WorldWideScience

Sample records for air terrorist acts

  1. Definition of Terrorist Act under Eth Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen_D_K

    would have been treated as terrorist under regional and international law. This has a .... The Australian anti-terrorism law, one of the legislation said to have been .... UN Security Council: 1985–2004,' Chinese Journal of International Law, 141, ..... Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, adopted by.

  2. Elements of the terrorism reviewed through instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlate Dimovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a global threat to all countries regardless their social, economic and religious setting. For the realization of their activities, terrorists use different models. As funds for realization of the terrorist act they use different types of weapons, mainly firearms. Terrorist organizations that practice modern forms of terrorism also use weapons of mass destruction. According to that, they improve the ways of getting funds for the realization of the terrorist acts, its internal organization and the ways of practicing terrorism. In this article, we will give a brief overview of the instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

  3. [Terrorist acting out, narcissism and psychopathology of identifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The impact of wounds and narcissistic conflicts can favour a murderous acting out. From a psychoanalytical point of view, narcissistic positions tinged with cynicism and envy in particular are identified, on a background of a pathology of ideals and the melancholisation of the social link. This article looks back at the attack in Paris in January 2015 through statements taken from social discourse.

  4. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious mea...

  5. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  6. Dosage of the intensity of terrorist acts in countries where the phenomenon is endogenous. The Colombian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gabriela Rodríguez Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, terrorism -except in outstanding cases- has not opted for a single way to execute its plans. Often it has developed various types of action with the passage of time and changing of technologies. This has constituted a systematic execution of crime; however, not all countries that faced the phenomenon have been consistent in dosage and rating of it. This dosage is related to the intensity in the execution of terrorist actions, also it is related to the implementation of an alarm to avoid the materialization of the act as well as the construction of an action protocol by the state security forces so that this can be avoided. This protocol allows us to know and repel terrorist activity underway.

  7. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  8. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  9. 恐怖活动的象征性标识--以巴黎恐袭案为例%Symbolic Signs of Terrorist Acts:the Case of Terrorist Attacks in Paris as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友龙

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] More and more symbolic signs are displayed in terrorist acts. By analyzing symbolic signs, we can better understand terrorism and grasp rules of terrorist acts, and then take measures of intelligence warning and prevention accordingly. [ Method/Process] Using symbolic communication theory of terrorism, terrorist acts are viewed as the special symbolic violence act with the purpose of information communication. From symbolic signs we can get the implicit information. [ Result/Conclusion] In the case of terrorist attacks in Paris, through many symbolic signs terrorists passed the important information, like religious doctrine of terrorism, op-position to secular life and clash of civilizations etc. The use of symbolic signs in the future will be more extensive, needs more attention and prevention.%[目的/意义]恐怖活动中呈现出越来越多的象征性标识,研究象征性标识将有助于我们更好地理解恐怖主义,掌握恐怖活动的规律,从而进行有针对性的情报预警与防范。[方法/过程]运用恐怖主义的象征性沟通理论,将恐怖活动看作以信息沟通为目的、具有特殊象征性的暴力行为,通过分析恐怖活动的象征性标识来揭示其传递的隐含信息。[结果/结论]巴黎系列恐怖袭击案件中的象征性标识,传递出恐怖主义的教义信仰、反世俗生活方式、文明冲突等重要信息。象征性标识的运用在未来将更加广泛,应加以关注与防范。

  10. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  11. Prison Radicalization in County Jails: Disrupting Terrorist Acts Through Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    inmate is jailed directly after being arrested. Timely intelligence describes activity, relationships , and situations that currently exist or that are...researcher’s employer) acts as the fiduciary for the management of the grants that fund the center’s operation. Additionally, many of the employees in...develop an expertise in corrections. 3. Monitoring The appropriate person(s) should establish a relationship with the personnel assigned to the CII. The

  12. NOMINATION PECULIARITIES OF SUBJECT OF TERRORIST ACTS IN FRENCH NEWSPAPER (ON BASIS OF NEWSPAPERS «LE FIGARO» AND «LIBÉRATION»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Khiminetc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of terrorism is becoming increasingly important in the world. In addition to adopting the necessary security measures, it is also required to study the problem in the most comprehensive way. The current study will allow to present the cumulative knowledge of terrorism and to consider it in a more detailed way. With the help of component analysis and contextual meanings of a word "terrorism", as well as frame analysis of the concepts of "terrorism", key components of its meaning are identified. Based on these results we study the development of the concept "terrorism". The analysis of lexicographical sources shows that firstly "terrorism" appeared in the XVIII century and referred to violent acts of the revolutionaries. However, modern interpretation of the meanings is substantially different from the first one. The analysis of dictionary definitions helps to create a total view on this phenomenon and to define its basic components. With the help of cognitive semantic analysis we modeled the frame, which is presented as a mental structure, showing the body of knowledge about terrorism. Further we carried out a semantic analysis of the nominations which describe the subject of terrorist acts in the role of patient, such as a terrorist, an Islamist, a jihadist, etc. The material of the study is based on the articles of the French newspaper “Le Figaro” and “Libération” published in the first month since the beginning of counter-terrorist operation "Serval", which took place on theterritoryofMali. 

  13. Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters......Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters...

  14. 76 FR 39408 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-030 Use of the Terrorist Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    .../FBI-019 Terrorist Screening Records System of Records (August 22, 2007, 72 FR 47073) Exemptions... System of Records (August 22, 2007, 72 FR 47073) in order to automate and simplify the current method for... (May 19, 2010, 75 FR 28046); (2) TSA, Secure Flight Program: DHS/TSA-019 Secure Flight Records...

  15. Dosage of the intensity of terrorist acts in countries where the phenomenon is endogenous. The Colombian case

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Gabriela Rodríguez Morales

    2015-01-01

    Historically, terrorism -except in outstanding cases- has not opted for a single way to execute its plans. Often it has developed various types of action with the passage of time and changing of technologies. This has constituted a systematic execution of crime; however, not all countries that faced the phenomenon have been consistent in dosage and rating of it. This dosage is related to the intensity in the execution of terrorist actions, also it is related to the implementation of an alarm ...

  16. Understanding the Terrorist Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile

    2016-01-01

    While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today's investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.

  17. Understanding the Terrorist Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Editor’s Note: While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today’s investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.

  18. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  19. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin

    2017-07-01

    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Profile of a Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    than those questions dealing with terrorists and their methods. Explosives are used routinely and plastique has entered the terrorist’s preferred...to handle. (12:23) The female Lebanese terrorist, May Mansin, easily concealed plastique in a body cavity and proceeded to blow a hole into the side

  1. Section 609 of the Clean Air Act: Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet provides a general overview of EPA regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act, which is focused on preventing the release of refrigerants during the servicing of motor vehicle air-conditioning systems and similar appliances.

  2. Terrorisme, terroriste

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The word "terrorism" was inventend to describe the policy of the French republic after the French revolution and was claimed by the Republican Themselves. Today "terrorism" is used in the rhetoric of power to present an adversary as "absolute evil". The word is reserved to non official groups unable to battle professional armies and so it is discarded when the question is tu judge the acts of those armies. The result is that in today's violent conflict, only the weakest can bel labeled "terro...

  3. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities.

  4. Needs of Terrorist

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov; Konstantin G. Surnov

    2009-01-01

    This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at diff erent stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of infl uence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  5. Needs of Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at different stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of influence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  6. [Mitochondrial DNA typing--a new level for solving identification problems in forensic medical expert identification of unidentified remains of victims of terrorist acts in Moscow and the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P L; Frolova, S A; Orekhov, V A; Iankovskiĭ, N K; Zemskova, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    Two large-scale episodes described in this paper reflect the first in Russia use of molecular genetic matrilinear markers (analysis of polymorphism of sequences of amplified fragments of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable locuses) in solution of a complex identification problem: forensic medical identification of unidentified fragments of victims of explosions of houses in Moscow in September, 1999, and of soldiers dead in the war conflict in the Chechen Republic in 1994-1996. The results of this work and methodological experience gained in it essentially extend the potentialities of expert studies as regards forensic medical identification of victims of large scale disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts.

  7. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32 Terrorist...

  8. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  9. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  10. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal...

  11. Fatal and non-fatal injuries among U.S. Air Force personnel resulting from the terrorist bombing of the Khobar Towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Donald; Brown, Sheryll; Mallonee, Sue; Sunshine, Douglas

    2004-08-01

    Culminating with the events of September 11, 2001, U.S. civilian and military populations are vulnerable to terrorist attacks. Information about the patterns of injuries and their causes inform disaster management planning and can improve structural and architectural design. This report documents the injuries following an estimated 20K bomb at the Khobar Towers military compound in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. US Air Force personnel in the compound at the time of the bombing were evaluated. Data were collected through a mail survey, and a review of military medical records and autopsy reports. Outcome measures included injury types, treatment status, severity, and causes of injuries. The study identified 574 persons who were injured in the bombing; 19 persons died. A total of 420 (73%) persons were injured directly in the blast and 154 (27%) persons were injured during evacuation, search and rescue, during cleanup, or sustained only auditory or inhalation trauma. Sixteen percent of survivors injured directly in the blast were hospitalized; 6% were critical. Soft tissue and foreign body injuries of the lower extremities were the most common injuries among survivors, most often caused by glass. Persons who died suffered extensive, multiple injuries from blunt trauma and one death was caused by glass. All deaths were immediate and the majority of survivors suffered minor to moderate injuries. Injuries and deaths were consistent with extensive glass damage in the compound and fragmentation of building concrete. Improved building designs and retrofits such as blast-resistant glass and prevention of structural collapse or building fragmentation should be considered in building design and construction in high threat areas.

  12. Terrorist Gang Smashed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese authorities said recently they have broken up a terrorist ring headed by "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM)" sepamusts and captured more than 10 members,seizing their self-made explosives.

  13. Action against terrorist funding

    OpenAIRE

    Cranston, Ross

    2002-01-01

    Editorial comment on international measures to counter terrorist funding. Short commentary by Ross Cranston QC MP, Chairman of the SLAS Export Working Group on the Legal implications of the interdiction of terrorist property. Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  14. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. (2)(i) Emission data...

  15. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ...'') request for approval to implement and enforce Air Pollution Control Regulation Number 36, Control of Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution Control.... Ira W. Leighton, Acting Regional Administrator, EPA New England. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  16. 76 FR 66718 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  17. 75 FR 25855 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  18. 76 FR 9609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental... in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act,...

  19. 77 FR 66462 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection...'s Clean Air Act Advisory committee (CAAAC) will be renewed for an additional two-year period, as a... recommendations to the EPA Administrator on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act....

  20. 78 FR 9388 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  1. 75 FR 1379 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with ] implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  2. 75 FR 79369 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  3. 78 FR 49511 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on November... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  4. 78 FR 77448 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meetings of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  5. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  6. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  7. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...

  8. 75 FR 35025 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...

  9. Estimating Terrorist Risk with Possibility Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Darby

    2004-11-30

    This report summarizes techniques that use possibility theory to estimate the risk of terrorist acts. These techniques were developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as part of the National Infrastructure Simulation Analysis Center (NISAC) project. The techniques have been used to estimate the risk of various terrorist scenarios to support NISAC analyses during 2004. The techniques are based on the Logic Evolved Decision (LED) methodology developed over the past few years by Terry Bott and Steve Eisenhawer at LANL. [LED] The LED methodology involves the use of fuzzy sets, possibility theory, and approximate reasoning. LED captures the uncertainty due to vagueness and imprecision that is inherent in the fidelity of the information available for terrorist acts; probability theory cannot capture these uncertainties. This report does not address the philosophy supporting the development of nonprobabilistic approaches, and it does not discuss possibility theory in detail. The references provide a detailed discussion of these subjects. [Shafer] [Klir and Yuan] [Dubois and Prade] Suffice to say that these approaches were developed to address types of uncertainty that cannot be addressed by a probability measure. An earlier report discussed in detail the problems with using a probability measure to evaluate terrorist risk. [Darby Methodology]. Two related techniques are discussed in this report: (1) a numerical technique, and (2) a linguistic technique. The numerical technique uses traditional possibility theory applied to crisp sets, while the linguistic technique applies possibility theory to fuzzy sets. Both of these techniques as applied to terrorist risk for NISAC applications are implemented in software called PossibleRisk. The techniques implemented in PossibleRisk were developed specifically for use in estimating terrorist risk for the NISAC program. The LEDTools code can be used to perform the same linguistic evaluation as

  10. Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste - internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters......Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters...

  11. Terrorist financing beyond 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Loretta Napoleoni

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of counter-terrorism policies, e.g., the Patriot Act and the war in Iraq, on the financial structure of European terror networks and argues that such policies, far from defeating Jihadist activities, ended up boosting them. In response to such measures, terror finances have been skillfully restructured, the main changes being the decentralization of funding activity in Europe and in the Middle East and the declining cost of terrorist attacks.

  12. Terrorist Group Brands: Understanding Terrorist Group Strategies Through Brand Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    in the same 24-hour period, thereby making brand exposure a percentage of the global news market-share. The percentage is important because the... BRANDS : UNDERSTANDING TERRORIST GROUP STRATEGIES THROUGH BRAND EXPOSURE by Bradley S. Greaver June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Camber Warren...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TERRORIST GROUP BRANDS : UNDERSTANDING TERRORIST GROUP STRATEGIES THROUGH BRAND

  13. On Modeling Terrorist Frauds

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudenay, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Quite recently, distance-bounding protocols received a lot of attention as they offer a good solution to thwart relay attacks. Their security models at still unstable, especially when considering terrorist fraud. This considers the case where a malicious prover would try to bypass the protocol by colluding with an adversary without leaking his credentials. Two formal models appeared recently: one due to Fischlin and Onete and another one by Boureanu, Mitrokotsa, and Vaudenay. Both were propos...

  14. 76 FR 17671 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 21, 2011, a... this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental Protection Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  15. 76 FR 9610 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... California. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the...''), asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  16. 75 FR 74046 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... Colorado doing business as Xcel Energy to operate the Pawnee coal-fired power plant in Morgan...

  17. 77 FR 5010 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g... shall jointly file a stipulation of dismissal with prejudice with the court, within 10 days of the...

  18. 77 FR 45605 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice,...

  19. 76 FR 75545 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... request to the Court to dismiss this matter with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days following...

  20. 78 FR 30919 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of a... shall be terminated and the case dismissed with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days...

  1. 76 FR 17416 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g... dismiss this suit with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days following the date of publication...

  2. Effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have a great deal of interest in the coal resource and in Clean Coal Technology, CCT. We had helped to develop dry scrubbing technology and we are currently active in developing Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal technologies. I have spent much of the last 10 years developing computer simulation models representing the impacts of environmental policies on electric utilities, the coal industry and the economy as a whole. This work has been sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NA.PAP), the US Departmentof Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Federal Reserve Bank. Today I will talk about the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) which will affect the coal market. I will focus on the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) requirements and not nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) or other aspects of the CAAA regulations.

  3. Effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have a great deal of interest in the coal resource and in Clean Coal Technology, CCT. We had helped to develop dry scrubbing technology and we are currently active in developing Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and combined SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] removal technologies. I have spent much of the last 10 years developing computer simulation models representing the impacts of environmental policies on electric utilities, the coal industry and the economy as a whole. This work has been sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NA.PAP), the US Departmentof Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Federal Reserve Bank. Today I will talk about the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) which will affect the coal market. I will focus on the sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) requirements and not nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) or other aspects of the CAAA regulations.

  4. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number...... of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later....

  5. Risk Management Programs under Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Guidance for Implementing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accidental release prevention programs under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) are related to and build on activities under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

  6. The Terrorist Event

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Bill

    2007-01-01

    In his article "The Terrorist Event," Bill Nichols examines how the US media attempted to make meaning of the events of 9/11. How were news anchors and producers to explain an event that escaped their comprehension? Without context or historical equivalence in the US, news outlets groped for a narrative in which to frame the event even if that meant creating the meaning themselves. In their attempt to create meaning, what sorts of fetishes and fantasies did they draw-on and in turn create? Th...

  7. Malevolent Creativity in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Hunter, Samuel T.; Cushenbery, Lily D.

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist organizations are both imitative and innovative in character. While the drivers of imitation have been extensively modeled using concepts such as contagion and diffusion, creativity and innovation remain relatively underdeveloped ideas in the context of terrorist behavior. This article seeks to redress this deficiency by presenting a…

  8. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 9, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-23609 Filed 9-12-11; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C....

  9. 78 FR 56579 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 10, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-22406 Filed 9-11... Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50...

  10. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.105 Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task...

  11. 75 FR 61774 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement actions against Murphy Oil USA, Inc. (``Murphy... Louisiana asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the...

  12. 75 FR 20863 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on April 16, 2010, a... complaint filed together with the Consent Decree that Defendants violated the Clean Air Act and regulations... bringing storage tanks and loading racks at their bulk gasoline terminals into compliance with the NSPS...

  13. 77 FR 14785 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... would then dismiss the case with prejudice once EPA has fulfilled these obligations under the...

  14. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  15. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  16. A Bayesian Belief Network of Threat Anticipation and Terrorist Motivations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Davenport, Kristen M [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  17. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  18. Economic impacts of the Pueblo Smoke-Free Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter F; Szychowski, Jeffery; Karp, Shelley; Liu, Lucia; Diedrich, Robert T

    2010-03-01

    On July 1, 2003, the city of Pueblo CO enacted a smokefree ordinance (Pueblo Smoke-Free Air Act [PSFAA]) that prohibited smoking in public places and workplaces, including taverns and restaurants. Opponents to this ordinance argued that it would have a negative impact on tavern and restaurant sales. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the PSFAA had a negative economic impact on tavern and restaurant sales tax revenues. With data gathered in 2007, this study implemented an interrupted time-series model in 2008, using 42 months of pre- and post-intervention sales tax revenue data for Pueblo to determine whether implementation of this ordinance had an effect on tavern and restaurant sales tax revenues. Ratios of tavern and restaurant openings to closings were also computed for the pre- and post-intervention periods. Pre-post sales tax revenue data showed slight losses in sales tax revenue for taverns, and gains for restaurants, which more than offset the tavern losses. After adjusting for the consumer price index, the city of Pueblo experienced a 20.3% gain in combined tavern and restaurant sales tax revenues from the pre-ordinance period to the post-ordinance period. The ratio of tavern openings to closings improved from 1:1 pre-period to 3.3:1 post-period and the restaurant ratio remained unchanged at approximately 1.78:1 from pre- to post-period. There is no evidence that the PSFAA had a negative economic impact on consumer price index-adjusted tavern and restaurant sales tax revenues. From a fiscal policy perspective, this ordinance may have contributed to a net increase in sales tax revenues for the city of Pueblo. The business openings/closings data suggest that the confidence Pueblo's business sector had in the local hospitality industry was not negatively influenced by the PSFAA. Copyright (c) 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection.

  20. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across nat

  1. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across nat

  2. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  3. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  4. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  5. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  6. 3 CFR - State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 26, 2009 State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Under the Clean Air Act (42...

  7. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  8. 77 FR 44672 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts Notice is hereby given that on... resolve its violations of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. The Allegheny County Health... the Clean Water Act, Plaintiffs allege that Shenango violated the effluent limitations in the...

  9. What makes a terrorist stop being a terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Horgan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Feet first”. That’s how one terrorist leader told recruits was the only way out. It makes sense. Allowing members to just walk away wouldn’t be good for the group’s image. And yet – at the same time as Islamic State parades its European jihadis in shocking beheading videos and continues to recruit aggressively around the world – terrorists do disengage all the time. Some quietly disappear. Others go public, telling their stories on TV or in autobiographies. They embrace their new identity as an “ex-“ or “former” to warn others of the dangers of involvement. We have also come to know formers through the rise of so-called de-radicalization programs. For the past decade, I’ve examined how and why terrorists walk away, and I’ve also closely examined programs aimed at helping ease that transition.

  10. Air monitoring activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Environmental Response Team during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.; Mickunas, D.; Campagna, P.; Burchette, S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducted air monitoring activities during the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. This paper describes ERT's response actions and analytical support. It covers ERT activities from the morning of September 11 to October 17, 2001 when ERT was alerted of anthrax activities in Washington, DC and Boca Raton, Florida. ERT members provided technical support regarding respirator/personnel protective equipment selection, decontamination and health and safety protocols. In the first few weeks, ERT was also providing analytical laboratory support to the EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the New York City Department of Health. ERT also provided on-site gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis via the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) bus, providing real-time direct readings to the EPA and the New York Fire Department. Site boundary air monitoring stations were maintained until early November at which point the EPA Region 2 took over all monitoring responsibilities. Air sampling efforts were initially directed at worker health and safety and the surrounding environments. Air sampling was conducted for asbestos, acid gases, heavy metals, phosgene, mercury, dioxins/furans, volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The sampling activities were later expanded to include chlorine, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen cyanide. Site assessment is still ongoing. What began as a typical emergency response air sampling effort soon became a huge air monitoring effort with the original six stations expanded to more than 20. ERT made every effort to collect, analyze, quality assure and transfer data for posting on publicly accessible website within less than 24 hours. It was noted that one of the lessons learned from the disaster is

  11. 76 FR 5609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on January 26, 2011, a... United States et al. v. HOVENSA L.L.C., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-6. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air... Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under section 113(b) of the...

  12. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  13. Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act_considered MAJOR permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, considered "major" permits. Also includes emission points...

  14. 78 FR 63494 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To Know Act On September 30, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent... Door Company, Civil Action No. 6:13-cv-01738-MC. In this lawsuit filed under the Clean Air Act and...

