications development spans several decades. The introduction of aeronautical mobile satellite communications will serve our requirements for airspace management in areas not served by line-of-sight radio and radar facilities. The ensuing improvements in air safety and operating efficiency are eagerly awaited by the aviation community.

  1. Air Traffic Control, chess playing and chess programs : lessons to learn

    OpenAIRE

    Alliot, Jean-Marc; Bosc, Jean-François

    1996-01-01

    International audience Air traffic control and chess playing are human cognitive activities that share a large number of characteristics. In this paper, we first discuss similarities of these two activitie; then, using the experience gained in the field of games (and chess) programming, which has encountered numerous excellent results, we try to draw some conclusions on how systems could be designed to improve performance of Air Traffic Control.

  2. Strategic Planning in Air Traffic Control as a Multi-objective Stochastic Optimization Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Marceau, Gaétan; Savéant, Pierre; Schoenauer, Marc

    2013-01-01

    With the objective of handling the airspace sector congestion subject to continuously growing air traffic, we suggest to create a collaborative working plan during the strategic phase of air traffic control. The plan obtained via a new decision support tool presented in this article consists in a schedule for controllers, which specifies time of overflight on the different waypoints of the flight plans. In order to do it, we believe that the decision-support tool shall model directly the unce...

  3. PRINCIPLES OF IMPROVEMENT OF AIR TRAFFIC FLOW AND CAPACITY MANAGEMENT IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko, Volodymyr; National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine; Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China; Chynchenko, Yuriy; National Aviation University, Kyiv

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of the researches conducted in the field of the air traffic flow and capacity management in terminal control areas under uncertainty conditions. Traffic flows indicators, uncertainty factors and air traffic flow management in terminal control areas have been reviewed. Principles of improvement of air traffic flow and capacity management in terminal control areas have been analysed and conclusions regarding Ukrainian aeronautical system have been proposed

  4. Analysis of Alternative Institutional Arrangements for Reform of U.S. Air Traffic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Ira

    2004-01-01

    A considerable amount of New Public Management-oriented research investigates alternative institutional arrangements for provision of services to the public. Some of this work argues in support of service delivery through an increase in outsourcing or by privatization of existing government functions. Air traffic control is provided to aircraft operators using airports and airspace all over the world. This article studies institutional arrangements of provision of air traffic c...

  5. Complexity in Air Traffic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Delahaye, Daniel; Puechmorel, Stéphane; Dougui, Nour Elhouda

    2009-01-01

    Air traffic Management Requirements : -Insure separation between aircraft. -Avoid costly manoeuvres and optionally optimize trajectories. -Insure trafic organization. Trends : -Separation delegated to aircraft. -Trajectory based air traffic management. -Introduction of decision support tools / automated conflict solvers. Workload : -Related to cognitive processes of human controllers. -Easy/Hard forecasting of conflict occurrence. -Monitoring is a non negligible part of the workload. -Relevan...

  6. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  7. Air traffic control resource management strategies and the small aircraft transportation system: A system dynamics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James J., Jr.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a research effort to develop a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) that will expand air transportation capabilities to hundreds of underutilized airports in the United States. Most of the research effort addresses the technological development of the small aircraft as well as the systems to manage airspace usage and surface activities at airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will also play a major role in the successful implementation of SATS, however, the administration is reluctant to embrace the unproven concept. The purpose of the research presented in this dissertation is to determine if the FAA can pursue a resource management strategy that will support the current radar-based Air Traffic Control (ATC) system as well as a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)-based ATC system required by the SATS. The research centered around the use of the System Dynamics modeling methodology to determine the future behavior of the principle components of the ATC system over time. The research included a model of the ATC system consisting of people, facilities, equipment, airports, aircraft, the FAA budget, and the Airport and Airways Trust Fund. The model generated system performance behavior used to evaluate three scenarios. The first scenario depicted the base case behavior of the system if the FAA continued its current resource management practices. The second scenario depicted the behavior of the system if the FAA emphasized development of GPS-based ATC systems. The third scenario depicted a combined resource management strategy that supplemented radar systems with GPS systems. The findings of the research were that the FAA must pursue a resource management strategy that primarily funds a radar-based ATC system and directs lesser funding toward a GPS-based supplemental ATC system. The most significant contribution of this research was the insight and understanding gained of how

  8. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  9. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  10. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Landing-Time-Controlled Management Of Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Tobias, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual system controls aircraft with old and new guidance equipment. Report begins with overview of concept, then reviews controller-interactive simulations. Describes fuel-conservative-trajectory algorithm, based on equations of motion for controlling landing time. Finally, presents results of piloted simulations.

  12. ROLE OF PEDAGOGY COMPETENCE OF A CONTROLLER-TRAINER IN SIMU-TRAINING OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Петращук

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of pedagogy competence of an ATCO-trainer as a constituent of hisoverall professional competency/capacity to provide quality SIMU- training of the air traffic controllers. Thecurrent University curriculum for abinitio controllers does not provide developing of the pedagogicalcompetence. But it is requested very much when an air traffic controller is employed as a controller-trainerfor SIMU-training. It is suggested to include pedagogical science as a course in the University programme

  13. Dynamic Density: An Air Traffic Management Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudeman, I. V.; Shelden, S. G.; Branstrom, R.; Brasil, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of a metric of air traffic controller workload based on air traffic characteristics is essential to the development of both air traffic management automation and air traffic procedures. Dynamic density is a proposed concept for a metric that includes both traffic density (a count of aircraft in a volume of airspace) and traffic complexity (a measure of the complexity of the air traffic in a volume of airspace). It was hypothesized that a metric that includes terms that capture air traffic complexity will be a better measure of air traffic controller workload than current measures based only on traffic density. A weighted linear dynamic density function was developed and validated operationally. The proposed dynamic density function includes a traffic density term and eight traffic complexity terms. A unit-weighted dynamic density function was able to account for an average of 22% of the variance in observed controller activity not accounted for by traffic density alone. A comparative analysis of unit weights, subjective weights, and regression weights for the terms in the dynamic density equation was conducted. The best predictor of controller activity was the dynamic density equation with regression-weighted complexity terms.

  14. Quality of Life, Sleep, and Health of Air Traffic Controllers With Rapid Counterclockwise Shift Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline Girnos; De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Vilarta, Roberto; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Sonati, Renato José Ferreira; Paduan, Paulo Cézar

    2016-08-01

    Rotating shiftwork is common for air traffic controllers and usually causes sleep deprivation, biological adaptations, and life changes for these workers. This study assessed quality of life, the sleep, and the health of 30 air traffic controllers employed at an international airport in Brazil. The objective was to identify health and quality of life concerns of these professionals. The results identified physical inactivity, overweight, excess body fat, low scores for physical and social relationships, and sleep deprivation for workers in all four workshifts. In conclusion, these workers are at risk for chronic non-transmittable diseases and compromised work performance, suggesting the need for more rest time before working nightshifts and work environments that stimulate physical activity and healthy diets. PMID:27147608

  15. Satellite system performance assessment for in-flight entertainment and air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Radzik, José; Pirovano, Alain; Tao, Na; Bousquet, Michel

    2007-01-01

    International audience Concurrent satellite systems have been proposed for IFE (In-Flight Entertainment) communications, thus demonstrating the capability of satellites to provide multimedia access to users in aircraft cabin. At the same time, an increasing interest in the use of satellite communications for ATC (Air Traffic Control) has been motivated by the increasing load of traditional radio links mainly in the VHF band, and uses the extended capacities the satellite may provide. Howev...

  16. A new intelligent approach for air traffic control using gravitational search algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kazem Dastgerdi; Nasser Mehrshad; Mohsen Farshad

    2016-02-01

    Aircraft landing planning (ALP) is one of the most important challenging problems in the domain of air traffic control (ATC). Solving this NP-hard problem is a valuable aid in organizing air traffic in terminal control area (TCA), which itself leads to a decrease in aircraft fuel consumption, costs of airlines, and workload undertaken by air traffic controllers. In the present paper, the ALP problem is dealt with by applying effective rich knowledge to the optimization process (to remove obvious non-optimal solutions), and the first use of Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) in resolving such a case. In this regard, while the specific regulations for safe separation have been observed, the optimal landing time, the optimal runway, and the order of consecutive landings have been determined so that the main goal (minimizing total flight delays) would be best met. Results of simulations show that this approach, compared to previous ones, which are based on Genetic and Bionomic algorithms, GLS, and Scatter search method, considerably decreases total flight delays. Attaining zero in the total flight delays in three scenarios with real data shows that the suggested intelligent approach is more decisive than others in finding an optimal solution.

  17. Hematological and immunological effects of stress of air traffic controllers in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that stress and emotional reactions can affect immune responses in animals and humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological and immunological effects of stress on air traffic controllers. METHODS: Thirty air traffic controllers and 15 aeronautical information service operators were evaluated. The groups were divided as information service operators with 10 years or more of experience (AIS>10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (AIS10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (ATCo10 group presented a significantly lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes at 2:00 p.m. compared to 8:00 a.m. Moreover, the ATCo>10 group presented lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelet and leukocyte levels, and increased cortisol concentrations at 8:00 a.m. compared to the other groups. Additionally, this group had lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes, and hemoglobin, platelet, leukocyte, basophils and nitric oxide levels at 2:00 p.m. compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Stress seems to greatly affect immune responses of air traffic controllers with more than ten years of experience.

  18. A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.

  19. Development and Validation in Air Traffic Control by Means of Real-Time Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gesekus

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The airspace in Central Europe is already one of the busiest airspaces in the world and the forecasts predict further traffic increases. The current air transport system is reaching its capacity limits, not only at airports but also in parts of the en-route area. This is mainly due to the workload constraints of air traffic controllers. In the past, many technical system functionalities were developed with the aim of reducing controller workload and thus enabling the safe handling of the predicted traffic growth. But these new functionalities alone will not provide adequate relief to air traffic controllers. Their working procedures and the airspace structure will have to be adapted accordingly. In order to obtain real operational benefits, these technical innovations must be integrated into an overall concept which – in addition to the above-mentioned factors – also takes account of ergonomic aspects and human-machine interfaces. When developing such an overall concept, additional evaluation and validation measures are indispensable to ensure that the desired operational benefits are achieved. This is why DFS has for many years used fast- and real-time simulations to assess and optimise any changes to be made to the air traffic control system. The working methods of DFS in this context are in keeping with the European Operational Concept Validation Methodology of 2007, in short E-OCVM. This paper outlines the development and validation activities of DFS using the MSP D/L project as an example. The project deals with the introduction of the new role of air traffic controllers as multi-sector planners (MSP and new system functionalities, such as air/ground data link (D/L. The project included the development of an operational concept for using the new functionalities as well as for defining working procedures and the airspace structure. This concept was subsequently evaluated by means of a fast-time simulation and two real-time simulations

  20. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  1. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arbula

    Full Text Available Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs, could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning.

  2. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  3. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  4. SUBSTATIATION AND CHOICE OF ROAD TRAFFIC AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM SPECIAL FACILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shasha, I.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of potential ecological hazard usage efficiency and reduction of avarage length of human life for road traffic management has been done. It has been proved that the application of these characteristics will be efficient in case of high traffic volume. It is suggested to use the total value of road vehicle delay time at urban road network crossings as an universal special function of road traffic management optimization. During one traffic control cycle.

  5. Measurement of electromagnetic fields generated by air traffic control radar systems with spectrum analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar. (authors)

  6. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry

    2010-07-01

    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations. PMID:20116780

  7. Controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control: A framework for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air Traffic Control (ATC) involves a complex interaction of human operators (primarily air traffic controllers), equipment and procedures. On the rare occasions when equipment malfunctions, controllers play a crucial role in the recovery process of the ATC system for continued safe operation. Research on human performance in other safety critical industries using human reliability assessment techniques has shown that the context in which recovery from failures takes place has a significant influence on the outcome of the process. This paper investigates the importance of context in which air traffic controller recovery from equipment failures takes place, defining it in terms of 20 Recovery Influencing Factors (RIFs). The RIFs are used to develop a novel approach for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context based on a metric referred to as the Recovery Context Indicator (RCI). The method is validated by a series of simulation exercises conducted at a specific ATC Centre. The proposed method is useful to assess recovery enhancement approaches within ATC centres

  8. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  9. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  10. Software for Simulating Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Bilimoria, Karl; Grabbe, Shon; Chatterji, Gano; Sheth, Kapil; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) is a system of software for performing computational simulations for evaluating advanced concepts of advanced air-traffic management. FACET includes a program that generates a graphical user interface plus programs and databases that implement computational models of weather, airspace, airports, navigation aids, aircraft performance, and aircraft trajectories. Examples of concepts studied by use of FACET include aircraft self-separation for free flight; prediction of air-traffic-controller workload; decision support for direct routing; integration of spacecraft-launch operations into the U.S. national airspace system; and traffic- flow-management using rerouting, metering, and ground delays. Aircraft can be modeled as flying along either flight-plan routes or great-circle routes as they climb, cruise, and descend according to their individual performance models. The FACET software is modular and is written in the Java and C programming languages. The architecture of FACET strikes a balance between flexibility and fidelity; as a consequence, FACET can be used to model systemwide airspace operations over the contiguous U.S., involving as many as 10,000 aircraft, all on a single desktop or laptop computer running any of a variety of operating systems. Two notable applications of FACET include: (1) reroute conformance monitoring algorithms that have been implemented in one of the Federal Aviation Administration s nationally deployed, real-time, operational systems; and (2) the licensing and integration of FACET with the commercially available Flight Explorer, which is an Internet- based, real-time flight-tracking system.

  11. Perpetual factors involved in performance of air traffic controllers using a microwave landing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershzohn, G.

    1978-01-01

    The task involved the control of two simulated aircraft targets per trial, in a 37.0 -km radius terminal area, by means of conventional radar vectoring and/or speed control. The goal was to insure that the two targets crossed the Missed Approach Point (MAP) at the runway threshold exactly 60 sec apart. The effects on controller performance of the MLS configuration under wind and no-wind conditions were examined. The data for mean separation time between targets at the MAP and the range about that mean were analyzed by appropriate analyses of variance. Significant effects were found for mean separation times as a result of the configuration of the MLS and for interaction between the configuration and wind conditions. The analysis of variance for range indicated significantly poorer performance under the wind condition. These findings are believed to be a result of certain perceptual factors involved in radar air traffic control (ATC) using the MLS with separation of targets in time.

  12. Effects of shift work in air traffic controllers: a systematic review based on the Prisma method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Vieira Marcolino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air Traffic Controllers (ATC perform very complex functions of great responsibility. Due to the necessities of the job, they are submitted to a work shift system which makes their schedule irregular. The alternation of work shifts can result in effects that cause damages to their work performance and quality of life. Objective: To explore the effects of shift work in ATCs through a systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis model (PRISMA. Methodological procedures: The systematic review was conducted based on three databases: PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science. Results: A total of 748 articles were found, 487 from PubMed, 240 from Science Direct and 21 from Web of Science; seven articles were included in the review after the application of eligibility criteria. Conclusions: The researches showed effects that affect mainly the night shifts, caused by alteration in sleep quality, somnolence and fatigue, resulting in decreased performance and increasing the risk of air accidents.

  13. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO2, SO2, NOx, HC, CO, N2O, NH3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  14. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  15. Human factors issues in the use of artificial intelligence in air traffic control. October 1990 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, Stephen; Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to explore the role of human factors in facilitating the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) to advanced air traffic control (ATC) automation concepts. AI is an umbrella term which is continually expanding to cover a variety of techniques where machines are performing actions taken based upon dynamic, external stimuli. AI methods can be implemented using more traditional programming languages such as LISP or PROLOG, or they can be implemented using state-of-the-art techniques such as object-oriented programming, neural nets (hardware or software), and knowledge based expert systems. As this technology advances and as increasingly powerful computing platforms become available, the use of AI to enhance ATC systems can be realized. Substantial efforts along these lines are already being undertaken at the FAA Technical Center, NASA Ames Research Center, academic institutions, industry, and elsewhere. Although it is clear that the technology is ripe for bringing computer automation to ATC systems, the proper scope and role of automation are not at all apparent. The major concern is how to combine human controllers with computer technology. A wide spectrum of options exists, ranging from using automation only to provide extra tools to augment decision making by human controllers to turning over moment-by-moment control to automated systems and using humans as supervisors and system managers. Across this spectrum, it is now obvious that the difficulties that occur when tying human and automated systems together must be resolved so that automation can be introduced safely and effectively. The focus of the workshop was to further explore the role of injecting AI into ATC systems and to identify the human factors that need to be considered for successful application of the technology to present and future ATC systems.

  16. Interrelation of the Problems of the Aircraft Fleet Development and the Improvement of the Air Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Yurevich Smurov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of air transport have been identified. Among these problems, the congestion of airports and airspace and the need for development and modernization of the airport network are of particular importance. In this regard, the authors consider the improvement of the air traffic control system (ATC system by integrating existing ATC systems into a single global system with the use of unified international standards, rules and procedures. The article also specifies the main indicators characterizing the dynamics of the development of the air transport industry in Russia and abroad.

  17. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  18. Testing usability and trainability of indirect touch interaction: perspective for the next generation of air traffic control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Causse, Mickael; Alonso, Roland; Vachon, François; Parise, Robert; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Sébastien; Terrier, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether indirect touch device can be used to interact with graphical objects displayed on another screen in an air traffic control (ATC) context. The introduction of such a device likely requires an adaptation of the sensory-motor system. The operator has to simultaneously perform movements on the horizontal plane while assessing them on the vertical plane. Thirty-six right-handed participants performed movement training with either constant or variable practice a...

  19. Human activity under high pressure: A case study on fluctuation scaling of air traffic controller's communication behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qiqian; Zhu, Chenping; Hu, Minghua; Duong, Vu

    2016-01-01

    Recent human dynamics research has unmasked astonishing statistical characteristics such as scaling behaviors in human daily activities. However, less is known about the general mechanism that governs the task-specific activities. In particular, whether scaling law exists in human activities under high pressure remains an open question. In air traffic management system, safety is the most important factor to be concerned by air traffic controllers who always work under high pressure, which provides a unique platform to study human activity. Here we extend fluctuation scaling method to study air traffic controller's communication activity by investigating two empirical communication datasets. Taken the number of controlled flights as the size-like parameter, we show that the relationships between the average communication activity and its standard deviation in both datasets can be well described by Taylor's power law, with scaling exponent α ≈ 0.77 ± 0.01 for the real operational data and α ≈ 0.54 ± 0.01 for the real-time training data. The difference between the exponents suggests that human dynamics under pressure is more likely dominated by the exogenous force. Our findings may lead to further understanding of human behavior.

  20. Contributions to trajectory prediction theory and its application to arrival management for air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Bronsvoort, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    La gestión del tráfico aéreo (Air Traffic Management, ATM) está experimentando un cambio de paradigma hacia las denominadas operaciones basadas trayectoria. Bajo dicho paradigma se modifica el papel de los controladores de tráfico aéreo desde una operativa basada su intervención táctica continuada hacia una labor de supervisión a más largo plazo. Esto se apoya en la creciente confianza en las soluciones aportadas por las herramientas automatizadas de soporte a la decisión más modernas. Para d...

  1. The Dynamic Planner: The Sequencer, Scheduler, and Runway Allocator for Air Traffic Control Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gregory L.; Denery, Dallas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Dynamic Planner (DP) has been designed, implemented, and integrated into the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) to assist Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs), in real time, with the task of planning and scheduling arrival traffic approximately 35 to 200 nautical miles from the destination airport. The TMC may input to the DP a series of current and future scheduling constraints that reflect the operation and environmental conditions of the airspace. Under these constraints, the DP uses flight plans, track updates, and Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) predictions to calculate optimal runway assignments and arrival schedules that help ensure an orderly, efficient, and conflict-free flow of traffic into the terminal area. These runway assignments and schedules can be shown directly to controllers or they can be used by other CTAS tools to generate advisories to the controllers. Additionally, the TMC and controllers may override the decisions made by the DP for tactical considerations. The DP will adapt to computations to accommodate these manual inputs.

  2. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  3. Protection Method for Data Communication between ADS-B Sensor and Next-Generation Air Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoung-Hyeon Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM systems utilize digital technologies, satellite systems, and various levels of automation to facilitate seamless global air traffic management. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B, the core component of CNS/ATM, broadcasts important monitoring information, such as the location, altitude, and direction of aircraft, to the ground. However, ADS-B data are transmitted in an unencrypted (or unprotected communication channel between ADS-B sensors and Air Traffic Control (ATC. Consequently, these data are vulnerable to security threats, such as spoofing, eavesdropping, and data modification. In this paper, we propose a method that protects the ADS-B data transmitted between ADS-B sensors and ATC using Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI certificates and symmetric cryptography. The SPKI certificates are used to grant transmission authorization to the ADS-B sensors, while symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt/decrypt the ADS-B data transmitted between the ADS-B sensors and ATC. The proposed security framework comprises an ADS-B sensor authentication module, an encrypted data processing module, and an ADS-B sensor information management module. We believe that application of the proposed security framework to CNS/ATM will enable it to effectively obviate security threats, such as ground station flood denial, ground station target ghost injection, and ADS-B data modification.

  4. Speed and path control for conflict-free flight in high air traffic demand in terminal airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ali

    To accommodate the growing air traffic demand, flights will need to be planned and navigated with a much higher level of precision than today's aircraft flight path. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) stands to benefit significantly in safety and efficiency from such movement of aircraft along precisely defined paths. Air Traffic Operations (ATO) relying on such precision--the Precision Air Traffic Operations or PATO--are the foundation of high throughput capacity envisioned for the future airports. In PATO, the preferred method is to manage the air traffic by assigning a speed profile to each aircraft in a given fleet in a given airspace (in practice known as (speed control). In this research, an algorithm has been developed, set in the context of a Hybrid Control System (HCS) model, that determines whether a speed control solution exists for a given fleet of aircraft in a given airspace and if so, computes this solution as a collective speed profile that assures separation if executed without deviation. Uncertainties such as weather are not considered but the algorithm can be modified to include uncertainties. The algorithm first computes all feasible sequences (i.e., all sequences that allow the given fleet of aircraft to reach destinations without violating the FAA's separation requirement) by looking at all pairs of aircraft. Then, the most likely sequence is determined and the speed control solution is constructed by a backward trajectory generation, starting with the aircraft last out and proceeds to the first out. This computation can be done for different sequences in parallel which helps to reduce the computation time. If such a solution does not exist, then the algorithm calculates a minimal path modification (known as path control) that will allow separation-compliance speed control. We will also prove that the algorithm will modify the path without creating a new separation violation. The new path will be generated by adding new

  5. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study. 2; Evaluating Detect and Avoid Technology and Communication Delays in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of communications delays and winds on air traffic controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from Detect and Avoid (DAA) self-separation algorithms (Stratway+) displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Control System. This guidance consisted of amber "bands" on the heading scale of the UAS navigation display indicating headings that would result in a loss of well clear between the UAS and nearby traffic. Winds tested were successfully handled by the DAA algorithms and did not affect the controller acceptability ratings of the HMDs. Voice communications delays for the UAS were also tested and included one-way delay times of 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS. Information from this study will also be of value to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 228 - Minimum Performance Standards for UAS.

  6. Investigating the Complexity of Transitioning Separation Assurance Tools into NextGen Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ashley Nicole; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey; Morey, Susan; Cabrall, Christopher; Mercer, Joey; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a study, that introduced ground-based separation assurance automation through a series of envisioned transitional phases of concept maturity, it was found that subjective responses to scales of workload, situation awareness, and acceptability in a post run questionnaire revealed as-predicted results for three of the four study conditions but not for the third, Moderate condition. The trend continued for losses of separation (LOS) where the number of LOS events were far greater than expected in the Moderate condition. To offer an account of why the Moderate condition was perceived to be more difficult to manage than predicted, researchers examined the increase in amount and complexity of traffic, increase in communication load, and increased complexities as a result of the simulation's mix of aircraft equipage. Further analysis compared the tools presented through the phases, finding that controllers took advantage of the informational properties of the tools presented but shied away from using their decision support capabilities. Taking into account similar findings from other studies, it is suggested that the Moderate condition represented the first step into a "shared control" environment, which requires the controller to use the automation as a decision making partner rather than just a provider of information. Viewed in this light, the combination of tools offered in the Moderate condition was reviewed and some tradeoffs that may offset the identified complexities were suggested.

  7. The First Component of the Adaptive Optics Facility Enters Operations: The Laser Traffic Control System on Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, P.; Santos, P.; Summers, D.; Duhoux, Ph.; Arsenault, R.; Bierwirth, Th.; Kuntschner, H.; Madec, P.-Y.; Prümm, M.; Rejkuba, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Laser Traffic Control System (LTCS) entered routine operations on 1 October 2015 at the Paranal Observatory as the first component of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). LTCS allows the night operators to plan and execute the observations without having to worry about possible collisions between the AOF's powerful laser beams and other telescopes with laser-sensitive instruments. LTCS provides observers with real-time information about ongoing collisions, predictive information for possible collisions and priority resolution between telescope pairs, where at least one telescope is operating a laser. LTCS is now deployed and embedded in the observatory's operational environment, supporting high configurability of telescopes and instruments, right-of-way priority rules and interfacing with ESO's observing tools for Service and Visitor Mode observations.

  8. A Cooperative Traffic Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    BORG, Dora Lee; Bhouri, Neila; SCERRI, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    With one-third of the global population living in cities by 2030 and the need for mobility fueling traffic growth all over the world, the traffic congestion problem in major cities is becoming more and more acute. Besides economic losses, traffic congestion has detrimental effects on our standard of living and on the environment. A viable solution to the traffic congestion problem is intelligent traffic control. The main aim of this work is to test a Model Predictive Control Strategy (MPC) on...

  9. Organic traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Prothmann, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Modern cities cannot be imagined without traffic lights controlling the road network. To handle the network's changing demands efficiently, the signal plan specification needs to be shifted from the design time to the run-time of a signal system. The generic observer/controller architecture proposed for Organic Computing facilitates this shift. A two-levelled learning mechanism optimises signal plans on-line while a distributed coordination mechanism establishes green waves in the road network.

  10. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  11. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research FacilityFacilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  12. Air traffic generation for new terminal area air traffic management concepts design and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Besada Portas, Juan Alberto; Marquinez Prado, Iñigo; Portillo Garcia, Javier Ignacio; Miguel Vela, Gonzalo de; Bernardos Barbolla, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two systems that can be used to obtain realistic random traffic samples in a terminal area: a real traffic analyser and a synthetic traffic generator. These two systems allow the air traffic management (ATM) engineer to gain insight on the traffic structure of the area under analysis, and allow obtaining realistic traffic samples enabling the evaluation of new operational concepts, the validation or system performance measurement after procedure changes, the analysis of A...

  13. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aviation Systems Division at the NASA Ames Research Center conducts leading edge research in air traffic management concepts and technologies. This overview will present concepts and simulation results for research in traffic flow management, safe and efficient airport surface operations, super density terminal area operations, separation assurance and system wide modeling and simulation. A brief review of the ongoing air traffic management technology demonstration (ATD-1) will also be presented. A panel discussion, with Mr. Davis serving as a panelist, on air traffic research will follow the briefing.

  14. A Fundamental Study on Area Traffic Control System

    OpenAIRE

    HONDA, Yoshiaki

    1992-01-01

    To save traffic congestion, this report aims at the area traffic control which increasesarea. traffic capacity without expansion of traffic facilities. This method is called AREATRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM.Optimum solutions for the area control system are obtained by the use of operationsresearch method. But above calculation time takes too long to fit this optimumregulation to present traffic pattern.In this report, optimization is made by the approximate solution which is composedof the first op...

  15. Air pollution control systems and technologies for waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the primary topics of concern to those planning, developing, and operating waste-to-energy (W-T-E) [also known as municipal waste combustors (MWCs)] facilities is air emissions. This paper presents a description of the state-of-the-art air pollution control (APC) systems and technology for particulate, heavy metals, organics, and acid gases control for W-T-E facilities. Items covered include regulations, guidelines, and control techniques as applied in the W-T-E industry. Available APC technologies are viewed in detail on the basis of their potential removal efficiencies, design considerations, operations, and maintenance costs

  16. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

  17. Techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is provided for the guidance of those persons or authorities who are responsible for the organization, control and operation of ventilation systems and air-cleaning installations in nuclear establishments. It is intended to generalize about existing experience in the operation of such systems at nuclear facilities including reactors and laboratories for production, use and handling of radionuclides and other toxic materials. This manual will provide designers and operators of nuclear facilities in which ventilation and air-cleaning systems are used with the factors which have to be considered to create safe working conditions inside facilities and without polluting the atmosphere or the environment to a hazardous level.

  18. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  20. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    OpenAIRE

    Thamires Marques de Lima; Cristiane Mayumi Kazama; Andreas Rembert Koczulla; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Mariangela Macchione; Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes; Ubiratan de Paula Santos; Maria Lucia Bueno-Garcia; Dirce Maria Zanetta; Carmen Diva Saldiva de Andre; Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva; Naomi Kondo Nakagawa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring ...

  1. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    OpenAIRE

    de Lima, Thamires Marques; Kazama, Cristiane Mayumi; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Macchione, Mariangela; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Bueno-Garcia, Maria Lucia; Zanetta, Dirce Maria; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring st...

  2. Air pollution control system testing at the DOE offgas components test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. A key component of this technical support program includes the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a pilot-scale offgas system test bed. The primary goal for this test facility is to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the planned CIF Air Pollution Control System (APCS). To accomplish this task, the OCTF has been equipped with a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system equipment components and instrumentation. In addition, the OCTF design maximizes the flexibility of APCS operation and facility instrumentation and sampling capabilities permit accurate characterization of all process streams throughout the facility. This allows APCS equipment performance to be evaluated in an integrated system under a wide range of possible operating conditions. This paper summarizes the use of this DOE test facility to successfully demonstrate APCS operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. These types of facilities are needed to permit resolution of technical issues associated with design and operation of systems that treat and dispose combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste throughout and DOE complex

  3. Integrated Evaluation of Air Traffic Controller Workload Based on Matter-Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; HAN Song-chen

    2008-01-01

    A model for evaluating the controller workload was presented based on matter-element analysis, particularly from a man-machine-environment system engineering perspective. On the basis of a questionnaire survey, 18 kinds of indexes which influence the controller workload were determined. By establishing the classical field and node field of the controller workload, the correlation function of the controller workload grade was obtained; then the correlation degree and estimated grade of controller workload were given. A case study verifies the feasibility of the proposed evaluation method.

  4. Testing usability and trainability of indirect touch interaction: perspective for the next generation of air traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mickaël; Alonso, Roland; Vachon, François; Parise, Robert; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Sébastien; Terrier, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether indirect touch device can be used to interact with graphical objects displayed on another screen in an air traffic control (ATC) context. The introduction of such a device likely requires an adaptation of the sensory-motor system. The operator has to simultaneously perform movements on the horizontal plane while assessing them on the vertical plane. Thirty-six right-handed participants performed movement training with either constant or variable practice and with or without visual feedback of the displacement of their actions. Participants then performed a test phase without visual feedback. Performance improved in both practice conditions, but accuracy was higher with visual feedback. During the test phase, movement time was longer for those who had practiced with feedback, suggesting an element of dependency. However, this 'cost' of feedback did not extend to movement accuracy. Finally, participants who had received variable training performed better in the test phase, but accuracy was still unsatisfactory. We conclude that continuous visual feedback on the stylus position is necessary if tablets are to be introduced in ATC. PMID:25050968

  5. Reducing prospective memory error and costs in simulated air traffic control: External aids, extending practice, and removing perceived memory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E

    2016-09-01

    In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067

  6. Implementation of operational concept of air traffic

    OpenAIRE

    О.Є. Луппо; Ю.В. Чинченко

    2008-01-01

     Parameters of air traffic management, which influence safety, efficiency and regularity of flight are considered. Influence of required parameters of full system to total quality of operation of aeronautical system of Ukraine areanalyzed.

