Sample records for air taxi pilots

  1. Understanding taxi travel patterns (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming


    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  2. A Heuristic Approach to Solve Air Taxi Scheduling Problem


    Chavan, Harish Dnyandeo


    All passengers travel at the hour most convenient to them. But it is not always possible to find a flight at the right time to fly them to their destination. In the case where service in any one time period is insufficient to meet air travel demanded, it may be expected that some unfilled demand passengers will either delay their flight or will advance it, thus adding to the effective demand of the adjoining time periods.The obvious alternate means of travel is a rental car. It takes a lot mo...

  3. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  4. A cross-sectional study with an improved methodology to assess occupational air pollution exposure and respiratory health in motorcycle taxi driving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawin, Herve, E-mail: [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Agodokpessi, Gildas [Centre National Hospitalier et Universitaire de Pneumo-Phtisiologie, Cotonou (Benin); Ayelo, Paul [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Kagima, Jacqueline [Department of internal medicine, Egerton University (Kenya); Sonoukon, Rodrigue [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand H. [Department of Internal Medicine, Douala General Hospital, Cameroon Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala (Cameroon); Awopeju, Olayemi [Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria); Vollmer, William M. [Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland (United States); Nemery, Benoit [Dept. of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Insurance Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Burney, Peter [National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fayomi, Benjamin [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin)


    Introduction: Motorcycle taxi driving is common in many African cities. This study tested whether this occupation is associated with more respiratory disorders in a context of widespread urban air pollution with an improved methodology. Methods: In a cross sectional study we compared 85 male motorcycle taxi drivers in the capital city of the Republic of Benin (Cotonou) with an age and neighborhood matched control group. All participants carried a portable carbon monoxide data logger for 8 hours per day to assess exposure to air pollution. Respiratory symptoms were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry. Results: The two groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.10) in their age, height, educational level, and exposures to smoke from biomass fuels and tobacco products. The taxi drivers were exposed to higher mean (SD) levels of carbon monoxide (7.6 ± 4.9 ppmvs. 5.4 ± 3.8 ppm p = 0.001). They reported more phlegm and tended to have slightly lower levels of lung function, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this cross sectional study of young motorcycle taxi drivers with substantial exposure to urban traffic and a matched control group, we found no evidence for respiratory impairment. A follow-up of such study population with other pollution exposure surrogate and other clinical endpoint may provide a more robust conclusion regarding the exposure response in this professional group. - Highlights: • Need of improved study method to assess air pollution effect in exposed workers • This study compared motorcycle taxi drivers and a matched control group • Personal carbon monoxide exposure and respiratory disorders were collected • No evidence of more respiratory disorders even though pollutant exposure was higher.

  5. The air pollution of automobile origin among Parisian artisans taxi drivers: perception inquiry and exposure study; La pollution atmospherique d'origine automobile chez les chauffeurs de taxi artisans parisiens: enquete de perception et etude d'exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagury, E.


    The study concerns the impact of the atmospheric pollution of automobile origin in the drivers population. It includes two parts:the first part is an inquiry to 188 Parisian artisans taxi drivers, with a questionnaire. The objective is to determine the behavior about this phenomenon and what perception they have of it. The second part is an exposure study that consists in four pollutants (carbon monoxide, fine particulates in suspension, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide). It is in order to reveal the concentrations of these pollutants inside 29 cabs during the professional activity. The taxi drivers complain of headaches, eyes and throat irritations, respiratory difficulties. The results of exposure measurements show 3.8 p.p.m. for carbon monoxide, 168 micrograms/m{sup 3} for the fine particulates in suspension, 625 micrograms for nitrogen monoxide and 139 micrograms/m{sup 3} for nitrogen dioxide. These measures are clearly higher than these ones measured in Parisian ambient air, even higher than these ones of stations that are exposed to the maximum level to automobile effluents. (N.C.)

  6. Exposure of bus and taxi drivers to urban air pollutants as measured by DNA and protein adducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, K.; Zhang, L.F.; Krüger, J.;


    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, lymphocyte DNA adducts, serum protein-bound PAH and hemoglobin-bound alkene adducts were analysed from 4 groups of non-smoking men: urban and suburban bus drivers, taxi drivers and suburban controls. The only differences between the groups were in DNA adducts between...... suburban bus drivers and controls, and in DNA adduct and plasma protein PAH-adducts between taxi drivers and controls....

  7. Air Force Pilot Retention: A Look at 1996 (United States)


    PILOT RETENTION A LOOK AT 1996 BY COLONEL DANIEL F . CRUM DISTRIBUTIlON STATEMENT A: Approved f or public releasel distribution to un1ated. 7 APRIL the appropriate mli.tar- service or government agency. AIR FORCE PILOT RETENTION A LOOK AT 1996 AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Colonel Daniel F . Crum...35 I ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Daniel F . Crum TITLE: Air Force Pilot Retention: A Look at 1996 FORMAT: Individual Study

  8. Predicting Active Duty Air Force Pilot Attrition Given an Anticipated Increase in Major Airline Pilot Hiring (United States)


    the post???Vietnam War pilot exodus . Using logistic regression analysis and focusing on active duty Air Force pilots in the first three years...hiring that resembles the late 1990s surge, in which the Air Force endured its largest loss of pilots since the post–Vietnam War pilot exodus . Using...required). However, a large exodus of active duty 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 To ta

  9. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program (United States)


    ..., such as the ACAS pilot, in 19 CFR 101.9. Advance Electronic Air Cargo Information Required by 19 CFR... need to sign an Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA) or amend their existing ISA, if necessary, and... connection covered by a valid and up to date ISA will have already met these requirements. ACAS...

  10. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  11. Taxi pooling in New York City: a network-based approach to social sharing problems

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven; Ratti, Carlo


    Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a major contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad-hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing th...

  12. Optimum Arrangement of Taxi Drivers’ Working Hours


    TANIZAKI, Takashi


    Part 2: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; We propose optimum arrangement of taxi drivers’ working hours. In Japan, income of taxi vehicle is decreasing about 11 thousand yen in the past 15 years. Then some taxi companies are investing to gain more customers. But there are many small taxi companies that are difficult to invest with much money. Therefore we have been researching the other method to gain more customers by little investment for small companies. In this pape...

  13. Increasing influenza vaccination in New York City taxi drivers: A community driven approach. (United States)

    Gany, Francesca; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Mujawar, Imran


    The Healthy People 2020 influenza immunization goal is 80% for non-institutionalized adults 18-64. However, vaccination rates remain stubbornly low. Culturally tailored approaches to communities with poor vaccine uptake are necessary. Taxi drivers are at risk for influenza and its complications, could serve as vectors for influenza infection, and could be an effective vaccination target to enhance herd immunity of the urban population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study related to influenza vaccination among taxi drivers. The NYC Taxi Network surveyed a convenience sample of 53 taxi drivers to understand vaccination barriers. Only 17% had been vaccinated. Results informed a pilot tailored workplace intervention, which resulted in vaccinations for 44% of unvaccinated drivers. The study revealed that older drivers were more likely to be vaccinated than younger drivers, while the most common barrier to immunization was that drivers thought vaccination was 'not necessary'.

  14. Taking a Taxi IN LHASA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Downtown Lhasa covers an area of 52 square km, and has a resident population of 180,000. In the early 1980s, roads were paved with dirt and the citizens relied on bicycles for intra-city travel. Two bus routes emerged in the mid-1980s, and city roads were widened and asphalted in the 1990s.With Tibet’s door opening wider to the outside world, more visitors are coming to Lhasa. Cashing in on the opportunity, a taxi service appeared in the 1980s.Nowadays, there are some 1,100 cabs plying city streets. A considerable number are the Volkswagen Santana model. Although distance meters have been installed, taxi drivers love to charge customers at the fixed rate of 10 Yuan for inner-city travel.

  15. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force. (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J


    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, D.F.


    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease

  17. 78 FR 44873 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Correction (United States)


    ... entitled, ``Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations'' (78 FR 42324... rule; correction. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42324... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 61 RIN 2120-AJ67 Pilot Certification and...

  18. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing]. (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin


    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  19. +GZ-induced neck injuries in Royal Australian Air Force fighter pilots. (United States)

    Newman, D G


    +GZ-induced neck injuries are a relatively common occurrence in pilots of high performance fighter aircraft. We surveyed 52 fighter pilots from the Royal Australian Air Force Base at Williamtown via an anonymous questionnaire in order to determine the prevalence and operational significance of these injuries. The pilots flew either the F/A-18 Hornet or the MB326H Macchi. Of the respondents, 44 reported having had a neck injury under +GZ. A higher rate was reported in pilots of the F/A-18. Most of these injuries were simple muscle sprains. There were 20 pilots who reported their neck injury as having interfered with mission completion. Only 12 pilots reported doing any regular neck strengthening exercises, while 33 pilots reported doing preflight neck stretches immediately prior to high +GZ exposure. There were 14 pilots who sought medical attention for their injury, with 9 being taken off flight status for an average of 2 weeks. Air combat maneuvering sorties and the "check six" head position were identified as causal factors by most pilots. This study demonstrates the operational significance of these injuries, and highlights the need for more research into this important aerospace medicine issue.

  20. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Ning


    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effective method to solve this problem. Furthermore, the effects of price of electricity, price of battery package, life cycle of battery package, cost of battery-swapping devices and infrastructure, and driving mileage per day on the benefits of value holders are analyzed, which provide theoretical and practical reference for the deployment of electric vehicles, for the national subsidy criteria adjusment, technological innovation instruction, commercial mode selection, and infrastructure construction.

  1. The United States Air Force and Profession: Why Sixty Percent of Air Force General Officers are Still Pilots When Pilots Comprise Just Twenty Percent of the Officer Corps (United States)


    even more vocal about the pilots taking back control of the Air Force. "After nearly a year of whittling away at the rated force and preparing for the...assorted fighter aircraft" strikes a chord within the officer corps. It stakes a claim that the general is a part of the inner corps of the officer

  2. Taxis and crowd-taxis: sharing as a private activity and public concern

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    Merethe Dotterud Leiren


    Full Text Available The sharing economy has generated interest among economists for its customer focus and potential to enhance competition. However, it has also caused uproar in industries which have felt competitive pressure, for example among the established stakeholders in the taxi industry. While regulations currently impose considerable costs on the taxi industry, they do not cover virtual transport innovations such as Uber. The lack of a level playing field between taxis and such ‘crowd-taxis’ has generated media attention and conflict. Taxi owners worry about decreasing revenues and taxi drivers about poor working conditions. Other concerns are related to poor transport preparedness, accessibility issues, quality assurance and tax evasion. Despite considerable media attention, there has so far been a lack of scholarly literature addressing the consequences of the sharing economy in the transport sector. Focusing on the Norwegian taxi market, we argue that crowd-taxis will likely produce a range of unanticipated effects, necessitating regulation. For example, crowd-taxis may contribute to a loss of transport preparedness in rural areas. The findings are based on first and secondary data and 19 interviews.

  3. Exploring Urban Taxi Drivers’ Activity Distribution Based on GPS Data

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    Xiaowei Hu


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information communication technology and data mining technology, we can obtain taxi vehicle’s real time operation status through the large-scale taxi GPS trajectories data and explore the drivers’ activity distribution characteristics. Based on the 204 continuous hours of 3198 taxi vehicles’ operation data of Shenzhen, China, this paper analyzed the urban taxi driver’s activity distribution characteristics from different temporal and spatial levels. In the time level, we identified the difference with taxi daily operation pattern (weekday versus weekends, continuous time in one day, passengers in vehicle time, and taxi drivers’ operation frequency; in the space level, we explored the taxi driver’s searching pattern, including searching activity space distribution and the relationship between the pick-up locations and the drop-off locations. This research can be helpful for urban taxi drivers’ operation and behavior pattern identification, as well as the contribution to the geographical activity space analysis.

  4. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)


    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  5. Global stability of prey-taxis systems (United States)

    Jin, Hai-Yang; Wang, Zhi-An


    In this paper, we prove the global boundedness and stability of the predator-prey system with prey-taxis in a two-dimensional bounded domain with Neumann boundary conditions. By deriving an entropy-like equality and a boundedness criterion, we show that the intrinsic interaction between predators and preys is sufficient to prevent the population overcrowding even the prey-taxis is included and strong. Furthermore, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals, we show that prey-only steady state is globally asymptotically stable if the predation is weak, and the co-existence steady state is globally asymptotically stable under some conditions (like the prey-taxis is weak or the prey diffuses fast) if the predation is strong. The convergence rates of solutions to the steady states are derived in the paper.

  6. The financial help given by the French government to LPG-fueled taxis; L'aide financiere de l'etat aux taxis GPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the framework of its 'clean vehicle' air pollution abatement program, the French government has set up a financial help managed by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and devoted to taxi fleets which use LPG fuels. This brochure gives a general presentation of LPG-fueled vehicles (equipment, cost, service stations..) and explains the conditions of allocation of the help. (J.S.)

  7. Personality: Its Use in Selecting Candidates for US Air Force Undergraduate Pilot Training (United States)


    Aviation Psychology, 1987. Fitschen, Maj Charles K. Cost Impact: Should Improved Screening Methods Be Implemented in the Undergraduate Pilot Training...Brooks AFB, Tex.: Air Force Systems Command, 1988. Spence, Janet T., Robert L. Helmreich, and Carole K. Holahan . "Negative and Positive Components of

  8. Personality: Its Use in Selecting Canditates for US Air Force Undergraduate Pilot Training (United States)


    Symposium on Aiation Psychology, 1987. Fitschen, Maj Charles K. Cost Impact: Should Improved Screening Methods Be Implemented in the Undergraduate Pilot...AFHRL-TR-87-62. Brooks AFB, Tex.: Air Force Systems Command, 1988. Spence, Janet T., Robert L. Helmreich, and Carole K. Holahan . "Negative and Positive

  9. Forecasting Demand for Civilian Pilots: A Cost Savings Approach to Managing Air Force Pilot Resources (United States)


    algebraically as shown here: RPM2006 = ß0 + ß1Fleet2006 + ß2Pilots (5) Then...8) This model reported an R-squared of 0.985 and a Durbin -Watson statistic of 1.789, indicating that serial correlation...the errors are not correlated with each other, which could lead to incorrect results using OLS (Ashenfeltor and others, 2003). A Durbin -Watson test

  10. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft (United States)

    Kanske, Craig A.


    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  11. Ergonomic Evaluation on Taxi Drivers Compartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimmy; SF; Chan; YW; Chui; Reggie; Kwan; K; K; Chau


    Driving involves long hours of physical work within c onfined compartment. Taxi drivers usually work with prolonged working hours, add itional stress may likely be induced on particular body limbs. Occupational heal th may occur and working efficiency may potentially be affected resulting fr om fatigues, pains or diseases. These problems, however, could be remedied if mo re attention is paid on seating design, the workplace and driving postures adopt ed. Ergonomics design can provide better understanding...

  12. Inferring Taxi Status Using GPS Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yin; Zhang, Liuhang; Santani, Darshan; Xie, Xing; Yang, Qiang


    In this paper, we infer the statuses of a taxi, consisting of occupied, non-occupied and parked, in terms of its GPS trajectory. The status information can enable urban computing for improving a city's transportation systems and land use planning. In our solution, we first identify and extract a set of effective features incorporating the knowledge of a single trajectory, historical trajectories and geographic data like road network. Second, a parking status detection algorithm is devised to find parking places (from a given trajectory), dividing a trajectory into segments (i.e., sub-trajectories). Third, we propose a two-phase inference model to learn the status (occupied or non-occupied) of each point from a taxi segment. This model first uses the identified features to train a local probabilistic classifier and then carries out a Hidden Semi-Markov Model (HSMM) for globally considering long term travel patterns. We evaluated our method with a large-scale real-world trajectory dataset generated by 600 taxis...

  13. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  14. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development (United States)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.


    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  15. Individual traffic-related air pollution and new onset adult asthma:A GIS-based pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysbeck Hansen, Carl; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Baelum, Jesper

    individual traffic-related air pollution exposure and new onset asthma and wheeze. It is recommended that the analytic methods developed in this pilot study are used in a larger prospective cohort to investigate individual traffic-related air pollutants as a risk factor for the development of new asthma......The background for the project is that traffic-related air pollution may provoke the onset of asthma. The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the relation between asthma and wheeze debut and individually estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with a validated exposure...... successfully identified for all study participants (N=33). Using AirGIS traffic-related air pollutant levels from both urban background and street level were estimated for the 10 year study period on an hourly basis. Individual levels of air pollutants in the years preceding debut of asthma or wheeze were...

  16. Distribution of Total Volatile Organic Compounds at taxi drivers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Golhosseini


    Full Text Available Air pollution is currently the most serious environmental health threat worldwide. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are considered as the main effective factors in causing air pollution. Vehicles are among the major sources which emit these compounds, so it seems that automobiles’ microenvironment is one of the places where people are exposed to high concentration of VOC. Evaluating the exposure amount of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC can indeed be used as an indicator to estimate the amount of exposure to every individual VOC. This study was conducted on the concentration of TVOC inside Tehran taxies for a period of one year. For this purpose, a real time instrument equipped with photo-ionization detector (PID was used. Consequently, the highest and the lowest measured TVOC in taxies equaled 3.33 ppm and 0.72 ppm, respectively. In addition, the arithmetic mean of TVOC concentration was 1.77±0.53 ppm inside the examined taxies. In this study, the parameters like measurement time, climate and vehicle conditions were found to have significant effect on the amount of exposure to TVOC.

  17. Distribution of Total Volatile Organic Compounds at taxi drivers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Golhosseini*


    Full Text Available Air pollution is currently the most serious environmental health threat worldwide. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs are considered as the main effective factors in causing air pollution. Vehicles are among the major sources which emit these compounds, so it seems that automobiles’ microenvironment is one of the places where people are exposed to high concentration of VOC. Evaluating the exposure amount of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC can indeed be used as an indicator to estimate the amount of exposure to every individual VOC. This study was conducted on the concentration of TVOC inside Tehran taxies for a period of one year. For this purpose, a real time instrument equipped with photo-ionization detector (PID was used. Consequently, the highest and the lowest measured TVOC in taxies equaled 3.33 ppm and 0.72 ppm, respectively. In addition, the arithmetic mean of TVOC concentration was 1.77±0.53 ppm inside the examined taxies. In this study, the parameters like measurement time, climate and vehicle conditions were found to have significant effect on the amount of exposure to TVOC.

  18. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization. (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance


    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  19. Suggestions about Taxi Service in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ No matter what kinds1 of work we are engaged in, we usually play the role of the customers2 in life. Maybe we offer service to our clients, but at the same time, we get service from other people. So, to the society3, it is very important of the level of the service occupations4. In this essay, I want to talk about the service of the taxi in Beijing5. Because there are some problems in this service occupation, I will give three suggestions to these problems6.

  20. Pilot and Controller Evaluations of Separation Function Allocation in Air Traffic Management (United States)

    Wing, David; Prevot, Thomas; Morey, Susan; Lewis, Timothy; Martin, Lynne; Johnson, Sally; Cabrall, Christopher; Como, Sean; Homola, Jeffrey; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Mercer, Joey


    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and

  1. Modeling of taxi drivers’ experience for routing applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAW; ShihLung


    Taxi drivers drive on the roads every day and become very knowledgeable of the spatiotemporal traffic patterns in a city.It therefore is reasonable to assume that the routes chosen by taxi drivers often work out better than those selected by other drivers.Since dynamic navigation assistance based on real-time traffic information faces limitations such as the spatial coverage of real-time data collection sites,performance of real-time data processing and communications,and accuracy of short-term traffic forecasts in a large urban area,experiences gained by taxi drivers can be a valuable data source for improving the quality of vehicle navigation guidance.This paper develops a vehicle navigation guidance system based on taxis drivers’ knowledge derived from floating car data collected over an extended time period.We then classify road segments based on the spatiotemporal characteristics of taxi tracking data.A case study using taxi tracking data collected in Wuhan,China is presented in this paper to demonstrate the performance of this vehicle navigation system based on taxi tracking data.

  2. 77 FR 12373 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations (United States)


    ... factor in providing a strong knowledge base. Additionally, commenters cited a 2010 Pilot Source Study \\1... the Pilot Source Study, which claimed pilots with as few as 500 hours performed safely...

  3. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. (IT Corporation (USA))


    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study. (United States)

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Hovell, Melbourne; Brown, Nili; Ram, Amit; Myers, Vicki


    Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP) measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM(2.5) during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM(2.5) levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM(2.5) feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor) was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring.

  5. Air pollution and cardiovascular health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - a pilot study. (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Garg, M L; Kumar, Manoj Sharma; Khan, Asif Ali; Thakur, Jarnail S; Kumar, Rajesh


    Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town 'Mandi Gobindgarh' and a nonindustrial town 'Morinda' were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town) than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town) is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant.

  6. A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek


    Full Text Available For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed.