  15. A Sociospatial Approach to Understanding Terrorist Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist networks operate in hybrid space where activities in social and geographic spaces are necessary for logistics and security. The Islamist terrorist network is analyzed as a sociospatial system using social network analysis, Geographic Information Science (GISc), and novel techniques designed for hybrid space analyses. This research focuses on identifying distance and sociospatial dependencies within the terrorist network. A methodology for analyzing sociospatial systems is developed and results lead to a greater understanding of terrorist network structures and activities. Distance and sociospatial dependencies are shown to exist for the Islamist terrorist network structure. These findings are discordant with recent literature that focuses on terrorist network tendencies toward decentralization in the information age. In this research, the Islamist terrorist network is theorized to use multiple structures of hierarchical and decentralized organization for effectiveness, efficiency, and resilience. Implications for counterterrorism policy and strategies are given.

  16. Maintaining the Legal High Ground: The Legal Implications of Using Armed Force to Combat Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2001, also demonstrated the codependent relationship between the Taliban and Usama Bin Laden’s organization. “Bin Laden could not operate his...STRIKES ON TERRORISTS In leading the campaign against terrorism, we are forging new, productive international relationships and redefining existing... relationship between the target (or lack there of) and the terrorist act was unclear. And, the failure to support the claim that the plant produced chemical

  17. Applying new institutionalism to the National Guard Empowerment Act.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the actors and their interests behind the "National Guard Empowerment Act," initiated by Congress in 2006 to enhance Guard influence in Department of Defense (DoD) budget and strategy decisions concerning homeland defense and civil support. Despite the Guard's primary role as the military's first responder to domestic terrorist events and natural disasters, as a component of the Air Force and Army it has typically been at a disadvantage in the competition for resour...

  18. Terrorists across the Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Terror (Washington, D. C. and Stanford California: AEI- Hoover, 1975). 8 Charles R. Costanzo, "Terrorism: Past and Present," (Air Command and Staff...Subcommittee on Europe and Subcommittee on International Terrorism, in which members of the United Kingdom’s parliament attended, Representative Wexler ...comment on the success in Yemen, noted specialist in Yemeni Affairs, Charles Schmitz of the Jamestown Foundation, stated, “Yemeni goals are long-term

  19. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  20. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  1. Precipitating the Decline of Terrorist Groups: A Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    Act on April 30, 1971, signifming the end of the FLQ crisis ."’ 3. Post Critica Error Phase The police lid not want to break up the Viger cell because...36 . The FLQ’s Pre Critical Error Phase . .................... 37 2. The Critical Error Phase: The October Crisis ............... 45 3...organizational crisis ."" These radical innovations are a response by the terrorists to relieve the anxiety Ř|Edgar H. Schein, The Mechanisms of Channe in

  2. Terrorist Networks, Money Laundering Schemes, and Nation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    2000). He states that people continually “generate and test hypotheses about their worlds.” This innate trait is suggested to be a mechanism that...acts/attacks; pop.: 10,180,000)  From Relative Stability to Instability  Cote d’Ivoire (31; pop.: 18,900,000)  Chad (40; pop.: 10,330,000...state, and subsequent human network system as a whole. Previous points being made, and in light of their functional character traits of terrorist

  3. Citizen suit Clean Air Act enforcement: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Almost every federal environmental statute has a provision that allows citizens to sue violators in lieu of governmental enforcement authorities under certain circumstances. Generally, if the relevant governmental enforcement authority was not deemed to be diligently prosecuting enforcement action against an alleged violator and certain procedural requirements were met a citizens suit could be filed in federal court. If a violation was proved penalties could be assessed against the violator and the plaintiff citizen could receive reimbursement of both his or her attorney's fees and other expenses. Historically, however, the only federal statute that has been the subject of significant citizens suit activity has been the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). This paper will explore a variety of events that are expected to significantly increase the number of citizen suits CAA permitted facilities will face over the next ten years. The paper will briefly address the role the Title V operating permit will play. It will also include a discussion of how this permit will now encompass specific emission limitations along with a mandate to report exceedances. Further, and equally important, will be the role of the 1997 federal Environmental Protection Agency any credible evidence rule which potentially broadens the type, amount, and accessibility available to a CAA citizen suit plaintiff. This rule along with the additional monitoring data that will be generated by the Title V periodic and compliance assurance monitoring requirements will be an issue. Two important CAA citizen suits will be discussed which illustrate the potential role of credible evidence. Also, recent citizen suit decisions involving other federal environmental statutes with implications for the CAA will be examined. Further, the paper will provide some thoughts on how facilities can protect themselves to the extent possible against citizen suits.

  4. 78 FR 11682 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Settlement Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... violations of the Risk Management Program requirements of the Clean Air Act and 40 CFR part 68 at three of... reproduction costs. Please mail your request and payment to: Consent Decree Library, U.S. DOJ--ENRD, P.O....

  5. 78 FR 1883 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... alleges that Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (``WPS'') failed to comply with certain requirements of... regulations. The complaint alleges that WPS failed to obtain appropriate permits and failed to install and... resolve past Clean Air Act violations and would require WPS to reduce harmful emissions of sulfur...

  6. Implementation by environmental administration of the Finnish air pollution control act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapaniemi, J. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Political Science

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this research is to show how the general wording of the Air Pollution Control Act which came into force in 1982 has been given practical meanings. The main interest is the administrational implementation of the aims of the air pollution legislation for regulation of industrial activities and the energy sector. The article focuses on the decisions and the decision-making process through the Air Pollution Control Act with its relatively flexible norms. It gives a view of air pollution control practices and its problems, especially concerning sulphur emissions of whose control there is already lot of experiences. The grounds for resolutions given according to the Air Pollution Control Act and the possibility of public participation in their making are the centre of attention here. The greatest interest is cases on the decisions made by applying general governmental decisions, especially regulations concerning coal-fired power plants, and the regulations for sulphur dioxide emissions, in the governmental decision of 1987. (author)

  7. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tyson Chatagnier; Alex Mintz; Yair Samban

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizat...

  8. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  9. Understanding the Complexity of Terrorist Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fellman, Philip V

    2009-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes. The following paper explores various aspects of terrorist networks which can be illuminated through applications of non-linear dynamical systems modeling to terrorist network structures. Of particular interest are some of the emergent properties of terrorist networks as typified by the 9-11 hijackers network, properties of centrality, hierarchy and distance, as well as ways in which attempts to disrupt the transmission of information through terrorist networks may be expected to produce greater or lesser levels of fitness in those organizations.

  10. 75 FR 68094 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable... AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0211; FRL-9215-5] Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent...

  11. Learning from 25 years of experience with the United States clean air act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, R.H. [Trinity Consultants Incorporated, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Twenty-five years ago, the United States embarked on a quest to attain clean air. President Nixon, in signing the Clean Air Act of 1970, defined clean air as the objective for the `70s. Although enormous progress has been made, much remains to be done. Newly constructed industry is quite clean, but many older facilities continue to operate with antiquated controls. Significant advances have been made in cleaning up the emissions from new automobiles, but two factors have impaired progress. First, cars last longer than they did in 1970, so the average age of the fleet has increased. Second, travel has increased as people have moved to the suburbs. Thus, the emission decreases from clean cars have not been as great as expected. This presentation will address some of the lessons learned from the efforts in the United States to implement clean air programs. In a large number of countries, excessively elaborate studies have been substituted for action programs. Since much is now known about air quality, fairly brief studies can define programs that should be undertaken. What may take longer is developing public support and enthusiasm for improved air quality. In most cases, it is desirable to reduce spending on studies and increase spending on devising and implementing plans, as well as effectively communicating the necessary changes to the public. Balanced spending on studies- and action programs is essential to a sound air quality control program. (author)

  12. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hemenway, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  13. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hemenway, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  14. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things

  15. Terrorist Attacks and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bonekamp, Bas; van Veen, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the magnitude and the duration of the effect of a terrorist attack on stock market indices. We investigate the impact of New York (2001), Madrid (2004), London (2005), Boston (2013), Paris (2015), Brussels (2016), Nice (2016) and Berlin(2016) on the stock indices of the USA (S&P), Japan (NIKKEI), Germany (DAX), Spain (IBEX), UK (FTSE), France (CAC) and the Euronext Index (BEL). We use both a graphical analysis and an event study methodology to assess the effect of terr...

  16. US: PJAK are terrorists - Obama's Iran Overture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Om den amerikanske stats beslutning om at erklære den iransk-kurdiske guerillagruppe PJAK for terrorister. Udgivelsesdato: 5/2......Om den amerikanske stats beslutning om at erklære den iransk-kurdiske guerillagruppe PJAK for terrorister. Udgivelsesdato: 5/2...

  17. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  18. The Impact of the Clean Air Acts on Coal Mining Employment in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Hoag, John H.; Reed, J. David

    2002-01-01

    This article provides empirical evidence that environmental legislation affecting coal mining employment passed in 1977 had different effects on Western Kentucky, where the coal is of higher sulfur content, compared to Eastern Kentucky, where coals are of lower sulfur content, while the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act had no statistically significant impact in either region. The 1977 law generated a statistically significant reduction in West Kentucky employment. In addition, it appears ...

  19. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  20. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger

    2017-05-01

    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  1. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyson Chatagnier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizations. After reviewing the results and insights derived from this analysis, we conclude with implications for policies to counter terrorism.

  2. Terrorist Attacks: Do We Know How to Assess the Results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 11, 2001, terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center (WTC in New York City. Explosions and fires resulted in the complete collapse of the two WTC towers. The collapsing towers served as enormous point sources of gaseous and particulate air pollution, seen as huge plumes of smoke and dust. The smoke contained volatile organic compounds and fine particles and aerosols. The dust fraction contained parts of ceiling tiles, carpets, concrete, adhesives, asbestos, chromium, lead, titanium, and many other elements and materials. Whether there were unusually toxic ingredients in the plumes is largely unknown.

  3. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  4. Psychological interventions following terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansdorf, Irwin J

    2008-01-01

    Psychological reactions to terror attacks have been documented as ranging from no symptoms to transient behavioural symptoms to more serious posttraumatic stress. A review of representative studies is presented, with a critical analysis of the salient points of the various psychological intervention strategies for terrorist attacks. Common aspects of both most intervention approaches include multifaceted models that foster social support and include a preparatory phase, a phase of 'psychological first aid' and a follow-up phase of referral for more severe cases. The notion of intervention for all who may show some symptoms is not universally accepted. Where treatment or intervention is used, the debriefing aspect of CISM (Critical Incident Stress Management) remains highly disputed, with the focus on intrusively revisiting the trauma appearing to have questionable value at best. Some data questions whether formal treatment or intervention is necessary or even desirable. For many who choose not to seek out any help following a trauma, clinical data shows no negative results. Moreover, the preponderance of data shows that conventional 'debriefing' is not recommended. If the debriefing mechanism is refined so that intrusive emotional rehashing of the traumatic event is eliminated, the resultant interventions resemble resilience based approaches. Further defining when intervention is called for and refining the mechanisms of intervention in multi-stage intervention.

  5. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  6. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism.

  7. Airborne lidar mapping of vertical ozone distributions in support of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, Edward E.; Nielsen, Norman B.; Livingston, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated attainment of the ozone standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Improved photochemical models validated by experimental data are needed to develop strategies for reducing near surface ozone concentrations downwind of urban and industrial centers. For more than 10 years, lidar has been used on large aircraft to provide unique information on ozone distributions in the atmosphere. However, compact airborne lidar systems are needed for operation on small aircraft of the type typically used on regional air quality investigations to collect data with which to develop and validate air quality models. Data presented in this paper will consist of a comparison between airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and airborne in-situ ozone measurements. Also discussed are future plans to improve the airborne ultraviolet-DIAL for ozone and other gas observations and addition of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission spectrometer to investigate the effects of other gas species on vertical ozone distribution.

  8. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Janecky, David R; Doerr, Ted B

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist actions are aimed at maximizing harm (health, psychological, economical, and political) through the combined physical impacts of the act and fear. Immediate and effective response to a terrorist act is critical to limit human and environmental harm, effectively restore facility function, and maintain public confidence. Though there have been terrorist attacks in public facilities that we have learned from, overall our experiences in restoration of public facilities following a terrorist attack are limited. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. For example, there may be a great need to quickly restore the facility to full operation and allow public access even though it was not designed for easy or rapid restoration, and critical information is needed for quantitative risk assessment and effective restoration must be anticipated to be incomplete and uncertain. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the "adaptive management" paradigm provides a constructive parallel paradigm for restoration of public facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, inefficiencies, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a public facility after a terrorist attack suggest that integration of adaptive management principles explicitly into restoration processes will result in substantially enhanced and flexible responses necessary to meet the uncertainties of potential terrorist attacks.

  9. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  11. Malaysia and Singapore's terrorist rehabilitation programs : learning and adapting to terrorist threats

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The central question of this thesis examines how Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore learned and adapted successful terrorist disengagement programs and policies; through their unique and non-military rehabilitation programs. The methodology is a comparative case study analysis of Malaysia and Singapore. In order to understand how the countries of Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore adapted a colonial-era counter-insurgency program to disengage Communist Terrorists into a program that now rehabilitates r...

  12. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...

  13. Gravity Helped Terrorists Destory Twin Towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆增

    2002-01-01

    Though terrorists triggered (触发) the collapse (倒塌) of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, much of the energy--calculated by a physicist to have been at least 2 percent that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima(广岛)--was supplied by nature's most ubiquitous(普通存在的)force: gravity.

  14. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  15. 76 FR 53452 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... the U.S. Court of Appeals for Third Circuit. Under the terms of a settlement agreement between EPA and... Circuit Court of Appeals is the appropriate court of appeals. Section 307(b)(1) also requires that any.... Judicial Review Section 307(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act indicates which Federal Courts of Appeals have...

  16. 76 FR 36917 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for TransAlta Centralia Generation, LLC--Coal- Fired Power Plant AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... to a citizen petition asking EPA to object to an operating permit issued by the Southwest Clean...

  17. 75 FR 75463 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper... issues during the comment period or that the grounds for objection or other issue arose after the comment...

  18. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act..., challenging the need for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and... Administrator shall waive preemption for California to enforce new motor vehicle emissions standards and...

  19. 76 FR 11280 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... February 14, 2011, a proposed Amendment to the consent decree in United States et al. v. Lafarge North... states or state agencies against Lafarge North America, Inc.'s, Lafarge Midwest, Inc.'s, and Lafarge Building Materials, Inc.'s (``Lafarge's'') for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'' or...

  20. 77 FR 38830 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... June 25, 2012, a proposed Second Amendment to the consent decree in United States et al. v. Lafarge... and twelve states or state agencies against Lafarge North America, Inc., Lafarge Midwest, Inc., and Lafarge Building Materials, Inc. (``Lafarge'') for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA''...

  1. Simulation studies of an air Cherenkov telescope, IceACT, for future IceCube surface extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Bengt; Auffenberg, Jan; Bekman, Ilja; Kemp, Julian; Roegen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Schumacher, Johannes [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceACT is a compact air Cherenkov telescope using silicon photomultipliers. The Fresnel lens based design has been adopted from the fluorescence telescope FAMOUS. The goal of IceACT is the efficient detection of cosmic ray induced air showers above the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. This allows to distinguish cosmic ray induced muons and neutrinos in the southern sky from astrophysical neutrinos in the deep ice detector. This leads to an increase in low-background astrophysical neutrinos of several dozen events per year for a detection threshold of several 100 TeV cosmic ray primary energy. To determine the actual telescope performance, dedicated CORSIKA air shower simulations incorporating the full Cherenkov light information are performed.

  2. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  3. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-14

    Turki Al Faisal, were entitled to foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9...the Palestinian Authority (PA), donations to charitable organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and by means of direct assistance to over...killing others by means of suicide bombings, and Saudi religious leaders have condemned the taking of innocent lives.” See [http://www.saudiembassy.net

  4. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  5. Seeing Through Smoke: Sorting through the Science and Politics in the Making of the 1956 British Clean Air Act (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The 1952 “Killer Smog” left over 4000 citizens of Greater London dead in a single week. It was a highly visible environmental disaster, which pinned the British government with responsibility over factory and domestic coal smoke pollution. Within four years of the Smog, the British parliament passed the 1956 Clean Air Act, which was designed primarily to prevent the release of dark smoke from the chimneys of private dwellings and factories. This act is considered a significant turning point in the history of environmental regulation. Through the analysis of confidential documents from government ministries and Members of Parliament, my research has focused on how decisions were made following this man-made environmental catastrophe. The primary focus of this presentation will be to explore why the British government appeared lethargic in the face of its long-standing coal pollution problem and why it finally passed the first clean air act in the world. In this case, establishing responsibility and organizing research were the major time constraints on policy action. In the months following the 1952 Smog, government departments passed off responsibility and quarreled over jurisdiction in the smog matter. Ministries held responsible for air pollution jointly established the Committee on Air Pollution to find a solution to urban smog. In the years following, the Committee on Air Pollution compiled research on the health effects and economic impact of air pollution, deriving its information from a variety of sources. In its 1954 final report, the committee named smoke and sulfur dioxide the most likely culprits of the 1952 deaths, and it recommended the elimination of smoke-producing coal from the British market, a major change to how the British fueled their homes and factories. The resulting 1956 Clean Air Act was the product of numerous compromises over the economic, political, and social issues present in Great Britain at the time. The British government

  6. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  7. First data from IceAct, an imaging air Cherenkov telescope with SiPMs at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Bretz, Thomas; Hansmann, Bengt; Hansmann, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Kemp, Julian; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Raedel, Leif; Schaufel, Merlin; Schumacher, Johannes; Stahlberg, Martin; Werhan, Ansgar; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    IceCube-Gen2 is planned to extend the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the Southern Hemisphere. This motivates a large extension of IceTop to more efficiently detect cosmic rays, IceVeto. Part of these extension plans is an array of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes, IceAct. A first IceAct prototype is consisting of an SiPM camera and lens optics optimized for harsh environments. Compared to IceTop stations, these telescopes potentially lower the detection threshold for air showers at the cost of a lower duty cycle. We present first data, taken during the commissioning of an IceAct prototype in December 2015 at the South Pole.

  8. 78 FR 45011 - Designation of Bulut Yayla, AKA: Samet Ince as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of Bulut Yayla, AKA: Samet Ince as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended Acting under the authority of and in accordance with section...

  9. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  10. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  11. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  12. The Developmental Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968–2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes. PMID:23185267

  13. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Clauset

    Full Text Available We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  14. 75 FR 1770 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Health and Environment, Air Pollution Division, to the Public Service of Colorado to operate the Hayden... Department of Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Division, to the Public Service of Colorado...

  15. 77 FR 5518 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Division, to CF&I Steel, d/b/a EVRAZ Rocky Mountain Steel... by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Division, to CF&I Steel,...

  16. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Energy, Engines, and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the energy, engines, and combustion industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  17. 77 FR 54382 - Revisions of Five California Clean Air Act Title V Operating Permits Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... pollution control, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide equivalents, Greenhouse gases, Hydrofluorocarbons... revisions to the Operating Permits (Title V) programs of the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD), San Luis Obispo County Air Pollution Control District (SLOCAPCD), Santa Barbara...

  18. Targeting Terrorist Leaders: The Peruvian Untouchables Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Dedication The Peruvian National Police is a divisional organization82 subdivided into directorates and regions (as divisions ) that are focused on...23 Strong, 203. 24 Revista Debate, El Poder en el Perú. (Power in Peru) (Lima: DESCO, 1983 1992). 25 Max...response to the increasing terrorist attacks in Lima, a division of the State Security Directorate was created with the name of Counter Subversion Division

  19. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Terrorist Groups,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    liberation, and American corporations are considered an element oppressing the work - ing class. 54 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING TERRORIST GROUPS...personnel and installations in Guatemala, Iran, and Spain to protest American support of Israel’s invasion of Lebanon. Other factors are also at work ...inferred? D7. Are the goals iealistically obtainable? D8. Do the members envisage a long struggle? Are they milleni - alists (a new world after chaos?) E

  20. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, R. [LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & MacRae, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  1. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Smoking behaviour under intense terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kohn, Robert; Billig, Miriam; Levav, Itzhak

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is one of the varied psychological reactions to stress. This study examined the rate and changes in cigarette smoking among former Gaza and current West Bank Jewish settlers subjected to direct and indirect terrorist attacks during the Al-Aksa Intifada. The relationship with degree of religious observance and emotional distress was explored as well. In this cross-sectional study, the respondents were settlers randomly selected and interviewed by telephone (N = 706). The interview schedule included socio-demographic items, information on direct exposure to terrorist attacks (e.g. threat to life or physical integrity, personal losses, property damage) and on steady and changes in smoking habits, and a scale to measure emotional distress. In contrast with the country population, a larger percentage of settlers who smoked increased the number of cigarettes consumed with exposure to terrorism (10 and 27%, respectively). Respondents who were injured or had their home damaged reported a higher rate of smoking during the preceding year (30 and 20%, respectively). Emotional distress was related to cigarette smoking, but not in the controlled analysis. Religious observance had no effect. Direct or indirect exposure to terrorist attacks had an impact on smoking prevalence rates and on changes in smoking habits. Studies investigating reactions to traumatic events should include a detailed section on smoking while mental health interventions should address the needs of smokers.