  7. Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Robust Analytics air traffic management cost assessment tool provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP)...

  8. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Marques de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  9. MAMMI Phase1- Collaborative workspaces for en-route air traffic controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Valès, Stéphane; Chatty, Stéphane; Lemort, Alexandre; Conversy, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    International audience En route control positions put into operation in the last few years are all based on the WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointers) interaction paradigm. Each controller has only one designation mean (a mouse or a trackball) and his/her own screen(s). This technology has a lot of advantages compared to older environments that often relied on paper strips. Nevertheless, this technology has not been able to improve teamwork for ATCOs, because it implies some rigidity c...

  10. The development of air traffic in Sicily

    OpenAIRE

    Franca, Luigi La; Mortelliti, Daniela; Salerno, Silvia; Amoroso, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the air traffic development that interested the airport system in Sicily, consisting of the airport of Palermo “Falcone –Borsellino”, the airport of Catania “Fontanarossa” and that one of Trapani-Birgi “Vincenzo Florio”. The analysis of the possible growth of air traffic volume and performance in Sicily was mainly suggested by the growing importance of the Mediterranean region like a new crossroad of the worldwide traffic on the East-West line. It gives a ne...

  11. Validity study of the 16PF in terminal air traffic control work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personality test scores obtained in 1966 from the 16PF, Form A are compared with supervisory ratings on overall job ability made at least two years later on a sample of 510 terminal area journeymen controllers. Those rated above average were found to differ significantly from those rated below average in ability on one primary personality factor, namely, C (ego strength). Other factors which approached significance are also discussed. The present study represents an attempt to determine whether personality factor scores are valid over longer periods of time in successfully discriminating journeymen terminal controllers rated above and below average in overall ability by their supervisors

  12. INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES FOR MONITORING AND INTELLECTUAL ROAD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Belov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of automatic management of road traffic technologies in major cities of Ukraine is carried out in the given article. Priority directions of studies are determined for producing modern and perspective technologies in the given area. The facilities for monitoring and intelligence management of the road traffic on the basis of the programmed logical controller, using the device of fuzzy logic are considered.

  13. A feasibility study of the use of incidents and accidents reports to evaluate effects of team resource management in air traffic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Bove, T.

    2000-01-01

    domain of Air Traffic Control under the heading of 'Team Resource Management'. In this adaptation phase, it is important to obtain knowledge concerning the effectiveness of such training programmes in relation to enhancing human factors awareness and knowledge. This requires a methodology for detecting...... training effects. For this purpose a feasibility study has been conducted concerning the use of paper cases - short written reports on real or fictitious incidents or accidents - to discriminate air traffic controllers with regard to their ability to identify 'human factors' determinants involved in such......Valuable improvements in performance have been obtained by 'Crew Resource Management' (CRM) courses performed in the domain of aviation related to the crew in a cockpit, and in the maritime domain related to the crew on the bridge of large ships. CRM courses are currently being adapted to the...

  14. Presentation of a Swedish study program concerning recruitment, selection and training of student air traffic controllers: The MRU project phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Rune

    1994-01-01

    The Director of the ANS Department has set up an objective for the efficiency of screening and training procedures for air traffic controller students which implies that all students admitted 'shall be considered to have the qualification for - and be given the means of - completing the training'. As a consequence, a study project has been established. It is run by the ANS Department with members from the Swedish CAA, in close cooperation with Uppsala University.

  15. Free Flight vs. Centralized Air Traffic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Thor PLETER; Bogdan DONCIU

    2011-01-01

    The current Air Traffic Management system is subject to structural changes, which are expected over the next 20 years.These changes are required for a number of reasons:The current system inflicts delays and fuel inefficiencies to flights (as demonstrated by the historic Paris-Miami Air France flight in April 2010)The current system has structural and operational capacity limitationsUnder current system, the complexity of the Air Traffic Controller’s work increases steeply with trafficVoi...

  16. UAS in the NAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-1: The Effects of Horizontal Miss Distances on Simulated UAS and Manned Aircraft Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatas, Rania W.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined air traffic controller acceptability ratings based on the effects of differing horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft. In a simulation of the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) East-side airspace, the CAS-1 experiment at NASA Langley Research Center enlisted fourteen recently retired DFW air traffic controllers to rate well-clear volumes based on differing HMDs that ranged from 0.5 NM to 3.0 NM. The controllers were tasked with rating these HMDs from "too small" to "too excessive" on a defined, 1-5, scale and whether these distances caused any disruptions to the controller and/or to the surrounding traffic flow. Results of the study indicated a clear favoring towards a particular HMD range. Controller workload was also measured. Data from this experiment and subsequent experiments will play a crucial role in the FAA's establishment of rules, regulations, and procedures to safely and efficiently integrate UAS into the NAS.

  17. Traffic Light Controller Using Fpga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Bhavana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The traffic light sequence works on the specific switching of Red, Green and Yellow lights in a particular way with stipulated time form. The normal function of traffic lights requires sophisticated control and coordination to ensure that traffic moves as smoothly and safely as possible and that pedestrians are protected when they cross the roads [1] .This Traffic Light sequence is generated using a specific switching mechanism which will help to control a traffic light system on a road in a specified sequence. This paper focuses on the fact that the traffic lights can be varied in the day and night mode depending on the intensity of the traffic. It plays a vital role in supervising and running the metropolitan traffic and evade the possibilities of any unfortunate mishaps happening in and around the cities. It is a sequential machine to be scrutinized as per the requirements and programmed through a multistep development process. The methods that are used in this project are proposing the circuit, write a code, simulate, synthesis and implement on the hardware [8] . In this project, XILINX Software was chosen to devise a schematic using schematic edit, write a code using Verilog HDL (Hardware Description Language text editor and implements the circuit on Programmable Logic Device [PLD].The system has been successfully tested and implemented in hardware using Nexys 2 Digilent FPGA.

  18. A Human-Relatable Course of Action Planner for Air Traffic Coordinators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traffic Managers, Supervisors and Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) Specialists have a critical and significant responsibility in the ATM system to...

  19. Air gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  20. Impact of air traffic on the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stief, G. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Agrometeorologia

    1997-12-31

    Though emission from world-wide air traffic may seem to be relatively small in comparison to that from all other anthropogenic sources, the deleterious effect on the climate of the gases and particles emitted by planes is disproportionately large. It is thought that air traffic, working together with pollutants that have already accumulated at critical heights, and depending on humidity and temperature, plays a decisive role in helping to cause the changes, presented below, in global radiation, sunshine duration, rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures which are taking place. (author) 7 refs.

  1. Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri

    2014-01-01

    This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.

  2. An Advanced Fuzzy Logic Based Traffic Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Ahmed Khan; Nai Shyan Lai

    2014-01-01

    Traffic light plays an important role in the urban traffic management. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the traffic controller for effective traffic management and better traffic flow leading to greener environment. In this paper, an advanced and intelligent traffic light controller is proposed, utilising the fuzzy logic technology and image processing technique. A fuzzy logic control has been implemented to provide the attribute of intelligence to the system. For real-time image acquisi...

  3. The Development of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (MCTMA): Traffic Flow Management Research in a Multi-Facility Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Davis, Thomas J.; Levin, Kerry M.; Rowe, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is a decision-support tool for traffic managers and air traffic controllers that provides traffic flow visualization and other flow management tools. TMA creates an efficiently sequenced and safely spaced schedule for arrival traffic that meets but does not exceed specified airspace system constraints. TMA is being deployed at selected facilities throughout the National Airspace System in the US as part of the FAA's Free Flight Phase 1 program. TMA development and testing, and its current deployment, focuses on managing the arrival capacity for single major airports within single terminal areas and single en route centers. The next phase of development for this technology is the expansion of the TMA capability to complex facilities in which a terminal area or airport is fed by multiple en route centers, thus creating a multicenter TMA functionality. The focus of the multi-center TMA (McTMA) development is on the busy facilities in the Northeast comdor of the US. This paper describes the planning and development of McTMA and the challenges associated with adapting a successful traffic flow management tool for a very complex airspace.

  4. MODERN AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Hlushko, Oksana; National Aviation University, Kyiv; Dolmatova, Darya; National Aviation University, Kyiv

    2012-01-01

     Flying is the result of both technology and human skills. Air traffic management (ATM) is about the process, procedures and resources which come into play to make sure that aircraft are safely guided in the sky and on the ground. ATM

  5. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer;

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage of...... heterogeneous performance of the drivers in time as well as individually. This opens the possibility for the construction of technical tools to control traffic jam formation....

  6. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer; Christiansen, Peter L.; Kawamoto, Atsushi; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Starke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage of heterogeneous performance of the drivers in time as well as individually. This opens the possibility for the construction of technical tools to control traffic jam formation.

  7. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  8. Traffic Control by Traffic Wardens in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. NDOKE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control by traffic wardens on three at-grade interactions in Minna, Northern Nigeria has been analysed. During the morning peak periods, it was observed that with traffic warden control, none of the approaches of the intersections operated beyond level of service E. However, when the wardens did not control traffic, the approaches operated at level of service, F, which has been shown in studies to be unacceptable to most drivers. Taking other factors like stability of electricity supply, motorists’ behaviour and society’s acceptance of innovations into consideration, it has been concluded that for now, there is no alternative to the traffic warden in traffic control in developing cities.

  9. Development in Danish international air traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got......The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean...... more effective and to what extent Low Cost Carriers have taken over an important part of the travel market....

  10. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential factors of the three characteristic parameters as traffic flux, density, and velocity are presented. Then according to such models, the macro emergence of traffic flow evolution is emulated with the NetLogo simulation platform, and the correlativity of basic traffic flow parameters is deduced and verified by means of sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that there are remarkable relations among the three characteristic parameters of the air traffic flow in terminal area. Moreover, such relationships evolve distinctly with the flight procedures, control separations, and ATC strategies.

  11. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Honghai Zhang; Yan Xu; Lei Yang; Hao Liu

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential fa...

  12. Organizational climate in air traffic control Innovative preparedness for implementation of new technology and organizational development in a rule governed organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2006-03-01

    A positive and innovative organizational climate is of great importance in order to manage and adapt to change. Such a climate seldom evolves in organizations closely governed by rules and regulations. Because of ongoing organizational and technical changes within the Swedish Air Navigation Services Provider, a study concerning the organizational climate for changes and innovations was conducted to investigate the organization's capacity to cope with changes. Study locations were the two Swedish main air traffic control centers and parts of the civil aviation administration headquarters. In the study 390 subjects took part and the CCQ questionnaire was used to measure the organizational climate. The results show that the organizational climate is quite positive despite the rule-governed work. The results also show that administrative personnel assess the organizational climate as more positive than operative personnel. Comparisons between management positions did not result in any differences. PMID:16109382

  13. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  14. Graceful Degradation of Air Traffic Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Gariel, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies and concepts of operation in the air transportation system is not possible, unless they can be proven not to adversely affect the system operation under not only nominal, but also degraded conditions. In extreme scenarios, degraded operations due to partial or complete technological failures should never endanger system safety. Many past system evolutions, whether ground-based or airborne, have been based on trial-and-error, and system safety was addressed only after a specific event yielded dramatic or near- dramatic consequences. Future system evolutions, however, must leverage available computation, prior knowledge and abstract reasoning to anticipate all possible system degradations and prove that such degradations are graceful and safe. This paper is concerned with the graceful degradation of high-density, structured arrival traffic against partial or complete surveillance failures. It is shown that for equal performance requirements, some traffic configurations might...

  15. Impact of Aircraft Performance Characteristics on Air Traffic Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Aydan CAVCAR; CAVCAR, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Air transportation has been suffering for decades from delays caused by air traffic congestion. This paper presents the effect of aircraft performance differences on air traffic delays. Rate of climb and cruising speeds of 70 different aircraft types are compared to demonstrate performance differences in the current transport aircraft fleet. The effect of these performance differences on air traffic delays is proved by a deterministic calculation of delays for a departure queue cons...

  16. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  17. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS; Stasys DAILYDKA; Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG) in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  18. Air Traffic Controllers Testing and Training Program. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aviation of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress. First Session (December 16, 1981). Serial No. 97-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This document is a transcript of a United States Senate subcommittee hearing which was conducted to review the effort the Department of Transportation and the Federal Aviation Administration have undertaken to hire and train new air traffic controllers to take the places of those controllers who went on strike in August, 1981, and were…

  19. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson's Disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni;

    2016-01-01

    -related air pollution and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a case-control study of 1,696 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996-2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by gender and year of birth we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant...... matching factors and potential confounders. RESULTS: We found ambient air pollution from traffic sources to be associated with risk of PD, with a 9% higher risk (95% CI: 3, 16.0%) per interquartile range increase (2.97 μg/m(3)) in modeled NO2. For participants living for 20 years or more in the capital...... city odds ratios were larger (OR= 1.21; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.31) than in provincial towns (OR=1.10; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.26), while there was no association among rural residents. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings raise concerns about potential effects of air pollution from traffic and other sources on the risk of PD...

  20. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  1. 30 CFR 57.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 57.9100 Section 57.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  2. Principled negotiation and distributed optimization for advanced air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangermann, John Paul

    Today's aircraft/airspace system faces complex challenges. Congestion and delays are widespread as air traffic continues to grow. Airlines want to better optimize their operations, and general aviation wants easier access to the system. Additionally, the accident rate must decline just to keep the number of accidents each year constant. New technology provides an opportunity to rethink the air traffic management process. Faster computers, new sensors, and high-bandwidth communications can be used to create new operating models. The choice is no longer between "inflexible" strategic separation assurance and "flexible" tactical conflict resolution. With suitable operating procedures, it is possible to have strategic, four-dimensional separation assurance that is flexible and allows system users maximum freedom to optimize operations. This thesis describes an operating model based on principled negotiation between agents. Many multi-agent systems have agents that have different, competing interests but have a shared interest in coordinating their actions. Principled negotiation is a method of finding agreement between agents with different interests. By focusing on fundamental interests and searching for options for mutual gain, agents with different interests reach agreements that provide benefits for both sides. Using principled negotiation, distributed optimization by each agent can be coordinated leading to iterative optimization of the system. Principled negotiation is well-suited to aircraft/airspace systems. It allows aircraft and operators to propose changes to air traffic control. Air traffic managers check the proposal maintains required aircraft separation. If it does, the proposal is either accepted or passed to agents whose trajectories change as part of the proposal for approval. Aircraft and operators can use all the data at hand to develop proposals that optimize their operations, while traffic managers can focus on their primary duty of ensuring

  3. Air traffic management in Europe - Single European Sky

    OpenAIRE

    Šyc, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Thesis analyses present status of air traffic management in European area from historical and legislative point of view. Subjects of thesis are present projects in ATM and future variants of organization of air traffic in EU. Practical part focuses on impact of ATM on air transportation.

  4. Air Facility System (AFS) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Facility System (AFS) widget allows users to enter a specific location and retrieve facilities in the area of interest for stationary sources of air...

  5. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Nikolić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  6. Time-based collision risk modeling for air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alan E.

    Since the emergence of commercial aviation in the early part of last century, economic forces have driven a steadily increasing demand for air transportation. Increasing density of aircraft operating in a finite volume of airspace is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the risk of collision, and in response to a growing number of incidents and accidents involving collisions between aircraft, governments worldwide have developed air traffic control systems and procedures to mitigate this risk. The objective of any collision risk management system is to project conflicts and provide operators with sufficient opportunity to recognize potential collisions and take necessary actions to avoid them. It is therefore the assertion of this research that the currency of collision risk management is time. Future Air Traffic Management Systems are being designed around the foundational principle of four dimensional trajectory based operations, a method that replaces legacy first-come, first-served sequencing priorities with time-based reservations throughout the airspace system. This research will demonstrate that if aircraft are to be sequenced in four dimensions, they must also be separated in four dimensions. In order to separate aircraft in four dimensions, time must emerge as the primary tool by which air traffic is managed. A functional relationship exists between the time-based performance of aircraft, the interval between aircraft scheduled to cross some three dimensional point in space, and the risk of collision. This research models that relationship and presents two key findings. First, a method is developed by which the ability of an aircraft to meet a required time of arrival may be expressed as a robust standard for both industry and operations. Second, a method by which airspace system capacity may be increased while maintaining an acceptable level of collision risk is presented and demonstrated for the purpose of formulating recommendations for procedures

  7. Study on Safety Capability Model of Air Traffic Controllers%管制员安全能力模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 罗云

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate civil aviation air traffic controllers'safety capabilities correctly, the nature of civil aviation air traffic controllers safety capability is defined according to the competence and controller s job responsibility. Base on the meaning of controllers safety capability and job specification, a model for controller's safety capability is built, which has three structural dimensions including physical quality, professional quality and consciousness. Physical quality includes physical conditions and psychological conditions. Professional quality includes the educational background, training background, skills and experience. Consciousness includes safety consciousness and work consciousness. In order to reduce the error under the conditions that there is a big difference of attributes among the indexes and to reflect the index objectively, efficacy coefficient method is used to standardize the evaluation index. In the meantime, the subjective and objective comprehensive weight method determines the index and makes up the shortcomings of single weight method by integrating the Gl method and entropy method. Finally, the TOPSIS is employed to evaluate the level of civil aviation air traffic controller's safety capability. Theresults show that the factors influencing controllers'safety capabilities are consciousness, physical quality and the professional quality in order according to influencing power. For the influencing power on the capabilities, the psychological condition has a greater impact than the physiological condition; skills are stronger than educational background, training background and experience; safety consciousness is stronger than work consciousness.%为准确评价管制员安全能力,基于能力的定义和管制员工作职责,界定管制员安全能力的内涵;依据该内涵及其工作特性,建立由身体素质、业务素质和意识3个结构维度组成的管制员安全能力模型.其中,身体素质包括生理

  8. Light signals for road traffic control.

    OpenAIRE

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the French translation see B 19780

  9. Testing to Learning Mode of English Learning for Air Traffic Controllers in China%中国民航管制员以考促学模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭立; 何均洪

    2012-01-01

    Air Traffic Controller English Test is not the ultimate purpose, while, testing to learning, and promoting the air traffic controllers' English language proficiency is the essence of the test. This article discusses two types of learning modes among air traffic controllers' English learning from the trials at the local ATC Bureaus. One of the modes is training-based, while another is based on selfdirected learning. Hopefully, these two types of mode will be helpful for promoting English learning among air traffic controllers in China.%“民航管制员英语等级测试”并不是最终目的,以考促学,全面提升中国民航管制员整体英语水平才是根本。本文通过相关空管局(站)的试验运行,总结出两种有效的管制员英语学习模式,一是集中培训,以点带面,一是构建平台,自主学习,以期对我国民航管制员英语水平的提高有所帮助。

  10. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  11. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Decentralized and Tactical Air Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1997-01-01

    This project dealt with the following topics: 1. Review and description of the existing air traffic flow management system (ATFM) and identification of aspects with potential for improvement. 2. Identification and review of existing models and simulations dealing with all system segments (enroute, terminal area, ground) 3. Formulation of concepts for overall decentralization of the ATFM system, ranging from moderate decentralization to full decentralization 4. Specification of the modifications to the ATFM system required to accommodate each of the alternative concepts. 5. Identification of issues that need to be addressed with regard to: determination of the way the ATFM system would be operating; types of flow management strategies that would be used; and estimation of the effectiveness of ATFM with regard to reducing delay and re-routing costs. 6. Concept evaluation through identification of criteria and methodologies for accommodating the interests of stakeholders and of approaches to optimization of operational procedures for all segments of the ATFM system.

  13. Local traffic control of microregion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, Jitka; Nagy, Ivan

    Adelaide: Advanced Knowledge International, 2004 - (Andrýsek, J.; Kárný, M.; Kracík, J.), s. 161-171. (International Series on Advanced Intelligence.. 9). ISBN 0-9751004-5-9. [Workshop on Computer-Intensive Methods in Control and Data Processing 2004. Prague (CZ), 12.05.2004-14.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA MDS 1F43A/003/120 Grant ostatní: SOCRATES(XE) 110330-CP-1-2003-1-ES Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : traffic control * linear programming * Kalman filter Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20040054.pdf

  14. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Lenthe, F.J. van; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Zandveld, P.Y.J; Miedema, H.M.E.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship bet

  15. Statistical Analysis of Air Traffic in Latvian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasyeva, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research is statistical analyzes of air traffic in airport 'Riga' zone. Special statistical methods oriented to the concrete object area - airspace of Latvia are developed. Some experiments are made to discover season's and during twenty-four hours unstationarity of this process. Air traffic intensity for some stationary period for some airways is estimated.

  16. Using memory for prior aircraft events to detect conflicts under conditions of proactive air traffic control and with concurrent task requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Vanessa K; Loft, Shayne

    2016-06-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the impact of memory for prior events on conflict detection in simulated air traffic control under conditions where individuals proactively controlled aircraft and completed concurrent tasks. Individuals were faster to detect conflicts that had repeatedly been presented during training (positive transfer). Bayesian statistics indicated strong evidence for the null hypothesis that conflict detection was not impaired for events that resembled an aircraft pair that had repeatedly come close to conflicting during training. This is likely because aircraft altitude (the feature manipulated between training and test) was attended to by participants when proactively controlling aircraft. In contrast, a minor change to the relative position of a repeated nonconflicting aircraft pair moderately impaired conflict detection (negative transfer). There was strong evidence for the null hypothesis that positive transfer was not impacted by dividing participant attention, which suggests that part of the information retrieved regarding prior aircraft events was perceptual (the new aircraft pair "looked" like a conflict based on familiarity). These findings extend the effects previously reported by Loft, Humphreys, and Neal (2004), answering the recent strong and unanimous calls across the psychological science discipline to formally establish the robustness and generality of previously published effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27295467

  17. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Y.; A. Uzairu; J.O. Ujoh

    2013-01-01

    This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri), high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout), traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge), Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout), residential area (Kawo New Extension) and a control site (NFA base) in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle ...

  18. Modelling and control of road traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Haut, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Road traffic networks offer a particularly challenging research subject to the control community. The traffic congestion around big cities is constantly increasing and is now becoming a major problem. However, the dynamics of a road network exhibit some complex behaviours such as nonlinearities, delays and saturation effects that prevent the use of some classical control algorithms. This thesis presents different models and control algorithms used for road traffic networks. The dynamics ar...

  19. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  20. Rapid Protoyping Software for Developing Next-Generation Air Traffic Management Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on next-generation air traffic control systems are being conducted at several laboratories. Most of this work is being carried out using custom software....

  1. Design of Compact Self-propelled Air Traffic Control Radar%紧凑型机动式航管雷达结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鲁军

    2011-01-01

    基于紧凑化设计理念,研究了机动式航管雷达的结构设计技术.阐述了应用Pro/E三维设计软件构建数字化样机以及采用四连杆机构原理的举升设计和分块式抛物反射面天线的结构设计方法;同时论述了用转轴式结构解决一二次雷达天线的合装设计和机动式航管雷达天馈线的快速架设解决方案;分析了凸型方舱结构设计和机柜直列设计的集成化设计方法;最后结合抗风设计的软件仿真优化设计,实现了高可靠性机动式航管雷达的紧凑化结构设计.结果证明,紧凑化结构设计理念对机动式雷达结构设计能起到促进作用.%The structure design technology of self-propelled air traffic control radar was researched based on compact design concepts. The digital prototype built with Pro/E three-dimensional design software is elaborated. Expounded The principle of four-bar linkage lift design and the block-type parabolic refLcctor antenna design arc adopted in the radar design. The corotating shaft structure design is described. The mounted design of the secondary radar antenna and the rapid erection of antenna were solved. The integrated design of convex cabin and the cabinet arrangement are analyzed The compact structure design of high-reliahility air traffic control radar is achieved in combination with simulation optimization software for wind-resistant design.

  2. Delay Banking for Managing Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Delay banking has been invented to enhance air-traffic management in a way that would increase the degree of fairness in assigning arrival, departure, and en-route delays and trajectory deviations to aircraft impacted by congestion in the national airspace system. In delay banking, an aircraft operator (airline, military, general aviation, etc.) would be assigned a numerical credit when any of their flights are delayed because of an air-traffic flow restriction. The operator could subsequently bid against other operators competing for access to congested airspace to utilize part or all of its accumulated credit. Operators utilize credits to obtain higher priority for the same flight, or other flights operating at the same time, or later, in the same airspace, or elsewhere. Operators could also trade delay credits, according to market rules that would be determined by stakeholders in the national airspace system. Delay banking would be administered by an independent third party who would use delay banking automation to continually monitor flights, allocate delay credits, maintain accounts of delay credits for participating airlines, mediate bidding and the consumption of credits of winning bidders, analyze potential transfers of credits within and between operators, implement accepted transfers, and ensure fair treatment of all participating operators. A flow restriction can manifest itself in the form of a delay in assigned takeoff time, a reduction in assigned airspeed, a change in the position for the aircraft in a queue of all aircraft in a common stream of traffic (e.g., similar route), a change in the planned altitude profile for an aircraft, or change in the planned route for the aircraft. Flow restrictions are typically imposed to mitigate traffic congestion at an airport or in a region of airspace, particularly congestion due to inclement weather, or the unavailability of a runway or region of airspace. A delay credit would be allocated to an operator of a

  3. Research of Road Traffic Facilities System Based on GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Liu-Jian; Li-Qingsong; Li-Hui; Guo-Hanying; Pan-Heng

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the labor efficiency and economic benefit of road traffic facilities system and reduce resource waste, a scheme of road traffic facilities system based on GIS is provided in this paper. In the new scheme, firstly, we proposed Visual C++ embedding MapX component to program for the visualization of data and function analysis of space, and constructed core table in database and established property database and space database to improve efficiency; then we put forward the sys...

  4. A Wavelet Analysis Approach for Categorizing Air Traffic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael; Sheth, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper two frequency domain techniques are applied to air traffic analysis. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), like the Fourier Transform, is shown to identify changes in historical traffic patterns caused by Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs) and weather with the added benefit of detecting when in time those changes take place. Next, with the expectation that it could detect anomalies in the network and indicate the extent to which they affect traffic flows, the Spectral Graph Wavelet Transform (SGWT) is applied to a center based graph model of air traffic. When applied to simulations based on historical flight plans, it identified the traffic flows between centers that have the greatest impact on either neighboring flows, or flows between centers many centers away. Like the CWT, however, it can be difficult to interpret SGWT results and relate them to simulations where major TMIs are implemented, and more research may be warranted in this area. These frequency analysis techniques can detect off-nominal air traffic behavior, but due to the nature of air traffic time series data, so far they prove difficult to apply in a way that provides significant insight or specific identification of traffic patterns.

  5. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  6. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air traffic control schedule advisor are as follows: first, for each new arrival, it develops an admissible flight plan for that aircraft. Second, as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule. Third, if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and FORTRAN.

  7. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent. Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm(2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.048 to -0.0051 in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm(2 [interquartile range (IQR] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3 in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of -2.9 U/L (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.72 in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

  8. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  9. On the safety behavior capacity model of the civil air traffic controllers%民航管制员安全行为能力模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永刚; 叶仕强

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to define the safety behavior capacity of the Civil Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs) through the objective confirmation. In jointly studying the working characteristics and access mechanism of ATCs, we have studied the main factors affecting the air-traffic safety behaving capacity of the controllers in 3 aspects: the basic professional skills, the physiological and psychological features, and some non-professional qualities. And, accordingly, we have established an index system of such capacities, which comprise 3 sub-indexes (the basic professional skills, physiological and psychological features and non-technical qualities) and 17 third-rank or sub-sub-indexes (the information processing and delivery ability, etc. ) . Due to the multi-factorial and margin-blurring characteristics of ATC, we also think it is necessary to adopt an AHP to weigh all the indexes so as to develop a fussy comprehensive evaluation approach to ascertain the final membership, safety behaving evaluation model of ATCs based on AHP, which can be achieved by the qualitative evaluations of the safety behaving capacity of ATCs. The results of our study show that the basic professional skills and physiological and psychological features in the secondary index also have considerable significance and coordinating and cooperating power, flight control and emergency-dealt ability under abnormal flight condition and sensitivity of the digital information. While doing the evaluation, we have also to allocate the very ATCs to the posts or time period of high, slightly large, generic, little flow quantity and assigned until further training was provided correspondingly, such as the evaluating effects, i.e. "high", "relatively high", "general", "relatively poor" and "poor respectively. However, in this paper, our study focus should be put on the research of the safety behaving capacity of controllers and suggests that it is essential to allocate the personnel of strong operability to the

  10. Defining the drivers for accepting decision making automation in air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C; Williamson, Ann

    2011-04-01

    Air Traffic Management (ATM) operators are under increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of their operation to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution involves increasing the utilisation of automation within the ATM system. The success of this approach is contingent on Air Traffic Control Operators' (ATCOs) willingness to accept increased levels of automation. The main aim of the present research was to examine the drivers underpinning ATCOs' willingness to accept increased utilisation of automation within their role. Two fictitious scenarios involving the application of two new automated decision-making tools were created. The results of an online survey revealed traditional predictors of automation acceptance such as age, trust and job satisfaction explain between 4 and 7% of the variance. Furthermore, these predictors varied depending on the purpose in which the automation was to be employed. These results are discussed from an applied and theoretical perspective. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Efficiency improvements in ATM are required to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution is to increase the utilisation of automation within Air Traffic Control. The present research examines the drivers underpinning air traffic controllers' willingness to accept increased levels of automation in their role. PMID:21491277

  11. Modeling noise annoyance caused by air traffic using fuzzy logic

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Franco, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this project is the study and modeling of the noise annoyance caused by air traffic by using the fuzzy logic theory. Like many other environmental problems, air traffic noise, continues to grow and has become a serious problem in many countries. Millions of people living or working around airport areas can suffer from noise exposure effects as for instance hearing loss, interference with communication, stress, sleep disturbance, psychological effects as well...

  12. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and he...

  13. Integrated Modeling of Air Traffic, Aviation Weather, and Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Chuanwen

    2007-01-01

    Aviation suffers many delays due to the lack of timely air traffic flow management. These delays are also caused by the uncertainty weather information; and the lack of efficient dissemination of weather products to pilots. It is clear that better models are needed to quantify air traffic flow in three flight regions - en-route, in the terminal, and on the ground, to determine aviation weather information requirements at each region, and to quantify their bandwidth requirements. Furthermore,...

  14. Application of Data Mining in Air Traffic Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Busquets, J. G.; Alonso, E.; Evans, A

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the study centers on developing a model for the purpose of air traffic forecasting by using off-the-shelf data mining and machine learning techniques. Although data driven modeling has been extensively applied in the aviation sector, little research has been done in the area of air traffic forecasting. This study is inspired by previous research focused on improving the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Terminal Area Forecasting (TAF) methodology, which historically assum...

  15. Discourse segmentation and the management of multiple tasks in single episodes of air traffic controller-pilot spoken radio communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Falzon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of VHF radio-mediated pilot-controller spoken communication in which multiple tasks are conducted are engendered in and through the skilful deployment and combination, by the parties to the talk, of multiple orders of discourse segmentation. These orders of segmentation are manifest at the levels of transmission design and sequential organisation. Both of these features are analysed from a Conversation Analytic standpoint in order to track their segment by segment genesis, development and completion. From the analysis it emerges that in addition to the serial type of sequential organisations described by Schegloff (1986, there exists an alternative form of organisation that enables tasks to be managed in a quasi-parallel manner, and which affords controllers and pilots a number of practical advantages in the conduct of their radio-mediated service encounters.Cet article présente des extraits d’échanges oraux entre pilots et contrôleurs du ciel via la radio VHF. On peut y voir comment le déploiement et la combinaison habile de plusieurs ordres de segmentation discursive, engageant les deux coénonciateurs de la conversation, leur permet d’accomplir des tâches multiples. Ces ordres de segmentation se manifestent aux niveaux du plan de la transmission et de l’organisation séquentielle. Ces deux niveaux sont envisagées du point de vue de l’analyse conversationnelle dans le but d’examiner, segment après segment, comment ils se mettent en place, se développent puis prennent fin. Notre étude montre que, outre le type sériel d’organisations séquentielles décrit par Schegloff (1986, il existe une forme alternative d’organisation qui permet de gérer les tâches de manière quasi parallèle, et qui fournit aux contrôleurs aériens ainsi qu’aux pilotes de nombreux avantages pratiques dans la conduite de leurs radio.