  7. Evaluation of flow hydrodynamics in a pilot-scale dissolved air flotation tank: a comparison between CFD and experimental measurements. (United States)

    Lakghomi, B; Lawryshyn, Y; Hofmann, R


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of dissolved air flotation (DAF) have shown formation of stratified flow (back and forth horizontal flow layers at the top of the separation zone) and its impact on improved DAF efficiency. However, there has been a lack of experimental validation of CFD predictions, especially in the presence of solid particles. In this work, for the first time, both two-phase (air-water) and three-phase (air-water-solid particles) CFD models were evaluated at pilot scale using measurements of residence time distribution, bubble layer position and bubble-particle contact efficiency. The pilot-scale results confirmed the accuracy of the CFD model for both two-phase and three-phase flows, but showed that the accuracy of the three-phase CFD model would partly depend on the estimation of bubble-particle attachment efficiency.

  8. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin


    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  9. Mining spatiotemporal patterns of urban dwellers from taxi trajectory data (United States)

    Mao, Feng; Ji, Minhe; Liu, Ting


    With the widespread adoption of locationaware technology, obtaining long-sequence, massive and high-accuracy spatiotemporal trajectory data of individuals has become increasingly popular in various geographic studies. Trajectory data of taxis, one of the most widely used inner-city travel modes, contain rich information about both road network traffic and travel behavior of passengers. Such data can be used to study the microscopic activity patterns of individuals as well as the macro system of urban spatial structures. This paper focuses on trajectories obtained from GPS-enabled taxis and their applications for mining urban commuting patterns. A novel approach is proposed to discover spatiotemporal patterns of household travel from the taxi trajectory dataset with a large number of point locations. The approach involves three critical steps: spatial clustering of taxi origin-destination (OD) based on urban traffic grids to discover potentially meaningful places, identifying threshold values from statistics of the OD clusters to extract urban jobs-housing structures, and visualization of analytic results to understand the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the revealed urban structures and implied household commuting behavior. A case study with a taxi trajectory dataset in Shanghai, China is presented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed method.

  10. Fluid intellingence and spatial reasoning as predictors of pilot training performance in the South African Air Force (SAAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François de Kock


    Full Text Available Pilot selection is a form of high-stakes selection due to the massive costs of training, high trainee ability requirements and costly repercussions of poor selection decisions. This criterion-related validation study investigated the predictive ability of fluid intelligence and spatial reasoning in predicting three criteria of pilot training performance, using an accumulated sample of South African Air Force pilots (N = 108. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses with training grade achieved as criterion were performed for each of the phases of training, namely practical flight training, ground school training, and officers’ formative training. Multiple correlations of 0.35 (p < 0.01, 0.20 (p > 0.05 and 0.23 (p > 0.05 were obtained for flight, ground school and formative training results, respectively. Spatial ability had incremental validity over fluid intelligence for predicting flight training performance.

  11. Feasibility of air plethysmography (BOD POD) in morbid obesity: a pilot study. (United States)

    Petroni, M L; Bertoli, S; Maggioni, M; Morini, P; Battezzati, A; Tagliaferri, M A; Liuzzi, A; Testolin, G


    The assessment of body composition (BC) in morbidly obese patients is a difficult procedure. Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), which measures body density, is a very promising technique for BC assessment in health and disease. However, there are very few data about the feasibility of applying ADP on morbidly obese patients, which theoretically could be affected by large body size and difficulty in lung volume measurements. The main aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of using ADP for BC assessment in morbidly obese patients. We studied nine subjects (6 males and 3 females) who had a mean age (+/-SD) of 47.0+/-13.5 years and body mass index (BMI) of 46.6+/-7.7 kg/m(2) (range 36.4-58.8). All patients could fit into the instrument chamber and perform the manoeuvre for pulmonary plethysmography. Mean lung volume was 3.9+/-1.2 l and mean percent body fat was 53.1+/-6.6 (range 46.0-67.5). These results indicate that ADP appears to be suitable for patients with BMI over 40 kg/m(2) and produces realistic BC data.

  12. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town ‘Mandi Gobindgarh’ and a nonindustrial town ‘Morinda’ were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with ≤ 10μm aerodynamic diameter levels in Morinda were 99.54 μg/m3 and in Mandi Gobindgarh 161.20 μg/m3. As per NAAQS the permitted levels of PM10 is 50 μg/m3 taken as annual average (arithmetic mean. Elemental analysis of the aerosol samples found the concentration levels to be higher in Mandi- Gobindgarh than Morinda. The population in Gobindgarh shows a higher prevalence of symptoms of angina and cardiovascular disease considered in the study as compared to Morinda. When the same data is viewed in terms of male and female population, the female population is found to show these symptoms marginally higher than their counterparts. Considering the results of present study it can be stated that the increased levels of different pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant.

  13. Period Prevalence of Acute Neck Injury in US Air Force Pilots Exposed to High G Forces (United States)


    unquantified clinical and epidemiological problem in exposed pilots. There has been a paucity of research in this area. This proposal is a beginning, with a...larg-e majority of pilots. Thus neck injury and its sequelae are unquantified clinical and epidemiological problems in pilots exposed to high G forces...Basal Impression 19. Cervical Ribs 20. Scoliosis , 21. Intraspongy Nuclear Hernitation 22. Significant Compression or Loss of Height of Any Vertebral

  14. On the Design of Simulation System of Intelligent City Taxi Call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhu


    Full Text Available The city taxi system is characterized as inconvenience information interaction with passengers and regional imbalance. With the development of wireless network technology, VANET can realize the real-time information interaction between taxi and passengers. Thus to conduct reasonable taxi scheduling and improve the efficiency of the taxi system. In order to validate the effectiveness of intelligent call system of city taxi which adopts the wireless network technology, this study provides a taxi control simulation system based on the wireless network, thus to analyze the behavior of vehicles and passengers. The results show that the real-time taxi call system and intelligent scheduling by using the wireless network technology can effectively reduce the not-taken rate and the average waiting time of passengers.

  15. High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian


    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9% had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ≥ 81/minute rather than ≤ 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61. In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03.Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots

  16. Seatbelt use amongst taxi drivers in Beijing, China. (United States)

    Passmore, J; Ozanne-Smith, J


    Associated with explosive growth in motorization, China has the world's highest road toll with more than 100,000 deaths and 400,000 injuries annually. In response, the Chinese Government introduced the first road traffic safety law in 2003, which included mandatory use of seatbelts by drivers and front seat passengers. Noting frequent non-compliance to this seatbelt regulation by Beijing taxi drivers, the authors studied seatbelt use patterns as onboard observers in a convenience sample of 235 taxi trips. Findings indicated a low seatbelt-wearing rate among taxi drivers of 7.7%, an overt non-wearing rate of 57%, covert non-wearing of 35.3% and total non-compliance of 92.3%. As in high-income countries, adoption of proven safety strategies, including wearing safety restraints, could contribute to reducing the Chinese road toll, particularly as vehicle occupant numbers and the availability of restraints increases. Further investigation of reasons for non-compliance and pretense of wearing seatbelts is required to inform future seatbelt-wearing promotions, including attitudinal studies of taxi drivers. Seatbelt wearing rates should continue to be monitored.

  17. 77 FR 20789 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis AGENCY: National... Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to develop proposals to revise the...

  18. Het CBb en 'Der digitale Taxi-Krieg'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, M.


    UberPOP, the taxi service company that claims to be based on the concept of shared economy, offering a positive effect on mobility, environment and usage of energy, in reality confronts us with the question whether we are able to protect 'on demand' workers against exploitation and underpayment. The

  19. Effects of indoor air purification by an air cleaning system (Koala technology) on semen parameters in male factor infertility: results of a pilot study. (United States)

    Paradisi, R; Vanella, S; Barzanti, R; Cani, C; Battaglia, C; Seracchioli, R; Venturoli, S


    A number of studies indicated a clear decline in semen quality in the past 30-50 years and there is accumulating evidence that this decline might result from exposure to high levels of air pollution. To examine the impact of environment on male reproductive ability, we undertook for the first time a pilot study on semen quality of infertile men exposed to purification of indoor air. Ten subjects with a history of unexplained male infertility and poor semen quality were exposed for at least 1 year to a cleaning indoor air system (Koala technology). The key feature of this air purifier is the unique innovative multiple filtering system. The treatment of total purification of indoor air showed neither improvements in semen parameters nor variation in reproductive hormones (P = N.S.), but induced an evident increase (P indoor air does not seem enough to improve semen quality, although the increase in leucocytic concentrations could indicate an activation of the role of immunosurveillance in a purified indoor air environment.

  20. 78 FR 45055 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations (United States)


    .... Nos. 61-130; 121-365; 135-127; 141-1; 142-9] RIN 2120-AJ67 Pilot Certification and Qualification... requirements Requirements in final rule Hold: Hold: (1) At least a commercial pilot (1) An ATP certificate...

  1. Individual traffic-related air pollution and new onset adult asthma: A GIS-based pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherson, D.; Lysbeck Hansen, C. (Hospital of Vejle, Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, (Denmark)); Solvang Jensen, S.; Hertel, O. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute (Denmark)); Baelum, J. (Odense Univ. Hospital, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Skadhauge, L. (Haderslev Hospital, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Siersted, H.C. (Odense Univ. Hospital, Dep. of Respiratory Medicine (Denmark)); Omland, OE. (Aalborg Hospital, Dep. of Occupational Medicine (Denmark)); Thomsen, G. (South-West Jutland Hospital Esbjerg, Dep. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark)); Sigsgaard, T. (Univ. of Aarhus, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Denmark))


    The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the relation between asthma and wheeze debut and individually estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with a validated exposure system (AirGIS). A non-smoking cohort with recently acquired asthma or wheeze as well as matched controls was identified from a large cross-sectional study. All residential and working addresses with corresponding time periods for a 10 year period were successfully identified for all study participants (N=33) and exposure estimated for both urban background and street level. Individual levels of air pollutants in the years preceding debut of asthma or wheeze were analyzed using survival analysis. No significant correlations between exposure levels and onset of disease or symptom were demonstrated. A tendency towards higher levels of nitrogen oxides exposure during the year prior to debut was seen in wheeze cases. Substantial problems in determining time of onset were encountered. It is recommended that the analytic methods developed in this pilot study are used in a larger prospective cohort to investigate individual trafficrelated air pollutants as a risk factor for the development of new asthma and wheeze. (au)

  2. The Air Combat Effective Pilot: An Analysis of the Personal Characteristics and Combat Skills of Korean Fighter Pilots. (United States)


    use it efficiently and effectively if they encountered a similar crisis ? The Falkland war showed the significance of Air Power again. The activity of...direction - -------- turn rate. aspect angle, angle off... so on. -3) Kee track of critica flisht karam-ter.... -( )- 9 SP) A ATT ALT, angle of atac

  3. A medium-range air combat game solution by a pilot advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, J.; Siegel, A.W.; Gold, Y.I.


    Air-to-air combat between two aggressive aircraft , both equipped with medium-range guided missiles, is .a key element of future air warfare. This dynamic coni lict can be viewed as an interaction of a twotarget diiferential game (between the air--craft) and two independent missileaircraft pursuit-e

  4. Pilot projects in window type air conditioning equipment in the domestic sector; Proyectos piloto en equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Ricardo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)


    The present paper shows the energy saving that can be obtained in the domestic sector when replacing window type air conditioning equipment of low efficiency by equipment of greater efficiency, as well as the necessary parameters to identify such results, derived from the pilot projects of substitution being developed by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) at the moment. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los ahorros de energia que pueden obtenerse en el sector domestico al sustituir equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana de baja eficiencia, por equipos de mayor eficiencia, asi como los parametros necesarios para identificar tales resultados, derivados de los proyectos pilotos de sustitucion que desarrolla actualmente el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE).

  5. The scaling of human mobility by taxis is exponential

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Xiao; Lv, Weifeng; Zhu, Tongyu; Xu, Ke


    As a significant factor in urban planning, traffic forecasting and prediction of epidemics, modeling patterns of human mobility draws intensive attention from researchers for decades. Power-law distribution and its variations are observed from quite a few real-world human mobility datasets such as the movements of banking notes, trackings of cell phone users' locations and trajectories of vehicles. In this paper, we build models for 20 million trajectories with fine granularity collected from more than 10 thousand taxis in Beijing. In contrast to most models observed in human mobility data, the taxis' traveling displacements in urban areas tend to follow an exponential distribution instead of a power-law. Similarly, the elapsed time can also be well approximated by an exponential distribution. Worth mentioning, analysis of the interevent time indicates the bursty nature of human mobility, similar to many other human activities.

  6. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi


    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  7. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand




    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from par...

  8. Detecting Traffic Anomalies in Urban Areas Using Taxi GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Kuang


    Full Text Available Large-scale GPS data contain hidden information and provide us with the opportunity to discover knowledge that may be useful for transportation systems using advanced data mining techniques. In major metropolitan cities, many taxicabs are equipped with GPS devices. Because taxies operate continuously for nearly 24 hours per day, they can be used as reliable sensors for the perceived traffic state. In this paper, the entire city was divided into subregions by roads, and taxi GPS data were transformed into traffic flow data to build a traffic flow matrix. In addition, a highly efficient anomaly detection method was proposed based on wavelet transform and PCA (principal component analysis for detecting anomalous traffic events in urban regions. The traffic anomaly is considered to occur in a subregion when the values of the corresponding indicators deviate significantly from the expected values. This method was evaluated using a GPS dataset that was generated by more than 15,000 taxies over a period of half a year in Harbin, China. The results show that this detection method is effective and efficient.

  9. Pressure Relief, Visco-Elastic Foam with Inflated Air? A Pilot Study in a Dutch Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Van Leen


    Full Text Available Objective: There is still little evidence regarding the type of mattress that is the best for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs. In a Dutch nursing home, a new type of overlay mattress (air inflated visco-elastic foam was tested to analyze the opportunity for replacement of the normally used static air overlay mattress in its three-step PU prevention protocol In this small pilot the outcome measures were: healing of a category one pressure ulcer, new development or deterioration of a category one PU and need for repositioning. Methods: We included 20 nursing home residents with a new category one pressure ulcer, existing for no longer than 48 h following a consecutive sampling technic. All residents were staying for more than 30 days in the nursing home and were lying on a visco-elastic foam mattress without repositioning (step one of the 3-step protocol at the start of the pilot study. They had not suffered from a PU in the month before. The intervention involved use of an air inflated foam overlay instead of a static air overlay (normally step 2 of the 3-step protocol. At the start; the following data were registered: age; gender; main diagnosis and presence of incontinence. Thereafter; all participating residents were checked weekly for PU healing tendency; deterioration of PUs; new PUs and need of repositioning. Only when residents showed still a category one PU after 48 h or deterioration of an existing pressure ulcer or if there was development of a new pressure ulcer, repositioning was put into practice (step 3 of the PU protocol. All residents participated during 8 weeks. Results: Seven residents developed a new pressure ulcer category one and still had a category one pressure ulcer at the end of the study period. One resident developed a pressure ulcer category 2. Fifteen residents needed repositioning from one week after start of the study until the end of the study. Conclusions: Overall 40% of the residents developed a pressure ulcer

  10. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem (United States)

    Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad


    Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.

  11. Calidad del servicio de taxis del municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joheni A. Urdaneta G.


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la calidad del servicio de los taxis en el municipio Maracaibo, ya que los mismos forman parte del sistema de transporte urbano de la ciudad, y es un servicio público fundamental para la convivencia de la sociedad; para lograr este objetivo se realizó una adaptación del modelo SERVPERF, diseñando un instrumento tipo cuestionario, con 32 ítems en 6 dimensiones, adecuado a las características propias del servicio de taxi, con la finalidad de confirmar que los ítems de los instrumentos se correspondían con las dimensiones adaptadas se aplicó la técnica de análisis factorial resultando un nuevo instrumento con 24 ítems en 3 dimensiones. Se utilizó la escala de Likert con tres (3 alternativas de respuesta. La investigación es de tipo descriptiva y aplicada, bajo diseño no experimental de tipo transeccional descriptiva y de campo. La población quedó conformada por los usuarios de las líneas de taxis del municipio Maracaibo. Se aplicó muestreo aleatorio por conglomerado. La confiabilidad del instrumento se midió a través del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach resultando de 0,82 lo cual se considera aceptable. Los resultados revelan que la calidad del servicio de taxis del municipio Maracaibo es mediana por lo tanto este servicio es susceptible a mejoras, las cuales son necesarias para elevar la calidad de vida de los marabinos. Este resultado se obtuvo con el instrumento originalmente adaptado de 32 ítems y con el cuestionario resultante del análisis factorial, de 24 ítems; esto confirma lo apropiado de esta técnica, ya que se redujo el número de ítems y de las dimensiones originalmente adaptadas y no se encontraron diferencias significativas en los resultados con ambos instrumentos; de esta manera se puede medir la calidad del servicio de taxis en el municipio Maracaibo a través de las dimensiones: confiabilidad del servicio, socialización y responsabilidad.

  12. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan


    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  13. 78 FR 42323 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations (United States)


    ... operations as defined by Sec. 91.1053(a)(2)(i) or Sec. 135.243(a)(1).\\1\\ Those wanting to serve as second in... certification requirements as defined by this final rule is included in the following table. Table 1--How... crew resource management, pilot leadership, professionalism, and mentoring skills,...

  14. Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Operators in the United States Air Force (United States)


    and clinical interviews utilizing the Clinician Administered Psychological Survey to determine the nature of the respondents’ stressful military...diagnostic criteria. Two squadrons of RPA operators (pilots and sensor operators) were sampled (N=85). No current cases of PTSD due to remote warfare were...interviews utilizing the Clinician Administered Psychological Survey to determine the nature of the respondents’ stressful military experiences

  15. Factors associated with crashes involving taxi owners and non-owners: A case of moral hazard and adverse selection? (United States)

    Tay, Richard; Choi, Jaisung


    Taxis experience a higher risk of a motor vehicle crash partly because of their much higher levels of exposure on the roads. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with the frequency and severity of taxi collisions, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors associated with owner taxis and non-owner taxis. This study finds that collisions involving non-owners are more likely to be associated with poor or risky driving behaviors than collisions involving taxi vehicle owners. This result is consistent with the economic principles of moral hazard and adverse selection. Hence, policy makers responsible for traffic safety, taxi regulation or taxi operations should consider measures to reduce these market inefficiencies and improve the safety of not only taxi drivers but all road users.

  16. Respiratory symptoms among industrial workers exposed to water aerosol. A pilot study of process water and air microbial quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Krogulska


    Full Text Available Background: The frequency of respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to water aerosol was evaluated along with the preliminary assessment of microbiological contamination of air and water used in glass processing plants. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 131 workers from 9 glass processing plants. Questions focused on working conditions, respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. A pilot study of air and water microbiological contamination in one glass processing plant was performed. Water samples were tested for Legionella in accordance with EN ISO 11731-2:2008 and for total colony count according to PN-EN ISO 6222:2004. Air samples were tested for total numbers of molds and mildews. Results: During the year preceding the survey acute respiratory symptoms occurred in 28.2% of participants, while chronic symptoms were reported by 29% of respondents. Increased risks of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia were found among the respondents working at a distance up to 20 m from the source of water aerosol compared to other workers (OR = 2.7, with no difference in the frequency of other symptoms. A microbiological analysis of water samples from selected glass plant revealed the presence of L. pneumophila, exceeding 1000 cfu/100 ml. The number of bacteria and fungi detected in air samples (above 1000 cfu/m3 suggested that water aerosol at workplaces can be one of the sources of the air microbial contamination. Conclusions: The questionnaire survey revealed an increased risk of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia in the group working at a shortest distance form the source of water aerosol. Med Pr 2013;64(1:47–55

  17. Three-wheeled scooter taxi: A safety analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mukherjee; D Mohan; T R Gawade


    The rollover propensity of a three-wheeled scooter taxi used extensively on SE Asian roads is analysed in this report. A rigid body mathematical model was used to simulate increasing steer, NHTSA -turn, and Road Edge Recovery maneuvers. The anomaly between public perception of the rollover susceptibility and available crash data has been resolved through finite element (FE) simulation. The optimum configuration of the vehicle and seating arrangement for varying numbers of passengers was determined. The safety of occupants and pedestrians in impact events was analysed through simulation in MADYMOTM, and cost effective solutions to improve safety were identified.

  18. Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air-sea exchange processes using BOBMEX-pilot data sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Sam; U C Mohanty; A N V Satyanarayana


    The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) - Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature, saturation equivalent potential temperature and specific humidity were carried out at every point of upper air observation obtained on board ORV Sagar Kanya. The values are estimated up to a maximum of 4 km to cover the boundary layer. The Marine Boundary Layer Height is estimated from the conserved thermodynamic profiles. During the disturbed period when the convective activity is observed, the deeper boundary layers show double mixing line structures. An attempt is also made to study the oceanic heat budget using empirical models. The estimated short-wave radiation flux compared well with the observations.