  3. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  4. Remediation following a CBRN terrorist attack : domestic and international perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanofsky, N. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The risks of chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) agents in terrorist attacks is well recognized. Serious measures must be in place to respond to terrorist attacks that involve these agents, including cleanup of affected buildings, machinery, land, water and air. This paper describes what is expected from the science community in the development of adequate, reliable and economical decontamination methods and equipment. It also discusses improved detection methods and adequate personal protection. Cleanup after a terrorist attack has much in common with the cleanup of contaminated sites or dealing with the consequences of industrial accidents, particularly as most potential chemical terror agents are represented by toxic industrial chemicals. The major needs of organizations involved in cleanup procedures were reviewed. Issues concerning first responders, assessment of situations, information collecting and the detection of possible chemical, biological and radiological agents were discussed. The development of generic decontamination procedures and equipment was suggested, with reference to the fact that the spectrum of CBRN weapons is very broad. In addition, the development of detection systems and instruments capable of analyzing a broad range of agents was also seen as desirable. New generation instruments such as Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) detectors were reviewed. Guidelines for cleanup procedures and remediation efforts were examined. It was also noted that there is relatively little information available to predict the behaviour of potential agents of CBRN terrorism in a complex urban environment. By studying different complex threat scenarios, scientists, first responders and other parties can achieve a better understanding of how to optimize the deployment of their resources. Mechanical, physiochemical and biological methods of decontamination were evaluated. Issues concerning waste disposal were discussed. It was noted that the

  5. TERRORIST PROTECTION PLANNING USING A RELATIVE RISK REDUCTION APPROACH, SESSION VIII: TECHNOLOGY FORUM FOCUS GROUPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    INDUSI,J.P.

    2003-06-16

    Since the events of 9/11, there have been considerable concerns and associated efforts to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism. Very often we hear calls to reduce the threat from or correct vulnerabilities to various terrorist acts. Others fall victim to anxiety over potential scenarios with the gravest of consequences involving hundreds of thousands of casualties. The problem is complicated by the fact that planners have limited, albeit in some cases significant, resources and less than perfect intelligence on potential terrorist plans. However, valuable resources must be used prudently to reduce the overall risk to the nation. A systematic approach to this process of asset allocation is to reduce the overall risk and not just an individual element of risk such as vulnerabilities. Hence, we define risk as a function of three variables: the threat (the likelihood and scenario of the terrorist act), the vulnerability (the vulnerability of potential targets to the threat), and the consequences (health and safety, economic, etc.) resulting from a successful terrorist scenario. Both the vulnerability and consequences from a postulated adversary scenario can be reasonably well estimated. However, the threat likelihood and scenarios are much more difficult to estimate. A possible path forward is to develop scenarios for each potential target in question using experts from many disciplines. This should yield a finite but large number of target-scenario pairs. The vulnerabilities and consequences for each are estimated and then ranked relative to one another. The resulting relative risk ranking will have targets near the top of the ranking for which the threat is estimated to be more likely, the vulnerability greatest, and the consequences the most grave. In the absence of perfect intelligence, this may be the best we can do.

  6. The timing of terrorist attacks: An optimal stopping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jensen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later.

  7. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore...

  8. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  9. A method for calculation of forces acting on air cooled gas turbine blades based on the aerodynamic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mathematical model and the procedure for calculation of the resultant force acting on the air cooled gas turbine blade(s based on the aerodynamic theory and computation of the circulation around the blade profile. In the conducted analysis was examined the influence of the cooling air mass flow expressed through the cooling air flow parameter λc, as well as, the values of the inlet and outlet angles β1 and β2, on the magnitude of the tangential and axial forces. The procedure and analysis were exemplified by the calculation of the tangential and axial forces magnitudes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Development and building the demonstrative facility for combined heat and power with gasification

  10. Psychological interventions for terroristic trauma: prevention, crisis management, and clinical treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist attacks combine features of a criminal assault, a mass casualty disaster and an act of war Accordingly, this article presents a model for prevention, response and recovery from the psychological impact of a terror attack. The nature of terrorism is delineated and the various psychological effects are described, including diagnostic clinical syndromes, as well as individual reactions. Interventions in the immediate aftermath of a terrorist attack include on-scene crisis intervention, short-term psychological stabilization, and longer-term psychotherapeutic approaches. Special techniques are described for individuals, families, children, and large groups of survivors and responders. Finally, the ways that mental health clinicians can serve as valuable consultants to community recovery efforts are discussed.

  11. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  12. Radioactive Fallout from Terrorist Nuclear Detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R E

    2007-05-03

    Responding correctly during the first hour after a terrorist nuclear detonation is the key to reducing casualties from a low-yield surface burst, and a correct response requires an understanding of the rapidly changing dose rate from fallout. This report provides an empirical formula for dose rate as a function of time and location that can guide the response to an unexpected nuclear detonation. At least one post-detonation radiation measurement is required if the yield and other characteristics of the detonation are unknown.

  13. Disrupting Threat Finances: Using Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    homicides of U.S. citizens overseas, sabotage, and extortion by threatening the use of WMD. 4.6.2.1. Terrorist Financing Operations Section (TFOS... fraudulent travel documents and, to the extent attainable, by enhancing terrorist screening and passenger security procedures—and b) continue

  14. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  15. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  16. Money, media and the anti-politics of terrorist finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a practi

  17. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign terrorist organization. 597.309 Section 597.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  18. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  19. Family Therapy of Terroristic Trauma: Psychological Syndromes and Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…

  20. Exploring First Responder Tactics in a Terrorist Chemical Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    DATE December 2008 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploring First Responder Tactics in a Terrorist...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited EXPLORING FIRST RESPONDER TACTICS IN A TERRORIST CHEMICAL ATTACK Kong Pin Gilbert...115 b. Earlier First Responder Entry Times are Associated with a Better Chance of Mean Percentage < 18.9

  1. Benchmark analysis for quantifying urban vulnerability to terrorist incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegorsch, Walter W; Cutter, Susan L; Hardisty, Frank

    2007-12-01

    We describe a quantitative methodology to characterize the vulnerability of U.S. urban centers to terrorist attack, using a place-based vulnerability index and a database of terrorist incidents and related human casualties. Via generalized linear statistical models, we study the relationships between vulnerability and terrorist events, and find that our place-based vulnerability metric significantly describes both terrorist incidence and occurrence of human casualties from terrorist events in these urban centers. We also introduce benchmark analytic technologies from applications in toxicological risk assessment to this social risk/vulnerability paradigm, and use these to distinguish levels of high and low urban vulnerability to terrorism. It is seen that the benchmark approach translates quite flexibly from its biological roots to this social scientific archetype.

  2. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model are developed for modeling the hybrid relational structure and complex operational processes, respectively. To intuitively elucidate this method, the agent based modeling is used to simulate the terrorist network and test the performance in diverse scenarios. Based on the experimental results, we show how the changes of operational environments affect the development of terrorist organization in terms of its recovery and capacity to perform future tasks. The potential strategies are also discussed, which can be used to restrain the activities of terrorists.

  3. What explains the survival of terrorist groups? Alliances and competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Phillips

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do some terrorist groups last longer than others? What does this longevity tell us about the effectiveness of terrorist organisations? This article first examines why organisational survival can be considered to be an element of organisational effectiveness. Second, the article reviews the recent literature on terrorist group longevity,including a systematic examination of ten quantitative studies on the subject. The analysis shows that certain factors are repeatedly associated with longevity, such as group size and participation in terrorist group alliances. Third, given the theoretical interest in interorganisational relationships,consideration is then given to arguments on the likely reasons terrorist group alliances and intergroup competition contribute to group longevity. Finally, some suggestions are made to move research on this topic forward.

  4. 76 FR 58808 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... CONTACT: Geoffrey L. Wilcox, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel, U.S...; fax number (202) 564-5601; e-mail address: wilcox.geoffrey@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  5. 76 FR 71027 - Proposed Settlement Agreements, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Control Division regarding... Department of Public Health and Environment regarding the issuance of a renewed title V permit for...

  6. 78 FR 60280 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susmita Dubey, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of...; telephone: (202) 564-5577; fax number (202) 564-5603; email address: dubey.susmita@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  7. The Bombing of Air India Flight 182: Demanding Justice, Public Inquiries, and Acts of Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Milan

    2015-01-01

    On June 23, 1985 Air India Flight 182 exploded over the Irish Sea, killing all 329 people onboard the aircraft The attack was planned and executed on Canadian soil, and the majority of passengers were Canadian citizens. Canadian authorities failed to effectively investigate the bombing, and provide families of the victims with adequate support for the traumatic losses they underwent (Air India Inquiry Report, 2010). This is despite families’ repeatedly demanding the Canadian government for ...

  8. Evaluation of an expedient terrorist vehicle barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D; Lewis, P; Wattenburg, B; Mote, P

    2000-02-28

    The threat of terrorist vehicle bombs has become evident in the past few years. The explosive power that can be generated by a ''home made'' bomb carried by a standard van or moderate size truck can generate sufficient blast overpressures to cause major damage or catastrophic collapse to building structures. There are a number of means available to help prevent a successful terrorist attack on a facility. One measure consists of the gathering of intelligence that can be used to thwart an attack before it takes place. The design and retrofit of structures and structural systems which can resist blast loadings and protect occupants is another area which is currently receiving a great deal of attention by the security community. Another measure, which can be used to protect many existing facilities, is to restrict access to the facility. This option consists of keeping unauthorized vehicles as far as possible from the facility so that if a vehicle bomb does approach the facility, the distance at which the bomb is detonated will result in significant reduction in the overpressures by the time the blast wave reaches the protected structure. This paper describes a simple and efficient vehicle barrier concept that can be used to prevent unauthorized vehicle access. The feasibility study described herein consisted of a field experimental program to test the validity of the barrier concept, and demonstrated the ability of the simple barrier to effectively disable speeding vehicles.

  9. The Impacts of Policies To Meet The UK Climate Change Act Target on Air Quality - An Explicit Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Beevers, S.; Lott, M. C.; Kitwiroon, N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of different pathways to meet the UK Climate Change Act target for 2050, of an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions on a base year of 1990. The pathways can result in low levels of air pollution emissions through the use of renewables and nuclear power. But large increases in biomass burning and the continued use of diesel cars they can result in larger air quality impacts. The work evaluated the air quality impacts in several pathways using an energy system optimisation model (UK TIMES) and a chemical transport model (CMAQ). The work described in this paper goes beyond the `damage cost' approach where only emissions in each are assessed. In this work we used scenarios produced by the UK TIMES model which we converted into air pollution emissions. Emissions of ammonia from agriculture are not attributed to the energy system and are thus not captured by energy system models, yet are crucial in forming PM2.5, acknowledged to be currently the most important pollutant associated with premature deaths. Our model includes these emissions and other non-energy sources of hydrocarbons which lead to the formation of ozone, another significant cause of air pollution health impacts. A key policy issue is how much biogenic hydrocarbons contribute to ozone formation compared with man-made emissions. We modelled pollution concentrations at a resolution of 7 km across the UK and at 2km in urban areas. These results allow us to estimate changes in premature mortality and morbidity associated with the changes in air pollution and subsequently the economic cost of the impacts on public health. The work shows that in the `clean' scenario, urban exposures to particles (PM2.5) and NO2 could decrease by very large amounts, but ozone exposures are likely to increase without further significant reductions world-wide. Large increases in biomass use however could lead to increases in urban levels of carcinogens and primary PM.

  10. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  11. Categorizing terrorist entities listed by the European Union according to terrorist groups’ underlying motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.

  12. Clean Air Act Settlement Improves Chemical Safety at Bloomfield, Conn. Meat Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A CT co. that runs an ammonia refrigeration system at its meat processing plant has agreed to pay $65K in civil penalties to resolve claims by the EPA that it violated federal clean air laws as well as the federal right-to-know law in its use of ammonia.

  13. 75 FR 38519 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ...-00946 PJH (N.D. C.A.). On March 5, 2010, Plaintiff filed a complaint to compel the U. S. Environmental... County Air Pollution Control District Rule 420'' (Imperial Rule 420), a State implementation plan (SIP... Rule 420. In addition, the proposed consent decree requires that following signature on such notice...

  14. 77 FR 30555 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Act (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., at five compressor stations Questar Gas Management Co., now... proposed Consent Decree in United States et al. v. Questar Gas Management Co., Civil Action No. 2:08-cv... United States alleges that QEPFS constructed, modified, and operated the compressor stations in...

  15. Cutting the Link Between Drugs and Terrorists: Countering Major Terrorist-Financing Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    try to fill these gaps of the terrorist narcotic interactions by providing a model which could offer a reasonable solution for cutting the links...consumption. In addition to undermining economic and social development, the use of these drugs has brought misery to thousands of people and contributed...consists of nine stages: extracting the morphine from raw opium, separating the morphine solution from the water-insoluble opium components, treatment

  16. How Could a Terrorist be De-Radicalised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bertram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the potential to de-radicalize a terrorist, and if so how could this be achieved? The article also outlines the distinction between de-radicalization, counter-radicalization and disengagement. In order to understand the potential of de-radicalization techniques, research examines the factors that might lead to initial radicalization. The strategy of some state-based de-radicalization programs, particularly the Saudi Arabian de-radicalization program are examined and the importance of unique tailoring in these programs is identified. The relevance of ideology and life skill training within de-radicalization programs is also examined. The extensive impact that information communication technology has had on radicalization is also addressed and following on, the potential for de-radicalization and counter-radicalization through information communication platforms is also discussed. The importance of an accurate and appropriately delivered counter-narrative message is examined and the value of such a counter-narrative is discussed in terms of it possibly planting the seed of question in a terrorist, which may eventually support the terrorist questioning of terrorist group ideology. Highly relevant to the future de-radicalization of an ‘in organisation’ terrorist is the issue of how states might manage the potential return of terrorists who are known to be overseas and whether the best solution is or is not to prevent the terrorist from returning to a home-country, which is examined within. It could be presumed that a terrorist who is returning to a home-country may face some term of incarceration, as an extension of this issue that states must address, the effect that incarceration might have on a terrorist is also examined. The discussions in this article are relevant to policy-makers, de-radicalization program designers and security sector actors.

  17. Two Models for Semi-Supervised Terrorist Group Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Fatih; Erdem, Zeki; Bowerman, Chris

    Since discovery of organization structure of offender groups leads the investigation to terrorist cells or organized crime groups, detecting covert networks from crime data are important to crime investigation. Two models, GDM and OGDM, which are based on another representation model - OGRM are developed and tested on nine terrorist groups. GDM, which is basically depending on police arrest data and “caught together” information and OGDM, which uses a feature matching on year-wise offender components from arrest and demographics data, performed well on terrorist groups, but OGDM produced high precision with low recall values. OGDM uses a terror crime modus operandi ontology which enabled matching of similar crimes.

  18. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ismayilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts to address the question of whether suicide terrorism represents a "coherent phenomenon," and whether there is, or may be, a generalized pattern which could account for all possible causes of martyrdom operations.

  19. The Davis-Bacon Act: Cost Impact on the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    June 1977 issue of the Labor Law Journal, Donald Elisburg, then Assistant Secretary of Labor for Employment Standards, discussed an Executive Order...1992). 7. Elisburg, Donald. "Wage Protection Under the Davis- Bacon Act," Labor Law Journal, 28: 323-328 (June 1977). 8. Federal Acquisition...R. "Davis-Bacon: Labor’s Anachronism 1974," Labor Law Journal, 25: 404-407 (July 1974). 59 Vita Raymond Carpenter was born on 18 August 1953 in

  20. Influences and vulnerabilities in radicalised lone-actor terrorists UK practitioner perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Peddell, Daniel; Eyre, Marie; McManus, MA; Bonworth, James

    2016-01-01

    The threat to national security from terrorists acting on their own initiative is a challenge for law enforcement and intelligence agencies in the UK and elsewhere. The UK Parliament’s 2014 threat assessment noted ‘a trend towards ‘low signature’ terrorism by small, self-directed groups and lone actors’ [House of Commons Home Affairs Committee (2014) Counter-Terrorism – Seventeenth Report of Session 2013–14]. Lone actors have become a higher priority for counter-terrorism professionals (UK po...

  1. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  2. Survival of the Fittest: Why Terrorist Groups Endure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. Young

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do terrorist groups endure? This question is relevant to scholars and policy makers alike. In the past, this issue was not been addressed in a systematic fashion. Recent work investigates this question using data on transnational groups and finds that factors associated with the home country can influence the duration the group endures. Applying the theory of outbidding to terrorist group survival, we argue that strategic competition among groups predicts group duration. Using the Global Terrorism Database, we develop a dataset using the terrorist group as the unit of analysis to model the duration of group activity and thus include the largest sample of groups yet. Controlling for previous explanations of both group duration and terrorism, we find a robust effect for the impact that group competition has on terrorist group survival.

  3. Issuance of the Clean Air Act Stationary Source Compliance Monitoring Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Response to Request for EPA's Interpretation of Several Provisions of the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Guidance On Enforcement of PSD Requirements Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. 77 FR 58203 - In the Matter of the Designation of the Haqqani Network Also Known as HQN as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of the Haqqani Network Also Known as HQN as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based upon a review of the Administrative Record assembled in this...

  7. 75 FR 78336 - Review of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Review of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based upon a review of the Administrative Record assembled in this...

  8. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  9. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li

    2015-01-01

    Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...

  10. Reality bytes: cyberterrorism and terrorist 'use' of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Maura

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of cyberterrorism. Fringe activity on the Internet ranges from non-violent 'Use' at one end to 'Cyberterrorism' at the other. Rejecting the idea that cyberterrorism is widespread, the focus here is on terrorist groups' 'use' of the Internet, in particular the content of their Web sites, and their 'misuse' of the medium, as in hacking wars, for example. Terrorist groups' use of the Internet for the purpose of inter-group communication is also surveyed, partly be...

  11. A Survey on Terrorist Network Mining: Current Trends and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Tiwari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the modernization and widespread usage of Internet, the security of the mankind has become one of the major issues today. The threat of human society from the terrorists is the challenge faced dominantly. Advancement in the technology has not only helped the common people for the growth but also these inhuman people to adversely affect the society with sophisticated techniques. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed and detected. To achieve this, the law enforcement agencies are using data mining techniques as one of the effective solution. One such technique of data mining is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways foridentifying terrorist activities.

  12. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Network Technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication Technologies to Modern Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    society’s essential physical assets and natural resources and to enhance the related social assets of safety and security of individuals in transit...relay chat LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MMOG massively multiplayer online game MRTA Movimiento ...Technologies for Networked Terrorists Developing a strategy: Terrorist actions are intended to accomplish political or social goals. To guide its actions, a

  14. Theoretical perspectives of terrorist enemies as networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spulak, Robert George, Jr.; Glicken, Jessica

    2005-08-01

    This perspective of terrorist enemies as networks by two distinguished associate fellows of the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) follows as a result of its recent initiative to support USSOCOM strategic planning for the Global War on Terrorism. The paper is a manifestation of JSOU's goals for contributing products that will advance SOF strategic art and generating strategic outreach to the military, civilian, and academic communities to enrich those products. Dr. Robert Spulak and Dr. Jessica Glicken Turnley presented the findings of this paper to assembled strategic planners from USSOCOM, other combatant commands, and interagency players at the Center for Special Operations plan development conference, September 2005, in Tampa, Florida. At that meeting, the authors put forward a number of helpful planning concepts based on their professional studies in science and the humanities and their experiences in government and business. The JSOU Strategic Studies Department is pleased to facilitate the association of USSOCOM strategic planners with civilian expertise and insights that can broaden military thought and encourage planning decisions directly relevant to the changing global environment. Through JSOU's strategic outreach initiative, experts in many professional disciplines have signaled their willingness to support the Nation's counterterrorism efforts. In that spirit, JSOU is proud to commend this paper to SOF readers and appreciates the support of Dr. Spulak and Dr. Turnley.

  15. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  16. La Mauritanie à l’épreuve de l’islamisme et des menaces terroristes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Choplin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En quelques semaines, la Mauritanie a été confrontée à plusieurs attaques terroristes revendiquées par Al-Qaïda au Maghreb. L’islamisme radical n’est pas nouveau dans ce pays mais le terrorisme et la violence des actes perpétrés sont quant à eux inédits. Si les courants radicaux gagnent en audience, ils ne doivent pour autant être confondus avec le terrorisme qui n’a pas d’ancrage en Mauritanie. La menace vient pour l’instant de l’extérieur.Since a few weeks, Mauritania is in front of several terrorist attacks claimed by Al-Qaïda in Maghreb. Radical Islamism is not new in this country but terrorism and violence of these acts are totally unheard. If radical tendencies grow their audience, they do not must be confused with terrorism which have not any rooting in Mauritania. For this moment, threats are coming from outside.