  16. Traffic Light Control by Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of traffi

  17. Traffic light control by multiagent reinforcement learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bakker; S. Whiteson; L. Kester; F.C.A. Groen

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of traffi

  18. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  19. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Van der Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic information system may comprise a plurality of these traffic information units. The invention further comprises a vehicle management system (C) for a target vehicle (70B, 70E) that is capable of receiv...

  20. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  1. Controlling Disorder in Traffic Flow by Perturbation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new technique for controlling disorder in traffic system. A kind of control signal which can be considered as a perturbation has been designated at a given site (perturbation point) of the single-lane highway. When a vehicle passes the perturbation point at a time, the velocity of the vehicle will be changed at the next time by the perturbation. This technique is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic system can be transited from the disorder states to the order states, such as fixed-point, periodic motion, etc.

  2. Intelligent traffic control system using PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Todea, C.; Latinovic, T.; Preradovic, D. M.; Deaconu, S.; Berdie, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the traffic control system controlled through a PLC which takes the signals from different sensors on roads. The global system developed ensures the coordination of four intersections, setting a path that respects coordination type green light, the integration of additional sensors, the implementation of probes radar to inform traffic participants about recommended speed for accessing the green state located in the intersection that will follow to cross.

  3. Review of road traffic control strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorgiou, M.; Diakaki, C.; Dinopoulou, V.; Kotsialos, A.; Wang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Traffic congestion in urban road and freeway networks leads to a strong degradation of the network infrastructure and accordingly reduced throughput, which can be countered via suitable control measures and strategies. After illustrating the main reasons for infrastructure deterioration due to traffic congestion, a comprehensive overview of proposed and implemented control strategies is provided for three areas: urban road networks, freeway networks, and route guidance. Selected application r...

  4. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  5. Traffic Control in ATM Networks : Engineering Impacts of Realistic Traffic Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, Ajit K.; Popescu, Adrian; Pruthi, Parag; Erramilli, Ashok

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of the art in the rapidly developing areas of ATM traffic controls and traffic modeling, and identifies future research areas to facilitate the implementation of control methods that can support a desired quality of service without sacrificing network utilizations. Two sets of issues are identified, one on the impacts of realistic traffic on the efficacy of traffic controls in supporting specific traffic management objectives, and the other dealing with th...

  6. How to adjust traffic management to air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix boards are used to manage traffic speed on roads. The Dutch InnovatieProgramma Luchtkwaliteit IPL (Air Quality Innovation Programme ) has looked at the option of using matrix boards to improve the air quality along the highways. The IPL has also examined other temporary measures that can be deployed at times of peak concentrations of PM10 and/or NO2.

  7. On Traffic Light Control of Regular Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Mancinelli, Elina; Cohen, Guy; Gaubert, Stéphane; Quadrat, Jean-Pierre; Rofman, Edmundo

    2001-01-01

    We present a hierarchical way of designing the traffic light control of regular towns. We first give a a model for light synchronization based on Petri nets and minplus algebra. Using this modelling we decompose the problem in three parts : - computation of the cycle length of each traffic light, - computation of the starting time of each traffic light cycle, - computation of the proportion of the green and red length in a cycle. The example of the Bahía Blanca, city of Argentina, is given.

  8. Evolutionary Concepts for Decentralized Air Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Milton; Kolitz, Stephan; Milner, Joseph; Odoni, Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    Alternative concepts for modifying the policies and procedures under which the air traffic flow management system operates are described, and an approach to the evaluation of those concepts is discussed. Here, air traffic flow management includes all activities related to the management of the flow of aircraft and related system resources from 'block to block.' The alternative concepts represent stages in the evolution from the current system, in which air traffic management decision making is largely centralized within the FAA, to a more decentralized approach wherein the airlines and other airspace users collaborate in air traffic management decision making with the FAA. The emphasis in the discussion is on a viable medium-term partially decentralized scenario representing a phase of this evolution that is consistent with the decision-making approaches embodied in proposed Free Flight concepts for air traffic management. System-level metrics for analyzing and evaluating the various alternatives are defined, and a simulation testbed developed to generate values for those metrics is described. The fundamental issue of modeling airline behavior in decentralized environments is also raised, and an example of such a model, which deals with the preservation of flight bank integrity in hub airports, is presented.

  9. Guidance for air sampling at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal uses of air sampling at nuclear facilities are to monitor general levels of radioactive air contamination, identify sources of air contamination, and evaluate the effectiveness of contaminant control equipment, determine exposures of individual workers, and provide automatic warning of hazardous concentrations of radioactivity. These applications of air sampling are discussed with respect to standards of occupational exposure, instrumentation, sample analysis, sampling protocol, and statistical treatment of concentration data. Emphasis is given to the influence of spacial and temporal variations of radionuclide concentration on the location, duration, and frequency of air sampling

  10. 基于BDI模型的管制员Agent行为建模研究%Research on Behavioral Modeling of Air Traffic Controller Based on BDI Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岳鹏; 隋东; 林颖达

    2016-01-01

    针对空中交通仿真系统中的管制员Agent建模问题,通过分析管制操作行为特点,采用BDI结构,建立了基于决策树模型的管制规则知识库,设计了慎思型管制员Agent。基于Jadex平台,构建了管制员Agent模型,将由JADE平台建立的航空器Agent和模拟空管自动化系统Agent与Jadex平台建立的管制员Agent进行通信与协调,通过仿真系统构建仿真场景并验证管制员Agent的BDI推理过程,实现了对管制员的日常指挥行为的模拟。实验结果表明,所构建的管制员Agent模型可以顺利进行推理过程并对飞行冲突进行探测与解脱。%For ATC operational behavior modeling problems in air traffic control simulation,this paper an-alyzed the behavior characteristic of ATC operation,and adopted BDI structure of establishing the conflict detection and resolution rule library of ATC Agent based on decision tree. Finally,this paper designed the deliberative type of ATC Agent. Based on Jadex platform,the model of ATC Agent was constructed. Then this paper have assembled the ATC Agent model to communicate and coordinate with other two kinds of Agent models,namely,aircraft Agent and ATC Automation Systems Agent established on JADE platform. The simulation scenario was constructed through simulation system and the BDI reasoning process of ATC Agent was verified. The results show that: the ATC Agent model can reasoning smoothly and detect and resolute the conflict between aircraft Agents.

  11. Traffic Monitoring and Control Using RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Thakur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion and tidal flow management were recognized as major problems in modern urban areas, which have caused much frustration and loss of man hours. The operation of standard traffic lights which are currently deployed in many junctions, are based on predetermined timing schemes, which are fixed during the installation and remain until further resetting. The timing is no more than a default setup to control what may be considered as normal traffic. Although every road junction by necessity requires different traffic light timing setup, many existing systems operate with a default sequence. To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system, a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration. Approach: In order to solve the problem an intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed. This project is based on monitoring the traffic density at the signal using RFID Reader. RFID tags which is placed (instead of number plate at each vehicle will serve as the unique number of vehicle .Reader will count the number of tags at the signal and take decision of increasing or decreasing the signal time .This reader is also use to find the violation(VIN of violator of the signal. Each passive tag will have certain number of bytes information will be different for different vehicles. Whenever any tag will approach any signal, reader will take that bytes of information and simultaneously will also increment the number of vehicles for making decision to change the signal timing. Each tag of data will be stored in main memory (database.This unique data will also help in determining the violator of the signal .Thus it will save human efforts and resources to a greater extent and reduce waiting of the people at the signal. After implementation of this project, now all people waiting at the signal will get proper time (green light according to the traffic density

  12. Traffic Flow Control In Automated Highway Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Luis; Horowitz, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This report studies the problem of traffic control in the Automated Highway System (AHS) hierarchical architecture of the California PATH program. A link layer controller for the PATH AHS architecture is presented. It is shown that the proposed control laws stabilize the vehicular density and flow around predetermined profiles.

  13. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  14. Embedded System For Intelligent Ambulance And Traffic Control Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sarika Baburao Kale; Gajanan P. Dhok

    2013-01-01

    The use of Embedded technology has proved to be very beneficial in  present Traffic Light Controller (TLC) and that will minimize waiting time of vehicle and also manage traffic load. In this paper we exploit the emergence of new technology called as Intelligent traffic light controller, This makes the use of sensor n/w along with embedded technology. Where traffic light will be intelligently decided based on the total traffic on all adjacent roads. Thus optimization of traffic light switchin...

  15. Design and Simulation of a Decentralized Railway Traffic Control System

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kara; M. Cengiz Savas

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing use of railway transportation, various methods have been developed for the control and management of train traffic. Train traffic control systems that are currently in use are overwhelmingly centralized systems. In this study, the development of the general structure of railway traffic control techniques is examined, centralized and decentralized control systems are investigated, and an alternative train traffic control system, the Decentralized Train Traffic Management Sy...

  16. Statistical characterization of deviations from planned flight trajectories in air traffic management

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, C; Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N; Miccichè, S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relation between planned and realized flight trajectories and the determinants of flight deviations is of great importance in air traffic management. In this paper we perform an in depth investigation of the statistical properties of planned and realized air traffic on the German airspace during a 28 day periods, corresponding to an AIRAC cycle. We find that realized trajectories are on average shorter than planned ones and this effect is stronger during night-time than daytime. Flights are more frequently deviated close to the departure airport and at a relatively large angle to destination. Moreover, the probability of a deviation is higher in low traffic phases. All these evidences indicate that deviations are mostly used by controllers to give directs to flights when traffic conditions allow it. Finally we introduce a new metric, termed difork, which is able to characterize navigation points according to the likelihood that a deviation occurs there. Difork allows to identify in a statist...

  17. Development of a forecast model for global air traffic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martin

    2012-07-01

    The thesis describes the methodology and results of a simulation model that quantifies fuel consumption and emissions of civil air traffic. Besides covering historical emissions, the model aims at forecasting emissions in the medium-term future. For this purpose, simulation models of aircraft and engine types are used in combination with a database of global flight movements and assumptions about traffic growth, fleet rollover and operational aspects. Results from an application of the model include emissions of scheduled air traffic for the years 2000 to 2010 as well as forecasted emissions until the year 2030. In a baseline scenario of the forecast, input assumptions (e.g. traffic growth rates) are in line with predictions by the aircraft industry. Considering the effects of advanced technologies of the short-term and medium-term future, the forecast focusses on fuel consumption and emissions of nitric oxides. Calculations for historical air traffic additionally cover emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and soot. Results are validated against reference data including studies by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and simulation results from international research projects. (orig.)

  18. Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.

    OpenAIRE

    De Fré, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an...

  19. The Monotonic Lagrangian Grid for Rapid Air-Traffic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn; Dahm, Johann; Oran, Elaine; Alexandrov, Natalia; Boris, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Air Traffic Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (ATMLG) is presented as a tool to evaluate new air traffic system concepts. The model, based on an algorithm called the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (MLG), can quickly sort, track, and update positions of many aircraft, both on the ground (at airports) and in the air. The underlying data structure is based on the MLG, which is used for sorting and ordering positions and other data needed to describe N moving bodies and their interactions. Aircraft that are close to each other in physical space are always near neighbors in the MLG data arrays, resulting in a fast nearest-neighbor interaction algorithm that scales as N. Recent upgrades to ATMLG include adding blank place-holders within the MLG data structure, which makes it possible to dynamically change the MLG size and also improves the quality of the MLG grid. Additional upgrades include adding FAA flight plan data, such as way-points and arrival and departure times from the Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS), and combining the MLG with the state-of-the-art strategic and tactical conflict detection and resolution algorithms from the NASA-developed Stratway software. In this paper, we present results from our early efforts to couple ATMLG with the Stratway software, and we demonstrate that it can be used to quickly simulate air traffic flow for a very large ETMS dataset.

  20. Innovation Management in Air Traffic Management from Research Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Aeronautics is regarded as high innovative and applying modern technology. This is only partly true as mainly the ground system of the air traffic management suffers from long innovation cycles and other blocking factors. This is illustrated by some examples and the improvements currently under implementation.

  1. Mobile Application for GBAS Air Traffic Status Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Hiba

    2014-01-01

    At present, the Air Traffic Status Unit is a windows PC based application, which receives the status of ground based augmentation system station over Ethernet and displays on the screen. The objective of this project is to convert the PC based Application into Mobile application using Android OS.

  2. INTEGRATED RISK PICTURE METHODOLOGY FOR AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko, Volodymyr; Національний авіаційний університет; Chynchenko, Yuriy; Національний авіаційний університет, проспект Космонавта Комарова, 1, Київ, Україна, 03680

    2013-01-01

     The article deals with the analysis of the researches conducted in field of the Integrated risk picture methodology. Benefits of the concept, operational documentation and potential users of Integrated risk picture methodology have been reviewed. Principles of implementation and impact on Air Traffic Management have been analysed and general recommendations applicable for Ukrainian aeronautical system have been proposed.

  3. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang;

    2012-01-01

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association.......Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association....

  4. Aeronautical Satellite Data Link System (SDLS) for high-density air-traffic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu, Alain; Loisy, Claude; Clinch, Philip; Benhaim, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    The European Space Agency has recently commissioned a study to investigate the feasibility of a low-cost aeronautical Satellite Data Link System (SDLS) to provide for the needs of Air Traffic Services, i.e. safety related communications over continental areas with high air-traffic density. This study is placed in today's context which sees the first generation of Aeronautical Mobile Satellite System (AMSS) being gradually but restrictively put into service in oceanic airspaces with low air-traffic density. This paper first discusses the case of ATS dedicated versus mixed (ATS and commercial) Comms service provision and identifies the specific ATS comms requirements context. Specific emphasis is put on the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) standardization framework for both the ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunication Network) and the SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar) Mode S specific services. An architectural system and network design for a future SDLS is then proposed, such as to meet the ATS comms requirements within the realm of existing technologies. To minimize development risk and cost, consideration is given to re-use the ESA-developed Land Mobile Communication Technology, known as MSBN (Mobile Satellite Business Network) featuring distinct subnetworks. It is particularly suited to an ATM (Air Traffic Management) decentralized architecture made of independent ATC (Air Traffic Control) Centers. Finally the study follow-on phase is introduced, which is intended to cover system design and development leading to a demonstration program, as a first step towards proposals for international standardization and acceptance.

  5. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  6. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission control equipment subject to 40 CFR part 264, subpart CC, you must keep the following information...) Documentation for each closed-vent system and control device installed under requirements of 40 CFR 264.1087... monitoring plan for both Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A and control device monitoring methods....

  7. Analysis of Dynamic Road Traffic Congestion Control (DRTCC) Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pardeep Mittal; Yashpal Singh,; Yogesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    : Dynamic traffic light control at intersection has become one of the most active research areas to develop the Dynamic transportation systems (ITS). Due to the consistent growth in urbanization and traffic congestion, such a system was required which can control the timings of traffic lights dynamically with accurate measurement of traffic on the road. In this paper, analysis of all the techniques that has been developed to automate the traffic lights has been done.. The efficacy...

  8. Multiagent Reinforcement Learning for Urban Traffic Control Using Coordination Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyer, Lior; Whiteson, Shimon; Bakker, Bram; Vlassis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    Since traffic jams are ubiquitous in the modern world, optimizing, the behavior of traffic lights for efficient traffic flow is a critically important goal. Though most current traffic lights use simple heuristic protocols, more efficient controllers can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning where each agent controls a single traffic light. However, in previous work on this approach, agents select only locally optimal actions without coordinating their behavior. Th...

  9. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): AIRS_AFS Sub Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Facility System (AFS) contains compliance and permit data for stationary sources regulated by EPA, state and local air pollution agencies. The sub facility...

  10. Multiagent reinforcement learning for urban traffic control using coordination graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kuyer; S. Whiteson; B. Bakker; N. Vlassis

    2008-01-01

    Since traffic jams are ubiquitous in the modern world, optimizing the behavior of traffic lights for efficient traffic flow is a critically important goal. Though most current traffic lights use simple heuristic protocols, more efficient controllers can be discovered automatically via multiagent rei

  11. Delays in hiring Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) graduates and the impact on their training success rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Terra A.

    This research project identified three distinct groups of individuals the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) utilizes when filling the employee ranks of Air Traffic Controllers (ATC). After a nationwide strike, President Reagan fired the entire ATC workforce in 1981 (Pavel, 2012). Since then the FAA has worked very diligently in filling the vacant positions. Now three decades later the impending retirements and attrition of those hired earlier is estimated at nearly 14,000 controllers over the next 10 years (FAA CWP, 2012). In response to this shortage it would be advantageous for the FAA to minimize the time lapsed in the selection, hiring and training processes. If the hiring process time was decreased, it would save the FAA money in terms of a reduction in the initial cost of training Air Traffic Controllers (GAO, 2012; IRP, 2011). Traditionally the FAA hires from three distinct groups of people. The first is those with prior ATC experience which was usually obtained through the military. Second the general public with no experience and third the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) candidates. The AT-CTI program is a valued partner with the FAA that helps educate the next generation of Air Traffic Controllers; however in the past the program has had difficulty producing the total number of replacement controllers needed. Due to the delay some CTI graduates may choose other career paths rather than wait and be hired to go to the FAA Academy which will further reduce the number of candidates for the FAA to hire. To date, no public research has been done pertaining to the time delay in the hiring process of AT-CTI candidates and the impact on training success at the FAA Academy and at the CTI's first FAA facility. This study used a survey tool to gather information on how long AT-CTI graduates wait to be hired to attend the FAA Academy. Information was gathered on the factors that may affect the time lapse between graduation and the time they

  12. Advanced Interactive Display Formats for Terminal Area Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Shaviv, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    This research project deals with an on-line dynamic method for automated viewing parameter management in perspective displays. Perspective images are optimized such that a human observer will perceive relevant spatial geometrical features with minimal errors. In order to compute the errors at which observers reconstruct spatial features from perspective images, a visual spatial-perception model was formulated. The model was employed as the basis of an optimization scheme aimed at seeking the optimal projection parameter setting. These ideas are implemented in the context of an air traffic control (ATC) application. A concept, referred to as an active display system, was developed. This system uses heuristic rules to identify relevant geometrical features of the three-dimensional air traffic situation. Agile, on-line optimization was achieved by a specially developed and custom-tailored genetic algorithm (GA), which was to deal with the multi-modal characteristics of the objective function and exploit its time-evolving nature.

  13. Wind Prediction Accuracy for Air Traffic Management Decision Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rod; Green, Steve; Jardin, Matt; Schwartz, Barry; Benjamin, Stan

    2000-01-01

    The performance of Air Traffic Management and flight deck decision support tools depends in large part on the accuracy of the supporting 4D trajectory predictions. This is particularly relevant to conflict prediction and active advisories for the resolution of conflicts and the conformance with of traffic-flow management flow-rate constraints (e.g., arrival metering / required time of arrival). Flight test results have indicated that wind prediction errors may represent the largest source of trajectory prediction error. The tests also discovered relatively large errors (e.g., greater than 20 knots), existing in pockets of space and time critical to ATM DST performance (one or more sectors, greater than 20 minutes), are inadequately represented by the classic RMS aggregate prediction-accuracy studies of the past. To facilitate the identification and reduction of DST-critical wind-prediction errors, NASA has lead a collaborative research and development activity with MIT Lincoln Laboratories and the Forecast Systems Lab of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This activity, begun in 1996, has focussed on the development of key metrics for ATM DST performance, assessment of wind-prediction skill for state of the art systems, and development/validation of system enhancements to improve skill. A 13 month study was conducted for the Denver Center airspace in 1997. Two complementary wind-prediction systems were analyzed and compared to the forecast performance of the then standard 60 km Rapid Update Cycle - version 1 (RUC-1). One system, developed by NOAA, was the prototype 40-km RUC-2 that became operational at NCEP in 1999. RUC-2 introduced a faster cycle (1 hr vs. 3 hr) and improved mesoscale physics. The second system, Augmented Winds (AW), is a prototype en route wind application developed by MITLL based on the Integrated Terminal Wind System (ITWS). AW is run at a local facility (Center) level, and updates RUC predictions based on an

  14. Air filters for use at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ventilation system of a nuclear facility plays a vital role in ensuring that the air in working areas and the environment remains free from radioactive contamination. An earlier IAEA publication, Techniques for Controlling Air Pollution from the Operation of Nuclear Facilities, Safety Series No. 17, deals with the design and operation of ventilation systems at nuclear facilities. These systems are usually provided with air-cleaning devices which remove the contaminants from the air. This publication is intended as a guide to those who are concerned with the design of air-filtering systems and with the testing, operation and maintenance of air-filter installations at nuclear facilities. Emphasis is mainly placed on so-called high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA filters) and on providing general information on them. Besides describing the usual filter types, their dimensions and construction materials, the guidebook attempts to explain their properties and behaviour under different operating conditions. It also gives advice on testing and handling the filters so that effective and safe performance is ensured. The guidebook should serve as an introduction to the use of high efficiency particulate air filters in countries where work with radioactive materials has only recently commenced. The list of references at the end of the book indicates sources of more advanced information for those who already have comprehensive experience in this field. It is assumed here that the filters are obtained from a manufacturer, and the guidebook thus contains no information on the design and development of the filter itself, nor does it deal with the cleaning of the intake air to a plant, with gas sorption or protective respiratory equipment

  15. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri, high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout, traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge, Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout, residential area (Kawo New Extension and a control site (NFA base in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle containing hydrogen peroxide (absorbent, at a flow-rate of 10 L/min for 30 min using air vacuum pump. The concentration of SO2 in the resultant solution (absorbent was determined by titrating against 0.005 moL/dm3 NaOH solutions. The average SO2 concentrations in the six sampling stations were within the range 0.16-0.75 ppm, with the highest values of 0.75 and 0.70 ppm at highly industrialized area (Kakuri and a high traffic area (Leventis roundabout respectively. The ambient air concentrations of SO2 depict the pattern; Industrial area (Kakuri >High vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis roundabout >Traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge >Low traffic area (Tafawa Balewa roundabout >Residential area (Kawo New Extension >Remote area (NAF Base Mando. Except for highly industrial area (Kakuri and the high traffic area (Leventis, The ambient air SO2 concentration are within the acceptable limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA standard limit which is 0.5 ppm for 30 min exposure time.

  16. Prediction of Traffic Complexity and Controller Workload in Mixed Equipage NextGen Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul U.; Prevot, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Controller workload is a key factor in limiting en route air traffic capacity. Past efforts to quantify and predict workload have resulted in identifying objective metrics that correlate well with subjective workload ratings during current air traffic control operations. Although these metrics provide a reasonable statistical fit to existing data, they do not provide a good mechanism for estimating controller workload for future air traffic concepts and environments that make different assumptions about automation, enabling technologies, and controller tasks. One such future environment is characterized by en route airspace with a mixture of aircraft equipped with and without Data Communications (Data Comm). In this environment, aircraft with Data Comm will impact controller workload less than aircraft requiring voice communication, altering the close correlation between aircraft count and controller workload that exists in current air traffic operations. This paper outlines a new trajectory-based complexity (TBX) calculation that was presented to controllers during a human-in-the-loop simulation. The results showed that TBX accurately estimated the workload in a mixed Data Comm equipage environment and the resulting complexity values were understood and readily interpreted by the controllers. The complexity was represented as a "modified aircraft account" that weighted different complexity factors and summed them in such a way that the controllers could effectively treat them as aircraft count. The factors were also relatively easy to tune without an extensive data set. The results showed that the TBX approach is well suited for presenting traffic complexity in future air traffic environments.

  17. Self-Organized Control of Irregular or Perturbed Network Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Helbing, Dirk; Lämmer, Stefan; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick

    2005-01-01

    We present a fluid-dynamic model for the simulation of urban traffic networks with road sections of different lengths and capacities. The model allows one to efficiently simulate the transitions between free and congested traffic, taking into account congestion-responsive traffic assignment and adaptive traffic control. We observe dynamic traffic patterns which significantly depend on the respective network topology. Synchronization is only one interesting example and implies the emergence of...

  18. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, MAA Marko; Adan, IJBF Ivo; Winands, EMM Erik; Down, DG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under Heavy Traffic (HT) conditions. Furthermore, we derive the Light Traffic (LT) limit of the mean delays for intersections with Poisson arrivals, and develop a heuristic adaptation of this limit to capture the LT behaviour for other in...

  19. Traffic noise control of a city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long exposure to noise due to traffic affects our health and comfort. A noise level up to 45 dB is acceptable for the buildings in the city. A traffic noise study was conducted in Karachi at places of high traffic flow. The noise level was between 75-85 dB. Residential and commercial buildings had sound level up to 79 dB. Reducing vehicle noise by using proper muffler and acoustic treatment should first control traffic noise. Then noise can be reduced by 10-15 dB by constructing barriers of wood or concrete along roadside. Barrier height for sound attenuation can be found from Fresnel Number. The barrier reduces noise better if width at the top is increased and an inward bend of 60 degree is placed at the top. Where feasible a 4-5 meter high concrete barrier is recommended otherwise the nearby buildings from the road should be insulated and acoustically treated. (author)

  20. On Perception and Reality in Wireless Air Traffic Communications Security

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmeier, Martin; Schäfer, Matthias; Pinheiro, Rui; Lenders, Vincent; Martinovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    More than a dozen wireless technologies are used by air traffic communication systems during different flight phases. From a conceptual perspective, all of them are insecure as security was never part of their design. Recent contributions from academic and hacking communities have exploited this inherent vulnerability to demonstrate attacks on some of these technologies. However, not all of these contributions have resonated widely within aviation circles. At the same time, the security commu...

  1. The Monotonic Lagrangian Grid for Fast Air-Traffic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kaplan, Carolyn; Oran, Elaine; Boris, Jay

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the continued development of a dynamic air-traffic model, ATMLG, intended for rapid evaluation of rules and methods to control and optimize transport systems. The underlying data structure is based on the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (MLG), which is used for sorting and ordering positions and other data needed to describe N moving bodies, and their interactions. In ATMLG, the MLG is combined with algorithms for collision avoidance and updating aircraft trajectories. Aircraft that are close to each other in physical space are always near neighbors in the MLG data arrays, resulting in a fast nearest-neighbor interaction algorithm that scales as N. In this paper, we use ATMLG to examine how the ability to maintain a required separation between aircraft decreases as the number of aircraft in the volume increases. This requires keeping track of the primary and subsequent collision avoidance maneuvers necessary to maintain a five mile separation distance between all aircraft. Simulation results show that the number of collision avoidance moves increases exponentially with the number of aircraft in the volume.

  2. An Architectural Concept for Intrusion Tolerance in Air Traffic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of an intrusion tolerant network is to continue to provide predictable and reliable communication in the presence of a limited num ber of compromised network components. The behavior of a compromised network component ranges from a node that no longer responds to a nod e that is under the control of a malicious entity that is actively tr ying to cause other nodes to fail. Most current data communication ne tworks do not include support for tolerating unconstrained misbehavio r of components in the network. However, the fault tolerance communit y has developed protocols that provide both predictable and reliable communication in the presence of the worst possible behavior of a limited number of nodes in the system. One may view a malicious entity in a communication network as a node that has failed and is behaving in an arbitrary manner. NASA/Langley Research Center has developed one such fault-tolerant computing platform called SPIDER (Scalable Proces sor-Independent Design for Electromagnetic Resilience). The protocols and interconnection mechanisms of SPIDER may be adapted to large-sca le, distributed communication networks such as would be required for future Air Traffic Management systems. The predictability and reliabi lity guarantees provided by the SPIDER protocols have been formally v erified. This analysis can be readily adapted to similar network stru ctures.

  3. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne de Kluizenaar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9 410-414 or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438. We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213 of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties, increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs for a 5 th to 95 th percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20 for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21 for particulate matter (PM 10 ; 1.05 (0.91-1.20 for elemental carbon (EC; and 1.12 (096-1.32 for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 th to 95 th percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]. In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den; in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 .

  4. Traffic Flow Control - Optimization on Horizon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, Jitka

    Praha: ÚTIA AV ČR, 2006 - (Přikryl, J.; Šmídl, V.). s. 43-44 [International PhD Workshop on Interplay of Societal and Technical Decision - Making , Young Generation Viewpoint /7./. 25.09.2006-30.09.2006, Hrubá Skála] Grant ostatní: MD ČR(CZ) 1F43A/003/120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear programming * traffic flow control * control on horizon Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  5. Home air-conditioning, traffic exposure, and asthma and allergic symptoms among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuraimi, Mohamed Sultan; Tham, Kwok-Wai; Chew, Fook-Tim; Ooi, Peng-Lim; Koh, David

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that traffic exposures can influence asthma and allergic symptoms among preschool children; however, there is no information on risk reduction via home air-conditioning (AC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations of self-reported traffic densities with asthma and allergic symptoms among preschool children and determine whether AC is an effect modifier. A cross-sectional study adopting an expanded and modified ISAAC--International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood conducted on randomly selected 2994 children living in homes without any indoor risk factors. Specific information on demographics, indoor home risk factors, and traffic variables were obtained. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined by Cox proportional hazard regression model with assumption of a constant risk period controlled for covariates. We found dose-response significant relationships between validated self-reported traffic densities and asthma and rhinitis symptoms. Among children sleeping in non-air-conditioned homes, there were stronger associations between asthma and rhinitis symptoms studied. PRs for heavy traffic density were 2.06 for wheeze (95% CI 0.97-4.38), 2.89 for asthma (1.14-7.32), 1.73 for rhinitis (1.00-2.99), and 3.39 for rhinoconjunctivitis (1.24-9.27). There were no associations found for children sleeping in air-conditioned homes. Our results suggest that AC in the bedroom modifies the health effects of traffic among preschool children. This finding suggests that attention should also be paid to ventilation characteristics of the homes to remediate health-related traffic pollution problems. PMID:20561230

  6. Design and Simulation of a Decentralized Railway Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of railway transportation, various methods have been developed for the control and management of train traffic. Train traffic control systems that are currently in use are overwhelmingly centralized systems. In this study, the development of the general structure of railway traffic control techniques is examined, centralized and decentralized control systems are investigated, and an alternative train traffic control system, the Decentralized Train Traffic Management System (DTMS, is suggested. Simulation results on the possible application of the proposed method to a railway line in South-East Turkey are employed to evaluate the performance of the developed system.

  7. A Perspective on NASA Ames Air Traffic Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes past and present air-traffic-management research at NASA Ames Research Center. The descriptions emerge from the perspective of a technical manager who supervised the majority of this research for the last four years. Past research contributions built a foundation for calculating accurate flight trajectories to enable efficient airspace management in time. That foundation led to two predominant research activities that continue to this day - one in automatically separating aircraft and the other in optimizing traffic flows. Today s national airspace uses many of the applications resulting from research at Ames. These applications include the nationwide deployment of the Traffic Management Advisor, new procedures enabling continuous descent arrivals, cooperation with industry to permit more direct flights to downstream way-points, a surface management system in use by two cargo carriers, and software to evaluate how well flights conform to national traffic management initiatives. The paper concludes with suggestions for prioritized research in the upcoming years. These priorities include: enabling more first-look operational evaluations, improving conflict detection and resolution for climbing or descending aircraft, and focusing additional attention on the underpinning safety critical items such as a reliable datalink.