  19. SemanticTraj: A New Approach to Interacting with Massive Taxi Trajectories. (United States)

    Al-Dohuki, Shamal; Wu, Yingyu; Kamw, Farah; Yang, Jing; Li, Xin; Zhao, Ye; Ye, Xinyue; Chen, Wei; Ma, Chao; Wang, Fei


    Massive taxi trajectory data is exploited for knowledge discovery in transportation and urban planning. Existing tools typically require users to select and brush geospatial regions on a map when retrieving and exploring taxi trajectories and passenger trips. To answer seemingly simple questions such as "What were the taxi trips starting from Main Street and ending at Wall Street in the morning?" or "Where are the taxis arriving at the Art Museum at noon typically coming from?", tedious and time consuming interactions are usually needed since the numeric GPS points of trajectories are not directly linked to the keywords such as "Main Street", "Wall Street", and "Art Museum". In this paper, we present SemanticTraj, a new method for managing and visualizing taxi trajectory data in an intuitive, semantic rich, and efficient means. With SemanticTraj, domain and public users can find answers to the aforementioned questions easily through direct queries based on the terms. They can also interactively explore the retrieved data in visualizations enhanced by semantic information of the trajectories and trips. In particular, taxi trajectories are converted into taxi documents through a textualization transformation process. This process maps GPS points into a series of street/POI names and pick-up/drop-off locations. It also converts vehicle speeds into user-defined descriptive terms. Then, a corpus of taxi documents is formed and indexed to enable flexible semantic queries over a text search engine. Semantic labels and meta-summaries of the results are integrated with a set of visualizations in a SemanticTraj prototype, which helps users study taxi trajectories quickly and easily. A set of usage scenarios are presented to show the usability of the system. We also collected feedback from domain experts and conducted a preliminary user study to evaluate the visual system.

  20. Air Pollution, Cognitive Deficits and Brain Abnormalities: A Pilot Study with Children and Dogs (United States)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragan-Mejia, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R.; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E.; Gonzalez-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C.; Engle, Randall W.


    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n:55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic…

  1. Les aspects matériels de la taxis byzantine The material aspects of the Byzantine taxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie‑France Auzépy


    Full Text Available La taxis grecque – correspondant exact de l’ordo latin – est un aspect essentiel de la civilisation byzantine : elle organise cette société de manière à ce que celle-ci soit un reflet aussi exact que possible de la société céleste, décrite en particulier par Denys l’Aréopagite. La taxis est donc à la fois précise et contraignante et nous a été transmise dans des livres décrivant le protocole : le De Cerimoniis au Xe siècle, le Traité du pseudo-Kodinos au XIVe siècle. Au cours de cérémonies où tous les aspects matériels – l’habit, la couronne, le trône, les acclamations à la gloire de l’empereur, l’orgue qui les accompagne, les gestes accomplis par l’empereur comme par ceux qui l’entourent – ont un sens, l’Empire byzantin affirme ainsi son équilibre et sa qualité de peuple élu. Jusqu’en 1204, les autres nations ont jalousé la qualité que s’était octroyée l’Empire romain d’Orient : celle d’image de la cour céleste, qui est figurée dans le cérémonial. Cette jalousie a pris d’autres formes après 1453, et l’on s’intéressera aux souverains européens qui, tel Louis XIV, ont voulu faire figure d’héritiers de l’empire défunt et relever ses cérémonies.The Greek taxis(order– the exact equivalent of the Latin ordo – is an essential aspect of Byzantine civilization: it organized society in such a way that it would reflect the celestial society as closely as possible, as has been described by Dionysius the Areopagite. The taxis is therefore both precise and restrictive and has been passed down to us through writings describing the protocol: the De Cerimoniis in the tenth century and the treatise of Pseudo-Kodinos in the fourteenth century. Through ceremonies in which all the material aspects have a meaning – the dress, the crown, the throne, the proclaiming of the glory of the emperor, the accompanying organ, the gestures of the emperor and of those around

  2. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala. (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P


    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  3. A Mobile, Dynamic, and Privacy-Preserving Matching System for Car and Taxi Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou


    Full Text Available Recently, rates of vehicle ownership have risen globally, exacerbating problems including air pollution, lack of parking, and traffic congestion. While many solutions to these problems have been proposed, carpooling remains one of the most effective approaches. Recently, several carpooling platforms have been built on cloud computing systems, with originators posting online list of departure/arrival points and schedules from which participants can search for rides that match their needs. However, it can be difficult to make matches quickly and the systems are subject to privacy concerns in that they may disclose private information such as names, registration data, and departure/arrival schedules. This paper proposes a dynamic matching method for car/taxi pools for use in mobile devices via ad hoc Wi-Fi networks. The proposed method also preserves user privacy including names and departure/arrival schedules. Moreover, the system does not require the user to register any personal data, so such data cannot be leaked. The system was implemented on the Android mobile platform, allowing users to immediately and securely access the system via their smart phones.

  4. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong


    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  5. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Niu


    Full Text Available Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly.

  6. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization. (United States)

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di


    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly.

  7. In situ stabilization/solidification pilot testing of coal tar contaminated sediment focusing on air quality testing program, Sydney, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, A. [AECOM, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hilchey, J. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)


    This paper presented the results of a pilot-scale demonstration project conducted to test air quality contaminant emissions at a remediation project in Sydney, Nova Scotia. In situ sediment solidification/stabilization (S/S) was selected as a remedial solutions for sediments in an estuarine pond contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim of the air monitoring program was to determine the emission rates of sediment contaminants that became airborne during remediation activities and to monitor the off-site environmental impacts of the emissions. The pilot project included driving interlocking steel sheet pile (SSP) through the sediment into the underlying natural soils, removing overlying water, homogenizing the sediment, and mixing S/S reagents into the sediment over a period of 4 days at 2 different sites. Air sampling equipment was used to monitor volumetric flow rates, benzene, naphthalene and particulate matter concentrations. Continuous real-time monitoring was used at downwind fence line perimeters and by time-weighted ambient air sampling at 6 community stations near the sites. Results of the study showed that the site-specific benzene and naphthalene emission rates were significantly lower than emission rates calculated using theoretical models. No exceedances of established community air quality limits were observed. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Application of utility theory to the valuing of air pollution-related health effects: Three proposed pilot studies on subjective judgments of asthma. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A.C.


    Utility under uncertainty is a field of decision theory that has received increasing attention in the field of health. The report reviews its uses during the past decade and suggests its possible use in national air quality standard setting procedures. It is common practice in standard setting to assess the likelihood of air pollution effects on sensitive populations. One such poplation, asthmatics, is selected in the report and the relationship between air pollution and asthma is reviewed. In addition, three possible pilot studies are suggested which use aspects of utility under uncertainty theory to elicit values concerning asthma health effects. The results of such studies would provide the US EPA with information for their ambient air quality standard setting and increase the awareness of the possible uses of utility theory in such applications.

  9. Analysis on the Air Force pilots' response when flight illusion occurred%空军飞行员飞行错觉后反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炜; 吕汽兵; 季思菊; 张刚林; 黄佳怡


    Objective To investigate the Air Force pilots' response to the flight illusion for finding countermeasures. Methods A questionnaire entitled" the level scale of flight illusion" was inquired from 1275 pilots. Results The incidence of flight illusion was 91. 5% by analyzing 1221applicable replies. Among which even 8. 1% pilots could not overcome the illusions by observing instruments. 32.7% pilots reported illusion caused difficulties on aircraft control while 6.9% and 1.4% pilots respectively showed unawareness of illusion and lost the awareness of environment when illusion happened. 56. 6% pilots appeared discomfort. Fighter and attacker pilots showed stronger response than the other type of aircrafts' (P<0.05). Conclusions Pilot's negative responses to flight illusions have effectively influenced flight safety. It is suggested to build up corresponding training system to control the pilot's negative response to flight illusions.%目的 掌握现阶段空军飞行员发生飞行错觉后反应状况,以期制定相应对策. 方法 运用"飞行错觉水平量表"对来院疗养的1275名空军飞行员进行飞行错觉问卷调查. 结果 有效量表1221份,飞行错觉总发生率为91.5%,发生错觉后看仪表不能克服的占8.1%,发生错觉后影响操纵的占32.7%,发生了错觉不知道的占6.9%,发生错觉后不能识别周围环境的占1.4%,出现不适症状的占56.6%.歼击机、强击机飞行员飞行错觉后的反应水平明显高于其他机种(P<0.05).结论 空军飞行员飞行错觉后反应影响飞行安全,急待建立飞行错觉系统训练体系,减少飞行错觉后反应发生,降低飞行错觉反应水平.

  10. Evaluation of energy saving in pilot projects of window type air conditioning equipment in the domestic sector; Evaluacion del ahorro de energia en proyectos pilotos en equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Ramirez, Ricardo [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    The present work shows the energy saving when replacing low efficiency window type air conditioning equipment, for higher efficiency equipment, as well as the necessary parameters to identify the results obtained by the pilot projects of substitution of conventional equipment for other more efficient in the domestic sector. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los ahorros de energia al sustituir equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana de baja eficiencia, por equipos de mayor eficiencia, asi como los parametros necesarios para identificar los resultados obtenidos, por los proyectos pilotos de sustitucion de equipos convencionales por otros mas eficientes en el sector domestico.

  11. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Baran


    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  12. A Piloted Simulation Investigating Handling Qualities and Performance Requirements of a Single-Pilot Helicopter in Air Combat Employing a Helmet-Driven Turreted Gun. (United States)


    A. Decker, NASA, HAC III Project Engineer LTC Patrick M. Morris, NASA, HAC III Project Pilot Mr. Joseph 0. Ogwell, SYRE, Simulation Engineer Ms ...wtpnret n velope secnd ATOIT Toa msips diate them round PSIRD! XHDS posietion abln ciuh body axes) dtec TUERT IHADSSposition inrbelevan (body aes) deresw...Ref. 21]. 68 CDC 7600 IHADSS Position Mainframe [Asynchronous] (30 ms ) I (40 ms ) PDP 11 /55 TOTAL Singer (17 ms ) 120ms D (67 ms )IRIS (48 ms ) G HUD

  13. Occupational and environmental exposure of garage workers and taxi drivers to airborne manganese arising from the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline. (United States)

    Zayed, J; Gérin, M; Loranger, S; Sierra, P; Bégin, D; Kennedy, G


    Occupational and environmental exposure to airborne manganese has been measured for two groups of workers in Montreal, taxi drivers and garage mechanics. In Canada methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has replaced lead as an anti-knock agent in gasoline and represents a potentially important source of manganese contamination for the population in general and for the two chosen groups of workers in particular. Twenty workers (10 taxi drivers and 10 garage mechanics) wore a personal air sampler for five consecutive working days and two off-work periods. The amount of total Mn on each filter was determined by neutron activation analysis and then converted to atmospheric Mn concentrations. The values obtained varied from 0.004 microgram m-3 to 2.067 micrograms m-3. At work the garage mechanics were exposed to an average of 0.250 microgram m-3 and the taxi drivers to 0.024 microgram m-3. Off-work, the two groups were exposed respectively to an average of 0.007 microgram m-3 and 0.011 microgram m-3. In the garages there was twice as much Mn in the air on days when the doors were closed compared to days when they were left opened (0.314 micrograms m-3/0.152 microgram m-3). The levels found in this study remain well below the established limits for occupational and environmental airborne exposure. These results will lead to further studies to positively identify the source of Mn as MMT and to explore other pathways leading to the contamination of the general population.

  14. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin


    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  15. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Suresh Bawa


    Full Text Available Background: Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers′ health. Objective: The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. Meterials and Methods: The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59% of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1% was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%, too many speed breakers (41%, rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42% and bad weather (36%. Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Conclusion: Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers.

  16. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Arphorn, Sara; Jirapongsuwan, Ann


    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers' CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status.

  17. Ecologic air-conditioning. A pilot plant for the geothermal and sorption supported air-conditioning in the HafenCity Hamburg; Oekologische Klimatisierung. Pilotanlage zur geothermisch- und sorptionsgestuetzten Klimatisierung in der HafenCity Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaolong; Grabe, Juergen [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik und Baubetrieb


    The relatively constant temperatures of the underground at a depth of 100 meters provide the opportunity to air-condition buildings with geothermal energy and economically. Currently, building air conditioning systems in Central Europe exhibit high growth rates. In summer, the task of an air conditioner is to cool and dehumidify air. Especially the dehumidification usually causes a high cooling demand, as the air is cooled below the dew point temperature of 12 C in order to condense out the water. The dew point is well below the demand for a comfortable room temperature of about 19 C. With this in mind, the authors of this contribution report on a principle of alternative dehumidification by means of a so-called sorption wheel. Sorption wheels use the hygroscopic properties of certain substances such as lithium chloride or silica gel in order to dehumidify the air. Thereby, the cooling demand significantly is reduced by the previous dehumidification. The regeneration of the sorption wheel requires heat. This heat can be provided by solar thermal plants and district heating. Since the air can no longer be dehumidified, rich supply temperatures between 16 and 19 C from. These temperatures can be achieved by means of near-surface temperature. Ground registers, geothermal energy probes or geothermal structures such as power poles are used as ground heat exchanger. The authors present the concept and the measurement results of the pilot plant in Hamburg's HafenCity.

  18. Analyzing the Value of Location Information for Four Taxi Dispatching Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Location-based service (LBS) is often quoted as one of the killer applications of mobile commerce. The LBS, especially the GPS dispatching system, is often adopted by taxi operators for fleet management, but there is no theoretical analysis on the real value of location information for dispatching services. This paper presents four types of dispatching modes and how location information is obtained and used to support dispatching services. Then the Pros and Cons of different taxi dispatching modes were compared. It is concluded that different mode fits different situations, no one overwhelms all situation, even if the GPS-based dispatching mode. The value of the GPS-based dispatching service then was further analyzed through the case study of DaZhong Company in Shanghai, China. The results show that the use of the up-to-date GPS technology radically changes the traditional approaches to taxi dispatching and enables companies to enhance customers'satisfaction.

  19. Revealing daily travel patterns and city structure with taxi trip data

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xi; Gong, Yongxi; Liu, Yu


    Detecting regional spatial structures based on spatial interactions is crucial in applications ranging from urban planning to traffic control. In the big data era, various movement trajectories are available for studying spatial structures. This research uses large scale Shanghai taxi trip data extracted from GPS-enabled taxi trajectories to reveal traffic flow patterns and urban structure of the city. Using the network science methods, 15 temporally stable regions reflecting the scope of people's daily travels are found using community detection method on the network built from short trips, which represent residents' daily intra-urban travels and exhibit a clear pattern. In each region, taxi traffic flows are dominated by a few 'hubs' and 'hubs' in suburbs impact more trips than 'hubs' in urban areas. Land use conditions in urban regions are different from those in suburban areas. Additionally, 'hubs' in urban area associate with office buildings and commercial areas more, whereas residential land use is mor...

  20. Pilot Weather Reports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  1. Research on Strategy Control of Taxi Carpooling Detour Route under Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang


    Full Text Available For the problem of route choice in taxi carpooling detour, considering the uncertainty of traffic and the characteristic of passengers’ noncomplete rationality, an evolutionary game model of taxi carpooling detour route is built, in which prospect theory is introduced and revenue of strategy is replaced by prospect value. The model reflects more really decision-making psychology of passengers. Then the stable strategies of the model are studied, and the influences of detour distance and traffic congestion on detour carpooling success are analyzed, respectively. The results show that when at least one route of which prospect values for two passenger sides are both positive exists, carpooling route can reach an agreement. The route is stable strategy of evolutionary game, and the passengers requiring short travel time tend to select the nondetour route. With the increase of detour distance and traffic congestion rate, the possibility of reaching an agreement decreases gradually; that is, possibility of carpooling failure increases. So taxi carpooling detour is possible under the certain condition, but some measures must be carried out such as constraints of detour distance and mitigation of traffic congestion to improve carpooling success probability. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to the formulation of taxi carpooling policy.

  2. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers]. (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira


    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers.

  3. Energy Taxis Drives Campylobacter jejuni toward the Most Favorable Conditions for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, C.S.; Brondsted, L.; Li, Yiping


    Campylobacter jejuni is a serious food-borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. Poultry is a major reservoir, and C. jejuni appears highly adapted to the gastrointestinal tract of birds. Several factors are important for chicken colonization and virulence, including a taxis mechanism...

  4. Institutional statism: an overview of the formulation of the taxi recapitalisation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. van Schalkwyk


    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the government’s formulation of the taxi recapitalisation policy which is aimed at regulating the minibus taxi industry. Coupled with a brief social and politico-historical context of the policy, the aim is to highlight the government’s statist conduct in the formulation of the recapitalisation policy. The minibus taxi industry started to fulfil a prominent role in the 1970s as a result of a loophole in the legislation of the former apartheid government. It is currently the most accessible mode of public transport and conveys 65 per cent of the country’s commuters daily. Consequently, the Industry is an imperative force to be considered by the government in its formulation of transport policies. However, the industry is characterised by numerous problems, including a high rate of minibus taxis involved in accidents, unroadworthy vehicles and violence. It is in this context that the government formulated both the original and revised versions of the recapitalisation policy. However, the formulation of the policy has been problematic. The government followed a statist approach during the formulation process when it directed the course of the process according to its interests and without adequate consultation with relevant role players.

  5. Evolution of taxis responses in virtual bacteria: non-adaptive dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Goldstein


    Full Text Available Bacteria are able to sense and respond to a variety of external stimuli, with responses that vary from stimuli to stimuli and from species to species. The best-understood is chemotaxis in the model organism Escherichia coli, where the dynamics and the structure of the underlying pathway are well characterised. It is not clear, however, how well this detailed knowledge applies to mechanisms mediating responses to other stimuli or to pathways in other species. Furthermore, there is increasing experimental evidence that bacteria integrate responses from different stimuli to generate a coherent taxis response. We currently lack a full understanding of the different pathway structures and dynamics and how this integration is achieved. In order to explore different pathway structures and dynamics that can underlie taxis responses in bacteria, we perform a computational simulation of the evolution of taxis. This approach starts with a population of virtual bacteria that move in a virtual environment based on the dynamics of the simple biochemical pathways they harbour. As mutations lead to changes in pathway structure and dynamics, bacteria better able to localise with favourable conditions gain a selective advantage. We find that a certain dynamics evolves consistently under different model assumptions and environments. These dynamics, which we call non-adaptive dynamics, directly couple tumbling probability of the cell to increasing stimuli. Dynamics that are adaptive under a wide range of conditions, as seen in the chemotaxis pathway of E. coli, do not evolve in these evolutionary simulations. However, we find that stimulus scarcity and fluctuations during evolution results in complex pathway dynamics that result both in adaptive and non-adaptive dynamics depending on basal stimuli levels. Further analyses of evolved pathway structures show that effective taxis dynamics can be mediated with as few as two components. The non-adaptive dynamics

  6. Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busisiwe Ncama


    Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  7. Association of air pollution on birth outcomes in New Delhi – a pilot study on the potential of HMIS data for environmental public health tracking (United States)

    Magsumbol, Melina S.; Singh, Archna; Ghosh, Arpita; Kler, Neelam; Garg, Pankaj; Thakur, Anup; Beg, Arshad; Srivastava, Atul; Hajat, Shakoor


    Objectives The study objective was to assess the gaps in current hospital health management information systems (ie. paper based records of prenatal, delivery, neonatal, discharge data) for environmental studies. This study also considers the feasibility of linking patient-level hospital data with ambient air pollution data recorded in real time by air quality monitoring stations. Methods This retrospective hospital based cohort study used a semi-ecologic design to explore the association of air pollution with a neonate’s birth weight and gestational age. Maternal and neonatal data from 2007-2012 were encoded and linked with air pollution data based on distance to the nearest air quality monitoring station. Completeness and accuracy of neonatal anthropometric measures, maternal demographic information, nutritional status and maternal risk factors (gestational diabetes, anaemia, hypertension, etc.) were assessed. Results The records of 10,565 births in Sir Ganga Ram hospital in New Delhi were encoded and linked with real time air quality data. These were records of women who reported a New Delhi address during the time of delivery. The distance of each address to all the monitoring stations were recorded. Birth records were assigned pollution exposure levels averaged across records from monitoring stations within 10 kilometers of the address during the pregnancy period. Conclusion This pilot study will highlight the potential of hospital management information system in linking administrative hospital record data with information on environmental exposure. The linked health-exposure dataset can then be used for studying the impact of various environmental exposures on health outcomes. Mother’s educational attainment, occupation, residential history, nutritional status, tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy need to be documented for better health risk assessments or case management. Health institutions can provide data for public health researchers and

  8. Gas mixing in a pilot scale (500 KW{sub th}) air blown circulating fluidised bed biomass gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, S.R.A.; Moonen, R.H.W.; Oosting, T.P. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); Prins, W.; Van Swaaij, W.P.M. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)


    To study the gas mixing capacity of circulating fluidised bed (CFB) biomass gasifiers, radial and axial gas concentration profiles have been measured and interpreted in both a hot pilot scale biomass gasifier (100 kg/hr fuel) and a cold-flow set-up. The presented data of the pilot scale gasifier are unique and provide new insight in the radial gas mixing capacity of circulating fluidised bed gasifiers. Gas mixing is an important process because the effectiveness of a CFB biomass gasifier, regarding conversion of carbon and tars in the product gas, depends among other things on the degree of reactant mixing. At five different axial positions, in the pilot plant, especially developed probes are installed to withdraw gases from the interior of the reactor. They can be moved freely over the reactor diameter, so full radial profiles can be obtained at each axial position. In the cold-flow set-up similar probes are used to determine radial dispersion coefficients as a function of process variables such as solids flux, gas velocity and additional internals. Considerable radial gas phase concentration gradients have been observed in the pilot plant gasifier, with a difference between wall and centre concentrations up to a factor 3. It must be concluded that the radial gas mixing is far from ideal. On basis of these pilot plant data and a suitable reactor model it can be concluded that the radial Peclet number of the dilute region is in the order of 1000. Such a value excludes the radial mixing of gases almost entirely. Simulations indicate that the occurrence of a parabolic gas velocity profile (also observed in earlier hydrodynamic studies) and a possibly non-uniform biomass distribution, are major causes for steep gradients in the radial gas concentration profiles. From the experiments in the cold-flow set-up it can be concluded that in the dilute region of the riser the radial mixing intensity decreases due to presence of solids. This can be ascribed to a reducing

  9. 手机打车软件的法律思考%Legal Reflections on Mobile Phone Taxi Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙道锐; 牛梦婧


    手机打车软件符合国家政策且合乎情理,应允予使用。为规避不具营运资格的驾驶员,应加强手机软件提供方与客运管理机构之间的合作,着力保障乘客的平等议价权,出租车驾驶员载客期间的抢客行为违反法律,应当竭力避免。%Taxi mobile phone software used in taxis conforms to state policy and its use is not illegal . To avoid unqualified taxi drivers'illegal actions , we should strengthen the cooperation between software providers and passenger transportation management institutions and safeguard passengers'equal bargaining power . The robbery conducted by taxi-drivers is illegal and should be avoided .