  17. A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, S.A. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Apostolakis, G.E. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)]. E-mail: apostola@mit.edu

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a possible approach to ranking geographic regions that can influence multiple infrastructures. Once ranked, decision makers can determine whether these regions are critical locations based on their susceptibility to terrorist acts. We identify these locations by calculating a value for a geographic region that represents the combined values to the decision makers of all the infrastructures crossing through that region. These values, as well as the size of the geographic region, are conditional on an assumed destructive threat of a given size. In our case study, the threat is assumed to be minor, e.g., a bomb that can affect objects within 7 m of it. This approach first requires an assessment of the users of the system. During this assessment, each user is assigned a performance index (PI) based on the disutility of the loss of each infrastructure's resource via multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). A Monte Carlo network analysis is then performed to develop importance measures (IM) for the elements of each infrastructure for their ability to service each user. We combine the IMs with the user PIs to a value that we call valued worth (VW) for each infrastructure's elements independently. Then we use spatial analysis techniques within a geographic information system (GIS) to combine the VWs of each infrastructure's elements in a geographic area, conditional on the threat, into a total value we call geographic valued worth (GVW). The GVW is displayed graphically in the GIS system in a color scheme that shows the numerical ranking of these geographic areas. The map and rankings are then submitted to the decision makers to better allocate anti-terrorism resources. A case study of this methodology is performed on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) campus. The results of the study show how the methodology can bring attention to areas that are important when several infrastructures are considered, but may be ignored when

  19. DETERMINANTS OF DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORIST THREAT IN NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our country, like the rest of the world, has been for many years, it is taking all possible measures in order to find an effective response to terrorism, which, sadly aware, has indeed become one of the main threats to all mankind, one of the most burning issues of the day.Theoretical and practical problems of the nature and spread of the modern terrorist threat in the North Caucasus are subject to careful scrutiny and a greater or lesser extent taken into account in the practice of public authorities.In recent years, in the North Caucasus region remains sufficiently high level of terrorist threats. Illegal armed groups, despite the adoption of various measures, including force action on the part of the security services and police forces, still retain the ability to recover its numerical capacity and infrastructure.Terrorist practice under religious banners is the most well-known, very widespread and prolonged in time. Increasingly growing terrorist potential, largely with religious overtones, it is formed and acutely manifested in the present time in connection with a number of negative processes characteristic of globalization.The special features that define the ability to determine the religion as an effective ideological cover acquire certain conditions extremist, including terrorist orientation, include deep rootedness of religion in the minds of the society as a certain unifying symbols as socialization factor for certain people, their ideas and actions. 

  20. Is ALARP applicable to the management of terrorist risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guikema, S.D., E-mail: sguikema@jhu.ed [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway); Aven, T. [Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.

  1. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operating permit unless you meet the relevant requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14525(a) through (h) and (j) through (o) and all of the requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14531. ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection...

  2. A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for Manganese 2016A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)William K BoyesBackground. In the 1990’s, the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as an octane-enh...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of...

  4. A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for Manganese 2016A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)William K BoyesBackground. In the 1990’s, the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as an octane-enh...

  5. Air classifier technology (ACT) in dry powder inhalation. Part 1 : Introduction of a novel force distribution concept (FDC) explaining the performance of a basic air classifier on adhesive mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A H; Hagedoorn, P; Gjaltema, D; Goede, J; Frijlink, H W

    2003-01-01

    Air classifier technology (ACT) is introduced as part of formulation integrated dry powder inhaler development (FIDPI) to optimise the de-agglomeration of inhalation powders. Carrier retention and de-agglomeration results obtained with a basic classifier concept are discussed. The theoretical cut-of

  6. Sub Saharan African Terrorist Groups’ use of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Bertram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.

  7. 77 FR 16509 - Proposed Approval of Revision of Five California Clean Air Act Title V Operating Permits Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... definition of ``regulated air pollutant'' now includes greenhouse gases if the source has a potential to emit... Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD), San Luis Obispo County Air Pollution Control District (SLOCAPCD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD), South Coast Air Quality...

  8. Influence of Terrorist Activities on Financial Markets: Evidence from KSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of terrorist activities taking place in Pakistan on KSE (Karachi Stock Exchange for the period of 01/2005 to 12/2010 using the GARCH & GARCH- EVT to identify the relationship between these two variables, the study establishes that the terrorist activities adversely affect the financial markets and in case of KSE, it is highly significant relation. Reason for the negative relationship exists because of the foremost increase in number of terrorism attacks in Pakistan.

  9. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  11. Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is often identified as a determinant of terrorist group participation, but existing research reveals mixed support for this relationship. Some studies find that macroeconomic decline is associated with increased production of terrorists, but micro-level research suggests terrorists have above average socioeconomic status and educational…

  12. Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is often identified as a determinant of terrorist group participation, but existing research reveals mixed support for this relationship. Some studies find that macroeconomic decline is associated with increased production of terrorists, but micro-level research suggests terrorists have above average socioeconomic status and educational…

  13. Terrorists and Fair Trial: The Right to a Fair Trial for Alleged Terrorists Detained in Guantánamo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ambos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into whether the right to a fair trial can be restricted with regard to alleged terrorists within the framework of the ‘war on terror’. After briefly identifying the relevant sources of this right and its content, possible restrictions are analysed. The paper elaborates, in particular, on international humanitarian law, such as the Third and Fourth Geneva Convention, and international human rights law, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. It further deals with US constitutional law. We conclude that the right to a fair trial fully applies to alleged terrorists irrespective of the context of their detention (armed conflict or peace or the qualification of these terrorists (de facto or unlawful combatants and thus amounts to a general principle of transnational criminal law.

  14. Fighting Islamic Terrorists With Democracy: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-21

    groups do not necessarily emerge from poverty, then this strategy may be inappropriate. If Western liberal democracy is not a consonant ...fact that the jihadiyyeen are not acting in dissonance with what has been written. As fundamentalists, their starting point is a literal, contextual...they are, indeed, acting in logical consonance with their scripture. If Islam has been twisted, the only position one can take is that it has been

  15. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  16. iWEDS-An Intelligent Explosive Detection and Terrorist Tracking System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Hariharan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the greatest threats to national security nowadays. Military or police forces are not sufficient to prevent these activities. In the year 2009 India faced one of the biggest terrorist attacks in Mumbai. According to the report published by Times of India, more than 600 people have been killed and several hundreds of people ravaged in various terrorist attacks in India in the last 6 years. The main problem behind this massacre is the group which is acting behind this who already know the ineffectiveness of our security systems. Even now we are following traditional metal detection doors and hand held metal detectors. No autonomous system is being used by any security forces in India till now. The main problem with the traditional systems is their bulkiness so that the intruder can easily bypass the security mechanism by following an alternate path. Here we are proposing a highly effective wireless sensor network solution; intelligent Wireless Explosive Detection System (iWEDS to tackle this problem. The sensors are organized in such a manner that it has been embedded with the road reflectors, so that nobody even knows about the security system and no one can bypass it. Other key advantages are: these systems are low powered, fully automated and can support real-time tracking. Though iWEDS can perform automated operation we are proposing it only for assisting the police and military forces.

  17. Risk of exposure to second hand smoke for adolescents in Las Vegas casinos: an evaluation of the Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Christopher; Henriques, Dominic; York, Nancy; Lee, Kiyoung

    2012-01-01

    Since the Surgeon General's groundbreaking report of 1964, "Smoking and Health," the medical and scientific communities have uncovered the devastating effects of tobacco smoke on health. In reaction to these findings, local and state governments have enacted a variety of clean air acts to prevent unnecessary exposure to this known carcinogen. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA), a non-comprehensive smoke-free law, permits smoking in designated areas of casinos, bars, and taverns. With many Las Vegas casinos catering to all ages, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of NCIAA in protecting children from second hand smoke exposure. Using a device that measures ambient air particle matter concentrations, this study sampled the air quality in 15 casino gaming areas and corresponding non-smoking, children-friendly areas. The results indicate that current policy fails to preserve indoor air quality in these children-friendly areas. Furthermore, this research suggests the adoption of a more comprehensive, 100% smoke-free policy as the only effective remedy.

  18. Exploring the Current Trends and Future Prospects in Terrorist Network Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Chaurasia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s era of hi-tech technologies, criminals are easily fulfilling their inhuman goals against the mankind. Thus, the security of civilians has significantly become important. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed using data mining techniques. One such technique is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways for identifying terrorist activities.

  19. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  20. Understanding Terrorist Network Topologies and Their Resilience Against Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the structural position of covert (terrorist or criminal) networks. Using the secrecy versus information tradeoff characterization of covert networks it is shown that their network structures are generally not small-worlds, in contradistinction to many overt social networks

  1. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  2. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL MECHANISMS TO COUNTER TERRORIST THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Startsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to problems arising while using economic and legal facilities of counteraction to terroristic threats in Russian Federation A complex of. key national safety maintenance matters vital in modern conditions is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial safety in interrelation with issues common to counteraction to organized and economic criminality, corruption and terrorism.

  3. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. 594.310 Section 594.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  4. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  5. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks; Haftung fuer Terrorismusschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2004-10-01

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  6. CRIMINAL TERRORIST GROUP IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian criminal law, there is a specialized regulation that defines criminal terrorist group, as variant of plurality of offenders. The present study presents this kind of criminal group by identifying the elements of differentiation compared to the organized crime group regulated by the Criminal Code.

  7. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated terrorist. 595.311 Section 595.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.311 Specially...

  8. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  9. [The hospital care of victims of terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaddou, Assena; Nion, Nathalie; Riou, Bruno; Blandeau, Fanny; Moreau, Pilar; Guemache, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of victims of terrorist attacks in a trauma centre requires the putting in place of plans, training and simulation exercises. Previous experiences have highlighted the areas which require improvement. As exceptional health situations are unpredictable, it is essential to always be vigilant and prepared for an unforeseen event.

  10. Understanding the Dynamic System of Terrorist-Government Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    The most telling key of Al Qaeda’s success was that they were the first terrorist organization to provide financial and military support to their host ...The Studies in Conflict & Terrorism journal, available on the electronic EBSCO research database, is an amazing source of research material for this

  11. Historical and Geographical Features of Terrorist Activity in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprunchuk I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of terrorism as a global security. In a study of terrorism the historical and geographical approach is applied. By the beginning of the 21st century, terrorism has become a global threat to security for all countries, leading to mass casualties, economic damage and political instability. Analysis of the global historical and geographical patterns is one of the most important aspects of the study of the contemporary phenomenon of terrorism. It allows you to better understand the mechanisms of terrorist activities and identify its spatial changes over the long run. The article deals with the historical and geographical features of terrorism in the world and contains the data on the first manifestations of terrorism in various regions of the world. The first premise of terrorism was the emergence of the state, on the one hand, and the presence of a politically active population, on the other hand. The author presents the main factors of such manifestations and the basic historical stages of development of terrorism, since the 18th century. On the basis of the selected stages, the territorial changes of terrorist activities in the world are investigated. Also, the basic directions of terrorist activities, such as a separatist, radical religious, “left” radical and others are described. In compliance with the proposed stages of terrorist activity, the ratio of these directions at different times and in different regions of the world is analyzed.

  12. Suits Against Terrorist States by Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    property as a result of popular movements in the course of the Islamic (continued...) Amendment. However, the application of state tort law has...Nat’l City Bank v. Banco Para El Comercio Exterior de Cuba, 462 U.S. 611 (1983) (“Bancec”) to judgments against designated terrorist States. Bancec held

  13. Manganese testing under a clean air act test rule and the application of resultant data in risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darcie; Woodall, George M; Jarabek, Annie M; Boyes, William K

    2017-07-01

    In the 1990's, the proposed use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as an octane-enhancing gasoline fuel additive led to concerns for potential public health consequences from exposure to manganese (Mn) combustion products in automotive exhaust. After a series of regulatory/legal actions and negotiations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued under Clean Air Act (CAA) section 211(b) an Alternative Tier 2 Test Rule that required development of scientific information intended to help resolve uncertainties in exposure or health risk estimates associated with MMT use. Among the uncertainties identified were: the chemical forms of Mn emitted in automotive exhaust; the relative toxicity of different Mn species; the potential for exposure among sensitive subpopulations including females, the young and elderly; differences in sensitivity between test species and humans; differences between inhalation and oral exposures; and the influence of dose rate and exposure duration on tissue accumulation of Mn. It was anticipated that development of specific sets of pharmacokinetic (PK) information and models regarding Mn could help resolve many of the identified uncertainties and serve as the best foundation for available data integration. The results of the test program included development of several unique Mn datasets, and a series of increasingly sophisticated Mn physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. These data and models have helped address each of the uncertainties originally identified in the Test Rule. The output from these PBPK models were used by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in 2012 to inform the selection of uncertainty factors for deriving the manganese Minimum Risk Level (MRL) for chronic exposure durations. The EPA used the MRL in the Agency's 2015 evaluation of potential residual risks of airborne manganese released from ferroalloys production plants. This resultant set of scientific

  14. The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the social-psychological factors often implicated in discussions of terrorist violence/martyrdom, with a particular focus on the role of religion. We offer a brief description of the psychological theories underpinning terrorist research before focusing on social-psychological factors. The roles of psychopathology, irrationality and grievance/threat are examined, followed by empirical research on the beliefs which have been associated with the perpetration and support of terrorist violence, and the social factors which foster those beliefs, including social identity, socially carried interpretations, group leadership and individual differences. Although religion is not a single, simple causal factor in terrorist violence, religious elements often feature strongly in the belief systems associated with terrorist violence, and can also feature in other important fostering factors for terrorist violence, such as the use of rhetoric. Finally, the status of lay explanations of terrorist violence, focusing on the role of religious fundamentalism is examined.

  15. Suicide Bombers in Israel: Their Motivations, Characteristics, and Prior Activity in Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Sela-Shayovitz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the characteristics of suicide bombers as reflected in the Israeli press during the Second Intifada in Israel. The analysis aims to determine whether there were significant differences in the characteristics of suicide bombers with religious motives versus those with nationalist motives. The findings reveal that gender, education level, and organizational affiliation correlated significantly with motives for carrying out suicide attacks. Most of the suicide bombers with religious motives were men with elementary education. In addition, the results show that most of the suicide bombers who were affiliated with the Hamas organization acted out of religious motives. No significant differences were found between suicide bombers with religious and those with nationalist motives with regard to age, marital status, and prior activity in terrorist organizations.

  16. 17 CFR 42.2 - Compliance with Bank Secrecy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance with Bank Secrecy Act. 42.2 Section 42.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING, TERRORIST FINANCING General Provisions § 42.2 Compliance with Bank Secrecy Act. Every...

  17. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  18. Air Quality Impacts of Increased Use of Ethanol under the United States' Energy Independence and Security Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, “criteria” pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of...

  19. 77 FR 15267 - Clean Air Act Full Approval of Title V Operating Permits Program; Southern Ute Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... review of the Tribe's authority to regulate air pollution sources located within the exterior boundaries... jurisdiction to regulate non- Indian-owned air pollution sources located on fee lands within the Reservation... greenhouses gases as part of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration/Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring...

  20. 78 FR 15376 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act On March 4, 2013, the Department of Justice..., 2011 (Dkt. Item No. 116), resolved a joint multimedia action by the United States and the State of... and Community Right- to-Know Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,...

  1. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  2. Estimating the historical and future probabilities of large terrorist events

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Quantities with right-skewed distributions are ubiquitous in complex social systems, including political conflict, economics and social networks, and these systems sometimes produce extremely large events. For instance, the 9/11 terrorist events produced nearly 3000 fatalities, nearly six times more than the next largest event. But, was this enormous loss of life statistically unlikely given modern terrorism's historical record? Accurately estimating the probability of such an event is complicated by the large fluctuations in the empirical distribution's upper tail. We present a generic statistical algorithm for making such estimates, which combines semi-parametric models of tail behavior and a non-parametric bootstrap. Applied to a global database of terrorist events, we estimate the worldwide historical probability of observing at least one 9/11-sized or larger event since 1968 to be 11-35%. These results are robust to conditioning on global variations in economic development, domestic versus international ...

  3. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  4. [Blasting damage in manmade disasters and terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-01-01

    In the present case of explosive injuries in peacetime, when suddenly there are usually accidental or intentional explosions methane in mines, tanks with gas or explosives, fuel tanks or gas content, gas tanks, gas pipelines, product pipelines, as well as the explosion of military ordnance--grenades, mines, fuses, shells, and accidentally found child or maliciously used by terrorists. Collected statistical data on manmade disasters in coal mines and explosive injuries in terrorist attacks, the physical parameters of which were able to identify only approximately and type of damage incurred,mostly multiple and combinative combined and presented significant challenges in health care. The reasons and circumstances of the explosion in peacetime, gave a detailed description of the damaging factors, mechanisms, and characteristics arise from injuries suffered in the blast injuries. We describe the pathogenesis of blast injury, basic and clinical manifestations of lesions in the explosions.

  5. Probabilistic Ontology Architecture for a Terrorist Identification Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    participate in multiple organizations (some of which may be associated with terrorism) or have multiple friends and relatives (some of whom may...which captures multiple attributes for each individual. Ontological engineering is performed on this KB to create the Terrorist Identification...certainty of the conclusion (an amputee is Human). isA isComposedOf Probabilistic Ontology Defined A probabilistic ontology is an explicit, formal

  6. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    alleged Al Qaeda operatives offered the first firm indication of a link between the terrorist network and drug trafficking”- Liz Sly, “Opium Cash Fuels... Jensen were convicted for their role in a $25 million dollar weapons-for-drugs deal to provide material support for Autodefensas Unidos de Colombia...organization. Ruiz received a life sentence for his role in the drugs for weapons plot, Puerta and Jensen received 15 and 14 years respectively.40

  7. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  8. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Introduction a la Psychologie Sociale Vol. 1. Paris: Larousse. 6 David W. Brannan, Philip F. Esler, & N.T. Anders Strindberg, “Talking to...St. Andrews, Scotland: Taylor & Francis, January 2001), Vol. 24, No. 1, 9. 6 • Cognitive component – The individual’s knowledge that he or she is a... Cognitive component – An individual is or becomes radicalized and supports the terrorist organization. This is an awareness of being a member of

  9. Illicit Networks: Targeting the Nexus Between Terrorists, Proliferators, and Narcotraffickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    bombings in Jakarta on the Ritz Carlton and Marriott hotels in July 2009. JI has engaged in a wide spectrum of criminal activity across Southeast...ambiguous. In recent years, JI’s most visible terrorist activities—the simultaneous bombings on the Ritz Carlton and Marriott hotels in Jakarta in...JI members comprised the core of his following. Implicated in the Marriott Hotel bombing in Jakarta in August 2003, the Australian Embassy bombing

  10. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  11. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  12. Roots and Causes That Created the PKK Terrorist Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    can meet even with [Abdullah] Öcalan.”2 But what kinds of political, military and social policies are likely to be necessary to allow this...but also by the European Union and the United States. Yet despite the prolonged history and scale of its violence, the PKK is still an enigma . The...terrorism. Once more, one can understand that unsolved democratic, social and economic problems in Turkey will create new terrorist organizations or

  13. Have the Mexican Drug Cartels Evolved into a Terrorist Insurgency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    for abusing Central American immigrants traveling through Mexico to get to the U.S. Frequently, they forcefully recruit the migrants to carry drugs...violence between rival drug cartels, street gangs, and the government within Mexico has created concern in both Mexico and the United States. The...literature debating whether the cartels are merely a criminal enterprise or whether the cartels represent a new terrorist insurgency in Mexico

  14. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sniper rifles and their accessories and advanced ammunition. For those weapons, only awareness and the precautions taken by security forces can...Qa’idat AI-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) al-Fatah Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Liberation Tigers of...a small terrorist cell that had to raise operational funds on its own. 14 For additional discussion of counterstrategies, see Jackson, Chalk, et al

  15. Radiological Dispersal Device Primer: From A Terrorists Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-15

    This section will review a real life accident that occurred in Goiania , Brazil to help illustrate the damage that could potentially occur if a RDD...occur in Goiania , Brazil in 1987 that highlights the potential effects of radiation contamination. Two scrap metal scavengers broke into an abandoned...terrorist attack, the Goiania incident provides a concrete example of the potential lethality and psychological/economic destruction of a RDD and provides

  16. Criminal Control and Evaluation of Extreme Nationalist Terrorist Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Hui

    2017-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, ter ̄rorist crimes have become more serious. Terrorism has become one of the worst problems of the mod ̄ern world and will continue to be a serious problem in the future. China is also facing the challenge of terrorist crime. Can the present criminal system accomplish the mission of legislative control of these crimes and fulfill the goal of penalising them? It seems that a review and evaluation of the rele ̄vant criminal legislation and policies is necessary. There are different definitions of terrorist crimes. American scholars Alex P. Schmid and Albert J. Jongman gave a review of 109 different definitions that appeared during the period from 1936 to 1983 , and proposed their own opinions in the book Political Terrorism. Chinese scholar Hu Lianhe analyzed 50 definitions that appeared after 1982, and proposed his own idea. On January 1 2016 , the third article of the Zhonghua renmin gongheguo fan kongbu zhuyi fa ( Anti -terrorism Law of the P. R. C) formally defines “terrorism”and “terrorist activities”. Generally speaking, both the academic and legal definitions have gener ̄alized three characteristics of “terrorist crime”from subjective and objective aspects: 1 ) taking social order, public security, personnel and prop ̄erty as the target of the ( terrorist ) behavior; 2 ) hurting the targets described above or threatening the state organs or international organizations by way of violence, destruction or intimidation; 3 ) taking the realization of some certain political or i ̄deological purpose and claims as the ultimate goal of the ( terrorist) behavior. Concerning the relation between extreme na ̄tionalism and terrorism, the general idea is that“there is no pure form of nationalism; it is always combined with some certain political or social pow ̄er, and characterized with social movement or his ̄torical process”. And seeing from the development course of terrorism,“nationalism is one of the most

  17. Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    media and the Internet to compensate for asymmetrical disadvantages has enabled them to keep generating new generations of jihadist terrorists. This...inter- personal media such as mobile phones, iPods , WiFi, etc. and the World Wide Web. The fusion of interpersonal communication and mass...public relations campaign. Their skillful use of the mass media and the Internet to compensate for symmetrical disadvantages has enabled them to

  18. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  19. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  20. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  1. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  2. We Bomb, Therefore We Are: The Evolution of Terrorist Group Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1994 Author...Revolutionary Cell and Palestinian PFLP operation that was led by the international terrorist "Carlos." Urbano . 26 terrorist network. but does imply some...violence. In order to retain the media’s and the public’s attention, a terrorist group continually must raise "Interview with Urbano ," in Urban

  3. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-01-01

    Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are ...