  8. Study on the effect of lead and lead compounds as pollutants on traffic air and traffic policemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in Khartoum state to determine the magnitude of air pollution, resulting from traffic density, due to lead and lead compounds which had been used as additives for gasoline in the form of tetra-ethyl and tetra methyl lead. The level of lead in ambient air and SPM was determined in 14 samples taken randomly at the intersections and entrances to the bridges using personal sampler (Cassella. UK). The mean concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found to be 5.77+4.04 mg/m3. with range between 0.85-12.50 mg/m3 including three sites above the limit of 10 mg/m3 allowed. The samples were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for their lead content. The average concentration of lead in the sites is found to be 0.1937±0.1768 mg/m3. With range between 0.000-0.5166 mg/m3. The concentrations in seven sites were above the limit of 0.15 mg/m3 permitted internationally. The impact of lead pollution on traffic police men was measured by analyzing blood lead concentration of 30 members exposed to traffic air pollution, from the three cities and (10 samples) from non-exposed ( control). It was found to be 2.4601±1.4065μg/100 ml and 0.3944±1.2471 μg/ 100 ml respectively. The data analysis by used SPSS program. There is no significant difference between the two groups. A questionnaire was designed to find out some data about the exposed members including their knowledge of impact, range of age, duration of their service as traffic police, their previous work, and complaints from some of the health effects. The findings were: average age mean of 35.9 ±7.7 years, 47.48% worked for periods of more than 20 years, 74.19% did not work before joining the traffic police, 51.6% of them believe that there is a problem of high level of air pollution, 45.2% medium and 3.2%, pollution is low. As habits 38.71% are smokers. As for health complains, 61.29% have various complains of headaches, fatigue, abdominal, hypertension and anemia, these

  9. 航管训练系统中远程控制的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Remote Control in Air Traffic Control Simulator Training System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 胡术; 莫晶; 董志强; 寇成坤

    2015-01-01

    ATC simulation training system is the main mean and standard equipment for training and improving the control skills for air traffic area and approach radar controllers,it can realistically simulate all training related objects including device and user interface,and provide a environment close to the real work to train controllers through simulating the different air traffic status. Describe a remote auto-matic control software ScriptDispatcher based on a managed thread pool in this paper,which performs configuration script commands to distribute programs and data concurrently to several hosts using Telnet and FTP. And it has completed the design and implementation of remote execution of functions. The main functions include the distribution of training data,the distribution of a new version of the pro-gram and remotely executing the running scripts. Practice has proved that the remote automatic control software ScriptDispatcher can quickly complete training preparation,running stably and reliably,reducing the burden of training personnel and improving work efficien-cy and system utilization in large ATC simulator training system.%航管模拟训练系统是用于培养和提高空中交通区域及近雷达管制人员管制技能的主要手段和标准设备,能够逼真地模拟包括设备、用户界面等所有与训练相关的对象,通过实时模拟不同空中交通状态,以提供一个接近真实的工作环境来训练管制员。文中描述了一个基于可管理线程池的远程自动控制软件ScriptDispatcher,并使用Telnet协议和FTP协议执行配置脚本命令对系统多台主机并发进行程序和数据分发以及远程执行的功能的设计与实现。主要功能包括:分发训练数据、分发新版本程序和远程执行运行脚本等。实践证明,在大型航管模拟训练系统中,远程自动控制软件ScriptDis-patcher可以快速完成训练准备,运行稳定可靠,减轻了训练人员的负担,有效提

  10. An Adaptive Traffic Control System Using Raspberry PI

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lokesh; , T.Prahlad Reddy

    2014-01-01

    By increasing of population the usage of vehicles have been increasing and controlling of traffic is one of the challenging works. The frequent traffic jams at major junctions call for an efficient traffic management system in place. The resulting wastage of time and increase in pollution levels can be eliminated on a city-wide scale by these systems. Previously the traffic control techniques used like magnetic loop detectors, induction loop detectors are buried on the road si...

  11. REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    PALLAVI CHOUDEKAR,; SAYANTI BANERJEE,; M.K.MUJU

    2011-01-01

    As the problem of urban traffic congestion spreads, there is a pressing need for the introduction of advanced technology and equipment to improve the state-of-the-art of traffic control. Traffic problems nowadays are increasing because of the growing number of vehicles and the limited resources provided by current nfrastructures. The simplest way for controlling a traffic light uses timer for each phase. Another way is to use electronic sensors in order to detect vehicles, and produce signal...

  12. Self-Organized Control of Irregular or Perturbed Network Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, D; Lebacque, J P; Helbing, Dirk; L\\"ammer, Stefan; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick

    2005-01-01

    We present a fluid-dynamic model for the simulation of urban traffic networks with road sections of different lengths and capacities. The model allows one to efficiently simulate the transitions between free and congested traffic, taking into account congestion-responsive traffic assignment and adaptive traffic control. We observe dynamic traffic patterns which significantly depend on the respective network topology. Synchronization is only one interesting example and implies the emergence of green waves. In this connection, we will discuss adaptive strategies of traffic light control which can considerably improve throughputs and travel times, using self-organization principles based on local interactions between vehicles and traffic lights. Similar adaptive control principles can be applied to other queueing networks such as production systems. In fact, we suggest to turn push operation of traffic systems into pull operation: By removing vehicles as fast as possible from the network, queuing effects can be ...

  13. DESIGN OF INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM USING IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Grover; Vinay Shankar Saxena; Tarun Vatwani

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are the most important mode of transport in the world. There has been a continuous increase in the number of vehicles all over the world, which has left the most important ingredient of the traffic management i.e. traffic lights outdated. Traffic congestion nowadays is more often than not caused by large red light delays as the switching time of traffic lights are predefined. There is a need for sophistication in the traffic light control where real time traffic conditions should be ...

  14. Trajectory Assessment and Modification Tools for Next Generation Air Traffic Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Connie; Lee, Paul; Mainini, Matthew; Lee, Homola; Lee, Hwasoo; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) based high fidelity air traffic control human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations, with a focus on the expected requirement of enhanced automated trajectory assessment and modification tools to support future air traffic flow management (ATFM) planning positions. The simulations were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Centers Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) in 2009 and 2010. The test airspace for all three simulations assumed the mid-term NextGenEn-Route high altitude environment utilizing high altitude sectors from the Kansas City and Memphis Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Trajectory assessment, modification and coordination decision support tools were developed at the AOL in order to perform future ATFM tasks. Overall tool usage results and user acceptability ratings were collected across three areas of NextGen operatoins to evaluate the tools. In addition to the usefulness and usability feedback, feasibility issues, benefits, and future requirements were also addressed. Overall, the tool sets were rated very useful and usable, and many elements of the tools received high scores and were used frequently and successfully. Tool utilization results in all three HITLs showed both user and system benefits including better airspace throughput, reduced controller workload, and highly effective communication protocols in both full Data Comm and mixed-equipage environments.

  15. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose...

  16. Public Transport Priority for Multimodal Urban Traffic Control

    OpenAIRE

    BHOURI, Neila; MAYORANO, Fernando J; LOTITO, Pablo A; Haj Salem, Habib; LEBACQUE, Jean Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the travel time of surface public transport vehicles (bus, tramway, etc.), several cities use Urban Traffic Control (UTC) systems enabling to give priority to public transport. This paper reviews these systems. Further on after a debate on their insufficiencies in the global regulation of the urban traffic on a whole network, the paper proposes intermodal regulation strategies, operating on intersection traffic lights to regulate the traffic, favouring the public transport...

  17. Respiratory effects of air pollutants among nonsmoking traffic policemen of Patiala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and thus the persons who are continuously exposed, may be at an increased risk. Although several studies have confirmed the ill effects of air pollutants on the lung function of traffic policemen, only a few have investigated the relationship between respiratory health and duration of exposure in this category of occupationally exposed persons. Aim: The study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic policemen in respect to an unexposed control group having the same age group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which the spirometric parameters of a group of 100 nonsmoking traffic policemen, aged 20-55 years, working in and around Patiala city, were compared with those obtained in an age-matched control group, consisting of 100 healthy males, serving in the Punjab Police, who have never done traffic duty and are thus not exposed to traffic pollution. Lung function was done with MEDSPIROR. The data on the overall health status of the subjects was collected using the standard Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire. The statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS PC software version 13. Results: Traffic policemen recorded a significant decline in various parameters, such as forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 , and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR when compared with controls, and is probably due to exposure to vehicular pollution. It was also observed that in traffic policemen with >8 years of exposure, the values of FVC (2.7 L, FEV 1 (1.8 L, and PEFR (7.5 L/s were significantly lower than those obtained in traffic policemen with <8 years of exposure, in whom the values were 2.9 L, 2.3 L, and 7.7 L/s for FVC, FEV 1, and PEFR, respectively. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function

  18. Semantic Representation and Scale-Up of Integrated Air Traffic Management Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Ranjan, Shubha; Wei, Mie; Eshow, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Each day, the global air transportation industry generates a vast amount of heterogeneous data from air carriers, air traffic control providers, and secondary aviation entities handling baggage, ticketing, catering, fuel delivery, and other services. Generally, these data are stored in isolated data systems, separated from each other by significant political, regulatory, economic, and technological divides. These realities aside, integrating aviation data into a single, queryable, big data store could enable insights leading to major efficiency, safety, and cost advantages. In this paper, we describe an implemented system for combining heterogeneous air traffic management data using semantic integration techniques. The system transforms data from its original disparate source formats into a unified semantic representation within an ontology-based triple store. Our initial prototype stores only a small sliver of air traffic data covering one day of operations at a major airport. The paper also describes our analysis of difficulties ahead as we prepare to scale up data storage to accommodate successively larger quantities of data -- eventually covering all US commercial domestic flights over an extended multi-year timeframe. We review several approaches to mitigating scale-up related query performance concerns.

  19. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  20. An efficient method to detect periodic behavior in botnet traffic by analyzing control plane traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsSadhan, Basil; Moura, José M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Botnets are large networks of bots (compromised machines) that are under the control of a small number of bot masters. They pose a significant threat to Internet’s communications and applications. A botnet relies on command and control (C2) communications channels traffic between its members for its attack execution. C2 traffic occurs prior to any attack; hence, the detection of botnet’s C2 traffic enables the detection of members of the botnet before any real harm happens. We analyze C2 traffic and find that it exhibits a periodic behavior. This is due to the pre-programmed behavior of bots that check for updates to download them every T seconds. We exploit this periodic behavior to detect C2 traffic. The detection involves evaluating the periodogram of the monitored traffic. Then applying Walker’s large sample test to the periodogram’s maximum ordinate in order to determine if it is due to a periodic component or not. If the periodogram of the monitored traffic contains a periodic component, then it is highly likely that it is due to a bot’s C2 traffic. The test looks only at aggregate control plane traffic behavior, which makes it more scalable than techniques that involve deep packet inspection (DPI) or tracking the communication flows of different hosts. We apply the test to two types of botnet, tinyP2P and IRC that are generated by SLINGbot. We verify the periodic behavior of their C2 traffic and compare it to the results we get on real traffic that is obtained from a secured enterprise network. We further study the characteristics of the test in the presence of injected HTTP background traffic and the effect of the duty cycle on the periodic behavior. PMID:25685512

  1. MATLAB Simulation of Fuzzy Traffic Controller for Multilane Isolated Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Che Soh/Lai Guan Rhung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy traffic controller for controlling traffic flow at multilane isolated signalized intersection. The controller is developed based on the waiting time and vehicles queue length at current green phase, and vehicles queue lengths at the other phases. For control strategy, the controllercontrols the traffic light timings and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time, queue length and delay time. In this research, the isolated intersection model used consists of two lanes in each approach. Each approach has two different values of vehicles queue length and waiting time, respectively, at the intersection. The maximum values of vehicles queue length and waiting times are selected as the inputs to controller for optimized control of traffic flows at the intersection. A traffic model and fuzzy traffic controller are developed to evaluate the performance of traffic controllers underdifferent conditions. In the end, by comparing the experimental result obtained by the vehicle-actuated controller (VAC and fuzzy traffic controller (FTC which improves significant performance for intersections, we confirmed the efficiency of our intelligent controller based fuzzy inference system.

  2. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  3. Element composition and mineralogical characterisation of air pollution control residue from UK energy-from-waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 66 elements, including “critical strategic elements” were determined in UK EfW APC residues. • Metal pollutants (Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sb, Sn, Se, Ag and In) are enriched in APC residues. • Metal pollutants were widely associated with fine deposits of highly soluble CaClxOH2−x. • Specific metal (Zn, Pb, Cu)-bearing minerals were also detected in APC residues. - Abstract: Air pollution control (APC) residues from energy-from-waste (EfW) are alkaline (corrosive) and contain high concentrations of metals, such as zinc and lead, and soluble salts, such as chlorides and sulphates. The EPA 3050B-extractable concentrations of 66 elements, including critical elements of strategic importance for advanced electronics and energy technologies, were determined in eight APC residues from six UK EfW facilities. The concentrations of Ag (6–15 mg/kg) and In (1–13 mg/kg), as well as potential pollutants, especially Zn (0.26–0.73 wt.%), Pb (0.05–0.2 wt.%), As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sb, Sn and Se were found to be enriched in all APC residues compared to average crustal abundances. Results from a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and also powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy give an exceptionally full understanding of the mineralogy of these residues, which is discussed in the context of other results in the literature. The present work has shown that the bulk of the crystalline phases present in the investigated APC residues include Ca-based phases, such as CaClxOH2−x, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, CaSO4, and CaO, as well as soluble salts, such as NaCl and KCl. Poorly-crystalline aragonite was identified by FTIR. Sulphur appears to have complex redox speciation, presenting as both anhydrite and hannebachite in some UK EfW APC residues. Hazardous elements (Zn and Pb) were widely associated with soluble Ca- and Cl-bearing phases (e.g. CaClxOH2−x and sylvite), as well

  4. Adaptive Traffic Signalization Model using Neuro-Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Batra*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Current traffic lights are pre-programmed and use daily signal timing schedules, which contribute to traffic congestion and delay. Thus, with the increase in the number of vehicles on road, need for adaptive signal technology arises which has the potential to adjust the timing of red, yellow and green lights in order to accommodate changing traffic patterns and ease traffic congestion. In this paper, we present a model for adaptive traffic signalization, which uses fuzzy neural network for designing traffic signal controller. The controllers use vehicle detectors in order to detect the number of incoming vehicles. Based on the number of approaching vehicles, the current signal phase is either extended or terminated. The traffic volume at one particular region in an intersection is compared with that in the competing regions of the same intersection. The decision made is thus robust and results in less congestion and delays.

  5. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  6. Traffic-related air pollution and risk for leukaemia of an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution causes lung cancer, but associations with other cancers have not been established. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the risk of the general population for leukaemia. We identified 1,967 people in whom leukaemia was diagnosed in 1992-2010 from a nation-wide cancer registry and selected 3,381 control people at random, matched on sex and year of birth, from the entire Danish population. Residential addresses since 1971 were traced in a population registry, and outdoor concentrations of NOx and NO2 , as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, were calculated at each address in a dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk for leukaemia after adjustment for income, educational level, cohabitation status and co-morbidity. In linear analyses, we found odds ratios for acute myeloid leukaemia of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38) per 20 µg/m(3) increase in NOx and 1.31 (1.02-1.68) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2 , calculated as time-weighted average exposure at all addresses since 1971. We found no association with chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. This study indicates an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myeloid leukaemia in the general population, but not for other subtypes of leukaemia. PMID:26415047

  7. Control facilities for commissioning and operation of the water cooling, air handling and fire detection of LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the various processes (water cooling, air treatment and distribution, fire detection) which the CV group is in charge of, that are integrated in the general LEP control system. The choices of the solutions, for both hardware and software, which have been adopted at the different levels of the control hierarchy are discussed. The reason for such choices has been to take into account the various constraints attached to the running of industrial processes, both locally and remotely, in an accelerator control environment

  8. A Mathematical Model and Algorithm for Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in managing today's commercial en route air traffic is the task of routing the aircraft in the presence of adverse weather. Such weather can make regions of the airspace unusable, so all affected flights must be re-routed. Today this task is carried out by conference and negotiation between human air traffic controllers (ATC) responsible for the involved sectors of the airspace. One can argue that, in so doing, ATC try to solve an optimization problem without giving it a precise quantitative formulation. Such a formulation gives the mathematical machinery for constructing and verifying algorithms that are aimed at solving the problem. This paper contributes one such formulation and a corresponding algorithm. The algorithm addresses weather uncertainty and has closed form, which allows transparent analysis of correctness, realism, and computational costs.

  9. Analysis of Dynamic Road Traffic Congestion Control (DRTCC Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : Dynamic traffic light control at intersection has become one of the most active research areas to develop the Dynamic transportation systems (ITS. Due to the consistent growth in urbanization and traffic congestion, such a system was required which can control the timings of traffic lights dynamically with accurate measurement of traffic on the road. In this paper, analysis of all the techniques that has been developed to automate the traffic lights has been done.. The efficacy of all the techniques has been evaluated, using MATLAB software. After comparison of artificial intelligent techniques , it is found that image mosaicking technique is quite effective (in terms of improving moving time and reducing waiting time for the control of the traffic signals to control congestion on the road.

  10. Analysis of Air Traffic Track Data with the AutoBayes Synthesis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann Martin Philip; Cate, Karen; Lee, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) is aiming to provide substantial computer support for the air traffic controllers. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of aircraft movements are of central importance for such software systems but trajectory prediction has to work reliably in the presence of unknown parameters and uncertainties. We are using the AutoBayes program synthesis system to generate customized data analysis algorithms that process large sets of aircraft radar track data in order to estimate parameters and uncertainties. In this paper, we present, how the tasks of finding structure in track data, estimation of important parameters in climb trajectories, and the detection of continuous descent approaches can be accomplished with compact task-specific AutoBayes specifications. We present an overview of the AutoBayes architecture and describe, how its schema-based approach generates customized analysis algorithms, documented C/C++ code, and detailed mathematical derivations. Results of experiments with actual air traffic control data are discussed.

  11. Analysis of a Dynamic Multi-Track Airway Concept for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Multi-track Airways (DMA) Concept for Air Traffic Management (ATM) proposes a network of high-altitude airways constructed of multiple, closely spaced, parallel tracks designed to increase en-route capacity in high-demand airspace corridors. Segregated from non-airway operations, these multi-track airways establish high-priority traffic flow corridors along optimal routes between major terminal areas throughout the National Airspace System (NAS). Air traffic controllers transition aircraft equipped for DMA operations to DMA entry points, the aircraft use autonomous control of airspeed to fly the continuous-airspace airway and achieve an economic benefit, and controllers then transition the aircraft from the DMA exit to the terminal area. Aircraft authority within the DMA includes responsibility for spacing and/or separation from other DMA aircraft. The DMA controller is responsible for coordinating the entry and exit of traffic to and from the DMA and for traffic flow management (TFM), including adjusting DMA routing on a daily basis to account for predicted weather and wind patterns and re-routing DMAs in real time to accommodate unpredicted weather changes. However, the DMA controller is not responsible for monitoring the DMA for traffic separation. This report defines the mature state concept, explores its feasibility and performance, and identifies potential benefits. The report also discusses (a) an analysis of a single DMA, which was modeled within the NAS to assess capacity and determine the impact of a single DMA on regional sector loads and conflict potential; (b) a demand analysis, which was conducted to determine likely city-pair candidates for a nationwide DMA network and to determine the expected demand fraction; (c) two track configurations, which were modeled and analyzed for their operational characteristic; (d) software-prototype airborne capabilities developed for DMA operations research; (e) a feasibility analysis of key attributes in

  12. Hazards in air-, rail-, and road traffic arising from laserpointers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visible laser radiation with sufficient irradiance or radiant exposure might result in permanent damage of the eyes especially in the retina. In order to prevent this exposure limit values have been established based on current scientific knowledge. In addition visible laser radiation might result in effects like temporary blinding at even much lower exposure values. In this case irritations, flash-blindness and afterimages appear whose extent might exceed the respective damage level while vision is temporarily compromised in critical visual tasks more or less. The easy accessibility of hand-held laser products (laser pointers) with relatively high power might result in a modification of the security situation especially in air traffic via thoughtless and careless use of such products or in terroristic acts. In addition an increasing number of incidents in rail and road traffic where not only temporary blinding might be anticipated but permanent damage of the eyes as a result of overexposure due to laser pointer irradiation cannot be excluded any longer. Using laser pointers, which are available on the market in the power range up to 1 watt and at different wavelengths new hazard scenarios and threats with serious consequences are possible. Here the radiation protection is in great demand. (orig.)

  13. A Multi-Operator Simulation for Investigation of Distributed Air Traffic Management Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark E.; Ballin, Mark G.; Sakosky, John S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the current development of an air traffic operations simulation that supports feasibility research for advanced air traffic management concepts. The Air Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) supports the research of future concepts that provide a much greater role for the flight crew in traffic management decision-making. ATOS provides representations of the future communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure, a future flight deck systems architecture, and advanced crew interfaces. ATOS also provides a platform for the development of advanced flight guidance and decision support systems that may be required for autonomous operations.

  14. Integration of Radar System with GPS-Based Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) for Approach Control Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare, Ayeni K.; Junaidu, Sahalu B.

    2013-01-01

    The air traffic control system is a vast network of people and necessary navigational equipment that ensures the safe operation of commercial and private aircraft throughout the world. Air traffic controller service is responsible for area, approach and aerodrome control. Aircraft fatal accident data for commercial jet airplanes between 1959 and 2008 show that 36% of the accidents happen in the final approach and landing phase, possibly due to mechanical failure or human error resulting from ...

  15. Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, P; Nicolosi, S; Scaccianoce, G; Traverso, M; Rizzo, G

    2011-01-01

    The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of assessing suitable actions concerning the transportation policies, public as well private. Referring to the situation of the running fleet and the measured pollutant concentrations concerning the Italian town of Palermo, a data-deduced traffic model is here derived, its truthfulness being justified by a fuzzyfication of the phenomenon. A first validation of the model is supplied by utilising the emissions characteristics and the pollutant concentrations referring to a two years period of time. This work could represent a first attempt in de...

  16. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affec...

  17. Investigations on the distribution of air transport traffic and CO2 emissions within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Rodrigo, Gustavo; Benito, A; Lonza, L.; Kousoulidou, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the structure of air traffic and its distribution among the different countries in the European Union, as well as traffic with an origin or destination in non-EU countries. Data sources are Eurostat statistics and actual flight information from EUROCONTROL. Relevant variables such as the number of flights, passengers or cargo tonnes and production indicators (RPKs) are used together with fuel consumption and CO2 emissions data. The segmentation of air traffic in terms of d...

  18. Efficient Computation of Separation-Compliant Speed Advisories for Air Traffic Arriving in Terminal Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Davis, Damek; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    A class of problems in air traffic management asks for a scheduling algorithm that supplies the air traffic services authority not only with a schedule of arrivals and departures, but also with speed advisories. Since advisories must be finite, a scheduling algorithm must ultimately produce a finite data set, hence must either start with a purely discrete model or involve a discretization of a continuous one. The former choice, often preferred for intuitive clarity, naturally leads to mixed-integer programs, hindering proofs of correctness and computational cost bounds (crucial for real-time operations). In this paper, a hybrid control system is used to model air traffic scheduling, capturing both the discrete and continuous aspects. This framework is applied to a class of problems, called the Fully Routed Nominal Problem. We prove a number of geometric results on feasible schedules and use these results to formulate an algorithm that attempts to compute a collective speed advisory, effectively finite, and has computational cost polynomial in the number of aircraft. This work is a first step toward optimization and models refined with more realistic detail.

  19. Element composition and mineralogical characterisation of air pollution control residue from UK energy-from-waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogush, Anna [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment (CREE), Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering (CEGE), University College London UCL, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A., E-mail: j.stegemann@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment (CREE), Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering (CEGE), University College London UCL, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Wood, Ian [Department of Earth Sciences, University College London UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • 66 elements, including “critical strategic elements” were determined in UK EfW APC residues. • Metal pollutants (Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sb, Sn, Se, Ag and In) are enriched in APC residues. • Metal pollutants were widely associated with fine deposits of highly soluble CaCl{sub x}OH{sub 2−x}. • Specific metal (Zn, Pb, Cu)-bearing minerals were also detected in APC residues. - Abstract: Air pollution control (APC) residues from energy-from-waste (EfW) are alkaline (corrosive) and contain high concentrations of metals, such as zinc and lead, and soluble salts, such as chlorides and sulphates. The EPA 3050B-extractable concentrations of 66 elements, including critical elements of strategic importance for advanced electronics and energy technologies, were determined in eight APC residues from six UK EfW facilities. The concentrations of Ag (6–15 mg/kg) and In (1–13 mg/kg), as well as potential pollutants, especially Zn (0.26–0.73 wt.%), Pb (0.05–0.2 wt.%), As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sb, Sn and Se were found to be enriched in all APC residues compared to average crustal abundances. Results from a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and also powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy give an exceptionally full understanding of the mineralogy of these residues, which is discussed in the context of other results in the literature. The present work has shown that the bulk of the crystalline phases present in the investigated APC residues include Ca-based phases, such as CaCl{sub x}OH{sub 2−x}, CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaSO{sub 4}, and CaO, as well as soluble salts, such as NaCl and KCl. Poorly-crystalline aragonite was identified by FTIR. Sulphur appears to have complex redox speciation, presenting as both anhydrite and hannebachite in some UK EfW APC residues. Hazardous elements (Zn and Pb) were widely associated with soluble Ca- and Cl-bearing phases

  20. 14 CFR 93.177 - Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area. 93.177 Section 93.177 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... in the Vicinity of Luke AFB, AZ § 93.177 Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area. (a)...

  1. REDUCTION IN PROBABILITY OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON HIGH-CLASS ROAD USING RAMP ACCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yu. Lagerev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Мerging traffic junctions on high-class roads are considered as bottlenecks in the network and quality of their operation determines a probability for formation of traffic congestions. Investigations on congestion situations in the merging zones of ramp and freeway traffic flows have demonstrated that queuing ramp traffic flow leads to formation of so called “turbulence” effect due to re-arrangement of transport facilities and reduction in their speed on main road direction. Having high queuing traffic flow on main road the “turbulence” component can result in formation of an impact blow in the main traffic flow. It has been proved that an impact of the ramp traffic flow on congestion probability is higher in comparison with main road traffic flow. The paper makes it possible to establish that some transport facilities moving along a high-way simul taneously occupy two lanes in the merging traffic zones and they reduce capacity of the used road section. It is necessary to take into account this specific feature and it is necessary to pay attention to it in the zones of “turbulence” effect formation. The paper presents main approaches, methodology, principles and stages required for access control of high-class roads which are directed on higher quality of their operation including improvement of road traffic safety. The paper proposes a methodоlogy that allows to evaluate and optimize ramp control in the context of a transport queue length minimization at adjoining ramps for the purposes of probability reduction in transport congestion.

  2. Selective data collection in vehicular networks for traffic control applications

    CERN Document Server

    Płaczek, Bartłomiej

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular sensor network (VSN) is an emerging technology, which combines wireless communication offered by vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) with sensing devices installed in vehicles. VSN creates a huge opportunity to extend the road-side sensor infrastructure of existing traffic control systems. The efficient use of the wireless communication medium is one of the basic issues in VSN applications development. This paper introduces a novel method of selective data collection for traffic control applications, which provides a significant reduction in data amounts transmitted through VSN. The underlying idea is to detect the necessity of data transfers on the basis of uncertainty determination of the traffic control decisions. According to the proposed approach, sensor data are transmitted from vehicles to the control node only at selected time moments. Data collected in VSN are processed using on-line traffic simulation technique, which enables traffic flow prediction, performance evaluation of control strateg...

  3. Application of reinforcement learning methods for optimization of traffic control on arterial roads

    OpenAIRE

    Marsetič, Rok

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, society faces several traffic related problems, such as traffic jams, time loss, lower traffic safety, increased pollution, etc., especially in urban areas. This is caused by high traffic volumes, which often exceed the capacity of the road infrastructure, particularly in peak hours. A common way of managing traffic in urban areas is traffic light control, which plays a key role in traffic safety and efficiency. To reduce delays the traffic light controllers should adjust to changin...

  4. 14C AMS measurements of tree leaf samples to monitor air pollution induced by city traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, many radiocarbon measurement have been made for environmental studies such as source apportionment of air-borne particulates, and studies of the anthropogenic effects of nuclear power plants. In this presentation we report our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon on tree leaf samples to investigate the impact of city traffic on our living-environment. The fossil-burning vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2) free of 14C content and, when mixed with the clean air CO2, lower 14C ratio compared to the normal reservoir value. This so-called Suess effect can be incorporated to monitor air quality in our living environments, since metabolic processes maintain the 14C content of living organism in equilibrium with atmospheric 14C. In other words, dead CO2 is admixed to the normal atmospheric CO2 and then photo-synthetically assimilated by the plants. Two kinds of tree leaf samples; pine tree needles and Ginkgo tree leaves were collected during a one-week period in the summer 1996 at five different locations with various traffic conditions in the region, within a 10-km diameter circle, south of the River Han, Seoul. The AMS targets were made by a simple sample-making procedure. The leaves have been pretreated by a standard acid-alkali treatment and then charred in a vacuum evaporator by applying ca. 800 deg C heat. The charred samples were mixed with Ag powder and pressed into the Al target holder for the AMS measurement.The AMS measurements were made using the accelerator mass spectrometry facilities of the Leibniz-Labor at the Christian-Albrecht University, Kiel,Germany. The observed Δ14C values, which ranged from 60TM to 158TM, have a good correlation with the traffic conditions in the places where the sampling took place and show a remarkable capability of 14C AMS measurements to monitor our fossil burning environment. The volume ratios of clean air to air from fossil-burn origin in the environmental CO2 reached to a level of 8

  5. Comparison by Simulation of Different Approaches to Urban Traffic Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Jan; Tichý, T.; Bělinová, Z.; Kapitán, J.

    Katowice: Silesian University of Technology, 2012. s. 76-76. ISBN 978-83-927504-1-3. [12th International Conference on Transport System s Telematics 2012. 10.10.2012-13.10.2012, Katowice] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030603 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : urban traffic * traffic jams * rolling horizon method http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/prikryl-comparison by simulation of different approaches to urban traffic control-A.pdf

  6. An Adaptive Traffic Control System Using Raspberry PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Lokesh *

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available By increasing of population the usage of vehicles have been increasing and controlling of traffic is one of the challenging works. The frequent traffic jams at major junctions call for an efficient traffic management system in place. The resulting wastage of time and increase in pollution levels can be eliminated on a city-wide scale by these systems. Previously the traffic control techniques used like magnetic loop detectors, induction loop detectors are buried on the road side provide the limited traffic information and require separate systems for traffic counting and for traffic surveillance. Here the project proposes to implement an artificial density traffic control system using image processing and Raspberrypi. The hardware here we are using is webcam, pc, Raspberry pi and the software used is OCCIDENTALIS and MATLAB. In this project the camera is get interfaced with a Raspberry pi. The image sequences from a camera are analyzed using thresholding method to find the density of vehicles. Subsequently, the number of vehicles at the intersection is evaluated and traffic is efficiently managed. In this project we implemented a real-time emergency vehicle detection system. In case an emergency vehicle is detected, the lane is given priority over all the others.

  7. Hydrography - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  8. Kalman Filtering of Radar Technology in Air Traffic Control Surveillance System%浅析卡尔曼雷达滤波技术在空管监视系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周君

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract]Kalman filter for radar surveillance technology in air traffic control systems were analyzed. Discuss the corresponding Kalman filtering techniques: Related adaptive Kalman filtering, multi-model adaptive Kalman filter, adaptive Kalman filter information based on neural network adaptive Kalman filtering, fuzzy logic adaptive Kalman filtering, and their main advantages and disadvantages of the problem.%对卡尔曼雷达滤波技术在空管监视系统中的应用进行了分析,讨论了相应的卡尔曼滤波技术:相关自适应卡尔曼滤波、多模型自适应卡尔曼滤波、基于信息的自适应卡尔曼滤波、神经网络自适应卡尔曼滤波、模糊逻辑自适应卡尔曼滤波,并对它们主要解决的问题及优缺点进行了分析。

  9. A Concept for Robust, High Density Terminal Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Douglas R.; Robinson, John E.; Swenson, Harry N.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a concept for future high-density, terminal air traffic operations that has been developed by interpreting the Joint Planning and Development Office s vision for the Next Generation (NextGen) Air Transportation System and coupling it with emergent NASA and other technologies and procedures during the NextGen timeframe. The concept described in this paper includes five core capabilities: 1) Extended Terminal Area Routing, 2) Precision Scheduling Along Routes, 3) Merging and Spacing, 4) Tactical Separation, and 5) Off-Nominal Recovery. Gradual changes are introduced to the National Airspace System (NAS) by phased enhancements to the core capabilities in the form of increased levels of automation and decision support as well as targeted task delegation. NASA will be evaluating these conceptual technological enhancements in a series of human-in-the-loop simulations and will accelerate development of the most promising capabilities in cooperation with the FAA through the Efficient Flows Into Congested Airspace Research Transition Team.