  10. 浅谈健康发展出租车市场之路%Healthy Development of Taxi Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    今年来出租车客运市场迅猛发展.随着出租车数量的不断增大,各种矛盾也都不断显现出来,严重制约了出租车市场的发展.应从建立出租市场公平,公正、公开竞争的格局、改变出租公司运作方式等方面考虑健康发展出租车市场.%Taxi market has grown rapidly in recent year. With the increasing number of taxis, all kinds of contradictions have been apparent, which has seriously hampered the development of the taxi market. We should establish healthy developing taxi market from establishing a fair, just and open competitive landscape, changing the mode of operation and other aspects.

  11. Global existence of solutions and uniform persistence of a diffusive predator-prey model with prey-taxis (United States)

    Wu, Sainan; Shi, Junping; Wu, Boying


    This paper proves the global existence and boundedness of solutions to a general reaction-diffusion predator-prey system with prey-taxis defined on a smooth bounded domain with no-flux boundary condition. The result holds for domains in arbitrary spatial dimension and small prey-taxis sensitivity coefficient. This paper also proves the existence of a global attractor and the uniform persistence of the system under some additional conditions. Applications to models from ecology and chemotaxis are discussed.

  12. Discourse segmentation and the management of multiple tasks in single episodes of air traffic controller-pilot spoken radio communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Falzon


    Full Text Available Episodes of VHF radio-mediated pilot-controller spoken communication in which multiple tasks are conducted are engendered in and through the skilful deployment and combination, by the parties to the talk, of multiple orders of discourse segmentation. These orders of segmentation are manifest at the levels of transmission design and sequential organisation. Both of these features are analysed from a Conversation Analytic standpoint in order to track their segment by segment genesis, development and completion. From the analysis it emerges that in addition to the serial type of sequential organisations described by Schegloff (1986, there exists an alternative form of organisation that enables tasks to be managed in a quasi-parallel manner, and which affords controllers and pilots a number of practical advantages in the conduct of their radio-mediated service encounters.Cet article présente des extraits d’échanges oraux entre pilots et contrôleurs du ciel via la radio VHF. On peut y voir comment le déploiement et la combinaison habile de plusieurs ordres de segmentation discursive, engageant les deux coénonciateurs de la conversation, leur permet d’accomplir des tâches multiples. Ces ordres de segmentation se manifestent aux niveaux du plan de la transmission et de l’organisation séquentielle. Ces deux niveaux sont envisagées du point de vue de l’analyse conversationnelle dans le but d’examiner, segment après segment, comment ils se mettent en place, se développent puis prennent fin. Notre étude montre que, outre le type sériel d’organisations séquentielles décrit par Schegloff (1986, il existe une forme alternative d’organisation qui permet de gérer les tâches de manière quasi parallèle, et qui fournit aux contrôleurs aériens ainsi qu’aux pilotes de nombreux avantages pratiques dans la conduite de leurs radio.

  13. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities : A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid


    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  14. Evaluation of Noise Effects in Auditory Function in Spanish Military Pilots (United States)


    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CIMA Arturo Soria 82 28027 Madrid SPAIN 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...P. Vallejo, C. Velasco CIMA Arturo Soria 82 28027 Madrid SPAIN E-mail: INTRODUCTION Military pilots are particularly...exposing to the noise environment in the flight line or during taxi, take off and cruise operations (1,2,3). Environmental stress can be partially

  15. Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants. (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato


    Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum.

  16. Video event data recording of a taxi driver used for diagnosis of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Sakurai


    Full Text Available A video event data recorder (VEDR in a motor vehicle records images before and after a traffic accident. This report describes a taxi driver whose seizures were recorded by VEDR, which was extremely useful for the diagnosis of epilepsy. The patient was a 63-year-old right-handed Japanese male taxi driver. He collided with a streetlight. Two years prior to this incident, he raced an engine for a long time while parked. The VEDR enabled confirmation that the accidents depended on an epileptic seizure and he was diagnosed with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. The VEDR is useful not only for traffic accident evidence; it might also contribute to a driver's health care and road safety.

  17. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Almeida da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  18. Cytogenetic effects in children and mothers exposed to air pollution assessed by the frequency of micronuclei and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a family pilot study in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Vinzents, Peter; Petersen, Joergen Holm


    A family pilot study was conducted in the Czech Republic to test the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution with particulate matter (PM) in children results in detectable effects indicated by a number of biomarkers of exposure and early effects. The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral...... of air pollution, especially during winter, and compared with a population from the rural area of Prachatice in Southern Bohemia. Significant higher frequencies of MN were found in the younger children living in the Teplice area as compared with those living in the Prachatice area (7.0+/-2.3 per thousand...... with elevated carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) concentration of the PM(2.5) measured in the ambient Teplice air, but other factors like genotoxic compounds from the diet or protective effect of micronutrients, which was not addressed in this pilot study, may also differ between the two...

  19. Accesibilidad en el transporte público en Valladolid ferrocarril, autobús y taxi


    Díez Peña, Mª Begoña; Herrero Rodríguez, Sonia


    El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la medida en la que se cumple la normativa de accesibilidad al transporte público en la ciudad de Valladolid, en concreto ferrocarril, autobús y taxi, no sólo en el sentido estricto de la normativa sino también desde el punto de vista de la autonomía de una persona con discapacidad física.

  20. The Taxi Driver Found His Long-lost Son(高一适用)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A taxi driver has found the son he last saw 34 years ago --as a fare in the back of his cab. The chance of reunion came when Barry Bagshaw, 61,picked up a fare at a motel near Brighton in southern England. A short panying the man in the back found the driver's identity and noticed he had the same surname as her boyfriend.

  1. Using the Crowd of Taxis to Last Mile Delivery in E-commerce: a Methodological Research


    Chen, Chao; Pan, Shenle


    International audience; Crowdsourcing is garnering increased attention in freight transport area, mainly applied in internet-based services to city logistics. However, scientific research, especially methodology for application is still rare in the literature. This paper aims to fill this gap and to propose a methodological approach of applying crowdsourcing solution to Last Mile Delivery in E-commerce environment. The proposed solution is based on taxi fleet in city and a transport network c...

  2. 非正规出租车存在下的出租车合理规模研究%Reasonable Taxi Scale Based on Existence of Unregistered Taxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    现有的出租车合理规模是根据出租车分担率计算得出的,但分担率在调查过程中受抽样比例、调查方式等因素的影响而存在较大误差,而且现有的出租车规模计算模型均未考虑非正规出租车分担了部分客运需求的事实,导致规模计算结果普遍偏低。为减少计算偏差,采用全数调查的方法,并结合出租车计价器的原始数据,直接测定出租车的日均载客人次、运营次数及单次载客人数等指标,提出在出租车有效行驶里程计算模型中不再考虑出租车分担率指标;基于非正规出租车客观存在而引入了非正规出租车承运比例指标,建立基于供需平衡的现时出租车合理保有量计算修正模型。最后通过实证分析验证了修正后的模型是合理和实用的,有利于抑制非正规出租车非法营运和城市出租车行业的健康发展。%The existing reasonable taxi scale was calculated according to the taxi share ratio. However, the taxi share ratio typically had large deviation due to the influence of sampling rate and survey method in the survey process. In addition, the fact that the unregistered taxi took some shares of market was not considered in the existing model for calculating the taxi scale. As a result, the calculated taxi scale was lower than that it should be. To reduce the deviation, combined with the original data of taxi fare meter, a full-data survey method was adopted, to investigate the daily passenger capacity, operating frequency, and average passengers on board. An effective taxi mileage calculation model which did not need to con⁃sider the taxi share rate was proposed. Due to the existence of unregistered taxi, the share of unregistered taxi was used to establish the revised reasonable taxi scale calculation model based on the balance of supply and demand. At last, through a case study, it is demonstrated that the revised model is reasonable and applicable

  3. Coordinated Charging Strategy for Electric Taxis in Temporal and Spatial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Yang


    Full Text Available Currently, electric taxis have been deployed in many cities of China. However, the charging unbalance in both temporal and spatial scale has become a rising problem, which leads to low charging efficiency or charging congestion in different stations or time periods. This paper presents a multi-objective coordinated charging strategy for electric taxis in the temporal and spatial scale. That is, the objectives are maximizing the utilization efficiency of charging facilities, minimizing the load unbalance of the regional power system and minimizing the customers’ cost. Besides, the basic configuration of a charging station and operation rules of electric taxis would be the constraints. To tackle this multi-objective optimizing problems, a fuzzy mathematical method has been utilized to transfer the multi-objective optimization to a single optimization issue, and furthermore, the Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO Algorithm has been used to solve the optimization problem. Moreover, simulation cases are carried out, Case 1 is the original charging procedure, and Cases 2 and 3 are the temporal and spatial scale optimized separately, followed with Case 4, the combined coordinated charging. The simulation shows the significant improvement in charging facilities efficiency and users’ benefits, as well as the better dispatching of electric taxis’ charging loads.

  4. Taxi ! méthode de français : niveau 3

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Anne-Marie


    Taxi ! 3 est une méthode interactive, qui développe non seulement les connaissances, mais aussi les savoir-faire et les savoir-être de l'apprenant, à l'écrit comme à l'oral. La méthode est très simple à utiliser : une leçon = une double page. Taxi ! 3 couvre le niveau Bl du Cadre européen commun de référence pour l'apprentissage, l'enseignement et l'évaluation des langues. La méthode permet de se préparer aux épreuves A3 et A4 du DELF 1er degré. Une progression et des contenus fonctionnels et langagiers solides permettent à l'apprenant d'atteindre rapidement une autonomie en français dans des situations de la vie courante. Taxi ! 3 permet de mieux connaître la France d'aujourd'hui et les comportements des Français à travers une grande variété de documents authentiques (écrit et audio).

  5. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study. (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera


    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production.

  6. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University (United States)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  7. The Effect of Working Conditions to the Health Status in Taxi and Bus Drivers in Canakkale, Turkey; Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Uludag


    Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.

  8. Pilot perception of light emitting diodes versus incandescent elevated runway guard lights (United States)

    Stevens, Hilary

    Pilots must understand and be aware of the purpose of each airport sign, light and marking, for there are numerous. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is planning on replacing the current incandescent lighting with far more economical LED airport lighting. In preparation for this change, two experiments were conducted for this thesis. Experiment 1 attempted to determine what pilots know about the meaning of the signs, markings and lights on the taxiways and runways through a questionnaire that was developed with the FAA. Experiment 2 evaluated pilot perception of LED lighting compared to current incandescent elevated runway guard lights. The meaning of airfield lights is not often stressed in pilot training and many pilots are unsure as to the intended purpose of specific lighting. Experiment 1 attempted to evaluate the uncertainty of these caution lights. In experiment 1, a knowledge survey about runway lighting and markings was created. The survey was developed by a flight instructor and approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. The surveys were given to about 150 pilots with varying flight ratings and experience levels. Experiment 1 results determined that there is a need for more intensive or remedial training on some airport signals. Results also showed that some runway signals need to have greater cue salience. Experiment 2 was designed to replace the existing elevated runway guard lights at a local airport from incandescent lights to light emitting diodes. Permission to cross onto the runways from a taxiway at airports must be given by the air traffic (ground) controller. The demarcation between taxiway and runway is indicated by the elevated runway guard light (ERGL), which signals to the taxiing pilot to hold short at the border of the runway until permission to cross the intersection is obtained. Incandescent lights are currently installed in the ERGLs. Experiment 2 of this thesis was designed to evaluate pilot's perceptions of the elevated

  9. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Kirenga


    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries’ cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and ozone (O3 pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja. PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3 and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3 but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3. In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  10. Motivational Engineering for Pilot Training. (United States)

    Herzberg, Frederick I.; And Others

    The study was an investigation of student pilot motivation for, and toward, the Air Training Command's undergraduate pilot training (UPT) program. The motivation hygiene approach was used to identify the motivational factors operating in the UPT program systematically. This approach has been used extensively in industry and with success in a…

  11. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations. (United States)

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R


    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations.

  12. Signal balancing by the CetABC and CetZ chemoreceptors controls energy taxis in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Reuter

    Full Text Available The coupling of environmental sensing to flagella-mediated directed motility allows bacteria to move to optimum environments for growth and survival, either by sensing external stimuli (chemotaxis or monitoring internal metabolic status (energy taxis. Sensing is mediated by transducer-like proteins (Tlp, either located in the membrane or in the cytoplasm, which commonly influence motility via the CheA-CheY chemotaxis pathway. In this study we have investigated the role of PAS-domain-containing intracellular Tlp-sensors in energy taxis of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, using plate- and tube-based assays utilising the conversion of the redox indicator dyes triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC and resazurin. Inactivation of the genes encoding the Campylobacter Energy Taxis system (CetA (Tlp9 and CetB (Aer2 in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 resulted in reduced taxis. Inactivation of the cj1191c gene, encoding the CetB homolog CetC (Aer1, did not affect taxis per se, but the cetC gene complemented a cetB mutant in trans, indicating that CetC can form a functional signal transduction complex with CetA in the absence of CetB. Inactivation of both CetB and CetC resulted in greatly reduced taxis confirming the role of CetC in energy taxis. Inactivation of the cj1110c gene, encoding Tlp8 (CetZ, a cytoplasmic sensor with two PAS-domains, resulted in increased taxis, a phenotype opposite to that of CetAB. Inactivation of the cheA gene resulted in the same overall phenotype as the cetAB mutant in both wild-type and cetZ backgrounds, suggesting that both systems use the CheA system for signal transduction. Absence of both CetAB and CetZ resulted in the cetAB taxis phenotype, suggesting that CetZ is subordinate to CetAB. In conclusion, we present evidence that C. jejuni balances the input from two counteracting PAS-domain-containing sensory systems to position itself for optimal usage of energy resources.

  13. Commuting and communication: An investigation of taxi drivers’ experiences, attitudes and beliefs about passengers with communication disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianne Green


    Full Text Available Background: One of the most popular means of public transport within South Africa is mini-bus taxis.Objectives: As South Africa is made up of diverse cultures, religions and beliefs, the aim of this study was to explore Johannesburg based taxi drivers’ experiences of beliefs about, and attitudes towards passengers who have a communication disability.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 mini-bus taxi drivers.Results: Interviews revealed that almost all the taxi drivers had encountered passengers with a communication disability, and had an awareness of passengers with a hearing disability as opposed to a speech disability. Furthermore mini-bus taxi drivers generally held a positive view of their passengers with a communication disability.Conclusion: Study findings contribute to existing literature within the fields of speech pathology and audiology, advocacy groups and policy makers, particularly research studies on participation experiences of persons with communication disabilities related to transportation access. The results of the study should also provide a foundation for disability policy development initiatives with the aim of increasing levels of public awareness.[Full article text to follow.

  14. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 1: Fate of elements and dioxins. (United States)

    Bergfeldt, Brita; Jay, Klaus; Seifert, Helmuth; Vehlow, Jürgen; Christensen, Thomas H; Baun, Dorthe L; Mogensen, Erhardt P B


    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator plants that are treated by means of the Ferrox process can be more safely disposed of due to reduction of soluble salts and stabilization of heavy metals in an iron oxide matrix. Further stabilization can be obtained by thermal treatment inside a combustion chamber of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The influence of the Ferrox products on the combustion process, the quality of the residues, and the partitioning of heavy metals between the various solids and the gas have been investigated in the Karlsruhe TAM-ARA pilot plant for waste incineration. During the experiments only few parameters were influenced. An increase in the SO2 concentration in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed compared with reference tests. Higher contents of Fe and volatile heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Pb and partly Hg in the Ferrox products lead to increased concentration of these elements in the solid residues of the co-feeding tests. Neither the burnout nor the PCDD/F formation was altered by the addition of the Ferrox products. Co-feeding of treated APC residues seems to be a feasible approach for obtaining a single solid residue from waste incineration.

  15. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (United States)


    ... office; (iv) The type of service the carrier will offer (scheduled passenger, 7 scheduled cargo, mail under a U.S. Postal Service contract, on-demand passenger, on-demand cargo, or other service such as...

  16. Comparative Life Cycle Environmental Assessment Between Electric Taxi and Gasoline Taxi in Beijing%北京电动出租车与燃油出租车生命周期环境影响比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施晓清; 孙赵鑫; 李笑诺; 李金香; 杨建新


    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle ( ICEV ) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle ( Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi ( ICEV) , this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment ( LCA) model with GaBi4. 4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001( Problem oriented) and EI99 ( Damage oriented) , which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity

  17. The protein interaction network of a taxis signal transduction system in a Halophilic Archaeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlesner Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The taxis signaling system of the extreme halophilic archaeon Halobacterium (Hbt. salinarum differs in several aspects from its model bacterial counterparts Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We studied the protein interactions in the Hbt. salinarum taxis signaling system to gain an understanding of its structure, to gain knowledge about its known components and to search for new members. Results The interaction analysis revealed that the core signaling proteins are involved in different protein complexes and our data provide evidence for dynamic interchanges between them. Fifteen of the eighteen taxis receptors (halobacterial transducers, Htrs can be assigned to four different groups depending on their interactions with the core signaling proteins. Only one of these groups, which contains six of the eight Htrs with known signals, shows the composition expected for signaling complexes (receptor, kinase CheA, adaptor CheW, response regulator CheY. From the two Hbt. salinarum CheW proteins, only CheW1 is engaged in signaling complexes with Htrs and CheA, whereas CheW2 interacts with Htrs but not with CheA. CheY connects the core signaling structure to a subnetwork consisting of the two CheF proteins (which build a link to the flagellar apparatus, CheD (the hub of the subnetwork, two CheC complexes and the receptor methylesterase CheB. Conclusions Based on our findings, we propose two hypotheses. First, Hbt. salinarum might have the capability to dynamically adjust the impact of certain Htrs or Htr clusters depending on its current needs or environmental conditions. Secondly, we propose a hypothetical feedback loop from the response regulator to Htr methylation made from the CheC proteins, CheD and CheB, which might contribute to adaptation analogous to the CheC/CheD system of B. subtilis.

  18. An Object-oriented approach to Robotic planning using Taxi domain


    Singh, Aasheesh


    This paper aims to implement Object-Oriented Markov Decision Process (OO-MDPs) for goal planning and navigation of robot in an indoor environment. We use the OO-MDP representation of the environment which is a natural way of modeling the environment based on objects and their interactions. The paper aims to extend the well known Taxi domain example which has been tested on grid world environment to robotics domain with larger state-spaces. For the purpose of this project we have created simul...

  19. Ridesharing or Ridestealing? Changes in Taxi Ridership and Revenue in Los Angeles 2009-2014


    Waheed, Saba; Herrera, Lucero; Ritoper, Stefanie; Mehta, Jonaki; Romero,Hugo; Narro, Victor


    In 2015, Los Angeles increased the minimum wage to one of the highest in the country, leading the way to boost stagnating pay for workers and to ensure that workers are able to earn enough to support themselves and their families. Los Angeles needs to take the same care to ensure quality employment within the taxi industry, particularly in light of the rapid growth of transportation networking companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft into Los Angeles. TNCs are on-demand ride services w...