  4. A Glance at Terrorist Organizations from the Perspective of Organizational Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Sefer

    2013-01-01

    The problem of conceptualizing terrorist organization is still a controversial issue, even though it has been taken place in the literature heavily. In this essay, terrorist organizations will be approached in the context of organizational theories. Terrorist organizations will be introduced as exceptional structures besides being consistent with most of the organizational theories, departing from them in terms of strategies they adapt and life expectancy they experience. According to some th...

  5. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    terrorists have clearly exhibited psychopathy (see Glossary). For example, in April 1986 Nezar Hindawi, a freelance Syrian-funded Jordanian terrorist and...exhibit signs of psychopathy or other mental illness are deselected in the interest of group survival. Terrorist groups need members whose behavior...appears to be normal and who would not arouse suspicion. A member who exhibits traits of psychopathy or any noticeable degree of mental illness would

  6. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  7. Mental health approaches to child victims of acts of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Ankur; Garakani, Amir; Billick, Stephen B

    2013-03-01

    It has long been recognized that human beings exposed to severe stress may develop psychological symptoms. With recent terrorist acts around the world including the New York City World Trade Center September 11, 2001 atrocity, there has been a growing interest in the specific impact of terrorist acts on the victims and witnesses. One area that has received less study is the specific impact on children. This paper reviews some of the general effects of traumatic stress on children and the history of the research in this area including a specific discussion of post-traumatic stress disorder in children. This is followed by a review of how children might react to the trauma of a terrorist attack differentiating between three different subgroups of children (preschool age children, school-age children, and adolescents). Then there is a review of what a comprehensive evaluation of childhood victims of terrorism should entail. Finally, treatment modalities that have been shown to be effective are reviewed.

  8. Environmental compliance guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Air Act: nonattainment areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this manual is to identify information requirements associated with air quality permit applications in areas for which ambient pollutant levels currently exceed the national ambient air quality standards (nonattainment areas). The manual is to be used by project managers at the US Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the DOE Environmental Compliance Guide, to provide preliminary estimates of information required to obtain air quality permits for DOE projects. An analysis of nonattainment area permitting found that permitting of all sources in such areas is done on the state or local levels; the Environmental Protection Agency does not grant permits in nonattainment areas. As a result, Federal information requirements for permitting in nonattainment areas are somewhat vague. To provide a more realistic picture of nonattainment area permitting, selected state and local regulations were surveyed, and were found to contain more detail on the information required for permit approval. The most potentially demanding information requirements associated with nonattainment area permitting are the determination of Lowest Achievable Emission Rate, the negotiation of external emission offsets, and the consideration of the environmental impacts of project alternatives in ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment areas. In any state, a few information requirements for nonattainment area permitting are likely to overlap with information requirements of other permitting processes, such as those in the Prevention of Significant Deterioration procedure. These requirements are emissions data and air quality modeling and its associated input data requirements (meteorology, topography, etc.).

  9. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  10. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  11. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  12. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Co

  13. The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone-Actor Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Genzman, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for the assessment of individuals who present a concern for lone-actor terrorism. It consists of eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Previous research has demonstrated its interrater reliability and some concurrent and postdictive validity. In this article, TRAP-18 is retrospectively applied to the case of US Army psychiatrist and jihadist Malik Nidal Hasan, who committed a mass murder at Fort Hood, Texas in 2009. The strengths and limitations of TRAP-18 as a structured professional judgment instrument for mental health clinicians are discussed, and clinical risk management suggestions are made.

  14. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Martínez Pastor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements

  15. Generational Changes in Terrorist Movements: The Turkish Case,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    THE TURKISH CASE * Sabri Sayari * July 1985 DTlC CELECTE AUG 6 1986 LU F Z b -n approved 111 d111d its 44 86 8 5 056 Sabri. Sayar - * ~ % GENERATIONAL...become involved in terrorist groups through family ties, as in the case of Army Captain Orhan Savasci who was Cayan’s brother-in-law. Others, such as...with the TLP, Cayan emerged as one of the central figures of the DEV-GENC. By 1970, Cayan had left b hind his promising student career at the university

  16. Exploring the Structure and Task Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations Using Agent Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...Terrorist Networks, Agent Based Modeling, 2004 Madrid Attacks, Backcasting , Computational Organization Simulation 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...be understood in order to apply effective policies and practices to safeguard citizens, assets, and interests. For decades, terrorist cells have

  17. Exploring the Development and Dismantling of Equivalence Classes Involving Terrorist Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Zlomke, Kimberly R.; Robinson, Ashton

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes 2 studies that present a conceptual interpretation and experimental findings involving the developing and dismantling of equivalence classes consisting of terrorist stimuli. In the first study, 8 United States citizen participants were trained to match nonterrorist stimuli to American and terrorist images. Afterwards,…

  18. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated terrorists. 595.408 Section 595.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (a) Unless... as food, clothing or medicine, may be made to or for the benefit of a specially designated...

  19. 77 FR 56515 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-22708 Filed 9-11-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Notice of September 11, 2012--Continuation of the National... the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of...

  20. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., September 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-22988 Filed 9-10-10; 1:30 pm] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent...

  1. THE SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FORMER TERRORIST CONVICTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: Psychological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Asiyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social discrimination against the former terrorist convicts and their families.  It is aimed at knowing about former terrorist convicts’ family patterns of community interaction, the growing social discrimination within the social life of former terrorist’s convicts’ family, the impact of social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts, and the coping behavior of former terrorist convicts over that situation. This study uses descriptive qualitative research methods. The study finds that the pattern of interactions between the family of former terrorist convicts and their surrounding communities can be divided into two phases, before and after the arrest. It also maintains that the social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts occurs when they are dealing with people outside the village of Tenggulun, in the form of isolation, token and reserve discrimination. The prejudice and social discrimination on the family of former terrorist convicts impact on their self-worth, self-esteem and well being. Coping behavior by former terrorist convicts and their families are two kinds, namely emotion focused coping and problem-focused coping.

  2. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  3. The Effect of Terrorist Incidents on the Occupational Attitude of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how many terrorist incidents affected the teachers' occupational attitude by the variables of gender, marital status, birthplace, the term of employment and occupational status with "the effect of terrorist incidents on the occupational attitude of the teacher" scale. In this study, "descriptive scanning…

  4. Help-Seeking Behaviours of Adolescents in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Israeli Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima; Kelman, Talia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism poses a challenge for children and adolescents as well as parents. For many years, Israeli citizens have been exposed to ongoing terrorist attacks. The present article is aimed at revealing the reactions of Israeli parents when facing terrorist attacks and their perceptions regarding the help-seeking behaviours of their…

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National...

  6. Modeling the Combined Terrorist-Narcotics Trafficker Threat to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    from Corpus Christi , Texas, approached a U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informant. He was seeking the help of a Mexican drug cartel to...2004 Madrid bombers, with decentralized terrorist cells having in-house criminal capabilities, and the Taliban with coalitions between terrorist groups

  7. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  8. The Influence of Charismatic Authority on Operational Strategies and Attack Outcomes of Terrorist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Hofmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the historical and contemporary prevalence of charismatic terrorist leaders, there has been very little empirical examination of the relationship between charismatic forms of authority and the strategic operation of terrorist groups. In response to this gap in knowledge, this study seeks to investigate if charismatic authority has a real-world impact on strategic choices and attack outcomes of terrorist groups. Using a theoretical framework meant to help measure charisma in terrorist organizations, this study quantitatively examines how differing levels of the presence of charismatic authority contributes to the choice in operational tactics (e.g., weapon and target choices and the results of attack outcomes (e.g., success rates, lethality within a sample of thirty international terrorist groups. In the concluding section, relevant findings, policy recommendations, study limitations, and areas for future research are discussed.

  9. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  10. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL, CRIMINOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERSONALITY OF EXTREMIST, TERRORIST, ENGAGED IN PROPAGANDA AMONG THE YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. KHARZINOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals: socio-psychological criminological characteristics of personality advocate extremism and terrorism. The focus of the author focuses on specific moral, psychological, spiritual and moral values of the extremist, terrorist propagandizing extremism and terrorism. The purpose of writing this article is to review the socio-psychological, criminological characteristics of persons advocating extremism and terrorism. Criminologists point out that the identity of the perpetrator is characterized by the following data: socio-biological, demographic, criminal law, moral-psychological sphere of life and social relationships. Analysis of the sociobiological data allows you to note that the most active promoters of the involvement of young people in extremist and terrorist activities are males. Extremists propagandists are people who are characterized by the special moral and psychological qualities: 1 a fanatical adherence to an ideology promoted; 2 Group fanaticism and narcissism; 3 the group nature of the action; 4 radicalism, which is expressed in the form of violence and intimidation. [3] Unlike other extremism and terrorism are criminal acts carried out in order to implement some ideas. In this regard, it must be assumed that the moral-psychological features of extremists and terrorists based on the ideology of extremism and terrorism, which are reflected in its specificity, emotional and mental health, ways of perception and attitude towards the outside world, on the interaction between its inner and outer world. Involving youth in terrorist and extremist activities, they realize that they are on offense and even to death, but they do not stop, because they are fans of radical Islam. Representatives of nontraditional radical trend of Islam is peculiar to the religious fanaticism that borders on physical and spiritual violence.

  11. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Shapiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is  argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.

  12. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims.

  13. Killing Range: Explaining Lethality Variance within a Terrorist Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Gill, Paul; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level.

  14. Policy Decisions With Regard To The Applicability Of The Clean Air Act Requirements To The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants; Genehmigungsrechtliche Fragen terroristischer Angriffe auf Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danwitz, T. von

    2002-07-01

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [German] Das allgemeine Risiko von terroristischen Anschlaegen auf Kernkraftwerke ist durch die Ereignisse vom 11. September 2001 wieder verstaerkt in das Bewusstsein der Oeffentlichkeit getreten. Die verfassungsrechtlichen Grundlagen und die atomgesetzliche Einordnung der Risiken von terroristischen Angriffen auf kerntechnische Anlagen bleiben jedoch in der aktuellen Diskussion weithin ungeklaert. Der Beitrag unternimmt es daher, die verfassungs- und verwaltungsrechtliche Bedeutung der Risiken terroristischer Angriffe auf Kernkraftwerke in atomrechtlichen Genehmigungsverfahren zu untersuchen. (orig./CB)

  16. Criminal provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and their interface with the United States sentencing guidelines. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, W.P.

    1991-09-30

    The growing severity of our societal response to environmental misconduct is reflected, in part, by the criminalization of environmental wrongs by both state and Federal governments. Indeed, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 continue this trend, giving the Environmental Protection Agency, via the Department of Justice, significant new criminal enforcement tools. The importance attached to law enforcement of environmental laws is a relatively recent phenomenon and took a significant upswing in 1982 when the department of Justice created what is today the Environmental Crimes Section in what is now the Environment and Natural Resources Division, which section has grown steadily and now has over 25 attorneys who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of environmental crimes in the U.S.

  17. Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane

    2017-03-01

    Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. DLVO, hydrophobic, capillary and hydrodynamic forces acting on bacteria at solid-air-water interfaces: Their relative impact on bacteria deposition mechanisms in unsaturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongjuan; Cochet, Nelly; Pauss, André; Lamy, Edvina

    2017-02-01

    Experimental and modeling studies were performed to investigate bacteria deposition behavior in unsaturated porous media. The coupled effect of different forces, acting on bacteria at solid-air-water interfaces and their relative importance on bacteria deposition mechanisms was explored by calculating Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and non-DLVO interactions such as hydrophobic, capillary and hydrodynamic forces. Negatively charged non-motile bacteria and quartz sands were used in packed column experiments. The breakthrough curves and retention profiles of bacteria were simulated using the modified Mobile-IMmobile (MIM) model, to identify physico-chemical attachment or physical straining mechanisms involved in bacteria retention. These results indicated that both mechanisms might occur in both sand. However, the attachment was found to be a reversible process, because attachment coefficients were similar to those of detachment. DLVO calculations supported these results: the primary minimum did not exist, suggesting no permanent retention of bacteria to solid-water and air-water interfaces. Calculated hydrodynamic and resisting torques predicted that bacteria detachment in the secondary minimum might occur. The capillary potential energy was greater than DLVO, hydrophobic and hydrodynamic potential energies, suggesting that film straining by capillary forces might largely govern bacteria deposition under unsaturated conditions.

  19. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K. [Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  20. The Dynamics of the Creation, Evolution, and Disappearance of Terrorist Internet Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ricardo Torres-Soriano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the organizational nature of the threat posed by jihadi terrorism, supplying quantitative and qualitative data on the dynamics behind the creation, evolution, and disappearance of the main jihadi Internet forums during the period 2008–2012. An analysis of the origins and functions of the forums, their links with terrorist organizations, their internal structures, and the processes accounting for their stability in cyberspace shows that far from representinga horizontal structure where the main actors are a network of followers, the terrorist presence on the Internet is in fact a hierarchical organization in which intervention by formal terrorist organizations plays a crucial role.

  1. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  2. Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Canada, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helfand, Neil S

    2003-01-01

    ... engaging in the trafficking of women, and groups committing financial crimes against U.S. interests. The terrorist organizations examined were those that are viewed as potentially planning attacks...

  3. BOOK REVIEW--Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Luc Carnus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and Terrorist Organizations by Artur Beifuss and Francesco Trivini Bellini, Merrell Publishers, London, 2013, 336 pages, ISBN–978–1858946016, reviewed by Christian Luc Carnus

  4. MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  5. From Terrorist to Persona: Para-Social Interaction and the ETA Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Ophir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The great virtues of the Internet - ease of access, lack of regulation, vast potential audiences, and fast flow of information, among others - have been exploited by terrorist groups. Consequently, the Internet has become a useful and effective platform for terrorist organizations and their supporters. Applying para-social relationships theory, this study examines the ways terrorist groups utilize the Internet to gain sympathy and support for their appeals and goals. The case of ETA’s website (ETA - Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization, dedicated to Basque prisoners imprisoned in Ireland and fighting extradition to Spain, is used as an illustrative example of the applicability of the para-social theorem. The various tactics adopted for establishing and promoting para-social relationships between media characters and the audiences as revealed in Basque terrorist video clips on YouTube are analyzed.  

  6. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  7. The Psychological Development of the Terrorist Mind Set: Pertinence in the Sentencing Phase of Capital Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Dawn Culpepper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews past and current scholarly literature about the psychological development of the terrorist mind set with a special focus on how adverse life experiences early in one’s lifetime negatively impacts the normal psychological development. Information that pertains to childhood trauma, social psychological factors, psycho-social causes, and psycho-cultural foundations that play a role in the development of terrorist beliefs and behaviors are explored. This paper also reviews several theories that attempt to explain terrorism; a few from a social and cultural perspective, as a constellation of terrorism research scholars suggest that the development of terrorist behavior is in every way contextual. The lives of two known terrorists, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Ted Kaczynski, are analyzed to illustrate how the psychological, social, and cultural factors that make up their backgrounds were applied in the sentencing (mitigation phases of their trials resulting in the death penalty being replaced with a life sentence for both. 

  8. BOOK REVIEW--Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luc Carnus

    2016-01-01

    Book review of Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and Terrorist Organizations by Artur Beifuss and Francesco Trivini Bellini, Merrell Publishers, London, 2013, 336 pages, ISBN–978–1858946016, reviewed by Christian Luc Carnus

  9. Terrorist use of the Internet: exploitation and support through ICT infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available . Propaganda ? a form of communication aimed at influencing the terrorist community toward a specific cause; both web literature and social networking tools can be applied for this purpose. Funding ? financial support provided to make a specific terrorist... instructions on how to make letter bombs; use poison and chemicals; detonate car bombs; shoot US soldiers; navigate by the stars (Coll, Glasser 2005) and assemble a suicide bomb vest (Lachow, Richardson 2007). The use of dedicated websites within...

  10. Terrorist Group Dynamics Through the Lens of the Tigantourine Assault in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian terrorist assault in January 2013 that was carried out by Mokhtar Belmokhtar and his “Battalion of Blood” activists against a BP-Norwegian-Algerian-Japanese gas facility in In Amenas, Algeria, is worth considering as it provides a rare glimpse into several key dimensions of terrorist group dynamics that are important for scholars and counter- terrorism practitioners to understand.

  11. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder of Florida State (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincide with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder shows that terrorist attacks against the U.S. have affecte...

  12. Evidences of Persuasion Coercive for Indoctrination of Jihadists Terrorists: Towards Violent Radicalization

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto M. Trujillo; Juan J. Ramírez; Ferran Alonso

    2009-01-01

    This work analyzes two processes of psychological manipulation for indoctrination and violent radicalization of jihadist terrorists in Spain: coercive persuasion and psychological group abuse. This research is based on the trustworthy information used in findings of the Spanish “Audiencia Nacional”(the Spanish High Court charged with terrorist trials) about the affidavits NOVA Operation I, II, and III. This research facilitates a reliable analysis of the possible processes of psychological ma...

  13. Biodiesel Fuel Company Owner Pleads Guilty to Fraud and Clean Air Act Crimes Connected to Renewable Fuels Scheme / Philip J. Rivkin faces more than 10 years imprisonment and $51 million in restitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Philip Joseph Rivkin, a.k.a. Felipe Poitan Arriaga, 50, today pleaded guilty to a Clean Air Act false statement and mail fraud as part of his role in a scheme to defraud EPA by falsely representing that he was producing millions of gall

  14. Detailed cloud resolving model simulations of the impacts of Saharan air layer dust on tropical deep convection – Part 1: Dust acts as ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies suggest that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL, an elevated layer (850–500 hPa of Saharan air and mineral dust, has strong impacts on the microphysical as well as dynamical properties of tropical deep convective cloud systems along its track. In this case study, numerical simulations using a two-dimensional Detailed Cloud Resolving Model (DCRM were carried out to investigate the dust-cloud interactions in the tropical deep convection, focusing on the dust role as Ice Nuclei (IN.

    The simulations showed that mineral dust considerably enhanced heterogeneous nucleation and freezing at temperatures warmer than −40 °C, resulting in more ice hydrometeors number concentration and reduced precipitating size of ice particles. Because of the lower in the saturation over ice as well as more droplet freezing, total latent heating increased, and consequently the updraft velocity was stronger.

    On the other hand, the increased ice deposition consumed more water vapor at middle troposphere, which induces a competition for water vapor between heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing and nucleation. As a result, dust suppressed the homogeneous droplet freezing and nucleation due to the heterogeneous droplet freezing and the weakened transport of water vapor at lower stratosphere, respectively. These effects led to decreased number concentration of ice cloud particles in the upper troposphere, and consequently lowered the cloud top height during the stratus precipitating stage.

    Acting as IN, mineral dust also influenced precipitation in deep convection. It initiated earlier the collection because dust-related heterogeneous nucleation and freezing at middle troposphere occur earlier than homogeneous nucleation at higher altitudes. Nevertheless, the convective precipitation was suppressed by reduced collection of large graupel particles and insufficient fallout related to decreased sizes of precipitating ice hydrometeors

  15. The Italian Red Brigades and the structure and dynamics of terrorist groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2010-06-01

    One of the problems in dealing with terrorism is that we have virtually no access to individual terrorists; only their actions are visible. The founders of the Italian terrorist group, the Red Brigades, on the other hand, have written about their experiences and have exhaustively explained their motivations. The author's premise is that these autobiographies and her interviews with several of the group's members give us access to the unconscious processes involved in the formation and operation of the group. After terrorist attacks, it is natural to ask whether the terrorists' capacity for collective violence is an indication of personal pathology. This paper argues that the relevant pathology in the terrorist enterprise is not that of the individual but that of the group. Relying on the theories of groups of Freud (1921), Bion (1961), Anzieu (1984) and Kaes (2007), the author argues that psychoanalytic theory is essential to understanding the motivations and actions of violent groups which otherwise remain obscure. Although the discussion has been confined to one terrorist group, the author hopes that it can also be useful for understanding the unconscious dynamics of other groups structured around an ideology which mandates the destruction of human life.

  16. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: A systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. Methods A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. Results A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Conclusions Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed. PMID:21627850

  17. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Martens

    Full Text Available Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  18. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  19. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  20. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 second prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James H; Mullen, Maureen A; Bollman, Andrew D; Thesing, Kirstin B; Salhotra, Manish; Divita, Frank; Neumann, James E; Price, Jason C; DeMocker, James

    2008-05-01

    Section 812 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform periodic, comprehensive analyses of the total costs and total benefits of programs implemented pursuant to the CAAA. The first prospective analysis was completed in 1999. The second prospective analysis was initiated during 2005. The first step in the second prospective analysis was the development of base and projection year emission estimates that will be used to generate benefit estimates of CAAA programs. This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions attributable to the

  1. EIA's role in the analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the development of the National Allowance Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamon, J.A.; Linders, M.J. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Throughout 1990 the Energy Information Administration (EIA) provided continuous data and analytic support to Congress during its deliberations on Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA). Congress requested the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to review and analyze the sections that would affect electric utilities, specifically those relating to acid deposition (Title IV). By providing knowledgeable and impartial analysis, EIA clarified the likely effects of the various legislative proposals and helped Congress finalize the amendments. Even though the CAA is now law, EIA's efforts have not ended. During the analysis of the various proposals, EIA and EPA created a National Allowance Database (NAD). Now, under an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a new version of the NAD is being developed to facilitate the implementation of the acid deposition provisions of the CAA. This article describes the analyses undertaken, points out where EIA's efforts led to improved understanding of the likely impacts of the CAA, and outlines EIA's continued efforts to assist EPA in the implementation of the amendments. 6 tabs.