  10. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tao; LI Ke-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation.In the proposed CA model,the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules.The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow.A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced,but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.

  11. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation. In the proposed CA model, the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules. The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow. A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced, but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.

  12. Autonomous Traffic Signal Control Model with Neural Network Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, T

    1997-01-01

    We propose here an autonomous traffic signal control model based on analogy with neural networks. In this model, the length of cycle time period of traffic lights at each signal is autonomously adapted. We find a self-organizing collective behavior of such a model through simulation on a one-dimensional lattice model road: traffic congestion is greatly diffused when traffic signals have such autonomous adaptability with suitably tuned parameters. We also find that effectiveness of the system emerges through interactions between units and shows a threshold transition as a function of proportion of adaptive signals in the model.

  13. A geographic approach to modelling human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS. Separate appendix report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.

    1998-10-01

    A new exposure model has been developed that is based on a physical, single media (air) and single source (traffic) micro environmental approach that estimates traffic related exposures geographically with the postal address as exposure indicator. The micro environments: residence, workplace and street (road user exposure) may be considered. The model estimates outdoor levels for selected ambient air pollutants (benzene, CO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}). The influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor levels can be estimated using average (I/O-ratios. The model has a very high spatial resolution (the address), a high temporal resolution (one hour) and may be used to predict past, present and future exposures. The model may be used for impact assessment of control measures provided that the changes to the model inputs are obtained. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue) for generation of inputs, for visualisation of input and output, and uses available digital maps, national administrative registers and a local traffic database, and the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The exposure model presents a new approach to exposure determination by integration of digital maps, administrative registers, a street pollution model and GIS. New methods have been developed to generate the required input parameters for the OSPM model: to geocode buildings using cadastral maps and address points, to automatically generate street configuration data based on digital maps, the BBR and GIS; to predict the temporal variation in traffic and related parameters; and to provide hourly background levels for the OSPM model. (EG)

  14. A geographic approach to modelling human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.

    1998-10-01

    A new exposure model has been developed that is based on a physical, single media (air) and single source (traffic) micro environmental approach that estimates traffic related exposures geographically with the postal address as exposure indicator. The micro environments: residence, workplace and street (road user exposure) may be considered. The model estimates outdoor levels for selected ambient air pollutants (benzene, CO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}). The influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor levels can be estimated using average (I/O-ratios. The model has a very high spatial resolution (the address), a high temporal resolution (one hour) and may be used to predict past, present and future exposures. The model may be used for impact assessment of control measures provided that the changes to the model inputs are obtained. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue) for generation of inputs, for visualisation of input and output, and uses available digital maps, national administrative registers and a local traffic database, and the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The exposure model presents a new approach to exposure determination by integration of digital maps, administrative registers, a street pollution model and GIS. New methods have been developed to generate the required input parameters for the OSPM model: to geocode buildings using cadastral maps and address points, to automatically generate street configuration data based on digital maps, the BBR and GIS; to predict the temporal variation in traffic and related parameters; and to provide hourly background levels for the OSPM model. (EG) 109 refs.

  15. An extended signal control strategy for urban network traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-03-01

    Traffic flow patterns are in general repeated on a daily or weekly basis. To improve the traffic conditions by using the inherent repeatability of traffic flow, a novel signal control strategy for urban networks was developed via iterative learning control (ILC) approach. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed learning control method can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. The impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategy on the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) were analyzed by simulations on a test road network. The results show that the proposed ILC strategy can evenly distribute the accumulation in the network and improve the network mobility.

  16. Detecting Approaching Vehicles at Streets with No Traffic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a third of the variation in the detection time.

  17. Detecting Approaching Vehicles at Streets with No Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a…

  18. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Public Health under Various Traffic Policies in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN-GHONG CHEN; HAI-DONG KAN; CHENG HUANG; LI LI; YUN-HUI ZHANG; REN-JIE CHEN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential impact of ambient air pollution on public health under various traffic policies in Shanghai. Methods The exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned traffic scenarios was estimated,and the public health impact was assessed using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiological studies. Results Our results showed that ambient air pollution in relation to traffic scenarios had a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents.Compared with the base case scenario,implementation of various traffic scenarios could prevent 759-1574,1885-2420,and 2277-2650 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mean-value) in 2010,2015,and 2020,respectively.It could also decrease the incidence of several relevant diseases. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the need to consider air pollution-related health effects as an important impact of traffic policy in Shanghai.

  19. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  20. Dynamic stochastic optimization models for air traffic flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Avijit

    This dissertation presents dynamic stochastic optimization models for Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) that enables decisions to adapt to new information on evolving capacities of National Airspace System (NAS) resources. Uncertainty is represented by a set of capacity scenarios, each depicting a particular time-varying capacity profile of NAS resources. We use the concept of a scenario tree in which multiple scenarios are possible initially. Scenarios are eliminated as possibilities in a succession of branching points, until the specific scenario that will be realized on a particular day is known. Thus the scenario tree branching provides updated information on evolving scenarios, and allows ATFM decisions to be re-addressed and revised. First, we propose a dynamic stochastic model for a single airport ground holding problem (SAGHP) that can be used for planning Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) when there is uncertainty about future airport arrival capacities. Ground delays of non-departed flights can be revised based on updated information from scenario tree branching. The problem is formulated so that a wide range of objective functions, including non-linear delay cost functions and functions that reflect equity concerns can be optimized. Furthermore, the model improves on existing practice by ensuring efficient use of available capacity without necessarily exempting long-haul flights. Following this, we present a methodology and optimization models that can be used for decentralized decision making by individual airlines in the GDP planning process, using the solutions from the stochastic dynamic SAGHP. Airlines are allowed to perform cancellations, and re-allocate slots to remaining flights by substitutions. We also present an optimization model that can be used by the FAA, after the airlines perform cancellation and substitutions, to re-utilize vacant arrival slots that are created due to cancellations. Finally, we present three stochastic integer programming

  1. The traffic crisis and a tale of two cities: Traffic and air quality in Bangkok and Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendakur, V.S.; Badami, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on congestion management techniques, traffic congestion levels and air quality. By using data from Bangkok and Mexico City, it illustrates the need for drastic changes in transportation policy tools and techniques for congestion management and for improving environmental quality. New approaches to investment and regulatory policy analysis and implementation are suggested. This requires the inclusion of all costs and benefits (economic and ecological) in the policy matrix so that investment and regulatory policies act in unison. Megacities are dominant in social, political and economic terms. 30 to 60% of national GDP is typically produced in these cities. Their human and motor vehicle populations have been doubling every 15-20 and 6-10 years respectively. They also have the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. They have the nation`s highest incidence of poverty and absolute poverty. Large portions of their populations endure severely unhealthy housing and sanitation conditions. Following are important characteristics of urban transportation systems in the megacities: the city centres are heavily congested with motorized traffic; traffic crawl rates vary from 2 to 10 km/hr; car and motorcycle ownership are increasing at annual rates of 10-12% and 15-20% respectively; significant air pollution with no relief in sight; TDM strategies are primarily creating new supply of road capacity; fairly high transit trips with substantial transit investments; weak air pollution monitoring and enforcement; and fairly cheap fuel and high costs of vehicles.

  2. Reduction of the air traffic's contribution to climate change: A REACT4C case study

    OpenAIRE

    Grewe, V; Champougny, T.; Matthes, Sigrun; Frömming, Christine; Brinkop, Sabine; Soevde, Amund; Irvine, Emma A.; Halscheidt, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Air traffic alters the atmospheric composition and thereby contributes to climate change. Here we investigate the trans-Atlantic air traffic for one specific winter day and analyse, which routing changes were required to achieve a reduction in the air traffic’s contribution to climate change. We have applied an atmosphere-chemistry model to calculate so-called five dimensional climate cost functions (CCF), which describe the climate effect of a locally confined emission. The five dimensions r...

  3. Traffic-Related Air Toxics and Term Low Birth Weight in Los Angeles County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Su, Jason; Cockburn, Myles; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked criteria air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes, but there is less information on the importance of specific emission sources, such as traffic, and air toxics. Objectives: We used three exposure data sources to examine odds of term low birth weight (LBW) in Los Angeles, California, women when exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants during pregnancy. Methods: We identified term births during 1 June 2004 to 30 March 2006 to women res...

  4. Monitoring and prediction of air polution from traffic in the urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Shirley Anne

    1996-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is now a major concern. The Rio Earth Summit and the Government's commitment to Agenda 21 has led to Local Authorities taking responsibility to manage the growing number of vehicles and to reduce the impact of traffic on the environment. There is an urgent need to effectively monitor urban air quality at reasonable cost and to develop long and short term air pollution prediction models. The aim of the research described was to investigate relationships betw...

  5. Vehicular Traffic Flow Controlled by Traffic Light on a Street with Open Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Ismaili, Assia Alaoui

    2013-08-01

    The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) cellular automata (CA) model for describing the vehicular traffic flow in a street with open boundaries is studied. To control the traffic flow, a traffic signalization light operating for a fixed-time scheme is placed in the middle of the street. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to calculate various model characteristics. Essentially, we investigate the formation of the cars queue behind traffic light dependence on the duration of green light Tg, injecting and extracting probabilities α and β, respectively. Two phases of average training queues were found. Besides, the dependence of car accident probability per site and per time step on Tg, α and β is computed.

  6. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun;

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...

  7. Radiation control in accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of radiation control, particle accelerator facilities have posed various problems involving radiation (mainly neutron) leakage, occupational exposure, environmental aspects in the surrounding area, and waste management. The intent of the workshop was to discuss these problems. This report contains nine topics that were presented and discussed: (1) Radiation safety system for the AVF cyclotron and the cyclotron cascade project at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University; (2) Calculation for the shielding design in the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron Facility; (3) Shielding design method for high-energy protons in the National Laboratory for High-energy Physics (KEK); (4) Radiation safety programme for the uses of medical accelerators in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences; (5) Development of the new stack air monitor; (6) Environmental radiation monitoring in the vicinity of the intense 14 Mev neutron source facility; (7) Radiation control around the KEK-proton synchroton; (8) Radiation safety control system for the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron; (9) Evaluation of radioactivity and skyshine induced by neutron production in an accelerator facility. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. 77 FR 28460 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ..., 2010, request for comments on traffic control compliance dates published at 75 FR 74128. As a result... dates. \\1\\ 75 FR 74128, November 30, 2010. After reviewing and considering the nearly 600 letters... representatives, traffic engineering consultants, and private citizens, on August 31, 2011, the FHWA published...

  9. Forecasting Air Traffic and corresponding Jet-Fuel Demand until 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides i) air traffic and ii) Jet-Fuel demand projections at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. The general methodology may be summarized in two steps. First, air traffic forecasts are estimated using econometric methods. The modeling is performed for eight geographical zones, by using dynamic panel-data econometrics. Once estimated from historical data, the model is then used to generate air traffic forecasts. Second, the conversion of air traffic projections into quantities of Jet-Fuel is accomplished using the 'Traffic Efficiency' method developed previously by UK DTI to support the IPCC (IPCC (1999)). One of our major contribution consists in proposing an alternative methodology to obtain Energy Efficiency coefficients and energy efficiency improvements estimates based on modeling at the macro-level. These estimates are obtained by directly comparing the evolution of both Jet-Fuel consumption and air traffic time series from 1983 to 2006. According to our 'Business As Usual' scenario, air traffic should increase by about 100% between 2008 and 2025 at the world level, corresponding to a yearly average growth rate of about 4.7%. World Jet-Fuel demand is expected to increase by about 38% during the same period, corresponding to a yearly average growth rate of about 1, 9% per year. Air traffic energy efficiency improvements yield effectively to reduce the effect of air traffic rise on the Jet-Fuel demand increase, but do not annihilate it. Thus, Jet- Fuel demand is unlikely to diminish unless there is a radical technological shift, or air travel demand is restricted. (authors)

  10. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    residential nitrogen oxides (NO x ) concentrations since 1971 with a validated dispersion model. Categorical and linear odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: The highest risk estimates for any brain cancer were observed among......PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out to...... replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...

  11. Do Traffic Controllers Dream of Electric Cars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Taylor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is not a modern phenomenon, but the growth of motor traffic driven by the supply of petroleum is. This coincides with concern about climate change caused by carbon emissions to which transport makes a substantial and increasing contribution. It seems that private cars in particular cannot be useful without coming to dominate human activity and even whole economies, creating dependence, congestion and severance which paradoxically negate many of the benefits of mobility. Electrification may reduce carbon emissions, but is unlikely to support the same weight of motor traffic, and will not reduce its other effects. It is doubtful that sustainability, however defined, is compatible with current high and increasing levels of motorised movement, so a culture change will be needed.

  12. Air quality of Prague: traffic as a main pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branis, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Political and economical transition in the Central and Eastern Europe at the end of eighties significantly influenced all aspects of life as well as technological infrastructure. Collapse of outdated energy demanding industry and adoption of environmental legislation resulted in seeming improvements of urban environmental quality. Hand in hand with modernization the newly adopted regulations also helped to phase out low quality coal frequently used for domestic heating. However, at the same time, the number of vehicles registered in the city increased. The two processes interestingly acted as parallel but antagonistic forces. To interpret the trends in urban air quality of Prague, Czech capital, monthly averages of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), NO, O(3) and CO concentrations from the national network of automated monitoring stations were analyzed together with long term trends in fuel consumption and number of vehicles registered in Prague within a period of 1992-2005. The results showed that concentrations of SO(2) (a pollutant strongly related to fossil fuel burning) dropped significantly during the period of concern. Similarly NO(X) and PM(10) concentrations decreased significantly in the first half of the nineties (as a result of solid fuel use drop), but remained rather stable or increased after 2000, presumably reflecting rapid increase of traffic density. In conclusion, infrastructural changes in early nineties had a strong positive effect on Prague air quality namely in the first half of the period studied, nevertheless, the current trend in concentrations of automotive exhaust related pollutants (such as PM(10), NO(X)) needs adoption of stricter measures. PMID:18709434

  13. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth....... METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...... between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates...

  14. Unattended vehicle detection for automatic traffic light control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hady, Aya Salama; Moustafa, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Machine vision based traffic light control depends mainly on measuring traffic statistics at cross roads. Most of the previous studies have not taken unattended vehicles into consideration when calculating either the traffic density or the traffic flow. In this paper, we propose incorporating unattended vehicles into a new metric for measuring the traffic congestion. In addition to the vehicle motion analysis, opening the driver's side door is an important indicator that this vehicle is going to be unattended. Therefore, we focus in this paper on presenting how to detect this event for stationary vehicles from a live camera or a video feed. Through a set of experiments, we have found out that a Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature-descriptor with a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier was able to successfully classify open-door vehicles from closed-door ones in 96.7% of our test dataset.

  15. Improving Experience-Based Admission Control through Traffic Type Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Milbrandt; Michael Menth; Jan Junker

    2007-01-01

    Experience-based admission control (EBAC) is a hybrid approach combining the classical parameter-based and measurement-based admission control. EBAC calculates an appropriate overbooking factor used to overbook link capacities with resource reservations in packet-switched networks. This overbooking factor correlates with the average peak-to-mean rate ratio of all admitted traffic flows on the link. So far, a single overbooking factor is calculated for the entire traffic aggregate. In this pap...

  16. Road Traffic Control Based on Genetic Algorithm for Reducing Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehiro, Yuji; Miyakawa, Takuya; Masuda, Tatsuya

    In this paper, we propose a road traffic control method for reducing traffic congestion with genetic algorithm. In the not too distant future, the system which controls the routes of all vehicles in a certain area must be realized. The system should optimize the routes of all vehicles, however the solution space of this problem is enormous. Therefore we apply the genetic algorithm to this problem, by encoding the route of all vehicles to a fixed length chromosome. To improve the search performance, a new genetic operator called “path shortening” is also designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by the experiment.

  17. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Heck, Julia E; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-15

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression-based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  18. Rapid Protoyping Software for Developing Next-Generation Air Traffic Management Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on next-generation air traffic management systems is being conducted at several laboratories using custom software. In order to provide a more uniform...

  19. A User Guide for Smoothing Air Traffic Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Ralph E.; Paielli, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Matlab software was written to provide smoothing of radar tracking data to simulate ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) data in order to test a tactical conflict probe. The probe, called TSAFE (Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment), is designed to handle air-traffic conflicts left undetected or unresolved when loss-of-separation is predicted to occur within approximately two minutes. The data stream that is down-linked from an aircraft equipped with an ADS-B system would include accurate GPS-derived position and velocity information at sample rates of 1 Hz. Nation-wide ADS-B equipage (mandated by 2020) should improve surveillance accuracy and TSAFE performance. Currently, position data are provided by Center radar (nominal 12-sec samples) and Terminal radar (nominal 4.8-sec samples). Aircraft ground speed and ground track are estimated using real-time filtering, causing lags up to 60 sec, compromising performance of a tactical resolution tool. Offline smoothing of radar data reduces wild-point errors, provides a sample rate as high as 1 Hz, and yields more accurate and lag-free estimates of ground speed, ground track, and climb rate. Until full ADS-B implementation is available, smoothed radar data should provide reasonable track estimates for testing TSAFE in an ADS-B-like environment. An example illustrates the smoothing of radar data and shows a comparison of smoothed-radar and ADS-B tracking. This document is intended to serve as a guide for using the smoothing software.

  20. Signal Groups of Compatible Graph in Traffic Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Baruah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Signal Groups of a compatibility graph is used to solve conflict between the traffic streams and hence can be used as a solution for traffic control problem at an intersection. In this paper we have considered cliques of the compatible graph as signal groups and the set of signal groups which can simultaneously move at an intersection is taken in a phase. Phasing of traffic lights is done by splitting the cycle time among these phases so that each set of signal group is allowed to move once in the cycle.

  1. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study

    OpenAIRE

    Jarjour, Sarah; Jerrett, Michael; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Hanning, Cooper; Daly, Laura; Lipsitt, Jonah; Balmes, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of ...

  2. A Geographic Approach to Modelling Human Exposure to Traffic Air Pollution using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Solvang Jensen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    A new human exposure model has been developed that combines data on traffic air pollution and population data on a high spatial (postal address) and temporal (one hour) resolution. The model system is using a Geographic Information System in combination with available digital maps (buildings, streets, address points, property limits) and administrative databases on people, traffic and buildings. The air pollution is calculated with the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model ...

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Control System for Regional Traffic Management

    OpenAIRE

    McLin, John L.; William T. Scherer

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a worsening problem in metropolitan areas which will require integrated regional traffic control systems to improve traffic conditions. This paper presents a regional traffic control system which can detect incident conditions and provide integrated traffic management during nonrecurrent congestion events. The system combines advanced artificial intelligence techniques with a traffic performance model based on HCM equations. Preliminary evaluation of the control system u...

  4. An intermodal traffic control strategy for private vehicle and public transport

    OpenAIRE

    BHOURI, N; LOTITO, P

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a traffic-responsive urban traffic control strategy allowing a real time passive public transport priority. The proposed strategy is based on a store and forward modeling of both of the private vehicle and Public transport traffic. The regulator is designed using the linear quadratic, which allows a traffic responsive co-ordinated control for wide-area networks. The objective of this strategy is to control the junctions traffic lights in order to improve the traffic perfor...

  5. HIGH LEVEL MODELLING OF REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADITYA MANDLOI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to design and implement traffic control system. The system developed is able to sense the presence of vehicles within certain range by setting the appropriate duration for the traffic signals to react accordingly. By employing logical functions to calculate the appropriate timing for the signals toilluminate, the system can help to solve the problem of traffic congestion. The use of FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays is an interesting new phenomenon in VLSI development. FPGAs offer all of thefeatures needed to implement most complex designs. Hardware simulation tests were successfully performed on the algorithm implemented into a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The main object of the paper is to design a Real Time Traffic Light Controller (RTTLC using VHDL and implement the RTTLC in XILINX SPARTAN - 3 FPGA.

  6. Optimizing urban traffic control using a rational agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvador IBARRA-MARTÍNEZ; José A. CASTÁN-ROCHA; Julio LARIA-MENCHACA

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to developing and evaluating a set of technologies with the objective of designing a method-ology for the implementation of sophisticated traffic lights by means of rational agents. These devices would be capable of op-timizing the behavior of a junction with multiple traffic signals, reaching a higher level of autonomy without losing reliability, accuracy, or efficiency in the offered services. In particular, each rational agent in a traffic signal will be able to analyze the requirements and constraints of the road, in order to know its level of demand. With such information, the rational agent will adapt its light cycles with the view of accomplishing more fluid traffic patterns and minimizing the pollutant environmental emissions produced by vehicles while they are stopped at a red light, through using a case-based reasoning (CBR) adaptation. This paper also integrates a microscopic simulator developed to run a set of tests in order to compare the presented methodology with traditional traffic control methods. Two study cases are shown to demonstrate the efficiency of the introduced approach, increasing vehicular mobility and reducing harmful activity for the environment. For instance, in the first scenario, taking into account the studied traffic volumes, our approach increases mobility by 23%and reduces emissions by 35%. When the roads are managed by sophisticated traffic lights, a better level of service and considerable environmental benefits are achieved, demon-strating the utility of the presented approach.

  7. FMIT facility control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, under construction at Richland, Washington, uses current techniques in distributed processing to achieve responsiveness, maintainability and reliability. Developmental experience with the system on the FMIT Prototype Accelerator (FPA) being designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described as a function of the system's design goals and details. The functional requirements of the FMIT control system dictated the use of a highly operator-responsive, display-oriented structure, using state-of-the-art console devices for man-machine communications. Further, current technology has allowed the movement of device-dependent tasks into the area traditionally occupied by remote input-output equipment; the system's dual central process computers communicate with remote communications nodes containing microcomputers that are architecturally similar to the top-level machines. The system has been designed to take advantage of commercially available hardware and software

  8. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  9. Finnish air traffic until 2025. Four scenarios; Suomen lentoliikenne vuoteen 2025 - neljae skenaariota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E.; Pollanen, M.; Mantynen, J.; Makela, T.; Rauhamaki, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Transport Research Centre Verne

    2012-07-01

    Air traffic is a very dynamic field of business. Its operating environment features multiple factors of change, which affect air traffic and its operators both in the short and in the long run. This study charts the significant factors in Finnish air traffic and creates four distinct scenarios for the future. These scenarios were produced on the basis of the currently available facts and are attempts to provide several alternatives for the future. The study's goal has been to produce a visionary depiction that helps one to visualise and understand the whole picture. The perspective chosen for consideration of the future is the year 2025. The study describes four scenarios differing clearly from each other. In the first, entitled Globaalista maailmasta blokkeihin (From a global world to blocs), states form clusters and regional co-operation takes precedence over the current global direction of development. The second, Eurooppa omalla reitillaeaen (Europe on its own way), depicts Europe ahead of the rest of the world in terms of environmental regulation for air traffic. Uudistuksilla talouskukoistukseen (Economic boom through reforms) is based on an optimistic economic outlook. In contrast, Oeljykriisistae taloustaantumaan (From oil crisis to recession), describes a world where economic growth has been forestalled by rising oil prices due to increasing scarcity. The study investigates passenger numbers, air traffic within Finland, the international route network, and the changes these display in the various scenarios. The estimates are designed to highlight the development trends affecting air traffic in different operating environments. Since Finland is a small country and set apart from the rest of Europe in a fashion similar to island states, air traffic is of major importance and cannot be efficiently replaced by other forms of traffic. In particular, the individual scenarios stress the impact of international interaction and economic development with regard

  10. Controlling traffic jams by time modulating the safety distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu B.; Gorria, C.; Berkemer, R.;

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of controlling traffic dynamics by applying high-frequency time modulation of traffic flow parameters is studied. It is shown that the region of the car density where the uniform (free) flow is unstable changes in the presence of time modulation compared with the unmodulated case....... This region shrinks when the speed-up of cars does not exceed some critical value and expands in the opposite case. The flux of the time-modulated flow is an increasing function of the amplitude of the modulation for traffic flows whose density is larger than 1/h where h is the safety distance in the...... nonmodulated case, while it is a decreasing function in the opposite case. In other words, the safety distance time modulation facilitates car propagation in the case when the mean distance between cars in the congestive traffic is less than h and hinders it when the neighboring cars in the flow are well...

  11. Programming Methods for Road Traffic Control Video Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Ghită

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present an application capable of detecting the road traffic load in urban areas using an infrastructure of video cameras in conjunction with a well known programming language: Lab View. The presentation will highlight the role played by video detection technology, what advantages it offers and some examples of its successful use in the area of public transports. Developments in recent years clearly show that video systems certainly can, and will, establish themselves in the market. Also, an important aspect of the application consist of the advantage that it can determine the degree of occupation of a traffic link at certain hours, but it also can realize a traffic optimization by interconnecting this application with a traffic light adaptive, control system.

  12. Cloud-based large-scale air traffic flow optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi

    The ever-increasing traffic demand makes the efficient use of airspace an imperative mission, and this paper presents an effort in response to this call. Firstly, a new aggregate model, called Link Transmission Model (LTM), is proposed, which models the nationwide traffic as a network of flight routes identified by origin-destination pairs. The traversal time of a flight route is assumed to be the mode of distribution of historical flight records, and the mode is estimated by using Kernel Density Estimation. As this simplification abstracts away physical trajectory details, the complexity of modeling is drastically decreased, resulting in efficient traffic forecasting. The predicative capability of LTM is validated against recorded traffic data. Secondly, a nationwide traffic flow optimization problem with airport and en route capacity constraints is formulated based on LTM. The optimization problem aims at alleviating traffic congestions with minimal global delays. This problem is intractable due to millions of variables. A dual decomposition method is applied to decompose the large-scale problem such that the subproblems are solvable. However, the whole problem is still computational expensive to solve since each subproblem is an smaller integer programming problem that pursues integer solutions. Solving an integer programing problem is known to be far more time-consuming than solving its linear relaxation. In addition, sequential execution on a standalone computer leads to linear runtime increase when the problem size increases. To address the computational efficiency problem, a parallel computing framework is designed which accommodates concurrent executions via multithreading programming. The multithreaded version is compared with its monolithic version to show decreased runtime. Finally, an open-source cloud computing framework, Hadoop MapReduce, is employed for better scalability and reliability. This framework is an "off-the-shelf" parallel computing model

  13. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. LAI; A. CHE SOH; H. MD. SARKAN; R. Z. ABDUL RAHMAN; Hassan, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala L...

  14. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  15. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  16. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  17. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.; Hoek, G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Fischer, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Jerrett, M.; Hughes, E.; Armstrong, B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. Objectives: We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and morta

  18. Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

  19. Evaluation of High Density Air Traffic Operations with Automation for Separation Assurance, Weather Avoidance and Schedule Conformance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey S.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Brasil, Connie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and evaluation of our prototype technologies and procedures for far-term air traffic control operations with automation for separation assurance, weather avoidance and schedule conformance. Controller-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center in 2010 have shown very promising results. We found the operations to provide high airspace throughput, excellent efficiency and schedule conformance. The simulation also highlighted areas for improvements: Short-term conflict situations sometimes resulted in separation violations, particularly for transitioning aircraft in complex traffic flows. The combination of heavy metering and growing weather resulted in an increased number of aircraft penetrating convective weather cells. To address these shortcomings technologies and procedures have been improved and the operations are being re-evaluated with the same scenarios. In this paper we will first describe the concept and technologies for automating separation assurance, weather avoidance, and schedule conformance. Second, the results from the 2010 simulation will be reviewed. We report human-systems integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. Next, improvements will be discussed that were made to address identified shortcomings. We conclude that, with further refinements, air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can routinely provide currently unachievable levels of traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  20. An Empirically grounded Agent Based simulator for the Air Traffic Management in the SESAR scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Gurtner, Gérald; Ducci, Marco; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a simulator allowing to perform policy experiments relative to the air traffic management. Different SESAR solutions can be implemented in the model to see the reaction of the different stakeholders as well as other relevant metrics (delays, safety, etc). The model describes both the strategic phase associated to the planning of the flight trajectories and the tactical modifications occurring in the en-route phase. An implementation of the model is available as open-source and freely accessible by any user. More specifically, different procedures related to business trajectories and free-routing are tested and we illustrate the capabilities of the model on airspace implementing these concepts. After performing numerical simulations with the model, we show that in a free-routing scenario the controllers perform less operations although they are dispersed over a larger portion of the airspace. This can potentially increase the complexity of conflict detection and resolution for controll...

  1. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  2. Reverse Stackelberg Games: Theory and Applications in Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in optimization-based control of large-scale intelligent infrastructural networks such as traffic networks is to find efficient multilevel optimization schemes through which decisions can be made by agents or controllers of different interacting layers. The hierarchical

  3. The range and effectiveness of short-term measures to reduce traffic emissions during high air pollution episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for continuing poor urban air quality, caused primarily by motor vehicles emissions, and the slow progress being made towards reducing total vehicle emissions by long-term measures, such as improving fuel and vehicle technologies, has prompted some authorities to try to reduce the severity and duration of high air pollution episodes by implementing short-term traffic restraint measures. This paper reviews the range of episodic air quality management schemes applied in cities around the world and comments on the effectiveness of such schemes. The difficulty of targeting vehicles according to the contribution they make to the air quality problem is highlighted. The problem of some schemes simply causing a displacement of the area of excessive vehicle emissions rather than reducing total emissions is reviewed. Rapid developments in telematics and improved urban air quality and traffic monitoring networks (e.g. Urban Traffic Management and Control systems) may offer significant improvements in the effectiveness of episodic management schemes in the future. (Author)

  4. Air pollution and traffic reduction in city of Milan, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, C.; Bacci, P.; Maugeri, M.; Tamponi, M.; Tebaldi, G. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy) Datameteo srl, Milan (Italy) USSL 75/11, Milan (Italy))

    The effect of a traffic reduction proposal on primary atmospheric pollution in Milan (Italy) is evaluated. The evaluation is based both on a stationary Gaussian model, derived from the APRAC3 EPA model, and on a dynamical box model elaborated by the University of Milan in order to study the pollution in Milan.

  5. A Sarsa(λ)-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoke Zhou; Fei Zhu; Quan Liu; Yuchen Fu; Wei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors t...

  6. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Guozhen Tan; Nan Ding; Guangyuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the ...

  7. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes. PMID:24840278

  8. Improving Experience-Based Admission Control through Traffic Type Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Milbrandt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Experience-based admission control (EBAC is a hybrid approach combining the classical parameter-based and measurement-based admission control. EBAC calculates an appropriate overbooking factor used to overbook link capacities with resource reservations in packet-switched networks. This overbooking factor correlates with the average peak-to-mean rate ratio of all admitted traffic flows on the link. So far, a single overbooking factor is calculated for the entire traffic aggregate. In this paper, we propose typespecific EBAC which provides a compound overbooking factor considering different types of traffic that subsume flows with similar peak-to-mean rate ratios. The concept can be well implemented since it does not require measurements of type-specific traffic aggregates. We give a proof of concept for this extension and compare it with the conventional EBAC approach. We show that EBAC with type-specific overbooking leads to better resource utilization under normal conditions and to faster response times for changing traffic mixes.