  20. Montelukast improves air trapping, not airway remodeling, in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma: a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jin-ming; CAI Feng; PENG Min; MA Yi; WANG Bin


    Background Evidence has demonstrated that the distal lung,which includes airways of <2 mm in diameter and lung parenchyma,constitutes an important component of asthma pathology.Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent proinflammatory mediators and bronchoconstrictors involved in the asthmatic process.Guidelines recommend the leukotriene-modifying agents for asthma treatment.We hypothesized that a leukotriene receptor antagonist with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) combination would improve small airways function in moderate-tosevere asthmatics evaluated by physiological tests and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) analysis.This study was performed at a tertiary university hospital in Beijing.Methods This was a randomized,double-blind,parallel study performed in 38 patients with moderate-to-severe asthma treated with salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) plus montelukast (SFC+M) or SFC plus placebo over 24 weeks.Small airway function was assessed by physiological studies and HRCT image analysis.Results Montelukast significantly improved air trapping as expressed by the residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC).Over 24 weeks of treatment,RV/TLC was improved by (15.41±6.67)% in patients receiving SFC+M while RV/TLC was decreased by (8.57±10.26)% in patients receiving SFC alone,the difference between the two groups was significant (P=0.02).There was a trend towards a significant difference in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) in the SFC+M group compared to that in the SFC group ((17.87±8.17)% vs.(12.28±9.20)%,P=0.056).There was no significant change in percentage wall area (WA%) after 24 weeks of add-on treatment with montelukast.Patients receiving SFC+M showed significant improvement in the ratio of CT-determined values at full expiration to those at full inspiration (E/I ratio) (0.894±0.005 vs.0.871±0.003,P=0.002).Conclusion We have shown,using lung function tests

  1. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system. (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao


    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  2. Musculoskeletal Pain in High-G Aircraft Training Programs: A Survey of Student and Instructor Pilots (United States)


    would significantly benefit our pilots. Instructor pilots benefitted from osteopathic manipulation at Laughlin Air Force Base, but student pilots were...7 4.5 Exercise ... Exercise , Osteopathic Manipulation Therapy, and Physical Therapy .............................. 6 iii DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved

  3. Germicidal ultraviolet irradiation in air conditioning systems: effect on office worker health and wellbeing: a pilot study (United States)

    Menzies, D.; Pasztor, J.; Rand, T.; Bourbeau, J.


    OBJECTIVES: The indoor environment of modern office buildings represents a new ecosystem that has been created totally by humans. Bacteria and fungi may contaminate this indoor environment, including the ventilation systems themselves, which in turn may result in adverse health effects. The objectives of this study were to test whether installation and operation of germicidal ultraviolet (GUV) lights in central ventilation systems would be feasible, without adverse effects, undetected by building occupants, and effective in eliminating microbial contamination. METHODS: GUV lights were installed in the ventilation systems serving three floors of an office building, and were turned on and off during a total of four alternating 3 week blocks. Workers reported their environmental satisfaction, symptoms, as well as sickness absence, without knowledge of whether GUV lights were on or off. The indoor environment was measured in detail including airborne and surface bacteria and fungi. RESULTS: Airborne bacteria and fungi were not significantly different whether GUV lights were on or off, but were virtually eliminated from the surfaces of the ventilation system after 3 weeks of operation of GUV light. Of the other environmental variables measured, only total airborne particulates were significantly different under the two experimental conditions--higher with GUV lights on than off. Of 113 eligible workers, 104 (87%) participated; their environmental satisfaction ratings were not different whether GUV lights were on or off. Headache, difficulty concentrating, and eye irritation occurred less often with GUV lights on whereas skin rash or irritation was more common. Overall, the average number of work related symptoms reported was 1.1 with GUV lights off compared with 0.9 with GUV lights on. CONCLUSION: Installation and operation of GUV lights in central heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of office buildings is feasible, cannot be detected by workers, and does

  4. Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: A pilot study at the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzun, R. [Departamento de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Higueras, P.; Esbri, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Geologica y Minera, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica de Almaden, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almaden (Spain); Pizarro, J. [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain). Hg (gas) emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. Plants that underwent insecticide treatment with HgCl{sub 2} at the MAF Herbarium until the mid 1970s have persistent high concentrations of Hg in the range 1093-11,967 {mu}g g{sup -1}, whereas untreated specimens are in the range of 1.2-4.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The first group induces high concentrations of Hg (gas) in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of 404-727 ng m{sup -3} (late winter) and 748-7797 ng m{sup -3} (early summer) (baseline for Hg: 8 ng m{sup -3}). A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg (gas) above 40,000 ng m{sup -3}. The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg (gas) are estimated at a maximum of 1000 ng m{sup -3}. While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl{sub 2} treated plants (the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned'), they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg (gas) concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria.

  5. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 2: Leaching characteristics of bottom ashes. (United States)

    Baun, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bergfeldt, Brita; Vehlow, Jürgen; Mogensen, Erhardt P B


    With the perspective of generating only one solid residue from waste incineration, co-feeding of municipal solid waste and air pollution control residues stabilized by the Ferrox process was investigated in the TAMARA pilot plant incinerator as described in Bergfeldt et al. (Waste Management Research, 22, 49-57, 2004). This paper reports on leaching from the combined bottom ashes. Batch leaching test, pH-static leaching tests, availability tests and column leaching tests were used to characterize the leaching properties. The leaching properties are key information in the context of reuse in construction or in landfilling of the combined residue. In general, the combined bottom ashes had leaching characteristics similar to the reference bottom ash, which contained no APC residue. However, As and Pb showed slightly elevated leaching from the combined bottom ashes, while Cr showed less leaching. The investigated combined bottom ashes had contents of metals comparable to what is expected at steady state after continuous co-feeding of APC residues. Only Cd and Pb were partly volatilized (30-40%) during the incineration process and thus the combined bottom ashes had lower contents of Cd and Pb than expected at steady state. Furthermore, a major loss of Hg was, not surprisingly, seen and co-feeding of Ferrox-products together with municipal solid waste will require dedicated removal of Hg in the flue gas to prevent a build up of Hg in the system. In spite of this, a combined single solid residue from waste incineration seems to be a significant environmental improvement to current technology.

  6. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants. (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato


    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death.

  7. Using an innovative price model to leverage the business model – The case of price model innovation in the largest Swedish taxi company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Petri


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to describe how the biggest Swedish taxi company (Taxi Kurir developed an innovative price model to leverage the business model. Design/methodology/approach : The empirical data in the article describe Taxi Kurir’s development of a new price model. Data about the Swedish taxi market and about Taxi Kurir has been compiled though interviews and document studies. Detailed information about the background, development and implementation of Taxi Kurir’s new price model has been captured through interviews with representatives from Taxi Kurir. Findings : Based on both the empirical example, and other investigations, we have found that a company can create substantial changes in their price model, by just changing some of its basic characteristics. A well designed price model can contribute to leveraging the intentions of the business model. Practical implications : Most academic and practical texts about business models consider pricing to be an important component. However, they typically do not refer to the specifics of the price- or revenue models. According to the literature review in this paper, and the empirical findings, the configuration of a company’s price model should be aligned with its business model. This will contribute to leveraging the business model. Originality/value: The Swedish taxi market is one of the most deregulated in the world. Differently from most other countries, any individual or company can start and operate a taxi business. This case offers a unique description on how the biggest company in the market responded to the competition by introducing a fundamentally new price model, by making a small change in one of the dimensions in their existing price model.

  8. Research on the Inverter Air-plasma Cutting Machine of LF Contact Pilot Arc%逆变式空气等离子切割机低频引弧技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 刘延明


    研制了一种全数字化控制的新型逆变式空气等离子切割机.该等离子机采用非高频的引弧技术,有效地解决了传统技术中存在的高电磁干扰、引弧电路复杂、引弧成功率低等问题.设计以高性能数字信号处理器DSP2812作为主控制芯片,通过理论分析、计算与仿真、控制算法的改进等措施,解决了低频引弧技术中的问题.实验结果表明,该机具有可靠性高、电磁干扰小、一次引弧成功率高等特点.%The digital control system for air-plasma cutting inverter power supply has developed.This cutting machine based on low frequency contact pilot arc and has successfully solved the plenty of short-comings in conventional contact pilot arc technique, such as high electronic magnetic interference (EMI), complex circuit and lower successful ratio of pilot arc and so on.The high performance DSP2812 is utilized as the mainly control chip.By theory analyse, calculate and simulation, the difficulty in low frequency contact pilot arc has been solved.The experimental results verify that the power supply system has higher stability, lower EMI and higher successful ratio of pilot arc.

  9. Visual exploration of big spatio-temporal urban data: a study of New York City taxi trips. (United States)

    Ferreira, Nivan; Poco, Jorge; Vo, Huy T; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Cláudio T


    As increasing volumes of urban data are captured and become available, new opportunities arise for data-driven analysis that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through evidence-based decision making and policies. In this paper, we focus on a particularly important urban data set: taxi trips. Taxis are valuable sensors and information associated with taxi trips can provide unprecedented insight into many different aspects of city life, from economic activity and human behavior to mobility patterns. But analyzing these data presents many challenges. The data are complex, containing geographical and temporal components in addition to multiple variables associated with each trip. Consequently, it is hard to specify exploratory queries and to perform comparative analyses (e.g., compare different regions over time). This problem is compounded due to the size of the data-there are on average 500,000 taxi trips each day in NYC. We propose a new model that allows users to visually query taxi trips. Besides standard analytics queries, the model supports origin-destination queries that enable the study of mobility across the city. We show that this model is able to express a wide range of spatio-temporal queries, and it is also flexible in that not only can queries be composed but also different aggregations and visual representations can be applied, allowing users to explore and compare results. We have built a scalable system that implements this model which supports interactive response times; makes use of an adaptive level-of-detail rendering strategy to generate clutter-free visualization for large results; and shows hidden details to the users in a summary through the use of overlay heat maps. We present a series of case studies motivated by traffic engineers and economists that show how our model and system enable domain experts to perform tasks that were previously unattainable for them.

  10. Pilot plants for polymers: Safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, C.F.; Zvanut, C.W.


    Air Products and Chemicals is a major manufacturer of polyvinyl alcohol, vinyl acetate-ethylene emulsions and suspension PVC. Polyvinyl alcohol is a water soluble polymer and its primary end-uses are as a textile sizing agent and in adhesives. The emulsion products are used primarily in adhesives, paper, paints, and non-wovens. In order to support these business areas and to expand into new product lines, Air Products operates several polymer pilot plants. The safe operation of these pilot plants mandates careful attention to both design and operating procedures. Often, more care is needed in operating a polymer pilot plant than in other pilot plants or manufacturing facilities.

  11. Back to the Future: Integrated Air and Missile Defense in the Pacific (United States)


    Add to those the Aegis system, ground-based air defense, and short-ranged air defense to destroy an adversary’s inbound air threats. By combining...Technology Demonstra- tion. Designed to protect critical, vulnerable assets through the most cost -effective application of hardening/ resiliency methods...ability to /( flush-launch" (rapid engine start, taxi, and takeoff) alert aircraft upon receipt of warnings of tactical inbound missiles and

  12. RCC Arch Dam Structure on the Taxi River and Water Storage Measure During Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光廷; 李鹏辉; 胡昱; 张富德; 谢树南


    The new structure of roller compacted concrete (RCC) arch dams is presented for extremely cold and earthquake prone areas. The influence of construction plans and improved materials on the stresses in the Taxi River dam is also given. Earlier impoundment of water is shown to not only benefit the engineering design but also improve the stresses during construction in winter. Low cement content in the concrete and artificial short joints improved the monolithic structure and the transmitted forces. The concrete plug installed in the first cooled part of the arch dam provides excellent force transmission in the arch, which increases the monolith of the earlier arch, reduces the increasing thermal stresses that occur later, and improves the deformation flexibility of the dam.

  13. Use of Borehole-Radar Methods to Monitor a Steam-Enhanced Remediation Pilot Study at a Quarry at the Former Loring Air Force Base, Maine (United States)

    Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.


    Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the

  14. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.;


    implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  15. Reduction of particle emissions from light duty vehicles and from taxies; Reduktion af partikelelemissioner fra varebiler og taxier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Johan; Henriques, M.; Weibel, T.G. [TetraPlan A/S (Denmark)


    This project, 'Reduction of particle emissions from light duty vehicles and from taxies', analyses different strategies to reduce the particle emission, their effect for particle emissions, and the resulting cost for the society and for the companies. The project describes the EU regulation of emissions, the possibilities of reducing the emissions via special requirements in environmental zones and the Danish taxation of light duty vehicles. Further, the project includes interviews with owners of light duty vehicles and taxies and also with Danish producers of particle filters. The strategies analysed in the scenarios include: 1) Promotion of particle filters; 2) Shift from diesel to gasoline and; 3) Downsizing. The effects for particle emissions and for mortality are described. Further, the costs and benefits for the society and the cost for the companies are evaluated. The effects of the scenarios are analysed, both for initiatives implemented at a national level and for implementation in an environmental zone in the municipality of Copenhagen. The main results are that the socioeconomic benefits in the year 2012 are greater than the costs, if taxis and light duty vehicles have filters installed and if they are driving in the Copenhagen area. For light duty vehicles it is only profitable, if the prices of the filters fall to the price level that is expected in the future in the study. Further, the analysis shows that for light duty vehicles and taxies driving all over the country, the socioeconomic benefits achieved by installing particle filters are too small to cover the costs. The analysis shows that it is also profitable socio-economically to change from diesel to petrol for light duty vehicles and for taxies (except taxies driving nationally). The analysis is based on the producer prices including the general net tax level, while the specific taxes are not included. From the point of view of the companies it is not profitable to change to petrol

  16. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.;


    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a five-element model of pilot...... implementation, and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can...

  17. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    tensions and negotiations are fundamental characteristics of pilot implementations. Based on the analysis of a project that is pilot implementing an electronic pre-hospital patient record for emergency medical services in Danish health care, I investigate other perceptions of pilot implementations....... The analysis is conducted by means of a theoretical framework that centres on the concept infrastructure. With infrastructure I understand the relation between organised practice and the information systems supporting this practice. Thus, infrastructure is not a thing but a relational and situated concept...... understanding of pilot implementations as enacted interventions into existing infrastructures. Moreover, being embedded in the day-to-day organisation of work pilot implementations intervenes in the conventions of practice making the taken for granted visible. This allows project participants to attend...

  18. New Idea of Government Regulation of Taxi Industry in China%我国出租车行业政府管制的新思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    政府对出租车行业的管制涉及政府、出租车公司、打车软件公司、出租车司机和乘客等5个相关主体。政府可以根据资质、服务质量对出租车企业进行等级分类,出租车企业通过实行绩效工资、考察服务质量等方法严格对出租车司机的管理,打车软件与政府及出租车企业合作,实现政府、企业、司机与乘客之间的有效信息沟通。运用委托代理理论的分析和检验这一管理新思路,可以看出其具有较强的可操作性。%The government manages the taxi company industry that involves five aspects such as the government itself, taxi company, taxi soft company, the drivers and passengers. The government can make taxi classification in the light of their quality and service ranks . The taxi company can control the taxi drivers in the light of their performance and the work results. The taxi software company can cooperate the government and the taxi company to make the effective management of the enterprise .

  19. Searching for preventive measures of cardiovascular events in aged Japanese taxi drivers--the daily rhythm of cardiovascular risk factors during a night duty day. (United States)

    Hattori, M; Azami, Y


    Previous studies have shown that Japanese taxi drivers are exposed to more risk factors and have a higher mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease than other occupational groups. We investigated the effect of night taxi driving with a view to preventing acute events of cardiovascular disease among aged taxi drivers. Twenty-nine taxi drivers (41-67 years old) were examined for urine normetanephrine/creatinine, von Willebrand factor, anti-thrombin III, t-plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-complex, hematocrit, blood glucose and blood pressure in the morning and at midnight during a duty day and in the following morning. At the same time, the blood pressure and blood glucose of 46 taxi drivers (43-67 years old) in the morning after a night duty with little sleep and in the morning after daytime work and subsequent night sleep were compared. The results obtained indicate that the aggravation of sympathetic nervous system functions with disturbed circadian rhythms, increased blood coagulation and blood concentration, endothelial injury and the elevation of blood glucose at midnight or the next morning were induced by their night work. These conditions are supposed to favour acute vascular events in aged taxi drivers. Preventive measures considered include social support for anticoagulant food and water intake, short exercise and walking as well as taking a rest and a nap during night work.

  20. 创伤事件及家庭功能对空军飞行员心理健康的影响%Impact of Traumatic Incidents and Family Functions on Mental Health in Air-force Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白菁; 汪永光; 胡珊; 李娜; 马香琰; 邹惠娟


    Objective To investigate the impact of traumatic incidents and family functions on mental health of air-force pilots. Methods Totally 342 air-force pilots were enrolled using convenience sampling method. A multivariate analysis was conducted with the dependent variable of post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) ,and the score of 20-item self-report questionnaire(SRQ-20)and with the independent variables of the frequencies of objective reaction to traumatic events,frequencies of subjective reaction to traumatic events and family functioning assessment. Results The total number of subjective experience of traumatic events and emotional response factors, emotional intervention factors and general functional factors were positively associated with the PTSS positive screening. Frequencies of subjective reaction to traumatic incidents, emotional intervention factors and general functional factors were positively associated with the SRQ-20 positive screening. Conclusion For air-force pilots, the competency to properly deal with the traumatic events is crucial in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. For air-force pilots,timely intervention,strengthened family functions after the traumatic events and improved mental health for the families play an vital role in promoting the mental health of air-force pilot.%目的 探讨创伤事件及家庭功能对空军飞行员心理健康的影响.方法 采用便利抽样的方法选取342名空军飞行员进行问卷调查,以创伤后应激障碍症状(post-traumatic stress symptomatology,PTSS)及心理健康自评问卷(20-item self-report questionnaire,SRQ-20)得分为因变量,客观经历创伤事件总数、主观经历创伤事件总数和家庭功能评定为自变量,进行多因素分析.结果 PTSS筛查阳性的影响因素有主观经历创伤事件总数及家庭功能中的情感反应因子、情感介入因子、总的功能因子,SRQ-20筛查阳性的影响因素有主观经历创伤事件总数

  1. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences (United States)

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.


    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  2. Taxi Fleet Renewal in Cities with Improved Hybrid Powertrains: Life Cycle and Sensitivity Analysis in Lisbon Case Study


    António P. Castel-Branco; João P. Ribau; Silva, Carla M.


    Stringent emissions regulations in cities and the high amount of daily miles driven by taxi vehicles enforce the need to renew these fleets with more efficient and cleaner technologies. Hybrid vehicles are potential candidates due to their enhanced powertrain, and slower battery depletion and fewer lifetime issues, relative to full electric vehicles. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze the best theoretical hybrid powertrain candidate with maximum in-use efficiency, minimum life cycle...

  3. Intraocular lens in a fighter aircraft pilot.


    Loewenstein, A; Geyer, O; Biger, Y; Bracha, R; Shochat, I; Lazar, M.


    A pseudophakic pilot of the Israeli air force flying an F-15 (Eagle) aircraft was followed up for three years. He experienced about 100 flying hours, 5% of the time under high g stress. The intraocular lens did not dislocate and no complications were observed. It seems that flying high performance fighter aircraft is not contraindicated in pseudophakic pilots.

  4. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach. (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali


    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran.

  5. Targeted axonal import (TAxI) peptide delivers functional proteins into spinal cord motor neurons after peripheral administration. (United States)

    Sellers, Drew L; Bergen, Jamie M; Johnson, Russell N; Back, Heidi; Ravits, John M; Horner, Philip J; Pun, Suzie H


    A significant unmet need in treating neurodegenerative disease is effective methods for delivery of biologic drugs, such as peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids into the central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no operative technologies for the delivery of macromolecular drugs to the CNS via peripheral administration routes. Using an in vivo phage-display screen, we identify a peptide, targeted axonal import (TAxI), that enriched recombinant bacteriophage accumulation and delivered protein cargo into spinal cord motor neurons after intramuscular injection. In animals with transected peripheral nerve roots, TAxI delivery into motor neurons after peripheral administration was inhibited, suggesting a retrograde axonal transport mechanism for delivery into the CNS. Notably, TAxI-Cre recombinase fusion proteins induced selective recombination and tdTomato-reporter expression in motor neurons after intramuscular injections. Furthermore, TAxI peptide was shown to label motor neurons in the human tissue. The demonstration of a nonviral-mediated delivery of functional proteins into the spinal cord establishes the clinical potential of this technology for minimally invasive administration of CNS-targeted therapeutics.