  2. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  3. Suburban Bliss or Disillusionment - Why Do Terrorists Quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van der Heide

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the explanatory value of two theories of desistance – the cessation of criminal behavior – in explaining why 27 individuals left the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (ISIS. The article focuses specifically on jihadists that turned away from ISIS after March 2011, asking why individuals desist from ISIS and choose to leave the caliphate. A dataset of 27 narratives of desistance was analysed to answer the question to what extent desistance from ISIS by jihadists can be explained by the Laub & Sampson’s life course theory and by Altier, Thorogughood & Horgan’s model of push and pull factors. The primary pathways for desistance are coded according to the two theories. The results show that of the 27 individuals, the majority desisted from the caliphate because of their perception of the excessive use of force by ISIS and their inability to cope with the effects. A minority desisted because of their perception of alternative options outside the terrorist group or because of important life events that happened ‘at home’. Thus, the article concludes that the push and pull factors model is valid in the explanation of desistance from the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq whereas life course theory does not hold explanatory value

  4. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swahlan, D.J.

    1989-04-18

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism. 6 figs.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  6. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S.

  7. Review on emergency medical response against terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Wen; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ming-Min

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a global issue and a constant international threat. As a result, anti-terrorism and emergency response strategies are tasks of critical importance that have a direct impact on the national security of every country in the world. This paper reviews new characteristics of international anti-terrorism measures and offers an in-depth reflection on emergency medical response countermeasures; additionally, this paper presents the goals of related research, which include: 1) to present a model of a highly efficient medical response command; 2) to introduce the pre-planning phases of the emergency medical response; 3) to establish a response system capable of handling various types of terror attacks; 4) to promote anti-terrorism awareness to the general public and emphasize its prevention; and 5) to continue basic investigations into emergency medical responses for various types of terrorist attacks (for example, the classifications and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of the resultant stress disorders, improved high-efficiency medical response measures and equipment, etc.).

  8. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swahlan, David J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism.

  9. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  10. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  11. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  12. Restoration projects for decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve

  13. Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracer Studies to Support Risk Assessment Modeling of Critical Infrastructure Subjected to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Terry M.; Heiser, John H.; Watson, Tom; Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., “urban canyons”. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City’s (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving

  14. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-08-20

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements.

  15. The Effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on Food Services and Drinking Places Sales and Numbers, 1998-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Philadelphia enacted its Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA) nearly 2 years before the statewide CIAA. In this study, we assessed the economic impact of CIAAs on 4 types of food services and drinking places and addressed the predominant limitation of previous pre–post ban studies, namely the lack of control for confounders and changes in secular trends over time. Methods We analyzed data from Pennsylvania Department of Revenue Quarterly 1998–2011 taxable county-level revenue sales and number of food services and drinking places. Region-specific and type-specific adjusted sales and number of food services and drinking places accounted for consumer spending as a general economic indicator. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series methodology assessed changes in trend and level. Results Pennsylvania CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales or numbers except for an increase in sales in Philadelphia for limited-service eating places and in the surrounding 4 counties for special food services. Philadelphia CIAA was associated with an increase in adjusted numbers of full-service restaurants in Philadelphia and the rest of the state, special food services in Philadelphia, and drinking places in the rest of the state, and a decrease in the number of special food services in the surrounding counties. Philadelphia CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales except for an increase in special food services in the rest of the state. Conclusion Overall, CIAAs had no negative business-related impact and, for the most part, suggest a positive impact on restaurant sales and numbers. Our results provide further support for comprehensive CIAA ordinance for restaurants. PMID:24286275

  16. The effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on food services and drinking places sales and numbers, 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-Qiang; Fisher, Monica A

    2013-11-27

    Philadelphia enacted its Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA) nearly 2 years before the statewide CIAA. In this study, we assessed the economic impact of CIAAs on 4 types of food services and drinking places and addressed the predominant limitation of previous pre-post ban studies, namely the lack of control for confounders and changes in secular trends over time. We analyzed data from Pennsylvania Department of Revenue Quarterly 1998-2011 taxable county-level revenue sales and number of food services and drinking places. Region-specific and type-specific adjusted sales and number of food services and drinking places accounted for consumer spending as a general economic indicator. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series methodology assessed changes in trend and level. Pennsylvania CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales or numbers except for an increase in sales in Philadelphia for limited-service eating places and in the surrounding 4 counties for special food services. Philadelphia CIAA was associated with an increase in adjusted numbers of full-service restaurants in Philadelphia and the rest of the state, special food services in Philadelphia, and drinking places in the rest of the state, and a decrease in the number of special food services in the surrounding counties. Philadelphia CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales except for an increase in special food services in the rest of the state. Overall, CIAAs had no negative business-related impact and, for the most part, suggest a positive impact on restaurant sales and numbers. Our results provide further support for comprehensive CIAA ordinance for restaurants.

  17. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  18. Angry at the unjust, scared of the powerful: emotional responses to terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Maitner, Angela T

    2013-08-01

    The threat of terrorist attacks motivates emotional reactions that elicit functional behavioral responses to characteristics of a threatening group. We argue that the more the group is seen as unjust, the more anger arises, whereas the more it is seen as powerful, the more fear arises. In Experiment 1, British participants read about terrorist groups with varied levels of injustice and power. As expected, the manipulation of injustice increased anger, and power increased fear. Anger and fear predicted offensive and defensive reactions. Experiment 2 used a representative sample of U.S. residents and again found distinct effects of an injustice manipulation on anger, and a power manipulation on fear. Anger was a primary motivator of support for offensive and defensive measures in both experiments. Willingness to negotiate was reduced with more injustice and anger, but increased with more outgroup power and fear. These findings have implications on public reactions to terrorist organizations.

  19. Intuitive visualization of the intelligence for the run-down of terrorist wire-pullers

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the terrorist attack is a time-critical task. The investigators have a limited time window to diagnose the organizational background of the terrorists, to run down and arrest the wire-pullers, and to take an action to prevent or eradicate the terrorist attack. The intuitive interface to visualize the intelligence data set stimulates the investigators' experience and knowledge, and aids them in decision-making for an immediately effective action. This paper presents a computational method to analyze the intelligence data set on the collective actions of the perpetrators of the attack, and to visualize it into the form of a social network diagram which predicts the positions where the wire-pullers conceals themselves.

  20. 76 FR 3007 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 13, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-1106 Filed 1-14-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195... Notice of January 13, 2011--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive...

  1. 77 FR 3065 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 19, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-1316 Filed 1-19-12; 2:00 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process...

  2. 78 FR 39057 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant To... aforementioned individual as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order....

  3. 75 FR 3845 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 20, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-1400 Filed 1-21-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  4. 78 FR 4303 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... 17, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-01296 Filed 1-18-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  5. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  6. Would-Be Warriors: Incidents of Jihadist Terrorist Radicalization in the United States Since September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    sporadic terrorist attacks in the United States, as did remnants of the Ku Klux Klan .2 Some of these groups clearly benefited from the support of...Communist Party or the Ku Klux Klan did not work with the tiny, more- fluid terrorist gangs of the 1970s. Domestic intel- ligence also operated under

  7. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-09-24

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  8. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

      - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researchers...... to use their intelligence data (Ressler S., 2006).  Very few researchers (Krebs, V., 2002, Sageman, M., 2004 and Rodriguez, J. A., 2004) collected data from open sources, and to the best of our knowledge, no knowledge base is available in academia for the analysis of the terrorist events.   To counter...... of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  9. UN Targeted Terrorist Sanctions and the Rule of Law: The UKs Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Stevens

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine the effect of instigating United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR’s in relation to assets freezing of those suspected of being involved in terrorist activity. It will discuss the decision by the UK Supreme Court in the leading judgment and the subsequent government’s responses concerning the introduction into the UK of UNSCR’s by means of secondary legislation in relation to Parliamentary supremacy. The main UK case under discussion will be 'R v A (& others'. This case found that the freezing of assets of those suspected of terrorist activity in the UK, in compliance with various UNSC resolutions was ultra vires

  10. The Use of Structures in Communication Networks to Track Membership in Terrorist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A Eiselt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper investigates possibilities to detect terrorist cells based on communications between individuals without the need for wiretapping. The advantages of such procedure are apparent: fewer (if any legal requirements, and, most importantly, the possibility to automate the surveillance. After a brief review of the pertinent literature, we offer three approaches that are designed to aid in the detection of not only terrorist cells, but also the command structures within the cells. The techniques are demonstrated by using a small illustration. The paper concludes by outlining limitations of the procedures described here.

  11. The terrorist threat to the UK in the post–9/11 decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sir David Omand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall task for this special issue is to assess the emergency response to terrorism, in particular the threat posed by violent jihadist terrorism. Clearly, planning for emergency responses will have value against other threats and hazards, so it will be difficult to separate out the arrangements made to deal specifically with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, and those to meet other emergencies, for example major natural disasters. A sense of proportion is also needed when examining terrorist risks: the actions of greedy market-makers and incompetent bankers in the recent past is doing much more damage to our national welfare and national security than terrorism today.

  12. The Terrorists are Coming! The Terrorists are Coming! (or are they?): A Critical Discourse Analysis of The Anti-Terrorism Act, Bill C-51 in Canadian Newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the Canadian mainstream print news media helps to legitimate the increase in security measures, government agency powers, and new legislation in Canada through the dissemination of a discourse of terrorism, as well as through legitimation of the types of questions being asked about terrorism, and Canada’s response to it. To reflect on how the mainstream print news media are using the discourse of terrorism news articles from The Globe and Mail and the National Post abou...

  13. Estimating the Importance of Terrorists in a Terror Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhajj, Ahmed; Elsheikh, Abdallah; Addam, Omar; Alzohbi, Mohamad; Zarour, Omar; Aksaç, Alper; Öztürk, Orkun; Özyer, Tansel; Ridley, Mick; Alhajj, Reda

    While criminals may start their activities at individual level, the same is in general not true for terrorists who are mostly organized in well established networks. The effectiveness of a terror network could be realized by watching many factors, including the volume of activities accomplished by its members, the capabilities of its members to hide, and the ability of the network to grow and to maintain its influence even after the loss of some members, even leaders. Social network analysis, data mining and machine learning techniques could play important role in measuring the effectiveness of a network in general and in particular a terror network in support of the work presented in this chapter. We present a framework that employs clustering, frequent pattern mining and some social network analysis measures to determine the effectiveness of a network. The clustering and frequent pattern mining techniques start with the adjacency matrix of the network. For clustering, we utilize entries in the table by considering each row as an object and each column as a feature. Thus features of a network member are his/her direct neighbors. We maintain the weight of links in case of weighted network links. For frequent pattern mining, we consider each row of the adjacency matrix as a transaction and each column as an item. Further, we map entries into a 0/1 scale such that every entry whose value is greater than zero is assigned the value one; entries keep the value zero otherwise. This way we can apply frequent pattern mining algorithms to determine the most influential members in a network as well as the effect of removing some members or even links between members of a network. We also investigate the effect of adding some links between members. The target is to study how the various members in the network change role as the network evolves. This is measured by applying some social network analysis measures on the network at each stage during the development. We report

  14. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richards

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism strategies have been premised on them. They are: i the contemporary and explicit concern with ‘extremist’ but 'non-violent' ideas that are said to be ‘conducive’ to terrorism as a focus for a counter-terrorism response and ii the notion that terrorism has increasingly been seen as the product of ‘vulnerability’. The first, and the main focus of this article, appears to challenge the widely held view within terrorism studies that, when defining terrorism, reference to the cause or the perpetrator is unhelpful because terrorism should first and foremost (and more objectively be seen as a particular 'method' of violence that has been used by a wide variety of actors, regardless of the ideology or the belief systems of its perpetrators. The second aspect – the impetus towards viewing terrorism as the product of vulnerability or individual fallibility - arguably implies a diminished capacity for rational behaviour, which challenges a further commonly held view within terrorism studies: that terrorism entails the use of calculated and rational acts of violence.

  15. Aptitude for Destruction. Volume 2: Case Studies of Organizational Learning in Five Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Neuffer , 1990).12 The increasing specificity and sophistication of the devices also increased the risk to the group’s capabilities, since the security...Croomhelm, 1984, pp. 3-3 1. Neuffer , Elizabeth, "Tapes Key to IRA High-Tech Trial," The Boston Globe, May 1, 1990, p. 17. "No One Hurt as Terrorist Grenade

  16. Critical incident stress debriefing following the terrorist bombing at Army Headquarters Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, A P; Cumming, P A; Piper, M E

    1998-02-01

    On the 7 October 1996 the Provisional Irish Republican Army launched a terrorist attack within Northern Ireland. This paper provides a descriptive reflective account of the psychological support and Critical Incident Stress Debriefings (CISD) provided for civilian/military personnel and service families. Between 66 hours and 96 hours following the incident, 407 people were debriefed.

  17. Providing Crisis Counseling to New Yorkers after the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Karin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of two crisis intervention techniques used by a marriage and family counselor who served as a crisis counselor in New York City after the September 11th terrorist attack. The intervention techniques described are Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and one-on-one crisis counseling. An overview of both techniques…

  18. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  19. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations...

  20. After a terrorist attack: Challenges for political and administrative leadership in norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Christensen (Tom); P. Laegreid (Per); L.H. Rykkja (Lise Hellebø)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the challenges that the terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway created for central government and, more particularly, for the political and police leadership. The emphasis is on 'meaning making', focusing on how the leaders played out their reactions in the

  1. 77 FR 67733 - Unblocking of One Specially Designated Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 12947

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Unblocking of One Specially Designated Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 12947 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  2. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs.

  3. 76 FR 16855 - Unblocking of One Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Unblocking of One Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  4. A New Forensic Picture Polygraph Technique for Terrorist and Crime Deception System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R. H. Brian; Axton, JoAnn; Gold, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Forensic Terrorist Detection System called Pinocchio Assessment Profile (PAP) employs standard issue polygraphs for a non-verbal picture technique originated as a biofeedback careers interest instrument. The system can be integrated readily into airport screening protocols. However, the method does not rely on questioning or foreign language…

  5. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  6. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  7. There and back again: The study of mental disorder and terrorist involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2017-04-01

    For the past 40 years, researchers studied the relationship between mental disorder and terrorist involvement. The literature developed in 4 paradigms, each of which differs in terms of their empirical evidence, the specific mental disorders studied, and their conceptualizations of terrorist involvement. These paradigms have not, however, witnessed linear and incremental improvements upon 1 another. Although 1 paradigm has generally tended to dominate a temporal period, many false assumptions and incorrect interpretations of earlier work permeate into today's discourse. This article provides a history of the study of mental disorders and the terrorist. First, we briefly outline the core fundamental principles of the first 2 paradigms, The article then outlines the core arguments produced by the seminal reviews conducted in Paradigm 3. We highlight how these findings were consistently misinterpreted in subsequent citations. We then highlight recent innovations in the study of terrorism and mental disorder since the various influential literature reviews of 1997-2005. We conclude by outlining how future research in this area may improve in the coming years by broadening our understanding of both terrorist involvement and psychopathology away from simple dichotomous thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Social Network Analysis: A case study of the Islamist terrorist network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Social Network Analysis is a compilation of methods used to identify and analyze patterns in social network systems. This article serves as a primer on foundational social network concepts and analyses and builds a case study on the global Islamist terrorist network to illustrate the use and usefulness of these methods. The Islamist terrorist network is a system composed of multiple terrorist organizations that are socially connected and work toward the same goals. This research utilizes traditional social network, as well as small-world, and scale-free analyses to characterize this system on individual, network and systemic levels. Leaders in the network are identified based on their positions in the social network and the network structure is categorized. Finally, two vital nodes in the network are removed and this version of the network is compared with the previous version to make implications of strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The Islamist terrorist network structure is found to be a resilient and efficient structure, even with important social nodes removed. Implications for counterterrorism are given from the results of each analysis.

  9. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  10. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  11. Patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in Iraq: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, I S; Muassa, Q H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, Iraq has witnessed daily terrorist attacks mainly using improvised explosive devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in a sample of Iraqi casualties. Records from two hospitals, including 551 patients who sustained maxillofacial injuries due to terrorists attacks, were analyzed according to the patients' age, sex, site of injury, type of injury and cause of injury. Concomitant injuries and mortality were also considered. The most common age group affected was those aged 15-29 years. Most of these injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (71%). More than one facial zone was injured in 212 patients (38%). Isolated soft tissues injuries were detected in (54%) of victims. Pure maxillofacial injuries comprised 33%. The most common injuries associated with this type of trauma were eye injuries (29%). The mortality rate was 2% from pure maxillofacial injuries. Terrorist attacks cause unique maxillofacial injuries, which should be considered a new entity in the trauma field.

  12. The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    reconnaissance, with a team sent to survey, plan, and prepare for the attack with help from local dissi- ______________ 104“El Silencio de las Armas...Ha’aretz, June 21, 2001. 104 The Dynamic Terrorist Threat “El Silencio de las Armas,” Cambio, August 14, 2000. Sobelman, Daniel, “Hizbullah Lends Its

  13. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used

  14. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  15. Actions Speak Louder than Words: A Behavioral Analysis of 183 Individuals Convicted for Terrorist Offenses in the United States from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, John; Shortland, Neil; Abbasciano, Suzzette; Walsh, Shaun

    2016-09-01

    Involvement in terrorism has traditionally been discussed in relatively simplistic ways with little effort spent on developing a deeper understanding of what involvement actually entails, and how it differs from person to person. In this paper, we present the results of a three-year project focused on 183 individuals associated with the global jihadist movement who were convicted in the United States, for terrorist offenses, between 1995 and 2012. These data were developed by a large-scale, open-source data collection activity that involved a coding dictionary of more than 120 variables. We identify and explore the diversity of behaviors that constitute involvement in terrorism. We also compare lone actors and those who acted as part of a group, finding that lone actors differed from group-based actors in key demographic attributes and were more likely to be involved in attack execution behaviors. Implications for counterterrorism are then discussed. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Interroger la pertinence du critère d'irrégularité dans la définition de la figure de terroriste

    OpenAIRE

    Missoffe, Prune

    2016-01-01

    L'adoption le 24 juillet 2015 de la loi sur le renseignement suite aux attentats de janvier, la qualification par le président français des attentats de novembre comme « acte de guerre […] commis par une armée terroriste, Daech, une armée jihadiste, contre la France » (Déclaration du président français à l'issue du Conseil de défense, publié le 14 novembre 2015), la déclaration d'un état d'urgence et la suspension de l'application de la Convention européenne des droits de l'Homme suite à ces ...

  17. How Terrorist Groups End: Studies of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    just personalities—in terrorism, at least five acts of terrorism are linked to the ugly racist novel, The Turner Diaries.10 What social and political...teaching the value of democracy and the mechanisms of rule of law, some social science faculty were poisoning students with contempt of country. A...Weimar Germany) need not invite the empowerment of thugs (such as Nazis). Quebec separatists won “half a loaf ,” and it seems difficult to deny that

  18. The Effect Terrorist Labels Have on Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Department of State. Content of the analysis also includes historical applications of terrorism in order to assess whether terrorism is acultural . Findings...whether terrorism is acultural (not culture specific), or is it a method used by a particular culture in pursuit of its interests. Findings from this...historical evidence supports the theory that acts of terror are acultural (transcend culture). The American War of Independence (1775-1783) produced

  19. Kafkaesque rebranding of pro-US fighters as terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Zawacki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Indochina war the US recruited fighters from the Hmong people of Laos to disrupt North Vietnamese supply and troops movements along the Ho Chi Minh trail. While an estimated 170,000 ex-combatant Hmong and their relatives now live in the US , others seeking asylum have bizarrely fallen foul of the post-9.11 PATRIOTPATRIOTPATRIOT PATRIOT Act.

  20. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-03-22

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts.

  1. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  2. National Security Letters, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the Constitution: The Tensions between National Security and Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham-Oscilowski, Ursula; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the USA PATRIOT Act greatly expanded the ability of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to use National Security Letters (NSLs) in investigations and the contexts in which they could be used by relaxing the standards under which NSLs could be employed. NSLs allow investigators to acquire a significant…

  3. 77 FR 42796 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records; Statement of General Routine Uses; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... the United States of America, as contemplated by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act..., disruption, preemption, or mitigation of terrorist activities against the United States, as contemplated by..., governs the means by which the United States Government collects, maintains, and uses personally...