  9. Air pollution in relation to homocysteine serum level and nitric oxide indicators among traffic policemen in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental pollutants are known to be harmful to health. Traffic policemen are placed at particular risk due to nature of their job. The present study examined the effect of air pollution on vascular inflammatory reactions in traffic policemen of Egypt.Methods: Twenty eight policemen who has worked in Shubra El-Khaima and a matched control from Ashmoon, El-Menoufia (n=20 were recruited. Total homocysteine (tHcy and nitric acid indicators (nitrite and nitrate in serum was determined. Each participant was subjected to personal, occupational and medical history, and clinical examination. Particulate matter (PM2.5, sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitric oxide (NO2 was recorded at various sites.Results: Significant increase in Hcy plasma level was found in the exposed group compared to control. This elevation in tHcy is associated with significant reduction in nitrite and nitrate serum levels. Conclusion: In traffic policemen, exposure to air pollution was associated with increase in tHcy plasma level and reduction in nitric oxide indicators. This raise the attention to the importance of periodic medical assessment of policemen beside the control measures of air pollution.

  10. A Sarsa(λ-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  11. A Sarsa(λ)-based control model for real-time traffic light coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoke; Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yuchen; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ)-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ)-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control. PMID:24592183

  12. Stability analysis of traffic flow with extended CACC control models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Zhou, Zheng; Rong-Jun, Cheng; Siu-Ming, Lo; Hong-Xia, Ge

    2016-06-01

    To further investigate car-following behaviors in the cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategy, a comprehensive control system which can handle three traffic conditions to guarantee driving efficiency and safety is designed by using three CACC models. In this control system, some vital comprehensive information, such as multiple preceding cars’ speed differences and headway, variable safety distance (VSD) and time-delay effect on the traffic current and the jamming transition have been investigated via analytical or numerical methods. Local and string stability criterion for the velocity control (VC) model and gap control (GC) model are derived via linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the performance of the simulated traffic flow. The simulation results show that the VC model and GC model can improve driving efficiency and suppress traffic congestion. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71571107 and 11302110). The Scientific Research Fund of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LY15A020007, LY15E080013, and LY16G010003). The Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo City (Grant Nos. 2014A610030 and 2015A610299), the Fund from the Government of the Hong Kong Administrative Region, China (Grant No. CityU11209614), and the K C Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  13. Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, Patrick L.; Gichuru, Michael Gatari; Volavka-Close, Nicole; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter K.; Law, Anna; Gachanja, Anthony; Gaita, Samuel Mwaniki; Chillrud, Steven N.; Sclar, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air monitoring data hinders health impact assessments and the development of transportation and land use policies that could reduce health burdens due to outdoor air pollution. To address this important need, a study of ...

  14. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the SALIA Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Ursula; Herder, Christian; Sugiri, Dorothea; Strassburger, Klaus; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional and ecological studies indicate that air pollution may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but prospective data are lacking. Objective We examined the association between traffic-related air pollution and incident type 2 diabetes. Design Between 1985 and 1994, cross-sectional surveys were performed in the highly industrialized Ruhr district (West Germany); a follow-up investigation was conducted in 2006 using data from the Study on the Influence of Air Pollution o...

  15. Heavy traffic on a controlled motorway

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, F P

    2010-01-01

    Unlimited access to a motorway network can, in overloaded conditions, cause a loss of capacity. Ramp metering (signals on slip roads to control access to the motorway) can help avoid this loss of capacity. The design of ramp metering strategies has several features in common with the design of access control mechanisms in communication networks. Inspired by models and rate control mechanisms developed for Internet congestion control, we propose a Brownian network model as an approximate model for a controlled motorway and consider it operating under a proportionally fair ramp metering policy.We present an analysis of the performance of this model.

  16. In situ occupational and general public exposure to VHF/UHF transmission for air traffic communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational and general public exposure due to very high frequency (VHF)/ultra high frequency (UHF) transmission centres for verbal communication for air traffic control is investigated in situ for the first time. These systems are used for communication with aircraft, resulting in different human exposure from that of classical broadcasting. Measurement methods are proposed for the exposure assessment, and a measurement campaign is executed in three transmission centres. By investigating the temporal behaviour of the VHF signals for 6 d, a realistic worst-case duty cycle of 29 % is determined. Periods of high exposures corresponding with high aircraft traffic are from 7 a.m. to 1 p.m. and in the evening. All measured electric field values satisfy the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines. Fields vary from 0.2 to 21.1 V m-1 for occupational exposure and from 0.007 to 8.0 V m-1 for general public exposure. The average fields equal 5.2 V m-1 for workers, and 0.7 V m-1 for general public. (authors)

  17. Taiwan's traffic control bundle and the elimination of nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, M-Y; Lin, Y-E; Lee, C-H; Ho, M-S; Huang, F-Y; Chang, S-C; Liu, Y-C

    2011-04-01

    The traffic control bundle consists of procedures designed to help prevent epidemic nosocomial infection. We retrospectively studied the serial infection control measures to determine factors most effective in preventing nosocomial infections of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the 2003 Taiwanese severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. Fever screening stations, triage of fever patients, separating SARS patients from other patients, separation of entrances and passageways between patients and HCWs, and increasing hand-washing facilities all demonstrated a protective effect for HCWs (univariate analysis; Palcohol dispensers for glove-on hand rubbing between zones of risk, and (ii) fever screening at the fever screen station outside the emergency department, were the significant methods effectively minimising nosocomial SARS infection of HCWs (P<0.05). The traffic control bundle should be implemented in future epidemics as a tool to achieve strict infection control measures. PMID:21316802

  18. Constrained optimal steady-state control for isolated traffic intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack HADDAD; David MAHALEL; Ilya IOSLOVICH; Per-Olof GUTMAN

    2014-01-01

    The steady-state or cyclic control problem for a simplified isolated traffic intersection is considered. The optimization problem for the green-red switching sequence is formulated with the help of a discrete-event max-plus model. Two steady-state control problems are formulated: optimal steady-state with green duration constraints, and optimal steady-state control with lost time. In the case when the criterion is a strictly increasing, linear function of the queue lengths, the steady-state control problems can be solved analytically. The structure of constrained optimal steady-state traffic control is revealed, and the effect of the lost time on the optimal solution is illustrated.

  19. Detection of Botnet Command and Control Traffic by the Multistage Trust Evaluation of Destination Identifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter Burghouwt; Marcel E.M. Spruit; Sips, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Network-based detection of botnet Command and Control communication is a difficult task if the traffic has a relatively low volume and if popular protocols, such as HTTP, are used to resemble normal traffic. We present a new network-based detection approach that is capable of detecting this type of Command and Control traffic in an enterprise network by estimating the trustworthiness of the traffic destinations. If the destination identifier of a traffic flow origins directly from: human inpu...

  20. Calculation features of traffic light regulation regimesat the signal group control

    OpenAIRE

    Єресов, Володимир Іванович; Трушевський, Вячеслав Едуардович

    2014-01-01

    The differences between the existing technologies of traffic light control by phases and signal groups were determined in the paper. It was proved that the signal group control technology is more perfect and to a greater extent corresponds to the changing traffic conditions at intersections. Approach for compiling the traffic light regulation cycle structure based on the analysis of conflict of traffic and pedestrian flows, taking into account traffic volume, the number of road accidents in t...

  1. IMT-2000 Satellite Standards with Applications to Mobile Air Traffic Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000) standard and more specifically the Satellite component of it, is investigated as a potential alternative for communications to aircraft mobile users en-route and in terminal area. Its application to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs is considered. A summary of the specifications of IMT-2000 satellite standards are outlined. It is shown via a system research analysis that it is possible to support most air traffic communication needs via an IMT-2000 infrastructure. This technology can compliment existing, or future digital aeronautical communications technologies such as VDL2, VDL3, Mode S, and UAT.

  2. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  3. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  4. A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Alex A. N. M. Pappoe; Yawson, David O.; Frederick A. Armah

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and urbanization poses myriad challenges to transportation systems in relation to negative externalities such as traffic congestion and environmental health risks. Accra, the capital of Ghana, faces mounting urban planning problems, for example traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic safety, and land use planning, among others. The paper aims to provide a system dynamics perspective of the problems. Most of the drivers and cause-effect relationships of traffic congesti...

  5. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  6. 77 FR 28455 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... clarify the use of engineering judgment and studies in the application of traffic control devices. DATES... existing operating procedures. Background On August 2, 2011, at 76 FR 46213, the FHWA published an NPA... established through a final rule published in the Federal Register on December 14, 2006 at 74 FR...

  7. 基于复杂网络理论的多元混合空管技术保障系统网络特征分析∗%Analysis on network prop erties of multivariate mixed air traffic management technical supp ort system based on complex network theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武喜萍; 杨红雨; 韩松臣

    2016-01-01

    Air traffic management technical support system provides communication, navigation and surveillance service for air traffic management system and air traffic controller. The failures of some facilities may lead to large delay, even affect air transportation safety. In order to improve the ability of air traffic management technical support system to respond to emergencies, a network model of air traffic management technical support system is presented. The network model of air traffic management technical support system is established according to the effective coverage of communication, navigation and surveillance facilities, the position of air traffic management technical support system and air route network. Flexibility, robustness and efficiency are used to measure the network. The measure index of air traffic management technical support system network includes degree, degree distribution, strength, clustering coefficient, network performance, betweenness centrality, average shortest path and diameter. For Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shenyang and Lanzhou flight information regions, the air traffic management technical support networks are built by using the data of air traffic support facilities, air route, air traffic flow, etc. The average degrees, degree distributions, degree-degree correlations, clustering coefficients, average shortest paths and diameters of these netwoks are comparatively analyzed. The results show that the degrees of most nodes are between two and four. The network has a power law distribution, which is the same as that of air transportation network. The degree-degree correlation of air traffic management technical support system network is not assortative nor disassortative mixing, which has random network characteristics. The clustering coefficients of several air traffic management technical support system networks are between 0.25 and 0.39. The clustering value is lower than that of air transportation network. The

  8. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

  9. Geo-based Mobility Control for Mobile Traffic Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Most mobile traffic simulators of today depend on the user to supply the mobility behavior of the simulated UEs. This becomes a problem when certain wanted mobility characteristics are to be tested, since the user have to go trough a trial-and-error procedure to come up with the proper mobility behavior. This thesis presents two approaches to mobility control, where the aim is to control UE mobility based on certain mobility characteristics supplied by the end user. The first approach introdu...

  10. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mock Charles; Kobusingye Olive; Anh Le Vu; Afukaar Francis; Arreola-Risa Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these s...

  11. Distributed Bayesian Decision-Making for Urban Traffic Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Přikryl, Jan

    Paris : IEEE, 2006, s. 1-6. [Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. IECON'06 /32./. Paris (FR), 06.11.2006-11.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian decision-making, * multi-agent systems * fully probabilistic design * urban traffic control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  12. TO THE QUESTION OF SOLVING OF THE PROBLEM OF OPTIMIZING PARAMETERS OF TRAFFIC FLOW COORDINATED CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    L. Abramova; Chernobaev, N.

    2007-01-01

    A short review of main methods of traffic flow control is represented, great attention is paid to methods of coordinated control and quality characteristics of traffic control. The problem of parameter optimization of traffic coordinated control on the basis of vehicle delay minimizing at highway intersections has been defined.

  13. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaschou-Nielsen Ole

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate  Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  14. Towards understanding work-as-done in air traffic management safety assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the approach taken and the results to develop guidance, to include Resilience Engineering principles in methodology for safety assessment of functional changes, in Air Traffic Management (ATM). It summarizes the process of deriving resilience principles for ATM, originating from Resilience Engineering concepts and transposed into ATM operations. These principles are the foundation for guidance material incorporating Resilience Engineering (RE) concepts into safety assessment methodology. The guidance material provides a method using workshops generating qualitative descriptions of RE principles applied to ATM services of everyday work, as done currently and as envisioned after introduction of a new technology or way of working. The guidance material has been proposed as part of the safety assessment methodology of SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research), and as stand-alone guidance for ATM design processes. The methodology was validated via a test case on the i4D/CTA (Controlled Time of Arrival) concept. Operational examples from the application of the developed guidance to the i4D/CTA concept are provided. Initial evaluation of the guidance suggests that the methodology (1) provides a narrative, vocabulary and documentation means of project discussions on resilience; (2) brings the discussions of safety and resilience closer to operational practice; (3) facilitates a broader systemic and integrative perspective on operational, management, business, safety, environmental, and human performance aspects; and (4) can extend the vocabulary of safety assessment to include the description of emergent properties, to better support functional changes in ATM. - Highlights: • Guidance material for safety assessment based on systemic thinking is proposed. • It operationalizes Resilience Engineering principles in Air Traffic Management, including a case study. • It enables description of expected changes in work-as-done when introducing a new

  15. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  16. REDUCTION IN PROBABILITY OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON HIGH-CLASS ROAD USING RAMP ACCESS CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    R. Yu. Lagerev; D. V. Kapsky

    2016-01-01

    Мerging traffic junctions on high-class roads are considered as bottlenecks in the network and quality of their operation determines a probability for formation of traffic congestions. Investigations on congestion situations in the merging zones of ramp and freeway traffic flows have demonstrated that queuing ramp traffic flow leads to formation of so called “turbulence” effect due to re-arrangement of transport facilities and reduction in their speed on main road direction. Having high queui...

  17. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  18. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  19. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY - VENTILATION AIR CALCULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the preliminary Ventilation Confinement Zone for the Canister Handling Facility (CHF). The results of this document will be used to determine the air quantities for each VCZ that will eventually be reflected in the development of the Ventilation Flow Diagrams. The analyses contained in this document are developed by D and E/Mechanical HVAC and are intended solely for the use of the D and E/Mechanical HVAC in its work regarding Confinement Zoning Analysis for the Canister Handling Facility. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from D and E/Mechanical HVAC should be consulted before use of the analyses for purposes other than those stated herein or used by individuals other than authorized personnel in D and E/Mechanical HVAC

  20. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas, and traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter under 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with...

  1. Air pollution from traffic and the development of respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, M; Hoek, G; Van Vliet, P; Meliefste, K; Fischer, PH; Wijga, A; Koopman, LP; Neijens, HJ; Gerritsen, J; Kerkhof, M; Heinrich, J; Bellander, T; Brunekreef, B

    2002-01-01

    Despite the important contribution of traffic sources to urban air quality, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of traffic-related air pollution on health, such as its influence on the development of asthma and other childhood respiratory diseases. We examined the relationship between

  2. Long-term personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution among school children, a validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosbroeck, Sofie van; Wichmann, Janine; Janssen, Nicole A H; Hoek, Gerard; Wijnen, Joop H van; Lebret, Erik; Brunekreef, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and health. Most studies use indicators of exposure such as outdoor air pollution or traffic density on the street of residence. Little information is available about the validity of these measu

  3. Impact of local traffic exclusion on near-road air quality: Findings from the New York City 'Summer Streets' campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We monitored curbside airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations and its proinflammatory capacity during 3 weekends when vehicle traffic was excluded from Park. Ave., New York City. Fine PM concentration peaked in the morning regardless of traffic while ultrafine PM was 58% lower during mornings without traffic. Ultrafine PM concentration varied linearly with traffic flow, while fine PM spiked sharply in response to random traffic events that were weakly correlated with the traffic signal cycle. Ultrafine PM concentrations decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with unrestricted traffic flow, reaching background levels within 100 m of the source. IL-6 induction was typically highest on Friday afternoons but showed no clear relationship to the presence of traffic. The coarse fraction (>2.5 μm) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity, suggesting that coarse PM still warrants attention even as the research focus is shifting to nano-particles. - Highlights: → During a period of traffic exclusion morning PM2.5 concentration remained high. → Ultrafine concentrations were lower during mornings without traffic. → While ultrafine PM varied linearly with traffic flow, fine PM was unrelated to flow. → Ultrafine PM decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with traffic. → The coarse fraction (>2.5 mm) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity. - Traffic exclusion had variable effects on local particle concentrations and biomarker induction that were inconsistent with the simple expectation that air would be cleaner without traffic.

  4. Stabilization of traffic flow in optimal velocity model via delayed-feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanfei; Hu, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    Traffic jams may occur due to various reasons, such as traffic accidents, lane reductions and on-ramps. In order to suppress the traffic congestion in an optimal velocity traffic model without any driver's delay taken into account, a delayed-feedback control of both displacement and velocity differences is proposed in this study. By using the delay-independent stability criteria and the H∞-norm, the delayed-feedback control can be determined to stabilize the unstable traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam. The numerical case studies are given to demonstrate and verify the new control method. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the new control method and the method proposed by Konishi et al. [K. Konishi, M. Hirai, H. Kokame, Decentralized delayed-feedback control of an optimal velocity traffic model, Eur. Phys. J. B 15 (2000) 715-722]. The results show that the new control method makes the traffic flow more stable and improves the control performance.

  5. INFLUENCE THE SESAR CONCEPT UPON AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES IN EUROPEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Chynchenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article deals with the analysis of the researches conducted in field of the SESAR concept.Benefits of the concept, work packages and stakeholders of SESAR joint undertake have been reviewed.Principles of implementation and impact on air traffic services system have been analysed and generalsolutions appropriable for Ukraine have been proposed.

  6. Aviation and Climate Change: II - Air Traffic Management and Aviation Non-CO2 Issues.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Action on climate change is now the subject of worldwide and European legislation. The following explores some of the issues raised for air traffic management (ATM) and aviation ‘Non-CO2’ Issues. A key aim is to examine some widely quoted figures about the size of aviation’s emission effects.

  7. Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods and findings An...

  8. Identifying Traffic-Related Air Pollution Hotspots in the Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution in an urban street environment given traffic and meteorological conditions. A mobile air monitoring platform was used to measure ultrafine particle (UFP) counts on a 1-second basis along a 3 mile-long transect in Downtown Los Angeles in April-July 2008 for a total of 12 runs and roughly 7,500 observations. Significantly higher UFP concentrations were found in morning compared to afternoon measurements. Spatially s...

  9. Agent concepts for traffic control; Agentenmodelle in der Verkehrsleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, A. [ABB Forschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Automatisierungs- und Informationstechnik

    2000-07-01

    All modes of traffic reach - in their current form of operation - the limits of their respective infrastructure. Therefore, new control concepts are being investigated which allow for a more efficient usage of the existing infrastructure. In the previous issue of atp, agents have been introduced as a promising approach for decentralised control. Agents provide a means for flexible resource allocation and, thus, for achieving an optimised balance between infrastructure load and customer requirements. This paper describes how agents can be used in traffic control, taking road and rail traffic as examples. This might also give hints regarding the possible role of agents in automation and control in general. (orig.) [German] Die verschiedenen Verkehrssysteme stossen in ihrer jeweiligen bisherigen Betriebsweise an Kapazitaetsgrenzen der bestehenden Infrastruktur. Daher werden neue leittechnische Konzepte gesucht, die eine effizientere Nutzung der vorhandenen Infrastruktur ermoeglichen. Im letzten Heft wurden Agenten als dezentraler Leittechnikansatz vorgestellt. Mit Hilfe von Agenten kann ein flexibles Ressourcenmanagement betrieben werden und so ein optimaler Kompromiss zwischen Auslastung der Infrastruktur und Erfuellung der Kundenanforderungen gefunden werden. Der Beitrag beschreibt Agentenmodelle fuer die Verkehrsleittechnik am Beispiel des Schienen- und des Strassenverkehrs und gibt damit Denkanstoesse zur moeglichen Rolle von Agenten in der Leittechnik allgemein. (orig.)

  10. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  11. Activation of Air and Utilities in the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, H; Pohl, B; Brererton, S

    2010-04-08

    Detailed 3-D modeling of the NIF facility is developed to accurately simulate the radiation environment within the NIF. Neutrons streaming outside the NIF Target Chamber will activate the air present inside the Target Bay and the Ar gas inside the laser tubes. Smaller levels of activity are also generated in the Switchyard air and in the Ar portion of the SY laser beam path. The impact of neutron activation of utilities located inside the Target Bay is analyzed for variety of shot types. The impact of activating TB utilities on dose received by maintenance personnel post-shot is analyzed. The current NIF facility model includes all important features of the Target Chamber, shielding system, and building configuration. Flow of activated air from the Target Bay is controlled by the HVAC system. The amount of activated Target Bay air released through the stack is very small and does not pose significant hazard to personnel or the environment. Activation of Switchyard air is negligible. Activation of Target Bay utilities result in a manageable dose rate environment post high yield (20 MJ) shots. The levels of activation generated in air and utilities during D-D and THD shots are small and do not impact work planning post shots.

  12. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice. PMID:26681325

  13. Implementation of Traffic Engineering Control System for Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ GONZALEZ, SERGIO

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging networking paradigm that separates the network control plane from the data forwarding plane with the promise to dramatically improve network resource utilization, simplify network management, reduce operating cost, and promote innovation and evolution. Although traffic engineering techniques have been widely exploited in the past and current data networks, such as ATM networks and IP/ MPLS networks, to optimize the performance of communication ...

  14. Integrated Control of Mixed Traffic Networks using Model Predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation The growth of our road infrastructure cannot keep up with the growing mobility of people, and the corresponding increase in traffic demand. This results in daily congestion on the freeways. It is an illusion that the problem of congestion can be solved completely within a few years, but i

  15. Neural Network based Vehicle Classification for Intelligent Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Fazli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, number of vehicles has been increased and traditional systems of traffic controlling couldn’t be able to meet the needs that cause to emergence of Intelligent Traffic Controlling Systems. They improve controlling and urban management and increase confidence index in roads and highways. The goal of thisarticle is vehicles classification base on neural networks. In this research, it has been used a immovable camera which is located in nearly close height of the road surface to detect and classify the vehicles. The algorithm that used is included two general phases; at first, we are obtaining mobile vehicles in the traffic situations by using some techniques included image processing and remove background of the images and performing edge detection and morphology operations. In the second phase, vehicles near the camera areselected and the specific features are processed and extracted. These features apply to the neural networks as a vector so the outputs determine type of vehicle. This presented model is able to classify the vehicles in three classes; heavy vehicles, light vehicles and motorcycles. Results demonstrate accuracy of the algorithm and its highly functional level.

  16. An Intelligent Traffic Flow Control System Based on Radio Frequency Identification and Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuei-Hsiang Chao; Pi-Yun Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study primarily focuses on the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) as a form of traffic flow detection, which transmits collected information related to traffic flow directly to a control system through an RS232 interface. At the same time, the sensor analyzes and judges the information using an extension algorithm designed to achieve the objective of controlling the flow of traffic. In addition, the traffic flow situation is also transmitted to a remote monitoring control syste...

  17. Design Approach for Dynamic Traffic Control System Based on Radio Propagation Model in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay S. Dorle; Pratima L. Patel

    2013-01-01

    In the densely populated urban area traffic control system isthe main mechanism to control the flow of vehicular traffic atthe intersection. Conventional traffic control system are notcapable of handling dynamic vehicular flow. This dynamicvehicular flow creates traffic jams , congestion at theintersection. Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is acommon part of Intelligent Transport System (ITS) which isdirectly involved in handling these problems and aims to makejourney on road comfortable. The...

  18. TCP/IP Communication System for Controlling a Vehicular Traffic Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza-Martínez Luis Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a prototype of a vehicular traffic controller, whose system of communication is based on the TCP/IP protocol, in order to re- motely monitor and control the operation of traffic lights for a vehicular intersection. The results show the times of communication between the central and the traffic controller. The conclusions highlight the importance of using the TCP/IP protocol in traffic light systems.

  19. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways. PMID:26829764

  20. Evaluation of the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid and Lat-Long Grid for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn; Dahm, Johann; Oran, Elaine; Alexandrov, Natalia; Boris, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Air Traffic Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (ATMLG) is used to simulate a 24 hour period of air traffic flow in the National Airspace System (NAS). During this time period, there are 41,594 flights over the United States, and the flight plan information (departure and arrival airports and times, and waypoints along the way) are obtained from an Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS) dataset. Two simulation procedures are tested and compared: one based on the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (MLG), and the other based on the stationary Latitude-Longitude (Lat- Long) grid. Simulating one full day of air traffic over the United States required the following amounts of CPU time on a single processor of an SGI Altix: 88 s for the MLG method, and 163 s for the Lat-Long grid method. We present a discussion of the amount of CPU time required for each of the simulation processes (updating aircraft trajectories, sorting, conflict detection and resolution, etc.), and show that the main advantage of the MLG method is that it is a general sorting algorithm that can sort on multiple properties. We discuss how many MLG neighbors must be considered in the separation assurance procedure in order to ensure a five-mile separation buffer between aircraft, and we investigate the effect of removing waypoints from aircraft trajectories. When aircraft choose their own trajectory, there are more flights with shorter duration times and fewer CD&R maneuvers, resulting in significant fuel savings.

  1. Integration of Linear Dynamic Emission and Climate Models with Air Traffic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Chen, Neil Y.

    2012-01-01

    Future air traffic management systems are required to balance the conflicting objectives of maximizing safety and efficiency of traffic flows while minimizing the climate impact of aviation emissions and contrails. Integrating emission and climate models together with air traffic simulations improve the understanding of the complex interaction between the physical climate system, carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and aviation activity. This paper integrates a national-level air traffic simulation and optimization capability with simple climate models and carbon cycle models, and climate metrics to assess the impact of aviation on climate. The capability can be used to make trade-offs between extra fuel cost and reduction in global surface temperature change. The parameters in the simulation can be used to evaluate the effect of various uncertainties in emission models and contrails and the impact of different decision horizons. Alternatively, the optimization results from the simulation can be used as inputs to other tools that monetize global climate impacts like the FAA s Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool for Impacts.

  2. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  3. The use of Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) in a mid-air collision to understand some characteristics of the air traffic management system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Functional Resonance Analysis Model (FRAM) defines a systemic framework to model complex systems for accident analysis purposes. We use FRAM in the mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the Air Traffic Management System (ATM). This ATM system related accident occurred at 16:56 Brazilian time on September 29, 2006 in the Amazonian sky. FRAM analysis of flight monitoring functions showed system constraints (equipment, training, time, and supervision) that produce variability in system behavior, creating demand resources mismatches in an attempt to perceive and control the developing situation. This variability also included control and coordination breakdowns and automation surprises (TCAS functioning). The analysis showed that under normal variability conditions (without catastrophic failures) the ATM system (pilots, controllers, supervisors, and equipment) was not able to close the control loops of the flight monitoring functions using feedback or feedforward strategies to achieve an adequate control of an aircraft flying in the controlled air space. Our findings shed some light on the resilience of Brazilian ATM system operation and indicated that there is a need of a deeper understanding on how the system is actually functioning. - Highlights: → The Functional Resonance Analysis Model (FRAM) was used in a mid-air collision over Amazon. → The aim was to understand key resilience characteristics of the Air Traffic Management System (ATM). → The analysis showed how, under normal conditions, the system was not able to control flight functions. → The findings shed some light about the resilience of Brazilian ATM system operation.

  4. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. LAI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to develop an ANFIS traffic signals controller for multilane-isolated four approaches intersections in order to ease traffic congestions at traffic intersections. The new concept to generate sample data for ANFIS training is introduced in this research. The sample data is generated based on fuzzy rules and can be analysed using tree diagram. This controller is simulated on multilane-isolated traffic intersection model developed using M/M/1 queuing theory and its performance in terms of average waiting time, queue length and delay time are compared with traditional controllers and fuzzy controller. Simulation result shows that the average waiting time, queue length, and delay time of ANFIS traffic signal controller are the lowest as compared to the other three controllers. In conclusion, the efficiency and performance of ANFIS controller are much better than that of fuzzy and traditional controllers in different traffic volumes.

  5. Towards more sustainable air traffic Case: Flybe Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kuutvuori, Aija

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide demand for air transportation has been estimated to double during the next two decades. Given this significant industry wide growth, as well as the ever more increasing public demand for sustainability, airlines are under constant pressure to implement more sustainable practices in their operations. The aim of this thesis was to build a comprehensive picture of the current state of sustainability in the airline industry. This research aimed at finding out how airlines can ap...

  6. A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex A. N. M. Pappoe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and urbanization poses myriad challenges to transportation systems in relation to negative externalities such as traffic congestion and environmental health risks. Accra, the capital of Ghana, faces mounting urban planning problems, for example traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic safety, and land use planning, among others. The paper aims to provide a system dynamics perspective of the problems. Most of the drivers and cause-effect relationships of traffic congestion and its attendant air pollution are investigated and analyzed using causal loop diagrams. The paper further suggests mechanisms by which the negative externalities associated with road transport in the city of Accra can be addressed.

  7. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  8. A Traffic Prediction Algorithm for Street Lighting Control Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a traffic prediction algorithm that can be integrated in a street lighting monitoring and control system. The prediction algorithm must enable the reduction of energy costs and improve energy efficiency by decreasing the light intensity depending on the traffic level. The algorithm analyses and processes the information received at the command center based on the traffic level at different moments. The data is collected by means of the Doppler vehicle detection sensors integrated within the system. Thus, two methods are used for the implementation of the algorithm: a neural network and a k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor prediction algorithm. For 500 training cycles, the mean square error of the neural network is 9.766 and for 500.000 training cycles the error amounts to 0.877. In case of the k-NN algorithm the error increases from 8.24 for k=5 to 12.27 for a number of 50 neighbors. In terms of a root means square error parameter, the use of a neural network ensures the highest performance level and can be integrated in a street lighting control system.

  9. Modelling of material handling operations using controlled traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm;

    2009-01-01

    Controlled-traffic farming (CTF) is a management system that can eliminate soil compaction by wheels within the cropped area. According to the principles of CTF, permanent parallel wheel tracks are created within the field area. The benefits of CTF, in terms of productivity and sustainability, have...... and maintaining permanent traffic lanes within the fields. Furthermore, field efficiency is affected by CTF due to significant increases in idle time of in-field transport and the way the fields are traversed in material handling operations. During fertilisation, when tramline length and the driving...... operations, makes existing models inadequate for evaluating field efficiency. In this paper, the development of a discrete-event model for the prediction of travelled distances of a machine operating in material handling operations using the concept of CTF is presented. The model is based on the mathematical...

  10. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  11. 23 CFR 630.1110 - Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. 630.1110 Section 630.1110 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Temporary Traffic Control Devices §...

  12. Traffic Control Plan : DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge, DeSoto Visitor Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Traffic Control Plan for DeSoto NWR outlines objectives for solving the traffic problems on the Refuge by implementing a patrol schedule, restricting visitor...

  13. London smog is history - traffic pollutes the air. Lontoon smog historiaa - liikenne pilaa ilmaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemekoski, K.

    1992-01-01

    London is one of the most classical examples of air pollution. Sulfur dioxide and smoke concentration were very high, and during one of tne episode in 1952, 4000 excess deaths occurred due to high pollutant concentrations. Air quality has improved and currently traffic is the main source of pollution. Air quality is continuously monitored by 4 station network operated by London Scientific Services, a private company. Annual concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in 1989 were 19-62 and 47-92 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. 8-hour CO maxima reach 20 mg/m{sup 3}.

  14. A Geographic Approach to Modelling Human Exposure to Traffic Air Pollution using GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    ; population data on gender and age from the Central Population Register (CPR); the number of employees from the Central Business Register (CER); standardised time-activity profiles for the different age groups in the residence and workplace microenvironments; and meteorological parameters (hourly). The......A new exposure model has been developed that is based on a physical, single media (air) and single source (traffic) microenvironmental approach that estimates traffic related exposures geographically with the postal address as exposure indicator. The microenvironments: residence, workplace and......) for generation of inputs, for visualisation of input and output, and uses available digital maps, national administrative registers and a local traffic database, and the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The Municipality of Middelfart has been used as a case study area to develop and...