  6. 空军飞行人员膳食结构与血脂异常相关营养调查%Food intake pattern and dyslipidemia in air force pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹏; 杨昌林; 罗丽华; 王若永; 穆慧玲; 李彤; 张可; 张清俊


    目的 了解空军飞行人员膳食营养与血脂异常现状,为指导空军飞行人员营养健康管理提供依据.方法 采用生活作业观察法估算劳动强度,称重法进行膳食调查,按照军标进行身体测量,双试剂酶法检测血脂.与1997年、1982年营养调查结果进行比较,计量资料用t检验做组间比较,计数资料用x2检验做组间比较.结果 飞行人员能量代谢失衡,能量摄人高于支出,饮食模式旱高蛋白、高脂肪、低碳水化合物,脂肪供能比平均高达47.3%,而碳水化合物平均仅为37.9%;超重与肥胖人数占总调查人数的20.8%,高三酰甘油血症达47.9%,高胆固醇血症达17.7%.结论 飞行人员膳食结构不合理,能量代谢失衡,与血脂异常的发生密切相关,应注意加强飞行人员的营养健康教育和引导.%Objective To investigate current dietary and dyslipidemia status of air force pilots.Methods Energy expenditure was calculated by using daily-activity-recording method.Dietary survey was performed through weighing method.Body measurements were carried out according to military criteria.Double agent enzymic method was used to detect blood lipid profiles.The results were compared in 1997 and 1982.t or x2 test was used for data analysis.Results Excessive energy consumption and highprotein and fat or low-carbohydrate intake was found in the participants.Energy from fat or carbohydrate accounted for 47.3% and 37.9%,respectively.Obesity and overweight was found in 20.8% air force pilots,and hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia occurred in 47.9% and 17.7%,respectively.Conclusion Dietary pattern and energy metabolism are inappropriate in air force pilots as a result of dyslipidemia.

  7. Assessing Patient bypass Behavior Using Taxi Trip Origin–Destination (OD Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gege Yang


    Full Text Available Many patients prefer to use the best hospitals even if there are one or more other hospitals closer to their homes; this behavior is called “hospital bypass behavior”. Because this behavior can be problematic in urban areas, it is important that it be reduced. In this paper, the taxi GPS data of Beijing and Suzhou were used to measure hospital bypass behavior. The “bypass behavior index” (BBI represents the bypass behavior for each hospital. The results indicated that the mean hospital bypass trip distance value ranges from 5.988 km to 9.754 km in Beijing and from 4.168 km to 10.283 km in Suzhou. In general, the bypass shares of both areas show a gradually increasing trend. The following hospitals exhibited significant patient bypass behavior: the 301 Hospital, Beijing Children’s Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and the Suzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The hospitals’ reputation, transport accessibility and spatial distribution were found to be the main factors affecting patient bypass behavior. Although the hospital bypass phenomena generally appeared to be more pronounced in Beijing, the bypass trip distances between hospitals were found to be more significant in Suzhou.

  8. The Detection of Transport Land-Use Data Using Crowdsourcing Taxi Trajectory (United States)

    Ai, T.; Yang, W.


    This study tries to explore the question of transport land-use change detection by large volume of vehicle trajectory data, presenting a method based on Deluanay triangulation. The whole method includes three steps. The first one is to pre-process the vehicle trajectory data including the point anomaly removing and the conversion of trajectory point to track line. Secondly, construct Deluanay triangulation within the vehicle trajectory line to detect neighborhood relation. Considering the case that some of the trajectory segments are too long, we use a interpolation measure to add more points for the improved triangulation. Thirdly, extract the transport road by cutting short triangle edge and organizing the polygon topology. We have conducted the experiment of transport land-use change discovery using the data of taxi track in Beijing City. We extract not only the transport land-use area but also the semantic information such as the transformation speed, the traffic jam distribution, the main vehicle movement direction and others. Compared with the existed transport network data, such as OpenStreet Map, our method is proved to be quick and accurate.

  9. Reactivation of latent herpes viruses in cosmonauts during a soyuz taxi mission (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.


    The hypothesis tested by this project is that space flight increases the incidence and duration of herpes virus reactivation and shedding in saliva. Saliva, urine, and blood samples were collected from 3 crew members who participated in a 14-day Odessa Soyuz taxi mission. Saliva samples were collected before, during, and after the mission, and blood and urine were collected before and after the mission. The saliva and urine samples were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of 3 important herpes viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were tested in saliva, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was measured in urine samples. Plasma antibodies levels to these viruses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after flight. EBV reactivated before, during, and after flight; CMV reactivated before and after flight; and VZV reactivated during and after flight. In other studies, greater frequencies of positive samples and greater numbers of copies of viral DNA have been found. No increases in titer of antibodies to these viruses were found, suggesting that an immune response may not be necessary for reactivation.

  10. Autonomous taxis could greatly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of US light-duty vehicles (United States)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Saxena, Samveg


    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are conveyances to move passengers or freight without human intervention. AVs are potentially disruptive both technologically and socially, with claimed benefits including increased safety, road utilization, driver productivity and energy savings. Here we estimate 2014 and 2030 greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and costs of autonomous taxis (ATs), a class of fully autonomous shared AVs likely to gain rapid early market share, through three synergistic effects: (1) future decreases in electricity GHG emissions intensity, (2) smaller vehicle sizes resulting from trip-specific AT deployment, and (3) higher annual vehicle-miles travelled (VMT), increasing high-efficiency (especially battery-electric) vehicle cost-effectiveness. Combined, these factors could result in decreased US per-mile GHG emissions in 2030 per AT deployed of 87-94% below current conventionally driven vehicles (CDVs), and 63-82% below projected 2030 hybrid vehicles, without including other energy-saving benefits of AVs. With these substantial GHG savings, ATs could enable GHG reductions even if total VMT, average speed and vehicle size increased substantially. Oil consumption would also be reduced by nearly 100%.

  11. Analysis and Application of Intelligent Transportation Systems to Taxi System in Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nzegge Chantale Ebude; Wang Mingyan


    Most traffic control systems available in major cities in Cameroon are still out dated,make use of theories and models which are very slow to implement,waste resources and their efficiency is very low.Thus the number of road accidents encountered on our major highways and inter urban traffic networks has been increasing despite the various efforts made by government and certain NGO to synthesize road users on certain aspects of traffic control and safety road use.Taxis are not left out in the whole show and most of the blame always falls on them.The need to use available Information and Communication Technology ICT to improve on the control of traffic in inter urban cities and major highways is imperative.ITS optimizes the use of resources,reduce pollution,contribute to environmental protection and increases the national economy.This paper starts by giving a brief situation of the transportation system in Cameroon,its drawbacks and proposes an optimized ITS based system.

  12. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia


    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  13. Mobile selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) devices and their use for pollution exposure monitoring in breath and ambient air-pilot study. (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Salmond, Jennifer; Dirks, Kim N; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael


    Studies of health effects of air pollution exposure are limited by inability to accurately determine dose and exposure of air pollution in field trials. We explored the feasibility of using a mobile selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) device, housed in a van, to determine ambient air and breath levels of benzene, xylene and toluene following exercise in areas of high motor vehicle traffic. The breath toluene, xylene and benzene concentration of healthy subjects were measured before and after exercising close to a busy road. The concentration of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in ambient air were also analysed in real time. Exercise close to traffic pollution is associated with a two-fold increase in breath VOCs (benzene, xylene and toluene) with levels returning to baseline within 20 min. This effect is not seen when exercising away from traffic pollution sources. Situating the testing device 50 m from the road reduced any confounding due to VOCs in the inspired air prior to the breath testing manoeuvre itself. Real-time field testing for air pollution exposure is possible using a mobile SIFT-MS device. This device is suitable for exploring exposure and dose relationships in a number of large scale field test scenarios.

  14. Analysis and improved design of the taxi internal facilities%出租车内部设施分析与改善设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江明明; 王霞; 童一飞


    It introduces the current design of the taxi internal facilities.In order to improve the design of taxi in-ternal facilities, it presents the special requirements of such special groups as baby and the disabled.Then it de-termines the dimension in ergonomics, establishes the model of the improved taxi internal facilities based on SolidWorks.%分析了目前出租车内部设施的设计,针对婴儿和残疾人这两类特殊人群的特殊需求,运用人机工程学,确定车身和婴儿座椅的设计尺寸,对出租车的内部设施做出改善和重新设计。利用SolidWorks建立模型,得到出租车内部设施改善后的模型。

  15. Factors associated with HIV testing among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam. (United States)

    Huy, Nguyen Van; Khuyen, Le Thi; Ha, Pham Nguyen


    Using the Attitude-Skills-Knowledge (ASK) model, this study examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs). In a cross-sectional design, using quantitative approaches, 291 MMTDs were recruited from 135 sites across 13 districts in Hanoi, Vietnam, for a face-to-face interview. Applying the ASK model modified as a central theory, logistic regression was used to identify determinants of HIV testing. Although many MMTDs engaged in multiple risk behaviours for HIV, only 20.6% had been tested for HIV during the past 12 months. The tested model included one factor of the ASK model, HIV prevention knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.12-10.7) and five additional factors: being married (AOR = 3.13; 95% CI = 1.25-4.78), preferring sex with men or with both men and women (AOR = 8.72; 95% CI = 1.48-51.5), having lower number of lifetime sex partners (AOR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.49-0.88), higher number of past year sex partners (AOR = 2.97: 95% CI = 1.21-7.31) and discussing condom use when having sex with partners (AOR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-7.31). This modified ASK model provided better fit than the ASK model, as it explained more variance in HIV testing (47 vs. 29.8%). Recognising factors associated with HIV testing among MMTDs enables us to create suitable public health intervention strategies.

  16. 基于网格划分的城市出租车合乘研究%Study on Taxi Carpooling Based on City Gridding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A brand-new and bus-like city taxi operation mode which is based on city gridding is presented after analyzing the drawbacks of the current situation of city taxies. With reference from city bus stops, the method of setting taxi stations is suggested. The factors that may affect the implementation of city carpooling is analyzed. By developing the objective function and relevant constraint conditions, the mathematical model for maximizing the benefits of taxi drivers and clients, and minimizing the taxi route is established. It will serve as theoretical references for cities to adopt new taxi operation modes.%  根据现行出租车运营方式的不足,提出了基于城市网格划分的出租车公交化运营模式。参照城市公交站点的设置方法,提出了网格化出租车站点的设置方法。分析了影响出租车合乘的因素,通过出租车合乘运营目标函数及约束条件的建立,提出了该模式下出租车司机、乘客利益最大化以及行车路线最短的数学模型,为城市新型出租车运营模式的推行提供理论上的参考。

  17. Analysis on characters of serf-consistency and congruence of air force pilots and its influential factors%飞行员自我和谐的特征及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卉栋; 娄振山


    目的 分析空军飞行员自我和谐的特征及其影响因素,为开展飞行员心理咨询和治疗提供依据.方法 采用自我和谐量表、生活事件量表、领悟社会支持量表、社交回避和苦恼量表、特质应对方式问卷、艾森克个性问卷和症状自评量表对428名飞行员进行评定.结果 飞行员自我与经验不和谐及自我的刻板性均较陆军野战部队与一般部队低(-13.10≤t≤-2.45,P<0.05);而自我灵活性较陆军部队高(5.11≤t≤11.98,P<0.01);飞行员自我与经验不和谐与症状自评量表各因子存在较高的相关性(0.330≤r≤0.446,P<0.01);与艾森克人格问卷中的神经质维度存在较高的相关性(r=0.498,P<0.01)且不同气质飞行员的自我与经验不和谐存在差异(F=1.540,P=0.025);而飞行员自我灵活性因子与领悟社会支持量表的各因子具有相对较大的相关系数(0.212≤r≤0.377,P<0.01);飞行员自我与经验不和谐因子与家庭负性生活事件相关最为突出(r=0.445,P<0.01);自我的刻板性因子与消极应对因子存在较高的相关性(r=0.595,0.434,P<0.01);其与社交苦恼因子的相关性较高且具有统计学显著意义(r=0.456,P<0.01);多因素分析显示:影响飞行员自我与经验不和谐的因素中消极应对的作用最大(β=0.264),影响飞行员自我的灵活性的因素中朋友支持的作用最大(β=0.336),影响飞行员自我的刻板性的因素中消极应对的作用最大(β=0.295).结论 影响飞行员自我和谐的因素众多,而关注消极应对与朋友支持则是维持和谐的最重要因素.%AIM Analyze on characters of self-consistency and congruence of air force pilots and its in-fluential factors,so as to provide a background for counseling and psychotherapy.Methords Altogether 428 air force pilots were evaluated in our sanatorium using Self Consistency and Congruence Scale,Life Events Scale,Per-ceived Social Support Scale,Social Avoidance and Distress Scale

  18. 出租车计费系统设计%The design of taxi billing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洋洋; 王丽娟; 贾瑞匣


    A " taxi billing system" is developed based on SCM for a resistance furnace system.This system includes six functional modules that are keying circuit control module,clock circuit controlmodule,reset circuit control module and calculation of mileage control module,design of valuation unit module and display circuit control module.Assembly language is carried on the software design module,the instruction carries out the speed quick,save memory.The text inside describes the system hardware work principle in brief first,and attach with the system hardware design frame diagram,combine development history that introduced the single a machine microprocessor,discuss this graduate design a function for applied each hardware connecting a people the technique connects with each one a mold piece and work processes.This design can achieve the basic valuation function,at the same time,according to the weather condition to adjust the unit price.With the clock function provides the convenienc .%本文以出租车计费系统作为研究对象,开发了基于单片机的控制系统。本控制系统按功能分主要包括以下几个部分:按键控制电路模块、时钟电路控制模块、复位电路控制模块、里程及计价控制模块、显示电路控制模块组成。本系统的编程语言是以单片机的基本语言汇编语言来进行的,指令的执行速度快,节省存储空间。简单描述系统硬件工作原理,介绍了单片机微处理器的发展史,附以系统硬件设计框图,论述了所应用的各硬件接口技术和各个接口模块的功能及工作过程。本次设计能够实现基本计价功能,同时能够根据天气状况来调节单价。附有时钟功能提供方便。

  19. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi


    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.


      The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

  1. Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) in healthy Chinese Air Force pilots and student pilots%健康飞行员与飞行学员气导声诱发的在眼外肌上记录的前庭诱发肌源性电位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢溯江; 贾宏博; 毕红哲; 国佳; 郑颖鹃; 姚钦; 陈珊; 姜媛媛


    Objective To characterize air conduction sound induced oVEMPs in Chinese fighter pilots for normative data in this population. Methods Sixty two healthy student pilots (30 males and 32 age-matched females) and 31 healthy active-duty fighter pilots were recruited as study participants. oVEMPs were induced bilaterally using air-conduction short tone burst (STB) stimulation. The latencies of nl and pi, nl-pl interval, peak-to-peak nl-pl amplitude and asymmetry ratio were measured. Effects of gender and age on oVEMPs were examined. Results The latencies of nl and pi, nl-pl interval, peak-to-peak nl-pl amplitude and asymmetry ratio of STB-oVEMP in these healthy pilots and student pilots were 10.35 ± 0.66 ms, 15.18 ± 1.07 ms, 4.75 ± 0.99 ms, 6.75 ± 4.13 u,V, and 13.22 ± 9.13 %, respectively. No significant difference existed between male student and active-duty fighter pilots in terms of the characteristic parameters of oVEMPs. The nl-pl amplitude was significantly different between age-matched male and female student pilots (6.96 ± 3.85 jjlV vs. 5.47 ± 3.10 \\xX). Conclusion Gender difference exists in oVEMP amplitude. Thus oVEMPs asymmetry ratio may be more important than absolute amplitude, and gender-appropriate normative oVEMPs data should be established.%目的 记录中国空军战斗机飞行(学)员气导声诱发的oVEMP(ocular yestibular-evoked myogenic potential,眼外肌上诱发的前庭肌源性电位)的特征性参数,以便建立战斗机飞行(学)员的正常值数据.方法 62名健康飞行学员(30名男性和32名年龄匹配的女性)和31名现役健康战斗机飞行员作为受试者,采用气导短纯音(short tone burst,STB)双侧给声双侧进行记录.记录93名健康飞行(学)员STB-oVEMP的nI和pI潜伏期、nI-pI间期、nI-pI的波间幅度以及双侧幅度不对称比,以获得正常值数据.对年龄与性别对oVEMP的影响也进行了观察.结果 93名健康飞行(学)员oVEMP的nI和pI潜伏期、nI-pI间期、nI-pI

  2. 出租汽车计价器加密传感器设计%Encrypted Sensor Design of Taxi Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes the encryption principle and several invasion methods of taxi meter encrypted sensor.%文章对出租汽车计价器加密传感器的加密原理、几种入侵方式进行分析。

  3. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...

  4. Fusarium graminearum produces different xylanases causing host cell death that is prevented by the xylanase inhibitors XIP-I and TAXI-III in wheat. (United States)

    Tundo, Silvio; Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Lafond, Mickaël; Giardina, Thierry; Favaron, Francesco; Sella, Luca; D'Ovidio, Renato


    To shed light on the role of Xylanase Inhibitors (XIs) during Fusarium graminearum infection, we first demonstrated that three out of four F. graminearum xylanases, in addition to their xylan degrading activity, have also the capacity to cause host cell death both in cell suspensions and wheat spike tissue. Subsequently, we demonstrated that TAXI-III and XIP-I prevented both the enzyme and host cell death activities of F. graminearum xylanases. In particular, we showed that the enzymatic inhibition by TAXI-III and XIP-I was competitive and only FGSG_11487 escaped inhibition. The finding that TAXI-III and XIP-I prevented cell death activity of heat inactivated xylanases and that XIP-I precluded the cell death activity of FGSG_11487 - even if XIP-I does not inhibit its enzyme activity - suggests that the catalytic and the cell death activities are separated features of these xylanases. Finally, the efficacy of TAXI-III or XIP-I to prevent host cell death caused by xylanases was confirmed in transgenic plants expressing separately these inhibitors, suggesting that the XIs could limit F. graminearum infection via direct inhibition of xylanase activity and/or by preventing host cell death.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    When locating round target,traditional Hough transform algorithm is liable to interference and has poor effect,results in big location deviations. In light of this problem, we propose an optimised Daugman algorithm-based location method to realise the location of the taxi signs. This algorithm introduces an optimised Daugman operator and uses the experienced threshold value to improve the accuracy of taxi sign estimation and location. Experiments show that this algorithm can judge and locate the taxi sign accurately and have good robusmess. The experiment also shows that the optimised Daugman algorithm can locate the taxi sign effectively.%针对传统的Hough变换算法定位圆状目标时易受到干扰,效果不佳,导致定位出现较大偏差的问题,提出了一种基于优化的Daugman算法的定位方法来实现对于出租车标志定位.该算法引进一种优化的Daugnum算子并使用阈值经验以提高出租车标志判断与定位的精确度.实验表明,使用该算法判断与定位出租车标志准确且抗干扰性强,从而能有效地定位出租车标志.

  6. Survey of severe spatial disorientation episodes in Japan Air Self-Defense Force fighter pilots showing increased severity in night flight. (United States)

    Takada, Yuko; Hisada, Tetsuya; Kuwada, Naruo; Sakai, Masao; Akamatsu, Tomomitsu


    Spatial disorientation (SD) is one of the most severe causative factors in aviation accidents. We analyzed the reported SD episodes to evaluate the characteristics of severe SD in fighter pilots. Three hundred seventeen cases (95.5%) of 332 total valid cases experienced SD, and the ratio of night and day SD experiences (52.7% vs. 47.3%) (p < 0.05) shows a clear prevalence of night SD events. The severity of SD episodes at night (2.23 +/- 1.09) was higher than at day (1.89 +/- 1.04) (p < 0.01). In addition, the severity of visual illusions was significantly higher at night. A significant difference was found for meteorological conditions, such as visual meteorological conditions (VMC), instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and VMC-IMC (VI) transition, among times of days. In conclusion, the severity of the SD episodes was higher at night. This may be due to an increase in visual severe SD episodes at night.

  7. [Back ache in helicopter pilots]. (United States)

    Colak, S; Jovelić, S; Manojlović, J


    Due to low back pain (LBP) and harmful effects of flying, questionnaires were sent to 71 helicopter pilots of the experimental group, 22 mechanics helicopter flyers and to the control group of 28 air-traffic controllers. The prevalence of LBP was the highest in helicopter pilots, then in helicomechanics and air-traffic controllers (53%, 50% and 36%). Effects of exposure to vibration, body posture and working load have not contributed significantly to the occurrence of LBP. LBP has not lead to an important difference in the strength of the back musculature, body mass index and spondylosis, that is, scoliosis. The necessity of further study of LBP and maintaining of specific preventive measures are indicated.

  8. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.


    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in

  9. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.


    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in

  10. A simulator investigation of the use of digital data link for pilot/ATC communications in a single pilot operation (United States)

    Hinton, David A.; Lohr, Gary W.


    Studies have shown that radio communications between pilots and air traffic control contribute to high pilot workload and are subject to various errors. These errors result from congestion on the voice radio channel, and missed and misunderstood messages. The use of digital data link has been proposed as a means of reducing this workload and error rate. A critical factor, however, in determining the potential benefit of data link will be the interface between future data link systems and the operator of those systems, both in the air and on the ground. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the pilot interface with various levels of data link capability, in simulated general aviation, single-pilot instrument flight rule operations. Results show that the data link reduced demands on pilots' short-term memory, reduced the number of communication transmissions, and permitted the pilots to more easily allocate time to critical cockpit tasks while receiving air traffic control messages. The pilots who participated unanimously indicated a preference for data link communications over voice-only communications. There were, however, situations in which the pilot preferred the use of voice communications, and the ability for pilots to delay processing the data link messages, during high workload events, caused delays in the acknowledgement of messages to air traffic control.