  4. National Security Letters, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the Constitution: The Tensions between National Security and Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham-Oscilowski, Ursula; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the USA PATRIOT Act greatly expanded the ability of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to use National Security Letters (NSLs) in investigations and the contexts in which they could be used by relaxing the standards under which NSLs could be employed. NSLs allow investigators to acquire a significant…

  5. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR ORGANIZING TERRORIST COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN IT AS A DIRECTION NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. KONDRATENKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop a comprehensive scientific understanding of the criminal responsibility for a terrorist organization and community participation in it as the directions of national security. To achieve this goal the author was raised a number of scientific tasks, in particular the study of certain provisions of the National Security Strategy, the main threats to the state and public security of the Russian Federation, the main directions of ensuring state and public security, public areas and ensuring public safety. In the study, the author used scientific methods (hypothesis, analysis, synthesis, deduction, and induction, special used historical, legal and technical, interdisciplinary, comparative legal, system and other methods of scientific knowledge. The author researches of the problems of qualification of crimes related to the terrorist organization and community participation in it are discussed in detail. The article analyzes the modern jurisprudence on the application of Article 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The author examines the conditions of qualification criminal groups as a terrorist or terrorist organization community. The author comes to the conclusion about the need to improve the legal regulation of criminal responsibility for the commission of terrorist-related crimes. So, the author proposes to supplement the dispositions of article 205.4 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation indicating that the terrorist community a stable group of persons can be considered, united not only in Russia, but also in other states as well as international organizations, concerned other grounds specified in Art. 205.4 of the Criminal Code. The author considers it necessary to clarify the question of qualification of crimes under Art. 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in the Resolution of the Plenum of the Russian

  6. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  7. 体育恐怖袭击事件探析%Analysis of Sports Terrorist Attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松

    2014-01-01

    通过对体育赛事中发生的恐怖袭击事件进行梳理,探析重大体育恐怖袭击事件发生的特征与深层次原因,发现:政治霸权与政治纷争是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的本质原因;体育赛事的高影响度是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的主要原因;不同体育文明冲突与意识形态是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的重要原因。提出预防和消除体育恐怖袭击事件的对策:全球共同努力建立公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序;发挥体育推动世界和平共处与社会和谐发展的功能;加强大型体育赛事的安保措施。%Through the terrorist attacks on sporting events to sort out, characteristic of major sporting events of the terrorist attacks and the deep-seated reasons, found that:political hegemony and political strife is the essential rea-son for sporting events of the terrorist attacks;High Impact sporting events is the main reason sports terrorist attacks;the clash of civilizations and ideologies of different sports is an important cause of sports terrorist attacks occurred. Proposed to prevent and eliminate terrorist attacks coun-termeasures sports:a global effort to establish a fair and rational new international political and economic order;play sports to promote peaceful coexistence and harmoni-ous social development of the world functions;strengthen security measures of major sports events.

  8. Disrupting Threat Finances: Utilization of Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organization in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Affairs, “The State Department Role in Combating the Financing of Terrorism,” 4 April 2006, Available from http://www.state.gov/e/ eeb /rls/rm/2006/ 64109... EEB ) has primary responsibility for international coalition building.99 In addition, DOS has several other bureaus and offices that manage various...programs and activities that help combat terrorist financing.100 EEB : EEB maintains the leadership role in the IA effort to combat terrorist financing

  9. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  10. Air quality information system (AQIS) for Gauteng: defining best practice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kganyago, P

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act, 2004 (Act No 39 of 2004), need for national framework. The national framework will include the norms and standards for air quality information management. NAQIS (National Air Quality...

  11. [Treatment strategies for mass casualty incidents and terrorist attacks in trauma and vascular surgery : Presentation of a treatment concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemert, B; Franke, A; Bieler, D; Achatz, A; Hinck, D; Engelhardt, M

    2017-08-11

    The treatment of patients in the context of mass casualty incidents (MCI) represents a great challenge for the participating rescue workers and clinics. Due to the increase in terrorist activities it is necessary to become familiar with this new kind of threat to civilization with respect to the medical treatment of victims of terrorist attacks. There are substantial differences between a "normal" MCI and a terrorist MCI with respect to injury patterns (blunt trauma vs. penetrating/perforating trauma), the type and form of the incident (MCI=static situation vs. terrorist attack MCI= dynamic situation) and the different security positions (rescue services vs. police services). This article is concerned with question of which changes in the surgical treatment of patients are made necessary by these new challenges. In this case it is necessary that physicians are familiar with the different injury patterns, whereby priority must be given to gunshot and explosion (blast) injuries. Furthermore, altered strategic and tactical approaches (damage control surgery vs. tactical abbreviated surgical care) are necessary to ensure survival for as many victims of terrorist attacks as possible and also to achieve the best possible functional results. It is only possible to successfully counter these new challenges by changing the mindset in the treatment of terrorist MCI compared to MCI incidents. An essential component of this mindset is the acquisition of a maximum of flexibility. This article would like to make a contribution to this problem.

  12. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  13. Optimizing topological cascade resilience based on the structure of terrorist networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gutfraind

    Full Text Available Complex socioeconomic networks such as information, finance and even terrorist networks need resilience to cascades--to prevent the failure of a single node from causing a far-reaching domino effect. We show that terrorist and guerrilla networks are uniquely cascade-resilient while maintaining high efficiency, but they become more vulnerable beyond a certain threshold. We also introduce an optimization method for constructing networks with high passive cascade resilience. The optimal networks are found to be based on cells, where each cell has a star topology. Counterintuitively, we find that there are conditions where networks should not be modified to stop cascades because doing so would come at a disproportionate loss of efficiency. Implementation of these findings can lead to more cascade-resilient networks in many diverse areas.

  14. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsdal, Nils O

    2014-01-01

    This brief report presents some of the lessons learned from coordinating research in which people directly affected by terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011 are taking part. After the terrorist attacks, it was decided to establish a national coordinating function in order to protect those who were affected when they participate in research. By gathering key stakeholders, it is possible to avoid duplication of research through practical measures such as information sharing, facilitating cooperation, and working toward sharing of data. In addition, a coordinating function provides a platform for working to increase the impact of the research among practitioners and policy makers, and inform the general public. The conclusions are that coordination should be interdisciplinary, that it is important to plan for the sharing and reuse of data, and that both the research community and the research infrastructure should take steps to improve preparedness when disaster inevitably strikes again.

  15. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed.

  16. Case Studies in Exploiting Terrorist Group Divisions with Disinformation and Divisive/Black Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Garner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Counterterrorism operations should be exploiting the divisions and infighting of terrorist groups.  The overall goal should be to make fewer mistakes than the jihadis, help increase inter-group and intra-group tension, and further their disconnection from the wider public. This paper argues that strategic psychological operations (PSYOP that focus on exploiting rifts in leadership, differences in strategic planning, and ethnic, national and tribal differences within and among terrorist groups could be an integral part of overall counterterrorism efforts. Using three case studies, chosen because of the attention given to them in the international community and the illuminating group and leadership characteristics that can be found in many other jihadist organisations, the paper illustrates that PSYOP that expand on the existing framework could be very effective in countering the jihadist threat.

  17. The process of institutionalising the EU’s anti-terrorist policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the perspective of historical institutionalism to the empirical analysis of the motors and characteristics of the institutionalisation process of the European Union’s anti-terrorist policies. Based on a theoretical model developed by Stone Sweet, Sandholtz and Fligstein, this contribution critically analyses the impact of external crises in the form of a series of terrorist attacks on the emergence of antiterrorism as an sphere of European governance. The article also examines political developments and key institutions, studies the role of policy entrepreneurs during this period and compares the importance of “revolutionary” and “evolutionist” perspectives to our understanding of the process of institutional change in this field.

  18. Optimizing Topological Cascade Resilience Based on the Structure of Terrorist Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfraind, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Complex socioeconomic networks such as information, finance and even terrorist networks need resilience to cascades - to prevent the failure of a single node from causing a far-reaching domino effect. We show that terrorist and guerrilla networks are uniquely cascade-resilient while maintaining high efficiency, but they become more vulnerable beyond a certain threshold. We also introduce an optimization method for constructing networks with high passive cascade resilience. The optimal networks are found to be based on cells, where each cell has a star topology. Counterintuitively, we find that there are conditions where networks should not be modified to stop cascades because doing so would come at a disproportionate loss of efficiency. Implementation of these findings can lead to more cascade-resilient networks in many diverse areas. PMID:21085710

  19. ‘Let the Punishment Match the Offence’: Determining Sentences for Australian Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McGarrity

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, 38 men have been charged with terrorism offences in Australia. Twenty-six have been convicted. The article commences with an overview of the factual circumstances leading to these convictions. This provides important background for the following discussion of a largely unexplored issue in Australian anti-terrorism law and policy, namely, the difficulties faced by the Australian courts in adapting traditional sentencing principles to the (for the most part, preparatory terrorism offences enacted by the Commonwealth Parliament after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Of particular interest are how the courts determine the objective seriousness of these offences and the respective weight placed upon deterrence (both specific and general and the rehabilitation of convicted terrorists.

  20. The quest for significance model of radicalization: implications for the management of terrorist detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michelle; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2014-01-01

    Radicalization and its culmination in terrorism represent a grave threat to the security and stability of the world. A related challenge is effective management of extremists who are detained in prison facilities. The major aim of this article is to review the significance quest model of radicalization and its implications for management of terrorist detainees. First, we review the significance quest model, which elaborates on the roles of motivation, ideology, and social processes in radicalization. Secondly, we explore the implications of the model in relation to the risks of prison radicalization. Finally, we analyze the model's implications for deradicalization strategies and review preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program targeting components of the significance quest. Based on this evidence, we argue that the psychology of radicalization provides compelling reason for the inclusion of deradicalization efforts as an essential component of the management of terrorist detainees. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Framework for Research on Children’s Reactions to Disasters and Terrorist Events

    OpenAIRE

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical work and research relative to child mental health during and following disaster are especially challenging due to the complex child maturational processes and family and social contexts of children’s lives. The effects of disasters and terrorist events on children and adolescents necessitate diligent and responsible preparation and implementation of research endeavors. Disasters present numerous practical and methodological barriers that may influence the selection of participants, t...

  2. The Study of New Religious Movements and the Process of Radicalization in Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    persona ; (2) moderating the psychological identification of followers; (3) negotiating the routinization of charisma; and (4) achieving new successes. In...des formes réelles ou même relatives de privation. Au dire de deux sociologues bien connus dans le domaine de la religion, les cultes qui ont bien ...quand ils se tournent vers la violence et la socialisation des nouveaux membres de groupes terroristes. 6) Croyances apocalyptiques : Bien qu’en

  3. Countering Terrorist Financing: A Case Study of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    FINANCING: A CASE STUDY OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS’ PARTY (PKK) by Mehmet A. Kanmaz December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Victoria Clement...DATES COVERED December 20 14 Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS COUNTERING TERRORIST FINANCING: A CASE STUDY OF THE KURDISTAN ...on a specific tetTorist organization, the Kurdistan Workers ’ Party (PKK), which has been a problem in Turkey for over 30 years. The study

  4. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  5. Analysis of Protection Measures for Naval Vessels Berthed at Harbor Against Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    by the Mexican Navy to prevent terrorist attacks on the strategic Campeche Sound (petroleum production area) in the Gulf of Mexico. Martinez used... visualization techniques (Lucas, Kelton, Sanchez, Sanchez, & Anderson, 2015). After choosing factors and the ranges of these factors to explore, an...accurate map possible would be the territory, and thus would be perfectly accurate and perfectly useless. — Neil Gaiman, American Gods “One of the

  6. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), e-mail: iris.eshed@sheba.health.gov.il

    2010-03-15

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  7. Investigative Data Mining Toolkit: A Software Prototype for Visualizing, Analyzing and Destabilizing Terrorist Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    None of these studies used advanced data mining technologies that have been applied widely in other domains such as finance , marketing, and business to...different kinds of criminal networks, for example in financing terrorists by illegal diamond and drug trafficking. Recently, computer scientists have...Complex Networks can help in developing Strategy against Terrorism, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 20, 69-75 (2004) [28] Bali Night Club Bombing

  8. Decomposing violence: terrorist murder in the twentieth century in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of murder in the United States (1900-2004). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, alternation in power, social, and political unrest overseas as wars, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks in the country. The cyclical com...

  9. The terrorist threat to the UK in the post–9/11 decade

    OpenAIRE

    Sir David Omand

    2012-01-01

    The overall task for this special issue is to assess the emergency response to terrorism, in particular the threat posed by violent jihadist terrorism. Clearly, planning for emergency responses will have value against other threats and hazards, so it will be difficult to separate out the arrangements made to deal specifically with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, and those to meet other emergencies, for example major natural disasters. A sense of proportion is also needed when examining te...

  10. Transnational Crime and the Criminal-Terrorist Nexus: Synergies and Corporate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Security Strategy contains a goal labeled “Champion Aspirations for Human Dignity.”2 When a boat filled with women and children leaves the shores of a...are forced into prostitution, pornography and sweatshop labor, it becomes an obvious and direct threat to the fabric of our society.3 Add terrorists...Eurasian countries are rife with human trafficking violations. Human trafficking occurs when men, women and children are procured, transported and then

  11. Internet Posting of Chemical "Worst Case" Scenarios: A Roadmap for Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-10

    cal personnel into crisis areas. Panic spreads as vaccines and antibiotics run short— and then run out. The killer is a hybrid of smallpox and the...groups, religious fanatics, and assorted crazies eager to launch a major attack on the civilized world—preferably on U.S. territory. Walter Laqueur...terrorists possess political objectives, whether Basque independence, Kash- miri separatism, or Palestinian Marxism. Neither crazy nor stupid, they

  12. Cross-Milieu Terrorist Collaboration: Using Game Theory to Assess the Risk of a Novel Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Gary A; Zhuang, Jun; Weerasuriya, Sitara

    2017-02-01

    This article uses a game-theoretic approach to analyze the risk of cross-milieu terrorist collaboration-the possibility that, despite marked ideological differences, extremist groups from very different milieus might align to a degree where operational collaboration against Western societies becomes possible. Based upon theoretical insights drawn from a variety of literatures, a bargaining model is constructed that reflects the various benefits and costs for terrorists' collaboration across ideological milieus. Analyzed in both sequential and simultaneous decision-making contexts and through numerical simulations, the model confirms several theoretical arguments. The most important of these is that although likely to be quite rare, successful collaboration across terrorist milieus is indeed feasible in certain circumstances. The model also highlights several structural elements that might play a larger role than previously recognized in the collaboration decision, including that the prospect of nonmaterial gains (amplification of terror and reputational boost) plays at least as important a role in the decision to collaborate as potential increased capabilities does. Numerical simulation further suggests that prospects for successful collaboration over most scenarios (including operational) increase when a large, effective Islamist terrorist organization initiates collaboration with a smaller right-wing group, as compared with the other scenarios considered. Although the small number of historical cases precludes robust statistical validation, the simulation results are supported by existing empirical evidence of collaboration between Islamists and right- or left-wing extremists. The game-theoretic approach, therefore, provides guidance regarding the circumstances under which such an unholy alliance of violent actors is likely to succeed.

  13. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    way, both culturally and historically.40 Zartman and Faure seem to have a broader perspective on negotiating with terrorists, and they recommend...ensure that the leadership will actually 63 Glenn E. Robinson, “Palestine Liberation Organization,” The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, Oxford...2007. Robinson, Glenn E. “Palestine Liberation Organization.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Accessed 4

  14. The Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986: An Analysis of Air Force Implementation of Title IV and its Impact on the Air Force Officer Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    PME Outplacement to Joint Assignments .......................................... 55 Figure 6: Importance of JT Duty to AWC & ACSC War-Fighters...JPME outplacement . Last, it recommends revitalizing ‘cross-flow’ assignments between Air and Joint Staffs, and establishing a comprehensive data-base...a structure to monitor their career progression via promotions and PME outplacement . 26 Chapter 4: Promotions Title IV contains numerous joint

  15. The Internet information infrastructure: Terrorist tool or architecture for information defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.

  16. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  17. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  18. Stock Market Reaction to Terrorist Attacks: Empirical Evidence from a Front Line State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Suleman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The world financial markets have reacted in a highly consistent pattern to the incident of 9/11 in the United States, suicide blasts at night clubs at Bali in 2002, the Madrid and London train bombings in 2004-2005 and a series of continuous blasts and suicide attacks in Pakistan. In this study, we examined the effect of terrorist attack news on returns and volatility for the Karachi Stock Exchange. We employ the EGARCH model proposed by Engle and Ng (1993as it allows good and bad news to have a different impact on volatility. Our results indicate that terrorist attack news has negative impact on the returns of all the sector indices. However, news of these events increased the volatility of KSE100 index and financial sector index. Further it is concluded that the results of oil and gas, and industry are not statistically significant in response to terrorist attack news, indicating that such type of news does not affect the volatility of these two sectors. Moreover, volatility asymmetry is negative in all of the sectors including KSE100 confirming leverage effect.

  19. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them, it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  20. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse. Keywords: Media discourse analysis, Norway terrorist attacks, Islam, Western media

  1. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

  2. CAROLIN GOERZIG. TALKING TO TERRORISTS: CONCESSIONS AND THE RENUNCIATION OF VIOLENCE. REVIEWED BY: SCOTT NICHOLAS ROMANIUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available “Talking to terrorists remains a taboo” (Goerzig, 2010: p. 125. The adoption and reinforcement of such a moral position by many Western and non-Western governments alike has played no small role in, to a large extent, states to contain the violence and insecurity bred by terror activist in the post-Cold war and post-9/11 periods. Yet, few policymakers seem to recognize the danger in building political and social environments in which dialogue between states and terrorist groups and organizations is little more than depravity or even a betrayal to entire populations. To be sure, the protection of civilian populations has been entrusted to states that might otherwise learn better means of terrorism deterrence if lines of communication between states and terrorists were less constrained. The taboo of which Carolin Goerzig speaks, is one that “has been institutionalized in a legal framework in which … academics are being asked to report on their students and in which attempting to understand the subjectivities of ‘terrorist’ suspects could be interpreted as a ‘glorification of terrorism’” (Jackson quoted in Goerzig, 2010: p. 125.

  3. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Richard A.; EKASAWIN, SUPARAT; CHAKRABHAND, SOMCHAI; SUWANMITRI, SOAWALUK; DUANGCHUN, ORAWAN; CHANTALUCKWONG, THANANET

    2011-01-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accom...

  4. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  5. The State as a Terrorist: France and the Red Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riegler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores a less well-known episode in the history of terrorism: The Red Hand (La Main Rouge. During the Algerian war of independence (1954-1962 it emerged as an obscure counterterrorist organisation on the French side. Between 1956 and 1961, the Red Hand targeted the network of arms suppliers for the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN and executed hits against rebel emissaries both in Western Europe and in North Africa. Today, there is consensus among scholars that the Red Hand had been set up by the French foreign intelligence service in order to strike at the subversive enemy. This makes the Red Hand a telling example of state terrorism and its capacity for unrestricted violence in ‘emergency’ situations. Since the Red Hand’s counterterrorist acts ultimately proved to be futile and due to the repercussions caused in France as well, the case study also highlights the limits of this type of counter-terrorism. 

  6. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  7. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  8. Modeling Requirements for Simulating the Effects of Extreme Acts of Terrorism: A White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.; Hiebert-Dodd, K.; Marozas, D.; Paananen, O.; Pryor, R.J.; Reinert, R.K.

    1998-10-01

    This white paper presents the initial requirements for developing a new computer model for simulating the effects of extreme acts of terrorism in the United States. General characteristics of the model are proposed and the level of effort to prepare a complete written description of the model, prior to coding, is detailed. The model would simulate the decision processes and interactions of complex U. S. systems engaged in responding to and recovering from four types of terrorist incidents. The incident scenarios span the space of extreme acts of terrorism that have the potential to affect not only the impacted area, but also the entire nation. The model would be useful to decision-makers in assessing and analyzing the vulnerability of the nation's complex infrastructures, in prioritizing resources to reduce risk, and in planning strategies for immediate response and for subsequent recovery from terrorist incidents.

  9. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients.

  10. Derivation of models for nuclear weapon terrorist arming and detonation risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A A

    1998-03-01

    This report investigates "use control" for the on-site arming and detonation, by terrorists, of stored weapon systems. We investigate both components of weapon "use control", which we define as: (1) weapon "use denial" * that we model as a probability, Pj (denial), that represents the chances that terrorists attempting to arm a type j weapon will commit a non-recoverable error, and (2) weapon "use delay" that we model as a random variable, Tj , that represents the arming delay imposed by the use control features of a type j weapon, before detonation can occur. Using information pertaining to the physical security system at a storage site, the postulated terrorist attack force size, and simulated combat engagement outcomes, we formulate the frequency, fj , and probability, P(dj ), of on-site detonation, for generic weapon types j. We derive a model that disjoins the performance of site physical security, from that for weapon use control, if the use control random variable Tj has a Uniform or histogram distribution. This is an especially significant result where most complex distributions can be adequately approximated with a histogram. Hence, we can conduct combat simulations to obtain the physical security performance of a specific storage site independent of the use control features associated with specific weapon types that are stored, or might be stored, at the site. In turn, we can obtain the use control performance for various weapon types, independent of where they are stored and the physical security systems surrounding them. Our models can then mathematically combine physical security performance and weapon use control performance for any combination of storage facility and weapon type.

  11. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  12. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity.

  13. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services.

  14. Terrorists, Geopolitics and Kenya’s Proposed Border Wall with Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Cannon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing border security appears to be a plausible approach for states that suffer from terrorism. Kenya’s border wall is to keep terrorists out of Kenya. Utilizing a comparative approach, this paper explores the efficacy of border walls, particularly Kenya’s wall with Somalia. Findings show that walls rarely accomplish stated goals and have unintended consequences. In Kenya’s case, it may reignite border disputes and separate communities. The success of Kenya’s border wall is low given the high levels of corruption and the fact that walls have been demonstrated to only be as good as the people who guard them.

  15. An assessment of the terrorist threat to use a nuclear or radiological device in an attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingshott, B.F. [Grand Valley State University, 275C DeVos Center, 401 West Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 (United States)]. E-mail: kingshob@gvsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear material to build weapons and how security of radiological material world wide will minimise the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the need to improve security at nuclear waste processing and storage sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device containing nuclear material be detonated. (author)

  16. ABOUT MODELLING OF COMPLEX NETWORKS WITH APPLICATIONS TO TERRORIST GROUP MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Penzar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on available data on various organisations and networks, the article explores some key properties of the structure of a terrorist organisation. Analytical focus is on lower levels of organisational hierarchy, where network structure with exponential distribution of the number of links among network nodes is clearly visible. Such networks tend to grow organically, are very efficient in information diffusion, and are robust regarding stochastic failures and targeted attacks. These network features are illustrated by recent example based on network data about September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington.