  15. Performance of an Automated System for Control of Traffic in Terminal Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoleris, Tasos; Erzberger, Heinz; Paielli, Russell A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of a system that performs automated conflict resolution and arrival scheduling for aircraft in the terminal airspace around major airports. Such a system has the potential to perform separation assurance and arrival sequencing tasks that are currently handled manually by human controllers. The performance of the system is tested against several simulated traffic scenarios that are characterized by the rate at which air traffic is metered into the terminal airspace. For each traffic scenario, the levels of performance that are examined include: number of conflicts predicted to occur, types of resolution maneuver used to resolve predicted conflicts, and the amount of delay for all flights. The simulation results indicate that the percentage of arrivals that required a maneuver that changes the flight's horizontal route ranged between 11% and 15% in all traffic scenarios. That finding has certain implications if this automated system were to be implemented simply as a decision support tool. It is also found that arrival delay due to purely wake vortex separation requirements on final approach constituted only between 29% and 35% of total arrival delay, while the remaining major portion of it is mainly due to delay back propagation effects.

  16. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Althou...

  17. High Confidence Networked Control for Next Generation Air Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Pangun; Khadilkar, Harshad Dilip; Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Tomlin, Claire J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of a secure and fault-tolerant air transportation system in the presence of attempts to disrupt the system through the satellite-based navigation system. Adversarial aircraft are assumed to transmit incorrect position and intent information, potentially leading to violations of separation requirements among aircraft. We propose a framework for the identification of adversaries and malicious aircraft, and then for air traffic control in the presence of such deli...

  18. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 h, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic

  19. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  20. The impact of a forced reduction in traffic volumes on urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Middle East military conflict of summer 2006 resulted in a few weeks in which the city of Haifa, Israel, and its environs experienced very profound variations in the commercial and personal activities. Large industrial plants continued almost normal operations but activities of small scale industry, shopping, and personal commuting were drastically reduced, leading to a dramatic decrease in the commercial and personal traffic volumes. This period of reduced activity serves as a real life experiment for assessment and demonstration of the impact that human activity, and mainly road traffic, may have on the air pollution levels in a bustling middle-sized city. The analysis is made especially sharp and reliable due to the abruptness of the beginning and the end of the reduced activity period, its length, and the stable summer meteorological conditions in the eastern Mediterranean region. The reduced traffic volumes resulted in lowered levels of NO2, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. The decrease in these pollutants' mean concentration was significantly larger than the reduction in the mean traffic volume. Slightly higher mean O3 concentrations were observed during the reduced traffic period. (author)

  1. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17-42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion. PMID:26412198

  2. Design Approach for Dynamic Traffic Control System Based on Radio Propagation Model in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S. Dorle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the densely populated urban area traffic control system isthe main mechanism to control the flow of vehicular traffic atthe intersection. Conventional traffic control system are notcapable of handling dynamic vehicular flow. This dynamicvehicular flow creates traffic jams , congestion at theintersection. Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET is acommon part of Intelligent Transport System (ITS which isdirectly involved in handling these problems and aims to makejourney on road comfortable. The urban traffic flow dependson the driver behavior, and also, it is influenced by trafficcontrol and environmental factor. As the number of vehicles inurban area is increases, the traditional traffic system faces somany problems. This paper describes a working a VANETenvironment and then a brief study of dynamic traffic systembased on radio propagation model. This traffic system uses aclustering algorithm at the intersection. Then we conclude thesystem working.

  3. Air pollution from traffic in topographically complex locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrae, I.S.; Hickman, A.J. (Transport and Road Research Lab., Crowthorne (UK))

    1990-04-01

    In the UK, many improvements and modifications to the road system are made in urban areas where the network of roads and the surrounding area are often complex. In these locations, the emission and dispersion of vehicle exhaust are complicated by the diversity of the vehicle operating conditions and of the airflow patterns. A series of air pollution surveys have taken place at successively more complex sites. A preliminary analysis of the results has been carried out to determine the features that are most important in determining local pollution levels. These will be considered in the future development of methods of predicting pollution levels that are more accurate in topographically complex locations. 1 fig., 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Commercial machine vision system for traffic monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Agostino, Salvatore A.

    1992-03-01

    Traffic imaging covers a range of current and potential applications. These include traffic control and analysis, license plate finding, reading and storage, violation detection and archiving, vehicle sensors, and toll collection/enforcement. Experience from commercial installations and knowledge of the system requirements have been gained over the past 10 years. Recent improvements in system component cost and performance now allow products to be applied that provide cost effective solutions to the requirements for truly intelligent vehicle/highway systems (IVHS). The United States is a country that loves to drive. The infrastructure built in the 1950s and 1960s along with the low price of gasoline created an environment where the automobiles became an accessible and intricate part of American life. The United States has spent $DLR103 billion to build 40,000 highway miles since 1956, the start of the interstate program which is nearly complete. Unfortunately, a situation has arisen where the options for dramatically improving the ability of our roadways to absorb the increasing amount of traffic is limited. This is true in other countries as well as in the United States. The number of vehicles in the world increases by over 10,000,000 each year. In the United States there are about 180 million cars, trucks, and buses and this is estimated to double in the next 30 years. Urban development, and development in general, pushes from the edge of our roadways out. This leaves little room to increase the physical amount of roadway. Americans now spend more than 1.6 billion hours a year waiting in traffic jams. It is estimated that this congestion wasted 3 billion gallons of oil or 4% of the nation's annual gas consumption. The way out of the dilemma is to increase road use efficiency as well as improve mass transportation alternatives.

  5. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E.V.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, H.P.;

    2010-01-01

    risk within different strata of air pollution and traffic density. Results: The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 103 Bq/m3-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx...... childhood leukemia. Methods: We included 985 cases of childhood leukemia and 1,969 control children. We used validated models to calculate residential radon and street NOx concentrations for each home. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the effect of radon on childhood leukemia...

  6. Adaptive Traffic Signalization Model using Neuro-Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Devesh Batra; Pragya Verma

    2014-01-01

    Current traffic lights are pre-programmed and use daily signal timing schedules, which contribute to traffic congestion and delay. Thus, with the increase in the number of vehicles on road, need for adaptive signal technology arises which has the potential to adjust the timing of red, yellow and green lights in order to accommodate changing traffic patterns and ease traffic congestion. In this paper, we present a model for adaptive traffic signalization, which uses fuzzy neura...

  7. Modelling Signal Controlled Traffic Based on Driving Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Wang; Yanyan Chen; Ning Chen

    2015-01-01

    In urban traffic, of particular interest the traffic breakdown which is primarily resulted from the driving behaviors is emerged to respond to the traffic signal. To investigate the influences of driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown, a cellular automaton model has been developed by incorporating a number of driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicle approaching a traffic light. Numerical simulations have been performed based on a road segment co...

  8. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m(3), respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC. PMID:26464095

  9. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics. PMID:15868021

  10. PAHs pollution from traffic sources in air of Hangzhou, China: Trend and influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; WANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    PAHs pollution in air of arterial roads was investigated from October 1998 to October 2001 in Hangzhou, China. The results showed that ∑10 PAHs was 13-36 μg/m3 , among which, BaP, a strong carcinogenic kind ranged from 0.034 μg/m3 to 0. 12 μg/m3 . PAHs pollutions in four seasons were winter > autumn > spring-summer. The annual averages of ∑PAHs concentration were 25 μg/m3 for 1999, 28μg/m3 for 2000, and 29 μg/m3 for 2001, respectively. Leaded gasoline was banned in December 1998 in Hangzhou, thus comparative measurements with PAHs in leaded and lead-free gasoline powered motor exhausts made it certain that the use of lead-free gasoline leaded to a heavier PAHs pollution in roadside air from December, 1998, in China, and ∑PAHs in air samples after the lead-banning were more than twice of that in samples before the action. For the large contribution of vehicle discharge to air pollution in roadside, further research was performed to suggest the factors influencing PAHs distribution in vehicle exhaust in order to control air pollution effectively.Compared to gasoline engines, emissions from diesel engines were less toxic, although they might produce more PAHs. Of the same vehicular and oil type, automobiles of longer mileages produced more toxic PAHs. PAHs distributions in the vehicular exhausts were related to the oil type. Large difference was found in the abundance of 3-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs between exhausts from gasoline and diesel oil engines. Diesel oil engines produced relative lighter PAHs such as NAPH, ACEN, FLUOR, while gasoline engines emitted heavier kinds such as BkF, IN and BP. The automobile produced more PAHs with the increase of mileage especially FLUR, PY, BaP, BP. Some significant ratios for traffic source in Hangzhou such as PHEN/AN, FLUR/PY, IN/BP were 0.50-4.3, 0.58-7.4, 0.51-1.5,respectively. A source fingerprint for vehicle exhausts of a mixture of vehicle and oil types in the city district for light-duty vehicle was the

  11. Traffic Signals Control with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Urban Road Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; FAN Xiao-ping

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy logic controller (AFC) is presented for the signal control of the urban traffic network.The AFC is composed of the signal control system-oriented control level and the signal controller-oriented fuzzy rules regulation level.The control level decides the signal tunings in an intersection with a fuzzy logic controller.The regulation level optimizes the fuzzy rules by the Adaptive Rule Module in AFC according to both the system performance index in current control period and the traffic flows in the last one.Consequently the system performances are improved.A weight coefficient controller (WCC) is also developed to describe the interactions of traffic flow among the adjacent intersections.So the AFC combined with the WCC can be applied in a road network for signal timings.Simulations of the AFC on a real traffic scenario have been conducted.Simulation results indicate that the adaptive controller for traffic control shows better performance than the actuated one.

  12. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  13. A modelling study of air quality impact of odd-even day traffic restriction scheme before, during and after the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, H.; S. D. Xie

    2010-01-01

    Systematic air pollution control measures were designed and implemented to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. This study focuses on the evaluation of the air quality impacts of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) implemented before, during and after the Games, based on modelling simulation by a well validated urban-scale air quality model. Concentration levels of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3 we...

  14. Modelling flexible thrust performance for trajectory prediction applications in air traffic management

    OpenAIRE

    Matamoros Cid, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    The Air Traffic Management (ATM) paradigm is shifting towards a scenario where Trajectory Predictors (TP) play a key role. They rely on Aircraft Performance Models (APM), mathematical models of the performance related characteristics of aircraft. The widespread use of non-coventional take-off procedures, such as the flexible thrust method, has arose the necessity of modelling them to keep fidelity in take-off trajectory predictions. This project, carried out with Boeing Research & Technology ...

  15. How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Dowek, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a process of algorithmic discovery that was driven by our goal of achieving complete, mechanically verified algorithms that compute conflict prevention bands for use in en route air traffic management. The algorithms were originally defined in the PVS specification language and subsequently have been implemented in Java and C++. We do not present the proofs in this paper: instead, we describe the process of discovery and the key ideas that enabled the final formal proof of correctness

  16. Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Gayan Bowatte; Lodge, Caroline J.; Adrian J. Lowe; Bircan Erbas; Martine Dennekamp; Marks, Guy B; Jennifer Perret; Jennie Hui; Matthias Wjst; Gurrin, Lyle C; Allen, Katrina J.; Michael J. Abramson; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort...

  17. Nocturnal air, road, and rail traffic noise and daytime cognitive performance and annoyance

    OpenAIRE

    Elmenhorst, E.-M.; Quehl, J.; U. Müller; Basner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies indicate that at the same noise level and during the daytime, annoyance increases in the order of rail, road, and aircraft noise. The present study investigates if the same ranking can be found for annoyance to nocturnal exposure and next day cognitive performance. Annoyance ratings and performance change during combined noise exposure were also tested. In the laboratory 72 participants were exposed to air, road, or rail traffic noise and all combinations. The numb...

  18. Commercial aircraft noise modeling Effects of air traffic and airport infrastructure changes

    OpenAIRE

    Khardi, S.; Konovalova, E.; LADEGAILLERIE, Y; HAMADICHE, M

    2010-01-01

    International air traffic is growing rapidly and environmental concerns induced by excessive aircraft noise become a major objective of airport authorities and aircraft manufacturers despite of the reduction of the aircraft noise levels by 20 dB during the last thirty years. The large numbers of people living in communities near airports, affected by aircraft noise, have been complaining. This paper gives detailed operations data of Lyon Saint-Exupéry International Airport (France) and provid...

  19. Synergistic effects of traffic-related air pollution and exposure to violence on urban asthma etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jane E. Clougherty; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Canner, Marina Jacobson; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Kubzansky, Laura Diane; Ryan, P. Barry; Wright, Rosalind Jo

    2007-01-01

    Background: Disproportionate life stress and consequent physiologic alteration (i.e., immune dysregulation) has been proposed as a major pathway linking socioeconomic position, environmental exposures, and health disparities. Asthma, for example, disproportionately affects lower-income urban communities, where air pollution and social stressors may be elevated. Objectives: We aimed to examine the role of exposure to violence (ETV), as a chronic stressor, in altering susceptibility to traffic-...

  20. Network Effects, Congestion Externalities, and Air Traffic Delays: Or Why All Delays Are Not Evil

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Mayer; Todd Sinai

    2002-01-01

    We examine two factors that might explain the extent of air traffic delays in the United States: network benefits due to hubbing and congestion externalities. Airline hubs enable passengers to cross-connect to many destinations, thus creating network benefits that increase in the number of markets served from the hub. Delays are the equilibrium outcome of a hub airline equating high marginal benefits from hubbing with the marginal cost of delays. Congestion externalities are created when airl...

  1. A Cohort Study of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrett, Michael; Murray M Finkelstein; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Arain, M Altaf; Kanaroglou, Palvos; Stieb, Dave M.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Verma, Dave; Finkelstein, Norm; Kenneth R Chapman; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to premature mortality, but few studies to date have addressed this topic. Objectives In this study we assessed the association between TRAP and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods We collected nitrogen dioxide samples over two seasons using duplicate two-sided Ogawa passive diffusion samplers at 143 locations across Toronto. We calibrated land use regressions to predict NO2 exposure on a fine scale ...

  2. Geophysical Processes - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  3. Traffic Cameras, Traffic control devices layer for Cecil County, Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Cecil County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Traffic Cameras dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale as of 2011. It is described as 'Traffic control devices layer for Cecil County'. The extent of...

  4. Impact of Conflict Avoidance Responsibility Allocation on Pilot Workload in a Distributed Air Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligda, Sarah V.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Vu, Kim-Phuong; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot workload was examined during simulated flights requiring flight deck-based merging and spacing while avoiding weather. Pilots used flight deck tools to avoid convective weather and space behind a lead aircraft during an arrival into Louisville International airport. Three conflict avoidance management concepts were studied: pilot, controller or automation primarily responsible. A modified Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) metric showed highest workload during the approach phase of flight and lowest during the en-route phase of flight (before deviating for weather). In general, the modified ATWIT was shown to be a valid and reliable workload measure, providing more detailed information than post-run subjective workload metrics. The trend across multiple workload metrics revealed lowest workload when pilots had both conflict alerting and responsibility of the three concepts, while all objective and subjective measures showed highest workload when pilots had no conflict alerting or responsibility. This suggests that pilot workload was not tied primarily to responsibility for resolving conflicts, but to gaining and/or maintaining situation awareness when conflict alerting is unavailable.

  5. Evolutionary Agent-Based Simulation of the Introduction of New Technologies in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernization of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behavior due to complex human/ machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviors. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behavior coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behavior by evolving goal directed agents, representing human users. Using evolution we can predict how the agent representing the human user reacts given his/her goals. In this paradigm, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the behavior of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method reflects the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology.

  6. A generic approach for examining the effectiveness of traffic control devices in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohua; Li, Jiahui; Ding, Han; Zhang, Guohui; Rong, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness and performance of traffic control devices in school zones have been impacted significantly by many factors, such as driver behavioral attributes, roadway geometric features, environmental characteristics, weather and visibility conditions, region-wide traffic regulations and policies, control modes, etc. When deploying traffic control devices in school zones, efforts are needed to clarify: (1) whether traffic control device installation is warranted; and (2) whether other device effectively complements this traffic control device and strengthens its effectiveness. In this study, a generic approach is developed to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of various traffic control devices deployed in school zones through driving simulator-based experiments. A Traffic Control Device Selection Model (TCDSM) is developed and two representative school zones are selected as the testbed in Beijing for driving simulation implementation to enhance its applicability. Statistical analyses are conducted to extract the knowledge from test data recorded by a driving simulator. Multiple measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are developed and adopted including average speed, relative speed difference, and standard deviation of acceleration for traffic control device performance quantification. The experimental tests and analysis results reveal that the appropriateness of the installation of certain traffic control devices can be statistically verified by TCDSM. The proposed approach provides a generic framework to assess traffic control device performance in school zones including experiment design, statistical formulation, data analysis, simulation model implementation, data interpretation, and recommendation development. PMID:26072182

  7. Design principles and algorithms for automated air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents design principles and algorithm for building a real time scheduler. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high altitude airspace far from the airport and low altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time.

  8. Programs Model the Future of Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Ames Research Center, Intelligent Automation Inc., based in Rockville, Maryland, advanced specialized software the company had begun developing with U.S. Department of Defense funding. The agent-based infrastructure now allows NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System to explore ways of improving the utilization of the National Airspace System (NAS), providing flexible modeling of every part of the NAS down to individual planes, airports, control centers, and even weather. The software has been licensed to a number of aerospace and robotics customers, and has even been used to model the behavior of crowds.

  9. Fuzzy urban traffic signal control - an overview: Mehko upravljanje mestne prometne signalizacije - pregled:

    OpenAIRE

    Brodnik, Andrej; Malej, Alenka

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, there have been many attempts made to improve urban traffic signal contol systems as this is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve the traffic flow through a network intersections. Besides the traditional method for traffic signal control that are usually based on a traffic flow model, the development of new system started to consider the various emerging technologies including artifical intelligence. Application of metaheuristic methods has proven to be worth of b...

  10. Efficiency of the Traffic Control and Management System measures in potentially dangerous situations on highway

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič Demšar, Metka

    2011-01-01

    The Traffic Control and Management System (TCMS) is implemented on the five most critical sections of Slovenian highways with the purpose to re-establish the optimal traffic conditions in case of potentially dangerous situations on the road. The main goal of the informing and the traffic management is to increase traffic safety as well as decrease congestions and minimise negative impact on the environment. The objective of this study is to evaluate efficiency of the TCMS measures in the area...

  11. Combined filtering facilities for nuclear air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The choice of an optimal cleaning technology and cleaning system design depends on the specificity of the provision of the ecological safety of NPP under operation and accident conditions. The major requirements imposed on such systems are to achieve high efficiency (99,0-99,95 %) and reliability. In this respect, the important problem is to develop combined filtering facilities (CFF) which are able within the same aggregate to provide complex cleaning of air from moisture, radioactive aerosols, iodine in molecular (I2) and organic (CH3I) forms. A great experience accumulated at SSC RF IPPE and other organizations in the course of researches dealing with construction of aerosol filters and iodine filters-sorbers for NPPs and radio-chemical plants made it possible to develop a pilot mock-up facility providing complex cleaning of air from radioactive aerosols and iodine in reference to the real ventilation conditions at the First in the World Nuclear Power Plant. By now complex tests of the mock-up specimen of the UFK-3500 facility have been run with the aim of determining the functional efficiency of its separate filtering sections in terms of droplet moisture, atmospheric and radioactive aerosols and radioiodine and its organic compounds as well as of the filtering facility as a whole. Control over aerosol and radioiodine concentrations and volumetric activity was performed using laser and gamma spectrometry. The obtained data give necessary grounds to formulate the recommendations, how to develop and organize production of combined filtering facilities for flow rates of the medium to be cleaned of 3500, 7000, 10500 m3/h. The production is organized on the basis of OAO PZ 'Signal' in Obninsk. Provision is made for using small capacity small size filters (for radiochemical plants and research test facilities and rigs) and high efficiency sorbers (for commercial NPP) as filters-sorbers. To date the design plans and specifications

  12. Characteristics of DNA methylation changes induced by traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2016-01-15

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is a potential risk factor for numerous respiratory disorders, including lung cancer, while alteration of DNA methylation may be one of the underlying mechanisms. However, the effects of TRAP mixtures on DNA methylation have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of brief or prolonged TRAP exposures on DNA methylation in the rat. The exposures were performed in spring and autumn, with identical study procedures. In each season, healthy Wistar rats were exposed to TRAP at for 4h, 7d, 14d, or 28d. Global DNA methylation (LINE-1 and Alu) and specific gene methylation (p16(CDKN2A), APC, and iNOS) in the DNA from blood and lung tissues were quantified by pyrosequencing. Multiple linear regression was applied to assess the influence of air pollutants on DNA methylation levels. The levels of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the high and moderate groups were significantly higher than in the control group. The DNA methylation levels were not significantly different between spring and autumn. When spring and autumn data were analyzed together, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exposures were associated with changes in%5mC (95% CI) in LINE-1, iNOS, p16(CDKN2A), and APC ranging from -0.088 (-0.150, -0.026) to 0.102 (0.049, 0.154) per 1μg/m(3) increase in the pollutant concentration. Prolonged exposure to a high level of TRAP was negatively associated with LINE-1 and iNOS methylation, and positively associated with APC methylations in the DNA from lung tissues but not blood. These findings show that TRAP exposure is associated with decreased methylation of LINE-1 and iNOS, and increased methylation of p16(CDKN2A) and APC. PMID:26778509

  13. Air traffic management system design using satellite based geo-positioning and communications assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkin, Phil

    1995-01-01

    The current FAA and ICAO FANS vision of Air Traffic Management will transition the functions of Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance to satellite based assets in the 21st century. Fundamental to widespread acceptance of this vision is a geo-positioning system that can provide worldwide access with best case differential GPS performance, but without the associated problems. A robust communications capability linking-up aircraft and towers to meet the voice and data requirements is also essential. The current GPS constellation does not provide continuous global coverage with a sufficient number of satellites to meet the precision landing requirements as set by the world community. Periodic loss of the minimum number of satellites in view creates an integrity problem, which prevents GPS from becoming the primary system for navigation. Furthermore, there is reluctance on the part of many countries to depend on assets like GPS and GLONASS which are controlled by military communities. This paper addresses these concerns and provides a system solving the key issues associated with navigation, automatic dependent surveillance, and flexible communications. It contains an independent GPS-like navigation system with 27 satellites providing global coverage with a minimum of six in view at all times. Robust communications is provided by a network of TDMA/FDMA communications payloads contained on these satellites. This network can support simultaneous communications for up to 30,000 links, nearly enough to simultaneously support three times the current global fleet of jumbo air passenger aircraft. All of the required hardware is directly traceable to existing designs.

  14. Effects of air pollutants from road traffic on adjacent forests. Effekter av luftfoeroreningar fraan vaegtrafik paa naerliggande skog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, S.

    1991-02-01

    Air pollution effects on spruces close to a heavily trafficated road in western Sweden are observed through infrared photography from aeroplanes. About 50% of the old spruces suffer from thinning of the crowns. (L.E.).

  15. Work control in separations facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic addressed in this technical review is the development and implementation of a work control program in one of the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. This program will be used as a pilot for the Nuclear Materials Processing Division at the site. The SRS Work Control Pilot program is based on the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practices and guidelines for the conduct of maintenance and complies with SRS quality assurance and DOE orders on maintenance management. The program follows a ten-step process for control of maintenance and maintenance-related activities in a chemical separations facility. The program took the existing maintenance planning and scheduling system and upgraded it to comply with all INPO work control and related guidelines for histories, post-maintenance testing and scheduling. The development process of adapting a nuclear-related- based plan to a batch/continuous chemical separations plant was a challenge. There were many opportunities to develop improvements in performance while being creative and realistic in applying reactor maintenance technology to chemical plant maintenance. This pilot program for work control in a nonreactor nuclear facility will provide valuable information for applying a controlled maintenance process to a multiphase chemical operating plant environment

  16. Reduction of the air traffic's contribution to climate change: A REACT4C case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Volker; Champougny, Thierry; Matthes, Sigrun; Frömming, Christine; Brinkop, Sabine; Søvde, Ole Amund; Irvine, Emma A.; Halscheidt, Lucia

    2014-09-01

    Air traffic alters the atmospheric composition and thereby contributes to climate change. Here we investigate the trans-Atlantic air traffic for one specific winter day and analyse, which routing changes were required to achieve a reduction in the air traffic's contribution to climate change. We have applied an atmosphere-chemistry model to calculate so-called five dimensional climate cost functions (CCF), which describe the climate effect of a locally confined emission. The five dimensions result from the emission location (3D), time (1D) and the type of emission (1D; carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides). In other words, carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted in amounts typical for aviation at many confined locations and times and their impacts on climate calculated with the atmosphere-chemistry model. The impact on climate results from direct effects, such as the changes in the concentration of the greenhouse gases CO2 and H2O and indirect effects such as contrail cirrus formation and chemical changes of ozone and methane by emissions of NOx. These climate cost functions are used by a flight planning tool to optimise flight routes with respect to their climate impact and economic costs of these routes. The results for this specific winter day show that large reductions in the air traffic's contribution to climate warming (up to 60%) can be achieved for westbound flights and smaller reductions for eastbound flights (around 25%). Eastbound flights take advantage of the tail winds from the jet stream and hence routings with lower climate impacts have a large fuel penalty, whenever they leave the jet stream. Maximum reduction in climate impact increases the economic costs by 10-15%, due to higher fuel consumption, caused by a longer flight distance and lower flight levels. However, with only small changes to the air traffic routings and flight altitudes, climate reductions up to 25% can be achieved by only small

  17. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques

  18. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2007-05-31

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques.

  19. AMPLE Using BGP Based Traffic Engineering with Admission Control Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.V. Palanisamy#1 , K. Gowri

    2013-01-01

    Traffic engineering is an important mechanism for Internet network providers seeking to optimize network performance and traffic delivery. Routing optimization plays a key role in traffic engineering, finding efficient routes so as to achieve the desired network performance. BGP is the de facto protocol used for inter-autonomous system routing in the Internet. BGP has been proven to be secure, efficient, scalable, and robust. In proposed introduced AMPLE – an efficient traffic engineering and...

  20. Measurement and modeling of short- and long-term commuter exposure to traffic-related air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ragettli, Martina Simone

    2015-01-01

    Background. Many epidemiological studies have reported associations between traffic-related air pollu¬tion exposure and acute and chronic health problems. Exposure assignment in those stud¬ies has typically relied on home outdoor locations and ignored exposure during commuting and at non-residential locations. However, because of high concentrations of harmful air pollutants in proximity to traffic, time spent in transport may contribute considerably to a person’s total daily exposure to traf...

  1. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) surveyed the current air monitoring and sampling practices at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate a large diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The differences among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  2. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  3. Biomagnetic monitoring of traffic air pollution in Toulouse (France) using magnetic properties of tree bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macouin, M.; Rousse, S.; Brulfert, F.; Durand, M.; Feida, N.; Durand, X.; Becaud, L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic properties of various atmospheric samples represent rapid and economic proxies in the pollution studies based on their strong linkage to heavy metals and/or volatile organic carbons. We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Toulouse (France) based on the magnetic properties of tree (Platanus acerifolia) bark. More than 250 bark samples were taken at different areas of the city. Both mass specific magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) at 1 Tesla display relationships with the traffic intensity and the distance to the road. Urban roadside tree bark exhibit significant enhancement in their values of susceptibility and IRM reflecting surface accumulation of particulate pollutants, compared with tree growing at lower traffic sites. To estimate the deposition time and accumulation on bark, we have deposited 20 "clean" bark samples from low traffic area with susceptibility inferior to 10 SI, near the city ring road. Samples were then collected during three months. Samples were imparted a 1 Tesla IRM both prior the deposition and after the resampling. Results are useful to apprehend the process of magnetic particulates accumulation and to evaluate the potential of tree bark for the air quality monitoring.

  4. Comparision by Simulation of Different Approaches to the Urban Traffic Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Jan; Tichý, T.; Bělinová, Z.; Kapitán, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 26-30. ISSN 1899-8208 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030603 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : traffic * ITS * telematics * urban traffic control Subject RIV: BC - Control System s Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/prikryl-comparision by simulation of different approaches to the urban traffic control.pdf

  5. Traffic Variability in Benchmarking of Air Navigation Services Providers Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Grebenšek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Air Navigation Services Providers (ANSPs currently handle around 26,000 flights per day. According to forecasts, air traffic levels should probably double by 2020. Different benchmarking exercises have shown that European ATM costs, in comparison to other similar systems on the globe, additional € 2-3 billion per year. This strongly implies that European ATM needs to cut costs and improves its performance. Aeronautical organisations such as the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL or Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO perform benchmarking studies and issue reports, but they both admit that their work is based on factual analysis and not on proper normative analysis and therefore are not entirely objective. Factual analysis is a good starting point, but as already recognized generally, proper methodology should be developed for proper normative analysis. To get a bit closer to objectivity of the results, this paper challenges one of the recognized endogenous factors, the traffic variability. Equalizing the calculations by different variability factors proved that benchmarking order of individual ANSPs changed. Showing an example on how seasonal variability can influence cost-effectiveness and ATCOHour productivity is only one small stone in a mosaic of potential future methodology for normative analysis.

  6. Association between Local Traffic-Generated Air Pollution and Preeclampsia and Preterm Delivery in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jun; Ren, Cizao; Delfino, Ralph J.; Chung, Judith; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy that can lead to substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity, mortality, and preterm birth. Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Yet few studies have examined how local traffic-generated emissions affect preeclampsia in addition to preterm birth. Objectives We examined effects of residential exposure to local traffic-generated air pollution on preeclampsia and preterm delivery (PTD)....

  7. Step-coordination Algorithm of Traffic Control Based on Multi-agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Zhang; Fang Yu; Wen Li

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiency of conventional traffic control method, this paper proposes a new method based on multi-agent technology for traffic control. Different from many existing methods, this paper distinguishes traffic control on the basis of the agent technology from conventional traffic control method. The composition and structure of a multi-agent system (MAS) is first discussed. Then, the step-coordination strategies of intersection-agent, segment-agent, and area-agent are put forward. The advantages of the algorithm are demonstrated by a simulation study.

  8. Optimal control of hydroelectric facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangzhi

    This thesis considers a simple yet realistic model of pump-assisted hydroelectric facilities operating in a market with time-varying but deterministic power prices. Both deterministic and stochastic water inflows are considered. The fluid mechanical and engineering details of the facility are described by a model containing several parameters. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for optimizing either the total energy produced or the total cash generated by these plants. The algorithm allows us to give the optimal control strategy as a function of time and to see how this strategy, and the associated plant value, varies with water inflow and electricity price. We investigate various cases. For a single pumped storage facility experiencing deterministic power prices and water inflows, we investigate the varying behaviour for an oversimplified constant turbine- and pump-efficiency model with simple reservoir geometries. We then generalize this simple model to include more realistic turbine efficiencies, situations with more complicated reservoir geometry, and the introduction of dissipative switching costs between various control states. We find many results which reinforce our physical intuition about this complicated system as well as results which initially challenge, though later deepen, this intuition. One major lesson of this work is that the optimal control strategy does not differ much between two differing objectives of maximizing energy production and maximizing its cash value. We then turn our attention to the case of stochastic water inflows. We present a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm which can find an on-average optimal control in the face of this randomness. As the operator of a facility must be more cautious when inflows are random, the randomness destroys facility value. Following this insight we quantify exactly how much a perfect hydrological inflow forecast would be worth to a dam operator. In our final chapter we discuss the

  9. Air pollution at an urban traffic tunnel in Lisbon, Portugal-an INAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the results of chemical concentrations inside and outside of a Lisbon (Portugal) traffic tunnel were compared, during one week. They were obtained by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The tunnel values largely exceed the Air Ambient legislated values and the Pearson Correlations Coefficients point out to soil re-suspension/dispersed road dust (As, Ce, Eu, Hf, Fe, Mo, Sc, Zn), traffic-markers (Ba, Cr), tire wear (Cr, Zn), break wear (Fe, Zn, Ba, Cu, Sb), exhaust and motor oil (Zn) and sea-spray (Br, Na). On all days these elements inside the tunnel were more enriched than outside; significant statistical differences were found for Co (p=0.005), Br (p=0.008), Zn (p=0.01) and Sb (p=0.005), while enrichment factors of As and Sc are statistically identical. The highest values were found for As, Br, Zn and Sb, for both inside and outside the tunnel.