  11. 关于出租车司机英语的课程设计--为北京2008奥运会%A Course Design of Taxi Drivers' English--for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper illustrates how an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course is designed to meet the needs of a certain group of people engaging in a specific job. In accordance with the development of the taxi industry in Beijing, the paper focuses on how the ESP course enables the taxi drivers to acquire the English language for specific functions in their working environment. Besides, considering the approaching Olympic Games, the paper also explores how this course helps the taxi drivers develop the communicative competence for the Olympic Games.

  12. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979. (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  13. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.


    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  14. Association between unemployment, income, education level, population size and air pollution in Czech cities: evidence for environmental inequality? A pilot national scale analysis. (United States)

    Branis, Martin; Linhartova, Martina


    We analyzed differentials in exposure to SO(2), PM(10) and NO(2) among Czech urban populations categorized according to education level, unemployment rate, population size and average annual salary. Altogether 39 cities were included in the analysis. The principal component analysis revealed two factors explaining 72.8% of the data variability. The first factor explaining 44.7% of the data variability included SO(2), PM(10), low education level and high unemployment, documenting that inhabitants with unfavorable socioeconomic status mainly reside in smaller cities with higher concentration levels of combustion-related air pollutants. The second factor explaining 28.1% of the data variability included NO(2), high salary, high education level and large population, suggesting that large cities with residents with higher socioeconomic status are exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution. We conclude that, after more than a decade of free-market economy, the Czech Republic, a former Soviet satellite with a centrally planned economy, displays signs of a certain kind of environmental inequality, since environmental hazards are unevenly distributed among the Czech urban populations.

  15. US Air Force Balloon Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  16. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, M. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low

  17. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo


    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low

  18. Levy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Grasso, Frank W [BioMimetic and Cognitive Robotics Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, The City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn 11210, NY (United States); Bartumeus, Frederic [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Princeton Environmental Institute, 106 Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton 08544, NJ (United States)], E-mail:


    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Levy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Levy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Levy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accommodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for food

  19. Lévy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments (United States)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Bartumeus, Frederic; Grasso, Frank W.


    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Lévy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Lévy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Lévy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accomodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for

  20. 上海市出租车司机饮食行为现状调查%Analysis on dietary behaviors among taxi drivers in Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋峻; 赖建强; 邹淑蓉; 段一凡; 黄翠花; 朱珍妮; 施爱珍; 姜培珍; 汪正园


    Objective To understand the dietary behaviors and practices characteristic among taxi drivers in Shanghai, and provide evidence for health policy making. Methods By using the method of random intercept, 1018 taxi drivers were randomly sampled from taxi parking in Shanghai Hongqiao Airport and a questionnaire survey was conducted. Results 98.4% of taxi drivers ate outside and 44. 6% of them had meals outside 3 times per day. 96. 6% of taxi drivers who took breakfast had inadequate breakfast nutrition. The proportion of adequate nutritional breakfast was only 0. 9%. The proportions of taxi drivers without breakfast, lunch or dinner were 3. 0% , 2. 0% and 2.4% , respectively. Dietary structure of lunch and dinner among taxi drivers were " grain + meat + vegetables" when they worked outside. The reasons for choosing eatery were sanitary and amount, few of them considered about nutrition. Only 4% of them thought over nutrition, and the proportion of urban drivers who considered about nutrition was higher than that of rural drivers. Conclusion Eating disorders, unreasonable distribution of meals and dietary structures still exist in taxi drivers. The health education on nutrition should be enhanced among taxi drivers to reduce the incidences of obesity and overweight and prevent chronic diseases like hypertension.%目的 了解出租车司机饮食行为和膳食结构的特点,为相关部门制定健康教育策略提供依据.方法 以随机拦截的方法,对上海虹桥机场蓄车池中的1018名出租车司机进行问卷调查.结果 出租车司机每日在外就餐以及1日3餐均在外就餐的比例分别为98.4%和44.6%;吃早餐的司机中96.6%的司机的早餐营养不充足,仅0.9%的司机早餐营养充足;司机中不吃早餐、午餐和晚餐的比例分别为3.0%、2.0%和2.4%;司机工作在外时,午餐和晚餐主要是“主食+荤菜+素菜”的膳食构成模式,较少选择水果;司机选择午餐和晚餐的就

  1. Cognitive skill correlates of the automated pilot selection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdewilligen, G.J.A.M.L.; de Voogt, A.


    Job sample approaches are amongst the best predictors for performance of ab initio pilots in flight school. The Royal Netherlands Air Force uses a simulator based assessment procedure to select pilot students, which is a relatively expensive method compared to general skill and ability tests. Theref

  2. Flight-Deck Interface for High-Precision Taxi Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Faced with ever-increasing projections of air traffic, airport expansion plans, changes in operational requirements and introduction of advanced technologies are all...

  3. 基于模糊聚类和识别的出租车合乘算法研究%Algorithm Research of Taxi Carpooling Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Fuzzy Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 何瑞春; 张薇; 马昌喜


    In some big cities,the effect and efficiency are both poor to the taxi carpooling. The taxi route clustering and carpooling identification of passenger and taxi are studied by fuzzy clustering and fuzzy recognition theory. Through randomly generated many groups of taxi and passengers data, it is pointed that taxi carpooling in particular conditions, taxi numbers will decided the passenger’s carpooling success rate, but it is found that unlimited increase taxi sample number will increase carpooling success rate to passengers in case of a fixed number of passengers, the taxi income will be stabilized, it will not increase with rising of taxi number. The results indicate that the algorithm is suitable for us take the carpooling problem of large numbers taxi and could be effective measurement for taxi carpooling.%针对目前部分大城市出租车合乘效果差,合乘效率低等现状,本文采用模糊聚类和模糊识别方法,研究出租车行驶路线模糊聚类,并利用行驶路线、行驶时间和合乘人数创建隶属函数,实现合乘乘客与出租车的合乘模糊识别。通过随机生成的多组出租车出行和合乘乘客样本数据,发现在假定的出租车合乘条件下,出租车样本数量决定了合乘的成功率,但同时也发现,在合乘人数固定的情况下,无限制的增加出租车样本数量会增加合乘乘客的搭载成功率,平均每辆合乘出租车的收入并不会随着样本数量的增大而增大,而是趋于稳定值。仿真结果说明,该算法适合于大样本的出租车合乘问题,是一种可以提高出租车合乘成功率的有效方法。

  4. 面向冲突避免的航空器场面滑行引导方法%Conflict Avoidance Oriented Airport Surface Aircraft Taxiing Guidance Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤新民; 安宏锋; 王翀


    为避免大型高密度机场航空器之间可能发生的冲突,提出了一种基于混杂系统结构的滑行引导方案.建立了航空器滑行连续动力学模型和航空器在滑行道直线段、交叉口运行的离散事件动态系统模型,通过场面运行观测器建立了连续状态到离散状态的映射.采用禁止状态线性不等式约束和禁止状态逻辑互斥约束,描述场面运行模型应遵循的控制规范,并给出满足控制规范的离散控制器设计方法.最后建立了运行模型中可控变迁的使能状态到场面冲突控制策略的映射.通过助航灯光沙盘控制系统的验证表明,该滑行引导方法能及时对可能冲突的航空器采取恰当的控制策略,并实时生成航空器滑行操纵指令,能有效避免航空器滑行冲突.%To avoid confliction troubles between aircrafts at high density airports, an aircraft taxiing guidance framework based on hybrid system is proposed. Firstly, an aircraft taxiing dynamic model in continuous space and discrete event dynamic system models for the taxiing operation on straightaway and intersection are built, and a surface operation observer that maps the continuous dynamic state into discrete observation is proposed. Secondly, the forbidden state avoidance-based regulations described by linear inequality constraints and logical mutex constraints are introduced to express surface traffic control rules, and the discrete controller design method are proposed. Finally, the mapping from the enabling state of controllable transition in the straightaway and intersection operation models to control strategies is built. The validation by control system of an airfield lighting sand table shows that the taxiing guidance method can issue feasible control strategies in time and generate taxi manoeuvring instructions for aircrafts to avoid potential taxiing conflicts effectively.

  5. The preliminary analysis of corneal endothelial cell of Chinese Air Force pilot%空军飞行员角膜内皮细胞的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兵; 茹海霞; 马海燕; 赵蓉; 邵德望


    目的 探讨我国空军飞行员角膜内皮细胞密度和形态特征,初步了解细胞密度和形态学的生理学参数.方法 应用角膜内皮细胞显微镜及仪器自带的角膜内皮细胞分析系统,对男性56例(112眼)现役飞行员角膜内皮细胞进行了观察,同时选取30例(60眼)与其年龄和裸眼视力具有可比性的健康男性作为对照组,两组进行分析和比较.结果 数据显示空军飞行员平均角膜内皮细胞密度为2797.0±330.3个/mm2,显著低于对照组的2917.57±318.04个/mm2(t=2.286,P=0.024).平均六角形细胞构成比,飞行员组(56.46±7.19)显著低于对照组(60.33±7.68),差异有显著性意义(t=3.253,P=0.001).飞行员组和对照组随着年龄的增加,六角形细胞构成比均逐渐减少(r=-0.395、-0.268,P=0.000、0.038).通过偏相关系数分析,在年龄因素控制条件下,飞行员飞行时间的延长伴随着细胞平均面积的增大(r=0.244,P=0.01).结论 对飞行员角膜内皮细胞形态学参数的测定和初步数据分析将有助于进一步了解高速飞行情况下眼角膜内皮的变化.%Objegtive To preliminarily study the endothelial density baseline and the morphological characteristics of the corneal endothelial cell of Chinese Air Force pilot. Metheds Density and morphology of corneal endothelial cells were observed by Topcon-2000 noncontact specular microscope and analyzed by Imagenet 2000 software(version 2.53)on 56 pilots(112 eyes)While other 30 healthy men(60 eyes)who were with the comparable age and uncorrected visual acuity were compared and analyzed as the control group. Results The data showed that the average corneal endothelial cell density was 2797.0±330.3/mm2 in pilot group which was significantly lowet than 2917.57±318.04/mm2 in control group(t=2.286,P=0.024).The mean constituent ratio of hexagonal cell was 56.46±7.19 in pilot group compared with 60.33±7.68 in control group(t=8.253,P=O.001)and it was gradually reduced with the age

  6. 出租车合乘收益趋势影响模型研究%Research on the Benefit Tendency Model of Taxi-sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 何瑞春; 俞建宁; 张薇


    In order to analyze the influence of taxi-sharing conditions on carpooling benefit,GPS trajectory data processing method is constructed and the taxi-sharing model is built by introducing variable data such as taking on & off distance and time.On the basis of the grey forecasting mod-el,the taxi-sharing benefit tendency is explored under the different influence conditions of sharing distance and spacing interval.The conclusion shows that taxi-sharing benefit is closely related to the distance of taking on point.The model is applied to Nanjing taxi GPS trajectory data.When the time interval of taking on point of the taxi-sharing is 20 minutes,the distance of the taxi-sha-ring increases to 1200 meters,the matching degree will increase quickly and the benefit will in-crease by 20.31%,and it indicates that the further the distance interval is,the more the income is.Otherwise,when the distance of taking on point of the taxi-sharing is 100 meters,the time in-terval of sharing increases to 35 minutes,the matching degree will increase slowly and the benefit will increase by 5.38%,and it indicates that the longer the time interval is,the less the income is.%为了分析出租车合乘条件对合乘收益趋势的影响,构建了 GPS 轨迹数据的处理方法,引入合乘下车点的距离、合乘上车点的距离和时间等参数,建立出租车合乘模型,并利用灰色预测模型,讨论了在合乘点距离和间隔时间不同的影响条件下,出租车的合乘收益趋势.研究结果表明:合乘的收益与合乘上车点间的距离密切相关.模型应用于南京市出租车 GPS 轨迹数据时,当合乘上车点的时间间隔固定为20 min,合乘上车点间的距离增大到1200 m 时,合乘的匹配数增加快,合乘的收益可以增加20.31%,且距离间隔越大,收益增长越快;当合乘上车间的距离固定在100 m 时,合乘上车点的时间间隔增加到35 min,合乘的匹配数增加

  7. Poisson process-based algorithm for searching vacant taxi%基于泊松过程的寻找空驶出租车的算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着城市化进程的推进,城市车辆数量呈现激增的趋势.城市交通为居民的出行提供便利的同时,也带来了比如打车难问题.为了解决这个问题,首先采用对大规模的出租车GPS轨迹数据进行预处理,并生成道路特征索引;然后利用非齐次泊松过程NPP进行预测和推荐工作.用此方法与其它相关先进方法进行对比,实验结果表明,此方法在准确率和运行效率方面更具优势.%With the development of urbanization, the number of cars was proliferating fast. Urban transportation provides convenience for city resident, meanwhile, it also brings many challenges, such as causing a difficulty for taking a taxi. To solve the problem, main work was composed of two parts: first, a method was proposed to estimate the probability and waiting time for a vacant taxi at a given time and place, second, an recommendations was provided for passengers of where to wait for a taxi. In order to complete the main work, the Large-scale Taxi GPS Traces was preprocessed and the road characteristic index was generated. Then NPP ( Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process) was used to predict and recommend. Compared with other related advanced methods, the results show that the method has more advantages in accuracy and efficiency.

  8. 出租汽车经营行政许可之合宪性分析%Constitutionality Analysis of Administrative License to Taxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从宪法视角看,出租汽车经营行政许可制度禁止个人利用其非营运车辆从事有偿运送服务,构成了对公民财产权和劳动权的法律限制。从法律保留原则角度看,这种禁止规范的法律基础并不牢固。从明确性原则看,出租车行政许可的规范欠缺必要的明确性,在实施过程中有较大任意性。从比例相当性原则角度考量,在移动互联网等信息技术快速发展的背景下,这一禁止的妥当性虽在理论上勉强成立,但其必要性和手段目的之衡平性大有疑问。网络约车平台现已具备审查车辆安全性能和司机背景资质以及通过信息技术、合同安排和责任保险最大程度保护乘客、司机和第三人安全的能力。对非营运车辆的网络预约服务有条件、有限度的放开,已具备开展试点进行探索的条件。%To view from the constitution angle, the system of administration license to taxi prohibits individuals from doing paid delivery service by their non-operating vehicles, which forming the legal restriction of citizens’ property right and labor right. However, to view from the legal reservation doctrine angle, such prohibition norm lacks sufficient legal basis. To view from the principle of definiteness, such license lacks necessary definition causing more arbitrariness in the implementation process. To view from the principle of proportion, under the background of fast development of internet technology, although the validity of such prohibition barely has grounds in theory, there is much doubt of the balance between its necessity and the due means. Since now the internet chauffeured car platform is already able to examine the safety performance of vehicles and the background and qualification of drivers as well as protecting the safety of passengers, drivers and third parties by information technology, contract arrangement and liability insurance to the most, there is enough

  9. Battery-quick-replacement Operation Mode for Electric Taxi Vehicle%纯电动出租汽车快速更换电池运营模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 梁桂航


    提出了纯电动出租汽车快速更换电池的运营模式:每一辆纯电动出租汽车配置2组电池,电池的所有权属于独立的电池租赁公司,每次更换电池的费用按实际用电量计算,电池租赁公司实行集中充电,分散更换.指出了快速更换电池运营模式的优点,并对该运营模式进行了经济分析.该运营模式的实施,可有效促进纯电动汽车的发展.%The battery-quick-replacement operation mode for electric taxi vehicles was proposed; Each electric taxi equipped with two groups of electric battery belongs to the independent battery leasing companies. The cost of replacing battery will be calculated according to actual consumption. The battery leasing companies will charge the replaced batteries in batches and distribute the charged batteries for new replacement. The advantage of the battery-quick-replacement operation mode was explained. The economic analysis of the battery-quick-replacement operation mode was performed. The implement of this operation mode is helpful for the development of electric taxi vehicle.

  10. Optimal Fare, Vacancy Rate, and Subsidies under Log-Linear Demand with the Consideration of Externalities for a Cruising Taxi Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsiao Chu


    Full Text Available Externality is an important issue for formulating the regulation policy of a taxi market. However, this issue is rarely taken into account in the current policy-making process, and it has not been adequately explored in prior research. This study extends the model proposed by Chang and Chu in 2009 with the aim of exploring the effect of externality on the optimization of the regulation policy of a cruising taxi market. A closed-form solution for optimizing the fare, vacancy rate, and subsidy of the market is derived. The results show that when the externality of taxi trips is taken into consideration, the optimal vacancy rate should be lower and the subsidy should be higher than they are under current conditions where externality is not considered. The results of the sensitivity analysis on the occupied and vacant distance indicate that the relation of the vacant distance to the marginal external cost is more sensitive than the occupied distance. The result of the sensitivity analysis on the subsidy shows the existence of a negative relationship between the marginal external cost and the optimal subsidy.

  11. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  12. Pilot Boarding Areas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  13. 基于车联网的智能打车系统%Intelligent Taxi Service System Based on Internet of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于明鹭; 刘南杰; 赵海涛; 彭江琴


    由于出租车的数量管制,以及出租车行业一直没有一个有效的调配系统,导致交通拥塞、时间浪费和耗油量增加。而车联网( Internet Of Vehicle,IOV)的迅速发展,给传统出租车行业带来了新的契机。在该背景下,针对国内出租车行业出现的问题,提出基于车联网中管-云-端架构的智能打车系统。该系统采用新型车载智能终端,功能强大的云平台和实用的客户端应用。从终端信息感知、数据处理到顶层的应用展示来进行模块化功能描述和分析。该系统能显著提高用户满意度、司机积极性和整体运营性能。最后,通过将该智能打车系统应用于现实场景证明了它的价值。结果表明,该系统的服务性能优于现存的多数打车系统。%Taxi number control and inefficient dispatching system lead to many serious problems,such as traffic congestion,time wasting and increase in oil consumption. The rapid development of Internet Of Vehicle ( IOV) brings a golden opportunity to traditional taxi serv-ice systems. In this paper,aiming at the existed problems,propose an intelligent taxi service system based on Carrier-Cloud-Client frame-work of IOV for the first time. Basically,the system employs an advanced intelligent vehicle terminal,a powerful cloud platform and prac-tical client applications. Specifically,a hierarchical model is presented as an architecture to modularize the system,spanning from terminal sensing and data processing to the topmost service presentation. The proposed system can significantly improve customer satisfaction,driv-er enthusiasm and business performance. Finally,the value of the intelligent taxi service system is demonstrated by applying it to some scenarios in the real word. The result shows that this system outperforms most existing taxi service systems with respect to the service quality.

  14. Investigating Public Facility Characteristics from a Spatial Interaction Perspective: A Case Study of Beijing Hospitals Using Taxi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Kong


    Full Text Available Services provided by public facilities are essential to people’s lives and are closely associated with human mobility. Traditionally, public facility access characteristics, such as accessibility, equity issues and service areas, are investigated mainly based on static data (census data, travel surveys and particular records, such as medical records. Currently, the advent of big data offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain large-scale human mobility data, which can be used to study the characteristics of public facilities from the spatial interaction perspective. Intuitively, spatial interaction characteristics and service areas of different types and sizes of public facilities are different, but how different remains an open question, so we, in turn, examine this question. Based on spatial interaction, we classify public facilities and explore the differences in facilities. In the research, based on spatial interaction extracted from taxi data, we introduce an unsupervised classification method to classify 78 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, and the results better reflect the type of hospital. The findings are of great significance for optimizing the spatial configuration of medical facilities or other types of public facilities, allocating public resources reasonably and relieving traffic pressure.

  15. NO and NO2 emission ratios measured from in-use commercial aircraft during taxi and takeoff. (United States)

    Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Zahniser, Mark S; Nelson, David D; Jayne, John; Brown, Robert C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Waitz, Ian; Silva, Phillip; Lanni, Thomas; Demerjian, Ken; Kolb, Charles E


    In August 2001, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured NO, NO2, and CO2 within 350 m of a taxiway and 550 m of a runway at John F. Kennedy Airport. The meteorological conditions were such that taxi and takeoff plumes from individual aircraft were clearly resolved against background levels. NO and NO2 concentrations were measured with 1 s time resolution using a dual tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy instrument, utilizing an astigmatic multipass Herriott cell. The CO2 measurements were also obtained at 1 s time resolution using a commercial non-dispersive infrared absorption instrument. Plumes were measured from over 30 individual planes, ranging from turbo props to jumbo jets. NOx emission indices were determined by examining the correlation between NOx (NO + NO2) and CO2 during the plume measurements. Several aircraft tail numbers were unambiguously identified, allowing those specific airframe/engine combinations to be determined. The resulting NOx emission indices from positively identified in-service operating airplanes are compared with the published International Civil Aviation Organization engine certification test database collected on new engines in certification test cells.