  17. Stochastic nanopore sensors for the detection of terrorist agents: Current status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Aihua; Zhao Qitao [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Guan Xiyun, E-mail: xguan@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2010-08-24

    Nanopore stochastic sensor works by monitoring the ionic current modulations induced by the passage of analytes of interest through a single pore, which can be obtained from a biological ion channel by self-assembly or artificially fabricated in a solid-state membrane. In this minireview, we overview the use of biological nanopores and artificial nanopores for the detection of terrorist agents including explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, nitrogen mustards, organoarsenic compounds, toxins, and viruses. We also discuss the current challenge in the development of deployable nanopore sensors for real-world applications.

  18. The Treatment of Images in 11-M Terrorist Attacks. Terrorism and Violence in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Torres Romay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to analyze the pictures publishing in the Spanish and international newspapers before the Madrid terrorist attack, March, 11. With this research we get some ideas about freedom speech limits: the respect of the privacy and, in special, the respect of the pain. At the same time, we´ll remark the importance of the photography in the press and their communication power. For this research we used the March, 11 and 12 newspapers of most important Spanish editors and the digital edition of international press.

  19. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

      - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researchers...... to use their intelligence data (Ressler S., 2006).  Very few researchers (Krebs, V., 2002, Sageman, M., 2004 and Rodriguez, J. A., 2004) collected data from open sources, and to the best of our knowledge, no knowledge base is available in academia for the analysis of the terrorist events.   To counter...... the information scarcity, we at Software Intelligence Security Research Center, Aalborg University Esbjerg Denmark designed and developed terrorism knowledge base by harvesting information from authenticated websites.   In this paper we discuss data collection and analysis results on our on-going research...

  20. The relationship between terrorist activities and cases of malaria in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey, 1984-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ilhan; Egri, Mucahit; Celbis, Osman; Toprak, Sadik; Ozag, Kadir

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cases of malaria are related to terrorist activities that have occurred in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey. Some of the determinants related to malaria have been investigated using a national dataset for 11 provinces located in these regions of Turkey. In these regions, both terrorist activity and cases of malaria were common from 1984 to 1998. A multiple regression technique was used to identify the variables that are significantly associated with cases of malaria. Annual incidence of malaria was chosen as the dependent variable along with three independent (explanatory) variables: annual number of terrorist incidences, people per healthcare technician and number of thick blood films per 100,000 people. Based on this analysis, it is determined that the annual number of terrorist incidences has been associated with the annual number of malaria cases in these regions of Turkey since the beginning of terrorist activity in 1984.

  1. A study on the trend of international radioactive material regulation since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    AI-Qaeda and other terrorist groups have tried to obtain the radioactive material which could be used to make a dirty bomb, and their documents relating to dirty bombs were found in the January 2003. International communities especially, the United States has made efforts to improve infrastructure of radiation regulation and security of radioactive material for protecting its people from radiological attacks. This study examines the likelihood of radiological terrorism and the radiological dispersal devices which could be used by determined terrorists, and the trend of international communities to respond it through improvement on radiation regulation and security.

  2. Tracking and Analyzing Individual Distress Following Terrorist Attacks Using Social Media Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Margolin, Drew; Wen, Xidao

    2017-08-01

    Risk research has theorized a number of mechanisms that might trigger, prolong, or potentially alleviate individuals' distress following terrorist attacks. These mechanisms are difficult to examine in a single study, however, because the social conditions of terrorist attacks are difficult to simulate in laboratory experiments and appropriate preattack baselines are difficult to establish with surveys. To address this challenge, we propose the use of computational focus groups and a novel analysis framework to analyze a social media stream that archives user history and location. The approach uses time-stamped behavior to quantify an individual's preattack behavior after an attack has occurred, enabling the assessment of time-specific changes in the intensity and duration of an individual's distress, as well as the assessment of individual and social-level covariates. To exemplify the methodology, we collected over 18 million tweets from 15,509 users located in Paris on November 13, 2015, and measured the degree to which they expressed anxiety, anger, and sadness after the attacks. The analysis resulted in findings that would be difficult to observe through other methods, such as that news media exposure had competing, time-dependent effects on anxiety, and that gender dynamics are complicated by baseline behavior. Opportunities for integrating computational focus group analysis with traditional methods are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. The need to counter extremist terrorist manifestations in society and in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazberov P.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work

  4. Psychological consequences of terrorist attacks: prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in Pakistani emergency responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Saiqa; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2013-05-15

    Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather evidence on the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in N=125 Pakistani emergency workers, most of whom (n=100; 80%) had been exposed to terrorist attacks. Fifteen percent of participants showed clinically relevant levels of PTSD, and 11-16% of participants reported heightened levels of anxiety or depression. Neither the experience of terrorist attacks per se nor the severity of the attack experienced was related to symptom severities. However, symptom levels of PTSD were related to a number of predictor variables, including subjective threat, peritraumatic dissociation, past traumas, rumination, and avoidant coping. Only a few variables were predictive of levels of anxiety and depression. In sum, a substantial subgroup of emergency workers experienced mental health problems, and prevalences were in the high range of those reported in earlier studies focusing on emergency personnel in Western countries.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder and exposure to trauma reminders after a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Kristin A; Jensen, Tine K; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Dyb, Grete

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to systematically describe the type and frequency of trauma reminders reported after a terrorist attack and (b) to examine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. A total of 285 survivors (M age = 22.2, SD = 4.3, 53% males) of the 2011 massacre on Utøya Island, Norway, were interviewed face to face 14-15 months after the terror. Participants were asked how often they had experienced a range of different trauma reminders in the past month and which was most distressing. Current posttraumatic stress reactions were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. In all, 33.3% of the survivors reported having experienced 1 or more trauma reminders often/very often in the past month. Auditory reminders were most frequently encountered and were reported to be the most distressing, especially sudden and sharp noises. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD was significantly associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. The findings suggest that trauma reminders are common among survivors of a terrorist attack almost 1.5 years after the trauma and that PTSD is strongly related to the frequency of exposure to reminders. It is important that clinicians are aware of the significant role trauma reminders may play in maintaining PTSD and help trauma survivors recognize and manage reminders.

  6. FACTORS IN STRENGHTNING OF TERRORIST ACTIVITY OF “ISLAMIC STATE” GROUPING ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Aleksandrovich Lobanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available XXI century was marked by the strengthening of globalization and integration processes in whole world. This led to the fact that the international community, especially European countries, faced the number of new threats to the spread of Islamic terrorism, the most urgent of which is the activity of “Islamic State” grouping. In this context it’s important to determine the reasons of intense activity growth of IS and its influence in Europe. The article analyzes the factors, contributing to the spread of terrorism. Also it gives some recommendations, implementation of which, according to the author, could decrease the level of terrorist threat. The purpose of the research is to determine factors of growing influence of “Islamic State” and increasing number of terrorist attacks in European countries. The author concludes that IS problem is a comprehensive threat, to prevent which a number of efforts – both within the European continent and in Middle East – is required. It also requires a systematic approach and a high level of consolidation and coordination within the international community.

  7. Hitting a Moving Target: A Strategic Tool for Analyzing Terrorist Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ken; Ishisoko, Noriko; Trounce, Milana; Bernard, Kenneth

    The subject of terrorism risk can be confusing for both the general public and for those responsible for protecting us from attack. Relatively minor terrorist threats are often conflated with much more serious ones, in part because it is hard to quantify either intent or technical ability to carry out an attack. Plotting threats on a "potential mass casualties" versus "ease of obtainment or production" matrix creates some order out of a seemingly endless array of worldwide threats, and it highlights those threats that are in need of more urgent attention. The specific threats on this 2x2 matrix can fall into one or multiple quadrants, which can be qualitatively described as "most dangerous," "dangerous but difficult," "worrisome," and "persistent terror." By placing threats into these quadrants and illustrating movement within and between them, the matrix can help (1) visualize and parse a diverse set of threats, (2) view how threats have changed over time and judge the efficacy of current countermeasures, and (3) evaluate the merit of future actions and investments. Having a dynamic matrix that can visually map the comparative risk of terrorist threat events in toto and that can help us monitor the effectiveness of present and future resource investments can add intellectual rigor to some of the most difficult and daunting decisions pertaining to our nation's safety and security.

  8. A decision framework for managing risk to airports from terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Cha, Eun J; Ellingwood, Bruce R

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an asset-level security risk management framework to assist stakeholders of critical assets with allocating limited budgets for enhancing their safety and security against terrorist attack. The proposed framework models the security system of an asset, considers various threat scenarios, and models the sequential decision framework of attackers during the attack. Its novel contributions are the introduction of the notion of partial neutralization of attackers by defenders, estimation of total loss from successful, partially successful, and unsuccessful actions of attackers at various stages of an attack, and inclusion of the effects of these losses on the choices made by terrorists at various stages of the attack. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example dealing with security risk management of a U.S. commercial airport, in which a set of plausible threat scenarios and risk mitigation options are considered. It is found that a combination of providing blast-resistant cargo containers and a video surveillance system on the airport perimeter fence is the best option based on minimum expected life-cycle cost considering a 10-year service period.

  9. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C

    2014-01-01

    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  10. Male fetal loss in the U.S. following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The secondary sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male birth) reportedly declines following natural disasters, pollution events, and economic collapse. It remains unclear whether this decline results from an excess of male fetal loss or reduced male conceptions. The literature also does not converge as to whether the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 induced "communal bereavement", or the widespread feeling of distress among persons who never met those directly involved in the attacks. We test the communal bereavement hypothesis among gravid women by examining whether male fetal deaths rose above expected levels in the US following September 11, 2001. Methods We apply interrupted time-series methods to all fetal deaths at or greater than the 20th week of gestation in the US from 1996 to 2002. Time-series methods control for trends, seasonality, and other forms of autocorrelation that could induce spurious associations. Results Results support the hypothesis in that the fetal death sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male fetal death) increased above its expected value in September 2001. Additional analysis of the secondary sex ratio indirectly supports that the terrorist attacks may have threatened the gestation of male more than female fetuses. Conclusions Societal responses to events such as September 11, 2001 do not appear confined only to persons who have ever met the deceased. The fetal death sex ratio in the US population may serve as a sentinel indicator of the degree to which pregnant women react to population stressors. PMID:20500812

  11. The Path to Terrorist Violence: A Threat Assessment Model for Radical Groups at Risk of Escalation to Acts of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    ideation is based on her comments during interviews by Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) agents following her arrest (Calhoun 2001, 100). 51...Babies and the Partial Birth of a Nation: Millennialism and Fetal Citizenship.” Cultural Studies 14 (1):35-60. __________, 2000(b). “From Protest to

  12. Terrorist bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ami; Kluger, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that differ from those of conventional trauma. The clinical implications of terror bombing, in treatment dilemmas in the multidimensional injury, ancillary evaluation and handling of terror bombing mass casualty event are highlighted. All this leads to the conclusion that thorough medical preparedness to cope with this new epidemic is required, and that understanding of detonation and blast dynamics and how they correlate with the injury patterns is pivotal for revision of current mass casualty protocols. PMID:17101058

  13. Terrorist bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Kluger Yoram; Mayo Ami

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that...

  14. Clean Air Act oversight: field hearings. Hearings before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, June 27, 1981 Seattle, Washington, June 30, 1981 Randolph, Vermont, July 1, 1981 Albany, New York, July 1, 1981 Fairbanks, Alaska, Part 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Part 7 of the field hearings report covers hearings held on June 27, 1981 in Seattle, Washington, June 30, 1981 in Randolph, Vermont, July 1, 1981 in Albany, NY, and also July 1, 1981 in Fairbanks, Alaska. A total of 122 witnesses appeared to express their views on reauthorizing the Clean Air Act and to suggest possible amendments. Witnesses represented federal and state agencies, local businesses, and public interest groups. Witnesses were asked to address the issues of health standards, the Prevention of Significant Deterioration rule, all air pollutants and the effects, and the lack of clear responsibility and flexibility in the Clean Air Act. Present at the Albany meeting were representatives from the Canadian government, which is concerned with the problem of transboundary pollution. The record includes the testimony and supporting materials submitted for the record. (DCK)

  15. What Are We Really Afraid Of? The Practitioner View of the Terrorist Threat in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    mental disorders listed in the DSM-III that are most frequently associated with terrorists: sociopathy or psychopathy, narcissism, Freudian “thanatos...death wish), and organic or physiological disorders (Corrado 1982:295). Sociopathy and psychopathy are used interchangeably, although sociopathy

  16. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  17. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  18. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  19. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  20. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted. PMID:27879941

  1. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  2. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  3. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  4. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  5. 78 FR 59751 - Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended In accordance with section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224 of September 23, 2001, as amended (``the Order''), I...

  6. Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists (by Jeffrey Kahn, University of Michigan Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ginsburg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11, migration-related security measures, including a growing reliance on watch-lists, have limited the right to travel. Jeffrey Kahn’s book, Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists, examines the legal and policy questions raised by prohibitions on travel by US citizens. 

  7. 75 FR 2920 - Designations of Foreign Terrorist Organizations; In the Matter of the Designation of: al-Qa'ida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designations of Foreign Terrorist Organizations; In the Matter of the Designation of: al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, Also Known as Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat...

  8. 77 FR 54944 - Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; In the Matter of the Designation of The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Also Known as United Revolutionary People's Council Also Known as People's...

  9. Prolonged exposure and virtual reality-enhanced imaginal exposure for PTSD following a terrorist bulldozer attack: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Sara A; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L; Avitzour, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    In this case study, virtual reality was used to augment imaginal exposure in a protocol based on prolonged exposure. A 29-year-old male patient developed posttraumatic stress disorder after surviving a deadly terrorist bulldozer attack on two civilian buses and several cars in Jerusalem; the traumas witnessed by the survivor included a decapitation. The crowded bus in which the patient was riding was pushed over onto its side by the terrorist, injuring, trapping, and terrifying the passengers and causing gasoline to leak. Guided by his therapist, the patient entered an immersive computer-generated virtual world to go "back" to the scene of the traumatic event to help him gain access to his memories of the event, process and reduce the intensity of the emotions (fear/anger) associated with his pathological memories, and change unhealthy thought patterns. Traumatic memories of childhood abuse and traumatic memories of the bulldozer terrorist attack were treated using imaginal exposure while the patient was in the virtual environment BusWorld. The patient showed large posttreatment reductions in PTSD symptoms, and his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores dropped from 79 pretreatment to zero immediately posttreatment, and CAPS was still at zero 6 months later. Although case studies are inconclusive by nature, these encouraging preliminary results suggest that further exploration of the use of virtual reality during modified prolonged exposure for PTSD is warranted. As terrorist attacks increase in frequency and severity worldwide, research is needed on how to minimize the psychological consequences of terrorism.

  10. Introduction: 9/11. The Socio-Political consequences of terrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier especial explora las consecuencias socio-políticas de los ataques terroristas. Los primeros dos artículos examinan el impacto que los eventos del 11 de septiembre de 2001 han tenido sobre los discursos culturales en el mundo occidental. ¿Cúal es la reacción de las democracias al ataque terrorista? Tras los ataques del 11 de septiembre la mayoría de la población hubiera esperado que el gobierno pasara a desarrollar leyes que restringieran las libertades individuales y dieran a las autoridades amplios poderes para rastrear los terroristas y sus acólitos. Los siguientes dos artículos examinan las diferentes formas en que el 11 de septiembre han influenciado la política exterior americana contemporánea. En el último artículo William Messner y Carlos Yordan observan las reacciones estadounidenses a los ataques del 11 de septiembre y la implantación del Consejo de Seguridad para lograr un nuevo sistema global anti-terrorista.Palabras clave: 11/S, Estados Unidos, consecuencias socio-políticas, discursos políticos, Política de Seguridad americana contemporánea.___________________________ABSTRACT:This special issue explores the sociopolitical consequences of terrorist attacks. The first two articles examine the impact the events of 11 September 2009(9/11 had on cultural discourses in the West. What are democracies’ reactions to a terrorists attack? Following the 9/11 attacks, most people would expect the government to pass legislation that would restrict individual liberties and give the authorities wide powers to track terrorists and its supporters. Then, the next two articles examine the different ways the 9/11 attacks influenced contemporary American foreign policy. In the last article, William Messmer and Carlos Yordan look at the United Nations’ reactions to the 9/11 attacks and the Security Council’s establishment of new global counter-terrorism system.Keywords: 9/11; USA; United Nations; sociopolitical

  11. 网络暴恐音视频管控研究%Study of Management Control to Violent Terrorist Network Audio and Video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红军

    2015-01-01

    Terrorists use network wantonIy spread vioIent terrorist audio and video, has become the root of muItipIe vioIent terrorist activities, with serious sociaI harm. Crack down on propagation of vioIent terrorist network audio and video, is an important and ef ective means to curb vioIent terrorist crime. The articIe introduces the characteristics of vioIent terrorist network audio and video, anaIysis the probIems of the management and controI, propose the coping strategy of vioIent terrorist network audio and video.%恐怖分子利用网络大肆传播暴恐音视频,已成为暴恐活动多发频发的根源性问题,具有严重的社会危害性。严厉打击暴恐音视频的传播行为,是遏制暴恐犯罪的重要有效手段。文章介绍网络传播暴恐音视频的特点,分析了网络暴恐音视频管控面临的问题,提出了打击网络暴恐音视频的应对策略。

  12. Terrorist Financing: Fund Raising and Fund Transfer%论恐怖融资的资金筹集与资金转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童文俊

    2012-01-01

    打击恐怖融资对于国际反恐斗争意义重大。本文从资金筹集与资金转移角度系统分析了恐怖融资活动。恐怖融资的资金筹集包括从合法来源筹集资金、从犯罪收益获取资金以及政权支持处获得资金;恐怖融资的资金转移主要有通过正规金融体系、利用贸易部门和现金运送三种方式。%Counter terrorist financing plays a significant role in international counter-terrorist activity. The article systematically analyzes the fund raising and fund transfer of terrorist financing. Terrorist organizations raise fund from legitimate sources, including the abuse of charitable entities or legitimate businesses or self-financing by the terrorists themselves. Terrorists also derive fund from a variety of criminal activities, or from state support. Terrorists use a wide variety of methods to move money, including the financial sector, the physical movement of cash by couriers, and the movement of goods through the trade system

  13. 78 FR 74122 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended. This system will be used to... notices for systems of records subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a(r)), as amended,...

  14. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  15. The effects of collective anger and fear on policy support in response to terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeshin

    2016-01-01

    Both correlational and experimental studies examined how perceived emotional responses of the majority of Americans to 9/11 affect individuals' support for government counter-terrorism policies (i.e., military intervention, anti-immigration, restricting civil liberties). Study 1 found associations between perceived collective emotions (i.e., anger, fear) and individuals' own corresponding emotions and those between perceived collective anger and counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated the associations of collective anger with policy support. Using experimental manipulations, Study 2 showed that collective anger had a significant effect on individuals' own anger and one significant and two marginal effects on counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated one of the marginal effects of collective anger on policy support. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of terrorist threat.

  16. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  17. Non-terrorist suicidal death by oral explosion: A rare case from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Jamebaseer Masiuddin; Farooqui, Anjum Ara Jamebaseer; Mukherjee, Bimbisar Bikas; Manjhi, Shiv Narayan

    2016-07-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives are rare. Their occurrence depends on both the availability of materials and the victim's expertise in handling explosive material. We report here a rare case from India of non-terrorist suicidal death involving explosives. The victim was around 25 years old, a blaster by occupation. He committed suicide by detonating dynamite in his mouth. The materials he used to operate this explosion were found near his body at the crime scene. There was characteristic bilateral symmetrical laceration around the oral cavity. Considering all the facts of the case in relation to history, location, nature, distribution and extent of injuries and recovered material at crime scene enables the cause and manner of death to be ascertained.

  18. PTSD and Depression Among Museum Workers After the March 18 Bardo Museum Terrorist Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Chennoufi, Leila; Cheour, Mejda

    2017-02-07

    On March 18, 2015, two gunmen attacked the Bardo museum in Tunis, Tunisia, killing 23 foreign tourists. We assessed PTSD and depression symptoms 4-6 weeks after the event among museum workers, in relation to sociodemographic factors and social support, and we analysed the determinants and predictor factors of PTSD and depression symptoms among the participants. Our findings indicated that 68.6% of the respondents had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cutoff point (IER-S scores >33), and 40.6% reported severe levels of depressive symptoms (DASS-depression scores >20). Male and female participants did not significantly differ in terms of their symptom severities. Low social support was the best predictor of PTSD and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that interventions designed to reinforce ties within social networks may be particularly helpful for victims in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.

  19. Construction of War Discourse on International News Agencies: Case Study Terrorist attacks November 13th 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel TORRES-TOUKOUMIDIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11. Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.

  20. Energy markets, US energy policy, and the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis A. Sosa; Daniel J. Desnyder [Colorado School of Mines (USA). Division of Economics and Business, Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 reinvigorated the debate over US energy policy initiated by the publication of the National Energy Policy Report (NEPR) of May 2001. US policymakers were aware of the importance of diversification and market risk management, but judged an expansion of domestic production could insulate the US from price shocks. The attacks called attention to the high petroleum intensity of the American economy, led to increases in costs associated with doing business in the oil patch, highlighted the fundamental security problem inherent in oil markets, and probably stymied a nascent recovery. Global energy markets were rattled but not rocked - a result of the preexisting economic downturn and determined market intervention. A review of the changes in US energy strategy since 11 September 2001 suggests cool heads blocked an emotional, short-run policy response and are instead working to diversify America's energy supply portfolio.