  10. Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Mediate Diesel Particle Effects in Cytokine-Treated Mice and Murine Lung Epithelial Cells ─ Implications for Susceptibility to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background: Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The strongest associations between traffic exposure and negative health impacts are observed in in...

  11. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  12. Human error data collection as a precursor to the development of a human reliability assessment capability in air traffic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantified risk and safety assessments are now required for safety cases for European air traffic management (ATM) services. Since ATM is highly human-dependent for its safety, this suggests a need for formal human reliability assessment (HRA), as carried out in other industries such as nuclear power. Since the fundamental aspect of HRA is human error data, in the form of human error probabilities (HEPs), it was decided to take a first step towards development of an ATM HRA approach by deriving some HEPs in an ATM context. This paper reports a study, which collected HEPs via analysing the results of a real-time simulation involving air traffic controllers (ATCOs) and pilots, with a focus on communication errors. This study did indeed derive HEPs that were found to be concordant with other known communication human error data. This is a first step, and shows promise for HRA in ATM, since HEPs have been derived which could be used in safety assessments, although these HEPs are for only one (albeit critical) aspect of ATCOs' tasks (communications). The paper discusses options and potential ways forward for the development of a full HRA capability in ATM

  13. Urban Traffic Control Using Adjusted Reinforcement Learning in a Multi-agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Helali Moghadam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamism, continuous changes of states and the necessity to respond quickly are the specific characteristics of the environment in a traffic control system. Proposing an appropriate and flexible strategy to meet the existing requirements is always an important issue in traffic control. This study presents an adaptive approach to control urban traffic using multi-agent systems and a reinforcement learning augmented by an adjusting pre-learning stage. In this approach, the agent primarily uses some statistical traffic data and then uses traffic engineering theories for computing appropriate values of the traffic parameters. Having these primary values, the agents start the reinforcement learning based on the basic calculated information. The proposed approach, at first finds the approximate optimal zone for traffic parameters based on traffic engineering theories. Then using an appropriate reinforcement learning, it tries to exploit the best point according to different conditions. This approach was implemented on a network in traffic simulator software. The network was composed of six four phased intersections and 17 two lane streets. In the simulation, pedestrians were not considered in the system. The load of the network is defined in terms of Origin-Destination matrices whose entries represent the number of trips from an origin to a destination as a function of time. The simulation ran for five hours and an average traffic volume was used. According to the simulation results, the proposed approach behaved adaptively in different conditions and had better performance than the theory-based fixed-time control.

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures and Congenital Heart Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Yang, Wei; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. Methods We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to estimate the odds of 27 congenital heart defects with respect to quartiles of 7 ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in California during the first two months of pregnancy, 1997–2006 (N=813 cases and N=828 controls). Results Particulate matter defects (aOR3rd Quartile=2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9) after adjusting for maternal race-ethnicity, education and multivitamin use. PM2.5 was associated with transposition of the great arteries (aOR3rd Quartile=2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.5) and inversely associated with perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR4th Quartile=0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9). Secundum atrial septal defects were inversely associated with carbon monoxide (aOR4th Quartile=0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) and PM2.5 (aOR4th Quartile=0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). Traffic density was associated with muscular ventricular septal defects (aOR4th Quartile=3.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 7.8) and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR3rd Quartile =2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.6), and inversely associated with transposition of the great arteries (aOR4th Quartile=0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). Conclusions PM10 and traffic density may contribute to the occurrence of pulmonary valve stenosis and ventricular septal defects, respectively. The results were mixed for other pollutants and had little consistency with previous studies. PMID:23772934

  15. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marakhimov, A. R.; Igamberdiev, H. Z.; Umarov, Sh. X.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081

  16. The Study of Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Self-Adaptive Control under Multiagent Markov Game Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lun-Hui Xu; Xin-Hai Xia; Qiang Luo

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic self-adaptive control problem is dynamic and uncertain, so the states of traffic environment are hard to be observed. Efficient agent which controls a single intersection can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning. However, in the majority of the previous works on this approach, each agent needed perfect observed information when interacting with the environment and learned individually with less efficient coordination. This study casts traffic self-ad...

  17. Validating an Air Traffic Management Concept of Operation Using Statistical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuning; Davies, Misty Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Validating a concept of operation for a complex, safety-critical system (like the National Airspace System) is challenging because of the high dimensionality of the controllable parameters and the infinite number of states of the system. In this paper, we use statistical modeling techniques to explore the behavior of a conflict detection and resolution algorithm designed for the terminal airspace. These techniques predict the robustness of the system simulation to both nominal and off-nominal behaviors within the overall airspace. They also can be used to evaluate the output of the simulation against recorded airspace data. Additionally, the techniques carry with them a mathematical value of the worth of each prediction-a statistical uncertainty for any robustness estimate. Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is the process of quantitative characterization and ultimately a reduction of uncertainties in complex systems. UQ is important for understanding the influence of uncertainties on the behavior of a system and therefore is valuable for design, analysis, and verification and validation. In this paper, we apply advanced statistical modeling methodologies and techniques on an advanced air traffic management system, namely the Terminal Tactical Separation Assured Flight Environment (T-TSAFE). We show initial results for a parameter analysis and safety boundary (envelope) detection in the high-dimensional parameter space. For our boundary analysis, we developed a new sequential approach based upon the design of computer experiments, allowing us to incorporate knowledge from domain experts into our modeling and to determine the most likely boundary shapes and its parameters. We carried out the analysis on system parameters and describe an initial approach that will allow us to include time-series inputs, such as the radar track data, into the analysis

  18. Human-system safety methods for development of advanced air traffic management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems (author) (ml)

  19. Intelligent Controlling Simulation of Traffic Flow in a Small City Network

    CERN Document Server

    Fouladvand, M E; Sadjadi, Z; Sadjadi, Zeinab

    2005-01-01

    We propose a two dimensional probabilistic cellular automata for the description of traffic flow in a small city network composed of two intersections. The traffic in the network is controlled by a set of traffic lights which can be operated both in fixed-time and a traffic responsive manner. Vehicular dynamics is simulated and the total delay experienced by the traffic is evaluated within specified time intervals. We investigate both decentralized and centralized traffic responsive schemes and in particular discuss the implementation of the {\\it green-wave} strategy. Our investigations prove that the network delay strongly depends on the signalisation strategy. We show that in some traffic conditions, the application of the green-wave scheme may destructively lead to the increment of the global delay.

  20. Traffic Flow at Sags: Theory, Modeling and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Goni-Ros, B.

    2016-01-01

    Sag vertical curves (sags) are roadway sections along which the gradient increases gradually in the direction of traffic. Empirical observations show that, on freeways, traffic congestion often occurs at sags; actually, in some countries (e.g., Japan), sags are one of the most common types of freeway bottleneck. This thesis is the outcome of a research project funded by Toyota whose objective was to develop new concepts for traffic management at freeway sags based on a thorough understanding ...

  1. Self-control of traffic lights and vehicle flows in urban road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmer, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    Based on fluid-dynamic and many-particle (car-following) simulations of traffic flows in (urban) networks, we study the problem of coordinating incompatible traffic flows at intersections. Inspired by the observation of self-organized oscillations of pedestrian flows at bottlenecks, we propose a self-organization approach to traffic light control. The problem can be treated as a multi-agent problem with interactions between vehicles and traffic lights. Specifically, our approach assumes a priority-based control of traffic lights by the vehicle flows themselves, taking into account short-sighted anticipation of vehicle flows and platoons. The considered local interactions lead to emergent coordination patterns such as 'green waves' and achieve an efficient, decentralized traffic light control. While the proposed self-control adapts flexibly to local flow conditions and often leads to non-cyclical switching patterns with changing service sequences of different traffic flows, an almost periodic service may evolve under certain conditions and suggests the existence of a spontaneous synchronization of traffic lights despite the varying delays due to variable vehicle queues and travel times. The self-organized traffic light control is based on an optimization and a stabilization rule, each of which performs poorly at high utilizations of the road network, while their proper combination reaches a superior performance. The result is a considerable reduction not only in the average travel times, but also of their variation. Similar control approaches could be applied to the coordination of logistic and production processes.

  2. The Conception Approach to the Traffic Control in Czech Cities - Examples from Prague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, Tomáš; Krajčír, Dušan

    Modern and economic development of contemporary towns is without question highly dependent upon traffic infrastructure progress. Automobile transport intensity is dramatically rising in large towns and other Czech and European cities. At the same time number of traffic congestions and accidents is increasing, standing times are becoming longer and ecological stress is also escalated. To solve this situation seems to be the most effective solution to design intelligent traffic light intersection control system, variable message signs, preference of public transportation, road line traffic control and next telematics subsystems. This control system and subsystems should improve permeability of traffic road network with a respect for all demands on recent trends of traffic development in towns and regions.

  3. Distributed learning and multi-objectivity in traffic light control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brys, Tim; Pham, Tong T.; Taylor, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic jams and suboptimal traffic flows are ubiquitous in modern societies, and they create enormous economic losses each year. Delays at traffic lights alone account for roughly 10% of all delays in US traffic. As most traffic light scheduling systems currently in use are static, set up by human experts rather than being adaptive, the interest in machine learning approaches to this problem has increased in recent years. Reinforcement learning (RL) approaches are often used in these studies, as they require little pre-existing knowledge about traffic flows. Distributed constraint optimisation approaches (DCOP) have also been shown to be successful, but are limited to cases where the traffic flows are known. The distributed coordination of exploration and exploitation (DCEE) framework was recently proposed to introduce learning in the DCOP framework. In this paper, we present a study of DCEE and RL techniques in a complex simulator, illustrating the particular advantages of each, comparing them against standard isolated traffic actuated signals. We analyse how learning and coordination behave under different traffic conditions, and discuss the multi-objective nature of the problem. Finally we evaluate several alternative reward signals in the best performing approach, some of these taking advantage of the correlation between the problem-inherent objectives to improve performance.

  4. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed system integrates three modules for data collection, storage and information dissemination. The modules works together to enable real-time traffic control. Disseminated information from the system, enables road users to adjust their travelling habit, also it allows the traffic lights to control the traffic in relation to the real-time situation occurring on the road. In this paper the system implementation and testing was performed. The results indicated that there is a possibility to track traffic data using Global Positioning System enabled mobile phones, and after processing the collected data, real-time traffic status was displayed on web interface. This enabled road users to know in advance the situation occurring on the roads and hence make proper travelling decision. Further research should consider adjusting the traffic lights control system to understand the disseminated real-time traffic information.

  5. Aircraft emission inventories for scheduled air traffic for the 1976-92 time period. Historical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.; Tritz, T.G. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Emission inventories of fuel burned, NO{sub x}, CO, and hydrocarbons have been calculated for scheduled air traffic in 1976, 1984, 1990 and 1992 on a 1 deg latitude x 1 deg longitude x 1 km pressure altitude grid. Using this database, the seasonal variation and historical trends in aircraft emissions have been calculated for selected geographical regions (e.g., North Atlantic, Europe, North America, North Pacific). The trend in emissions is a combination of the effects of passenger demand growth, improved aircraft efficiency, changes in combustor characteristics, and aircraft size. (author) 8 refs.

  6. Trends in aircraft emissions. Simulation of two air traffic scenarios in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, L.G.; Palsson, A. [The Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden). The Swedish Civil Aviation Administration

    1997-12-31

    The developing trends of emissions from aviation in Sweden have been studied by means of flight and emissions simulation. The objective was to investigate whether technical improvements will allow Swedish air traffic to increase, without exceeding national regulations for pollution in the future. It was found that, due to development of aircraft engines and, to some extent, improvement of aerodynamic designs, the fuel consumption and thus the emissions of carbon dioxide will decrease in the future. The decrease of nitrous oxides is predicted to be significant due to advances in engine technology. (author) 4 refs.

  7. Analysis of Factors for Incorporating User Preferences in Air Traffic Management: A system Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kapil S.; Gutierrez-Nolasco, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors that impact user flight schedules during air traffic congestion. In pre-departure flight planning, users file one route per flight, which often leads to increased delays, inefficient airspace utilization, and exclusion of user flight preferences. In this paper, first the idea of filing alternate routes and providing priorities on each of those routes is introduced. Then, the impact of varying planning interval and system imposed departure delay increment is discussed. The metrics of total delay and equity are used for analyzing the impact of these factors on increased traffic and on different users. The results are shown for four cases, with and without the optional routes and priority assignments. Results demonstrate that adding priorities to optional routes further improves system performance compared to filing one route per flight and using first-come first-served scheme. It was also observed that a two-hour planning interval with a five-minute system imposed departure delay increment results in highest delay reduction. The trend holds for a scenario with increased traffic.

  8. Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and birth defects in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girguis, Mariam S; Strickland, Matthew J; Hu, Xuefei; Liu, Yang; Bartell, Scott M; Vieira, Verónica M

    2016-04-01

    Exposures to particulate matter with diameter of 2.5µm or less (PM2.5) may influence risk of birth defects. We estimated associations between maternal exposure to prenatal traffic-related air pollution and risk of cardiac, orofacial, and neural tube defects among Massachusetts births conceived 2001 through 2008. Our analyses included 2729 cardiac, 255 neural tube, and 729 orofacial defects. We used satellite remote sensing, meteorological and land use data to assess PM2.5 and traffic-related exposures (distance to roads and traffic density) at geocoded birth addresses. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models. Generalized additive models were used to assess spatial patterns of birth defect risk. There were positive but non-significant associations for a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.83), patent foramen ovale (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.54) and patent ductus arteriosus (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.62). There was a non-significant inverse association between PM2.5 and cleft lip with or without palate (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.10), cleft palate only (OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.46) and neural tube defects (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.05). Results for traffic related exposure were similar. Only ostium secundum atrial septal defects displayed significant spatial variation after accounting for known risk factors. PMID:26705853

  9. Control de tráfico vehicular usando ANFIS Vehicular traffic control using ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Pedraza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes estrategias para el control del tráfico urbano se han presentado a lo largo del tiempo. Este artículo presenta el diseño de un modelo de tráfico vehicular, el cual examina el tráfico existente en una vía a través de una serie de semáforos. A partir de este modelo se sincronizan los tiempos de duración y de desfase de los semáforos, utilizando para ello el Sistema de Inferencia Difusa Basado en Redes Adaptativas (ANFIS. El modelo es simulado y los resultados se evalúan a nivel macroscópico con el modelo de tiempos fijos, que funciona actualmente en Bogotá-Colombia.Different strategies for urban traffic control have been presented over time. This paper presents the design of a vehicular traffic model, examining the existing traffic through a serie of traffic lights on a road. From this model the times of duration and phase of the traffic lights are synchronized, using the Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS. The model is simulated and the results are evaluated at macroscopic level with the fixed time model, currently operating in Bogota-Colombia.

  10. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Wichmann, J.; Autrup, H.;

    2009-01-01

    highest among mother-newborn pairs who lived near medium-traffic-density (> 400-2500 vehicle km/24 h; p <0.01) places. MN frequencies among newborns from women who lived at high-traffic-density homes ( > 2500 vehicle km/24 h) were significantly increased (p = 0.02). This trend remained after adjusting for......Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were...... assessed through the use of validated biomarkers in blood cells from mother-newborn pairs. A cross-sectional biomonitoring study with healthy pregnant women living in the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark, was conducted. Bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei (MN) were measured in blood from 75 women and 69...

  11. TEHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AUTOMATIC ROAD SAFETY TRAFFIC CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Polyschuk, V.; Yeriesov, V.; Lanovoy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Alternative methods and indicators of acceleration noise have been considered and the influence of car following regime at traffic safety level as specialty in the Intelligent Transportation System. Practice analyzes the results proved the possibility of this methods for estimation of traffic safety conditions.

  12. The Traffic Noise Index: A Method of Controlling Noise Nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, F. J.; Scholes, W. E.

    This building research survey is an analysis of the social nuisance caused by urban motor ways and their noise. The Traffic Noise Index is used to indicate traffic noises and their effects on architectural designs and planning, while suggesting the need for more and better window insulation and acoustical barriers. Overall concern is for--(1)…

  13. Individual traffic-related air pollution and new onset adult asthma: A GIS-based pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherson, D.; Lysbeck Hansen, C. (Hospital of Vejle, Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, (Denmark)); Solvang Jensen, S.; Hertel, O. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute (Denmark)); Baelum, J. (Odense Univ. Hospital, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Skadhauge, L. (Haderslev Hospital, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Siersted, H.C. (Odense Univ. Hospital, Dep. of Respiratory Medicine (Denmark)); Omland, OE. (Aalborg Hospital, Dep. of Occupational Medicine (Denmark)); Thomsen, G. (South-West Jutland Hospital Esbjerg, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Sigsgaard, T. (Univ. of Aarhus, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark))

    2008-03-15

    The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the relation between asthma and wheeze debut and individually estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with a validated exposure system (AirGIS). A non-smoking cohort with recently acquired asthma or wheeze as well as matched controls was identified from a large cross-sectional study. All residential and working addresses with corresponding time periods for a 10 year period were successfully identified for all study participants (N=33) and exposure estimated for both urban background and street level. Individual levels of air pollutants in the years preceding debut of asthma or wheeze were analyzed using survival analysis. No significant correlations between exposure levels and onset of disease or symptom were demonstrated. A tendency towards higher levels of nitrogen oxides exposure during the year prior to debut was seen in wheeze cases. Substantial problems in determining time of onset were encountered. It is recommended that the analytic methods developed in this pilot study are used in a larger prospective cohort to investigate individual trafficrelated air pollutants as a risk factor for the development of new asthma and wheeze. (au)

  14. Potential effects of using biodiesel in road-traffic on air quality over the Porto urban area, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabel; Monteiro, Alexandra; Lopes, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impacts of biodiesel blends use in road-traffic on air quality. In this frame, the air quality numerical modelling system WRF-EURAD was applied over Portugal and the Porto urban area, forced by two emission scenarios (including CO, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and benzene): a reference scenario, without biofuels, and a scenario where a B20 fuel (20% biodiesel/80% diesel, v/v) is used by the diesel vehicle fleet. Regarding carbonyl compounds, emission scenarios pointed out that B20 fuel can promote an increase of 20% on formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions, leading to increments on equivalent ozone production. On the other hand, through the air quality modelling exercise, it was verified that the use of B20 helps in controlling air pollution, improving CO and NO2 concentrations in urban airshed in about 20% and 10%, respectively, taking into account a regional simulation grid. However, according to the urban scale simulation, NO2 levels can increase in about 1%, due to the use of B20, over the Porto urban area. For the remaining studied pollutants, namely PM10 and PM2.5, mean concentrations will be reduced all over the territory, however in a negligible amount of <1%.

  15. 75 FR 18572 - Facility Control Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Facility Control Numbers AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of planned use of Facility Control Numbers. SUMMARY: The IRS has developed and is publishing in this issue of the Federal Register, Facility Control Numbers to communicate to the motor fuel...

  16. Antimony: a traffic-related element in the atmosphere of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Darío R; Fernanda Giné, María; Claudia Sánchez Bellato, Ana; Smichowski, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    Vehicular traffic is one of the main sources of antimony in highly populated urban areas like Buenos Aires where an overall traffic density of 1 500 000 vehicles per day (corresponding to 7500 vehicles km(-2)) is estimated. In this context, a study was undertaken to ascertain the levels of Sb and other traffic-related elements (TRE) in the atmosphere of this city. To this end, sixty-seven samples of PM-10 particulate matter were collected during eight days in nine representative sampling sites located downtown Buenos Aires and spread over an area of about 30 km2. The collection of particulate matter was performed on ash-free glass-fibre filters using high volume samplers with PM-10 sampling heads. A combination of aqua regia and perchloric acid was used for leaching metals from filters. The resulting solutions were evaporated and then diluted with 0.1 mol l(-1) HCl. Antimony was determined by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) at ng g(-1) levels. Concentrations of Sb varied from 12.9 +/- 0.9 to 375 +/- 23 microg g(-1)(equivalent to 0.87 +/- 0.06 to 15.3 +/- 0.8 ng m(-3)). Statistical analysis was performed on the data set including the measured PM-10 mass and Sb concentrations for the monitored period. Correlations of Sb with other TRE namely, Cu and Mo were also assessed. The highest concentrations of Sb were detected at two sites (Hospital Alemán and Casa Rapallini) located in streets with traffic consisting mostly of passenger cars and showing a "stop-and-go" pattern in peak hours. Antimony levels in the Buenos Aires PM-10 are by far below the level of 0.5 mg m(-3)(for an 8 hour workday, 40 hour work week) set by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for occupational exposure. However, monitoring of Sb and other TRE should be carried out in a systematic fashion to detect the possibility of increases in from the present levels. PMID:16307067

  17. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF RII) in sera of children and traffic-derived particulate air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, F A; Stiller-Winkler, R; Hadnagy, W; Ranft, U; Idel, H

    1999-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF RII) was determined in sera of 160 healthy schoolchildren of the city of Düsseldorf, Germany, living in areas with different traffic density. According to the frequency distribution a higher prevalence of children with increased sTNF RII values (> 3000 pg/ml) were found for a high traffic area as compared to a low traffic area. Based on sTNF RII values above the 75% percentile of children from the low traffic area, the group of children from the high traffic area revealed a significant increased odds ratio of 2.5. Concerning traffic-derived particulate air pollution an association between the concentration of fine particles (PM2.5) and sTNF RII serum levels could be observed for both areas. Furthermore, sTNF RII values gave a significant positive correlation with C3c, an activation product of the complement component C3. C3c has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of the non-specific humoral defence in response to air pollution. Therefore, the results suggest that traffic-derived fine particles may upon inhalation trigger immune modulation via the activation of macrophages and enhanced cytokine production. PMID:10631790

  18. Elemental carbon as an indicator for evaluating the impact of traffic measures on air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuken, M. P.; Jonkers, S.; Zandveld, P.; Voogt, M.; Elshout van den, S.

    2012-12-01

    From 2005 to 2009 there was a 40% decrease in the number of days on which the European daily limit value of PM10 was exceeded at traffic locations in European cities. Yet, in many of these cities, air quality is still not in compliance with the European Air Quality Directive and additional traffic measures are planned. Our study shows that elemental carbon (EC) is a more appropriate indicator than PM2.5 and PM10 for evaluating the impact of traffic measures on air quality and health. The modelled improvement in EC concentration was translated in life years gained as a result of a traffic measure. This was investigated for a speed management zone on a motorway in the city of Rotterdam. Eighty-five per cent of those living within 400 m of the motorway gained 0-1 months of life expectancy and another 15% gained 1-3 months, depending on their distance from the motorway. In addition, EC was used to evaluate a low emission zone in Amsterdam, specifically for those living along inner-urban roads with intense traffic levels. The zone only restricts heavy duty vehicles with Euro emission class 0 to 2, Euro 3 older than eight years or more recent Euro 3 without diesel particulate filter. The results indicate a population-weighted, average gain of 0.2 months in life expectancy as compared with a maximum potential gain of 2.9 months. It is concluded that on motorways speed management is an effective measure, while a low emission zone as implemented in our case study, is less effective to reduce health effects of road traffic emissions. For inner-urban roads reduction of traffic volume seems the most effective traffic measure for improving air quality and health.

  19. Preterm Birth: The Interaction of Traffic-related Air Pollution with Economic Hardship in Los Angeles Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Ninez A; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2005-01-01

    Preterm birth may be affected by the interaction of residential air pollution with neighborhood economic hardship. The authors examined variations in traffic-related pollution exposure—measured by distance-weighted traffic density—using a framework reflecting the social and physical environments. An adverse social environment was conceptualized as low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods—census tracts with concentrated poverty, unemployment, and dependence on public assistance. An adverse...

  20. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Allison P; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (US...

  1. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  2. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Alfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of a sedentary life style, on the one hand, and of acute and chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution, on the other. Because physical exercise augments the amount of inhaled pollutants, it is not clear whether cycling to work in a polluted urban environment should be encouraged or not. To address this conundrum we investigated if a bicycle journey along a busy commuting road would induce changes in biomarkers of pulmonary and systematic inflammation in a group of healthy subjects. Methods 38 volunteers (mean age: 43 ± 8.6 years, 26% women cycled for about 20 minutes in real traffic near a major bypass road (road test; mean UFP exposure: 28,867 particles per cm3 in Antwerp and in a laboratory with filtered air (clean room; mean UFP exposure: 496 particles per cm3. The exercise intensity (heart rate and duration of cycling were similar for each volunteer in both experiments. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, platelet function, Clara cell protein in serum and blood cell counts were measured before and 30 minutes after exercise. Results Percentage of blood neutrophils increased significantly more (p = 0.004 after exercise in the road test (3.9%; 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.2%; p = 0.003 than after exercise in the clean room (0.2%; 95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2%, p = 0.83. The pre/post-cycling changes in exhaled NO, plasma IL-6, platelet function, serum levels of Clara cell protein and number of total blood leukocytes did not differ significantly between the two scenarios. Conclusions Traffic-related exposure to particles during exercise caused a small increase in the distribution of inflammatory blood cells in healthy subjects. The health significance of this isolated change is unclear.

  3. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.; Beelen, R.M.J.; Hoek, G.; Schouten, L.J.; Bausch-Goldbohm, S.; Fischer, P.; Armstrong, B.; Hughes, E.; Jerrett, M.; v.d. Brandt, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases. In a 2002 pilot study, we reported clear indications that traffic-related air pollution, especially at the local scale, was related to cardiopulmonary mortality in a rando

  4. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic l

  5. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure. PMID:27064731

  6. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  7. Design and Construction of Intelligent Traffic Light Control System Using Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Htin; Aye, Khin Muyar; Tun, Hla Myo; Theingi, Naing, Zaw Min

    2008-10-01

    Vehicular travel is increasing throughout the world, particularly in large urban areas. Therefore the need arises for simulation and optimizing traffic control algorithms to better accommodate this increasing demand. This paper presents a microcontroller simulation of intelligent traffic light controller using fuzzy logic that is used to change the traffic signal cycles adaptively at a two-way intersection. This paper is an attempt to design an intelligent traffic light control systems using microcontrollers such as PIC 16F84A and PIC 16F877A. And then traffic signal can be controlled depending upon the densities of cars behind green and red lights of the two-way intersection by using sensors and detectors circuits.

  8. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise - Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel...... exhaust (DE) at 276μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were...... unaltered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No significant differences in DNA damage levels, measured by the comet assay, were observed after DE exposure, whereas exposure to high noise levels was associated with significantly increased levels of hOGG1-sensitive sites in PBMCs. Urinary levels...

  9. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2010-01-01

    air pollution and traffic density. The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 10(3) Bq/m(3)-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx (p (interaction,) 0.17). Analyses for...... included 985 cases of childhood leukemia and 1,969 control children. We used validated models to calculate residential radon and street NOx concentrations for each home. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the effect of radon on childhood leukemia risk within different strata of...

  10. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study with Individual Exposure Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrett, Michael; Shankardass, Ketan; Berhane, Kiros; Gauderman, W James; Künzli, Nino; Avol, Edward; Gilliland, Frank; Lurmann, Fred; Molitor, Jassy N.; Molitor, John T.; Thomas, Duncan C; Peters, John; McCONNELL, ROB

    2008-01-01

    Background The question of whether air pollution contributes to asthma onset remains unresolved. Objectives In this study, we assessed the association between asthma onset in children and traffic-related air pollution. Methods We selected a sample of 217 children from participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study, a prospective cohort designed to investigate associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children 10–18 years of age. Individual covariates and ne...

  11. Nitric oxide and superoxide mediate diesel particle effects in cytokine-treated mice and murine lung epithelial cells — implications for susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Manzo Nicholas D; LaGier Adriana J; Slade Ralph; Ledbetter Allen D; Richards Judy H; Dye Janice A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The strongest associations between traffic exposure and negative health impacts are observed in individuals with respiratory inflammation. We hypothesized that interactions between nitric oxide (NO), increased during lung inflammatory responses, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased as a consequence of traffic...

  12. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n = 2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n = 322) and intervention (n = 313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p < 0.05) and a reduction in sales of red (30.4% to 27.2%; p < 0.05) light items from baseline to the TLL period. The effectiveness of TLL did not differ according to any of the demographic or other factors examined in the survey. Average daily revenues did not differ between the baseline and TLL periods. TLL of menus increased purchase of healthy, and reduced purchase of unhealthy foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items. PMID:25913684

  13. Potential of controlled traffic farming with automatic guidance on an organic farm in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera, J.; Wel, van der, GK; Klooster, van der, A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Some organic farms in the Netherlands use RTK-DGPS guidance of machinery over fixed traffic lanes to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimum soil structure. These lanes are not yet used for harvesting and primary tillage. The potential of such a seasonal controlled traffic farming (SCTF) system was evaluated. In an on-farm field experiment in green pea, spinach, onions and carrots, SCTF with traffic lanes at 3.15-m centres was compared with conventional random traffic farming (RTF)...

  14. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Batterman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA. Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e

  15. Biomonitoring of traffic air pollution in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eva; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Winkler, Aldo; Cascella, Antonio

    We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Rome based on the magnetic properties of tree leaves. In a first step, magnetic properties of leaves from different tree species from the same location were compared. It was observed that leaves of evergreen species, like Quercus ilex, present much higher magnetic intensities than those of deciduous species, like Platanus sp., suggesting that leaves accumulate magnetic pollutants during their whole lifespan. In a second step, leaves from Q. ilex and Platanus sp. trees, both very common in Rome, have been used to monitor traffic emission pollution in two different periods. A Platanus sp. sampling campaign was undertaken in October 2001, at the end of the seasonal vegetational cycle, and 5 Q. ilex monthly sampling campaigns from April to August 2002. The strong difference observed in the magnetic susceptibility from leaves collected in green areas and roads allowed the realization of detailed pollution distribution maps from the south of Rome. Magnetic properties indicate that high concentrations and relatively larger grain-sizes of magnetic particles are observed in trees located along roads with high vehicle traffic and in the vicinity of railways. The decrease in concentration and grain size of magnetic particles with distance from the roadside confirms that magnetic properties of leaves are related to air pollution from vehicle emissions. The results indicate that a magnetic survey of tree leaves, which is relatively rapid and inexpensive, may be used in addition to the classical air quality monitoring systems to identify and delineate high-polluted areas in urban environments.

  16. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  17. WSN Applications: Automated Intelligent Traffic Control System Using Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Hussain; Sandhyasharma; Vinita Sharma; Sandhya Sharma

    2013-01-01

    In this new Era the growing Vehicle population in all developing and developed country calls for a major improvement and innovation in the existing Traffic Signaling systems. The most widely used automated system uses a simple time based system which working on a time interval basis which is now inefficient for random and non uniform Traffic. Advance automated systems in testing use image processing techniques or advance communication system with an intelligent information gathering systems i...

  18. Individual Markers of Resilience in Train Traffic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Julia C.; Pluyter, Kari R.; Meijer, Sebastiaan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual markers of resilience and obtain quantitative insights into the understanding and the implications of variation and expertise levels in train traffic operators’ goals and strategic mental models and their impact on performance. Background: The Dutch railways are one of the world’s most heavy utilized railway networks and have been identified to be weak in system and organizational resilience. Method: Twenty-two train traffic controlle...

  19. Robust control tools for traffic monitoring in TCP/AQM networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ariba, Yassine; Gouaisbaut, Frédéric; Rahme, Sandy; Labit, Yann

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have considered control theory tools for traffic control in communication networks, as for example the congestion control issue in IP (Internet Protocol) routers. In this paper, we propose to design a linear observer for time-delay systems to address the traffic monitoring issue in TCP/AQM (Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management) networks. Due to several propagation delays and the queueing delay, the set TCP/AQM is modeled as a multiple delayed system of a parti...

  20. Combination of traffic-responsive and gating control in urban networks: Effective interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Gao, X.; Gayah, V.V.; Knoop, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings regarding macroscopic relationships of urban traffic measures such as the Macroscopic or Network Fundamental Diagram (MFD or NFD) have led to the development of novel traffic control strategies that can be applied at a network-wide level. One pertinent example is perimeter flow contr