  16. Effects of electro-fishing on galvano-taxis and carcass quality characteristics in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo D’Agaro


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electro-fishing in sea water. We evaluated the feasibility of an electro-fishing system using numerical simulations for laboratory tanks and the open sea and performing a laboratory experiment. A non-homogeneous bi-dimensional electric-field model for marine water and fish based on discrete formulation of electro-magnetic field equations was developed using GAME (geometric approach for Maxwell equations software. Voltage gradients inside the fish and close to the body were determined. Re- sults showed that fish in the open sea and in groups had greater internal voltage differences than did fish in tanks and single fish. Sea bass (length:10 and 30 cm were exposed in laboratory tanks to pulsed direct current (PDC, 25-125 Hz and duty cycle (5-40%. We measured the electro-taxis and tetanus thresholds after electrical exposure. It is significant that these values decreased with increasing the size of fish. No differences were found after electro-fishing on overall appearance, internal and external haemorrhage, standard freshness scoring techniques and carcass quality characteristics

  17. Structure identification for compound I separated and purified from taxoids-produced endophytic fungi (Alternaria. alternata var. taxi 1011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yong; LIU Jun; LU An-guo; CUI Jing-xia


    Endophytic fungi are widely found in almost all kinds of plants. Many endophytic fungi can produce some physiological active compounds, which are same to or analog to those isolated from their hosts. Producing physiological active compounds through microbial fermentation can give a new way to resolve resource limitation and to find out alternative source. Through the methods of organic solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography, compound I was isolated, purified from the liquid fermentation metabolites of the taxoids-produced endophytic fungi (Alternaria. alternata var. taxi 1011 Y. Xiang et LU An-guo) that was screened from the bark of Taxus. cuspidata Zucc.. Compound I was identified as one kind of taxoids type III, based on the analyzing results by using the methods of ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). This study provides a completed method for separation and purification of the endophytic fungi as well as structure identification of its fermentation metabolite

  18. Jobs, food, taxis and journals: complexities of implementing Stepping Stones and Creating Futures in urban informal settlements in South Africa. (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Washington, Laura; Willan, Samantha


    This paper seeks to refocus debates on structural interventions away from 'assessing' their effectiveness towards understanding processes around how such interventions are implemented. Implementation Science is focused on understanding potential challenges of translating interventions from highly controlled conditions into 'real life' settings. Using the case study of Stepping Stones and Creating Futures a structural and behavioural intervention to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements, we explore the challenges of implementing such an approach. We move beyond simply describing challenges of implementing, to understand how these challenges had an impact on the safe social space the intervention seeks to create as its underlying theory of change. We identify four major challenges of implementation: taxi fares, food provided during the intervention, young people's ongoing need to work and journals provided during the intervention. We suggest that, in different ways, these factors all impinged on the emergence of a safe social space. Understanding the challenges of implementing the intervention is critical for reflecting on scaling up interventions. Central to this is the need to work with participants to help them negotiate the challenges of participating in interventions.

  19. Driving performance changes of middle-aged experienced taxi drivers due to distraction tasks during unexpected situations. (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Seung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Tack, Gye-Rae; Kim, Boseong; Min, Ung-Chan; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol


    This study investigated the effects of distraction taskssuch as sending a text message with a cellphone and searching navigation with car navigation system-on the driving performance of 29 highly experienced taxi drivers in their 50s. All participants were instructed to drive using a driving simulator for 2 min. while maintaining a constant distance from the vehicle in front and a constant speed. Participants drove without any distractions for the first minute. For an additional minute, they performed Driving Only or performed a task while driving (Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation). An unexpected situation, in which the participant had to stop abruptly due to a sudden stop of the preceding vehicle, occurred during this period. Driving performance during the unexpected situation was evaluated by car control variables, medial-lateral coefficient of variation and brake time, and by motion variables such as the jerk-cost function. Compared to Driving Only, jerk-cost function, medial-lateral coefficient of variation, and brake time increased during Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation.

  20. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages (United States)


    xv   1. Introduction ...FAIPs – 500 hours, FAIPs – 300 hours Same Live flying 10 SCM with 1.4 hours average sortie duration Same Simulator credit toward experienced level...RSAP rated staff allocation plan SCM sorties per crew per month SOCOM U.S. Special Operations Command STRATCOM U.S. Strategic Command SUPT

  1. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet SEN

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because of the dangers in the nature of flight, pilots have to fly in perfect medical conditions. Besides the undesirable effects of the diseases, side effects of the medications used in the treatment might also risk flight safety. In this study, we investigated the drug use attitude of Turkish Armed Forces pilots. Material-Method: In order to investigate their drug use attitude, a questionnaire was given to 408 pilots at GATA Aerospace Medical Center. Drug use attitude, drugs used by pilots and side effects were questioned. Results: 41 % of pilots reported that they used drugs during active flying. But the drug use rate of Army pilots was 57 %, which was higher than the Air Force and Navy pilots. The most common used drugs were analgesics. Conclusion: It is obvious that pilots might use drugs without informing their flight surgeon. Flight surgeons should always educate the pilots about the importance and dangers of self-medication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(9.000: 213-220

  3. Design of Taxi Sharing Billing System%出租车拼车计费系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭永杰; 廖建文; 吴熹


    出租车拼车计费系统硬件设计采用单片机PK10N512VLL10为主控芯片,TPC7062KW组态触摸屏为监控操作界面,显示部分为64*16点阵;在软件上将乘车状态划分为单乘状态和拼车状态,同时根据当地物价水平设定计费方案,计算出不同乘客的车费,车内车费的显示采用实时刷新的方法;该系统样机已经成型,经测试操作简单、稳定且成本较低。%Taxi bil ing system hardware carpooling design uses a single chip PK10N512VLL10 as the main control chip, TPC7062KW touch screen as the monitoring configuration interface,the display section for 64*16 lattice.ln software,the riding state by state and carpooling divided into a single state,according to the local price level set charging scheme,calculated the different passenger fares,display the car fare by using the method of real-time refresh.The system prototype has been formed,after the test has the advantages of simple operation,stable and low cost.

  4. Wastewater treatment pilot



    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  5. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.


    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  6. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 宋飞; 张琳娟; 张宏科


    结合成熟的车载自组网技术和泛在的智能手持终端设备,提出一种去中心的动态叫车系统. 乘客可以通过该系统随时发布叫车请求,并由车载自组网完成该请求的路由及车辆的匹配. 同时,系统还提供了拼车功能,私家车也可通过该功能搭载顺路乘客. 针对信息传输特点,重点研究一种基于效用值转发的路由算法,它根据车辆匹配成功概率计算效用值,并采用基于二分法的有限副本扩散策略,有效地避免信息盲目转发、减少网络负担. 实验仿真结果表明,该系统的叫车成功率优于传统系统,基于效用的有限副本路由在网络开销、时延等方面均优于传统的传染路由和效用路由.%Combining mature VANET technology and ubiquitous smart handset terminal devices, we propose a decentralised dynamic taxi-calling system.Passengers can issue calling requests via this system at anytime, and the route and the taxi matching of the requests are accomplished by VANET.Meanwhile, the carpooling function is provided as well by the system thus the private cars are able to take the passengers on their way through the function.Aiming at the features of information transmission, we mainly focus on studying a utility forwarding-based routing algorithm.It calculates the utility value based on the probability of successful matching of taxis, and employs dichotomisation-based limited-copy diffusion strategy to effectively avoid the blind forwarding and relieve the burden of network.Results of experimental simulation show that our system can perform better than the conventional taxi-calling systems in success rates.The utility-based limited-copy routing algorithm is superior to the conventional epidemic routing and utility routing in terms of network overhead and latency.

  8. 融合出租车驾驶经验的层次路径规划方法%Hierarchical Path Planning Method Based on Taxi Driver Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继华; 黄泽; 邓俊; 谢海莹


    The route choice behaviors of taxi drivers are usually representative because they are more familiar with urban road status. This makes it possible to use the taxi drivers' experience to support the path planning. To make the guidance result meet the drivers' expectations well, this study presents a hierarchical path planning method using the taxi driver experiences. The method consists of three steps; first, routes are recovered from the taxi trajectories; second, all roads are redefined and categorized according to the track data and the road network is classified into different experience grades using travel frequency for road segments; third, with the Dijkstra algorithm, a hierarchical path planning method is proposed. Finally, taking Guangzhou city as an example, this paper compares the paths generated by the proposed approach with the conventional algorithm's results. The experimental result shows that travel time of the paths planned by the proposed method has been effectively reduced.%出租车驾驶员对城市道路交通状况较为熟悉,他们选择的路径具有代表性,因此将出租车驾驶员路径选择经验融合到路径规划算法中,对提高出行效率具有重要的意义.本文提出一种融合出租车驾驶经验的层次路径规划方法,主要包括三部分:首先,从出租车GPS数据中提取出出租车载客行驶轨迹;然后,根据各路段出租车行驶频率高低对路网进行分层,构建基于出租车经验路径的分层路网;在此基础上,使用Dijkstra算法实现层次路径规划.最后,本文以广州市为研究区域,将该方法得到的规划路径与经典路径规划算法的结果进行比较.结果表明,融合出租车驾驶经验的路径规划方法所得路径在行程时间上占有一定的优势.

  9. Air-To-Air Combat Skills: Contribution of Platform Motion to Initial Training (United States)


    AFHRL/FT) using the Advanced Simulator for Air-to-Air Combat (SAAC); (b) an A/A study Pilot Training ( ASPT ) indicated that platform using Northrop...Advanced interested in the implication of these findings in Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams view of their planned simulator procurements...i.e., air-to-surface weapons delivery TAC’s request, but the ASPT A/S study was (A/S) and air-to-air combat (A/A), was questioned. completed (Gray

  10. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)


    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  11. The Training of Military Pilots: Men, Machines, and Methods (United States)


    addressed the most cost-effective means for meeting pilot training requirements, the Air Force produced a Trainer Masterplan . This plan concluded that...with the key underlying principle of cost effective training...that 49 AFMAN 36-2234, 1 November 1993, p. 9. 50 USAF Trainer Masterplan , March 1988...1975, Atch. 2, p. 1, K239.15-8, AFHRA. 52 AETC History Office, Pilot Production Statistics, 53 USAF Trainer Masterplan , p. 25 54


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡莉; 梁利刚; 李海


    出租车作为城市居民出行的重要辅助交通工具,目前存在空驶率高、营运效率低下、乘客打车难等一系列问题。解决这些问题的关键在于科学合理地调度出租车,有效分配出租车的运能资源。基于位置服务和 Google Maps 等技术,设计一种以乘客为中心的出租车集中式调度算法和一种新的最短路径算法,在此基础上开发相应的智能调度系统。该系统的使用能有效提高出租车行业的运营效率,改善城市环保,解决现有出租车电召业务中所存在的问题。%Taxi is an important paratransit vehicle for urban residents.At present,there are many problems existed in taxi industry,such as high no-passengers travelling rate,low operation efficiency,difficult in taxi calling and so on.The key to solve these problems depends on the scientific taxi dispatching and effective distribution of taxi transport capacity resources.Based on location service and Google Maps technology,we design a passenger-centred centralised taxi dispatching algorithm and the shortest path algorithm,and develop a corresponding smart dispatching system based on it.The application of this system can effectively improve the operation efficiency for taxi industry and improve the urban environmental protection,at the same time it solves some problems existing in phone call business of taxi services.

  13. Pyramiding PvPGIP2 and TAXI-III But Not PvPGIP2 and PMEI Enhances Resistance Against Fusarium graminearum. (United States)

    Tundo, Silvio; Kalunke, Raviraj; Janni, Michela; Volpi, Chiara; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato


    Plant protein inhibitors counteract the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) secreted by pathogens to breach the plant cell-wall barrier. Transgenic plants expressing a single protein inhibitor restrict pathogen infections. However, since pathogens secrete a number of CWDEs at the onset of infection, we combined more inhibitors in a single wheat genotype to reinforce further the cell-wall barrier. We combined polygalacturonase (PG) inhibiting protein (PGIP) and pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI), both controlling the activity of PG, one of the first CWDEs secreted during infection. We also pyramided PGIP and TAXI-III, a xylanase inhibitor that controls the activity of xylanases, key factors for the degradation of xylan, a main component of cereal cell wall. We demonstrated that the pyramiding of PGIP and PMEI did not contribute to any further improvement of disease resistance. However, the presence of both pectinase inhibitors ensured a broader spectrum of disease resistance. Conversely, the PGIP and TAXI-III combination contributed to further improvement of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, probably because these inhibitors target the activity of different types of CWDEs, i.e., PGs and xylanases. Worth mentioning, the reduction of FHB symptoms is accompanied by a reduction of deoxynivalenol accumulation with a foreseen great benefit to human and animal health.

  14. Força de preensão palmar e pinça digital em diferentes grupos de pilotos da Academia da Força Aérea brasileira Grip and pinch strength among different groups of Brazilian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Helena Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Pilotos da Academia de Força Aérea (AFA brasileira, durante vôos, realizam movimentos com grande solicitação da musculatura da mão que comanda o manche, o que pode modificar a força muscular. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar as forças musculares isométricas de preensão palmar e pinças polpa-a-polpa, trípode e lateral de três grupos de pilotos da AFA. Foram avaliados 15 pilotos da Esquadrilha da Fumaça (EDA, 16 instrutores de vôo (PI e 6 pilotos em treinamento (PT, todos do sexo masculino. Para a avaliação, o posicionamento corporal dos pilotos seguiu a padronização da Sociedade Americana de Terapeutas da Mão e a ordem dos movimentos analisados foi predefinida, evitando fadiga muscular. A força muscular isométrica máxima foi coletada em uma contração sustentada por 6 segundos. Os resultados mostram diferenças significativas na preensão, com superioridade das mãos dominantes em relação às não-dominantes em todos os grupos, tendo ainda o grupo EDA obtido valores significativamente superiores em relação aos demais. Nas medidas da pinça trípode, o grupo EDA apresentou significativos valores superiores aos do grupo PT, sendo encontrados valores das mãos dominantes superiores aos das não-dominantes nos grupos EDA e PI. Conclui-se que o treino específico da musculatura da mão durante o vôo, a especificidade e o período de treinamento interferem na força muscular isométrica da mão.Pilots from Brazilian Air Force Academy (AFA perform strentgth- and accuracy-demanding hand movements, which may modify muscle strength. The aim of this study was to analyse hand isometric strength of grip and pulp-to-pulp, tripode and lateral pinch in three groups of male AFA pilots: ADS (Air Demonstration Squadron, n=15; IP (instructor pilots, n=16; and TP (training pilots, n=6. Pilots body positioning during tests followed the standards of the American Society of Hand Therapists; the sequence of assessed movements was

  15. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations... (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  16. 北京地区出租汽车司机超重与肥胖调查分析%Investigation and Analysis on Overweight and Obesity of Taxi Drivers in Beijing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [Objective]To understand the present status of overweight and obesity among taxi drivers in Beijing area. [Methods] The physical examination was conducted in 5941 taxi drivers, and the characteristics of overweight and obesity were analyzed. [ Results] Among the 5941 taxi drivers, there were 1009 cases of overweight and obesity, which accounted for 67.48% , and the in-cidence was significantly higher than that of the general population. [ Conclusion] The incidence of overweight and obesity among taxi drivers is high. It is necessary to improve the health management, in order to prevent and control the chronic diseases.%目的 了解北京地区出租汽车司机超重与肥胖状况.方法对5941例出租汽车司机进行体格检查,分析超重、肥胖的特征.结果5941例出租汽车司机中超重、肥胖者4009例,占67.48%,明显高于一般人群.结论出租汽车司机超重、肥胖发生率高,应加大健康管理,预防控制慢性疾病发生.

  17. Human Factors on the Flight Deck Safe Piloting Behaviour in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Scheiderer, Joachim


    What is for a professional pilot required to fly as safe as possible? Written by pilots the book gives a detailed introduction into the basics of accident prevention in air traffic. Explicit background knowledge as well as detailed listings of safety relevant features in human behaviour are included.

  18. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian


    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002. Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health

  19. CERN pilot greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia


    This pilot installation was situated near Bld. BA6 opposite to the main entrance of the Meyrin site, with respect to Route de Meyrin. See Weekly Bulletin 3/83, and also photo 8305594X, 8505898X, 8302200.

  20. 纵坑切梢小蠹虫对松节油及其不同组分的趋性1)%Taxis of Tomicus piniperda to Turpentine and Its Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔淑芬; 孙忠林; 顾地周; 宫汝淳


    The experiment was conducted to study the effect of the taxis of Tomicus piniperda to turpentine and its different com-ponents.T.pinipre da has some taxis to the α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, and camphene turpentine in turpentine, but the taxis difference is not significant compared with the control.The taxis of T.piniperda to turpentine×α-pinene andα-pi-nene×β-pinene are significantly stronger than that of the other interaction and control, but T.piniperda has weak taxis to the interaction of the other two compounds and other single compound.Therefore, one can use volatile substances in tur-pentine to control T.piniperda.%以自制昆虫嗅觉仪研究了纵坑切梢小蠹虫( Tomicus piniperda)对松节油及其不同组分的趋性效果。结果表明:纵坑切梢小蠹虫对松节油中α-派烯、苎烯、月桂烯、莰烯有一定的趋性,但趋性与对照差异不显著;对松节油×α-派烯以及α-派烯×β-派烯的趋性最强并显著高于对照;对其他单一化合物和其他化合物的交互作用趋性较弱。可以通过松节油中挥发性物质对纵坑切梢小蠹虫的引诱作用实现对其虫害的人工防治。


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 40% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharger) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environment point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalized by their particulates and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterizations and developments. PSA Peugeot Citroen has recently (2000) launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles (500,000 vehicles with DPF have been sold today). In order to evaluate the durability of this technology over a long period of time, a study program has been set-up by ADEME (French Environmental Agency), IFP Powertrain, PSA Peugeot Citroen and Taxis G7 (a Parisian taxis Company). The objective is to study the evolution of five taxis and their after-treatment system performances over 80,000km mileage--which corresponds to the recommended mileage before the first DPF maintenance--in hard urban driving conditions, as well over 120,000km, after the DPF maintenance and remanufacturing. More specifically, the following evaluations are being performed at regular intervals (around 20,000km): regulated gaseous pollutant emissions on NEDC cycle, particulate emissions and unregulated pollutant emissions. The results obtained until now have not shown any degradation of the particulate filter efficiency (more than 90%). This paper presents the methodology set-up, and the explanation of the first results obtained. Indeed, a more

  2. Air Combat Maneuvering Expert System Trainer (United States)


    AL-TP-1 991-0058....... AD-A246 459 AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING EXPERT A SYSTEM TRAINER R M S Robert J. BechtelTI T Markt Technology, incorporated ’T R...would have to be established for each segment of pilot training. The success of the air intercept trainer (AT), which shares some features with ACMEST

  3. Fotogrametria na identificação de assimetrias posturais em cadetes e pilotos da academia da força aérea brasileira Photogrammetry on the identification of postural asymmetries in cadets and pilots of the Brazilian air force academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo V. Figueiredo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar se a atividade de treino de voo pode desencadear alterações posturais em cadetes e pilotos da Academia da Força Aérea Brasileira (AFA. MÉTODOS: Os sujeitos foram avaliados por meio de registro fotográfico em vista anterior e lateral direita, tendo como casuística 80 cadetes da AFA, divididos em quatro grupos, 20 em cada, e 15 pilotos do Esquadrão de Demonstração Aérea (EDA, formando o quinto grupo. As fotos foram transferidas para o Software de Avaliação Postural (SAPO, sendo traçados ângulos relacionados ao alinhamento vertical da cabeça (AVC, alinhamento horizontal da cabeça (AHC, alinhamento horizontal dos acrômios (AHA e alinhamento horizontal das espinhas ilíacas ântero-superiores (AHE. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que, após comparação das médias das assimetrias posturais entre os grupos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante em relação aos ângulos AVC, AHC e AHA. No entanto, na variável AHE, observou-se que o grupo de pilotos apresentou valores significativamente menores que os dos cadetes, sugerindo maior estabilidade postural em relação a essa variável. CONCLUSÃO: O AHE foi a única medida que apresentou diferença estatisticamente significate na comparação entre os pilotos e cadetes dos diferentes anos. Quanto aos demais alinhamentos, não houve diferença, podendo atribuir esse fato aos critérios exigentes de ingresso dos cadetes na AFA e a eficiência do treinamento físico realizado periodicamente.OBJECTIVE: To identify whether flight training activities cause postural changes in cadets and pilots of the Brazilian Air Force Academy (AFA. METHODS: Eighty subjects were assessed through photographic images in anterior and right side views. Four groups of cadets (n=20 per group divided according to the year since enlistment and a fifth group of fifteen pilots from the Air Demonstration Squadron (ADS were included. Pictures were analyzed using the Postural

  4. Audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to noise exposure (United States)

    Falcão, Taiana Pacheco; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to the noise exposure level. METHODS This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 3,130 male civilian pilots aged between 17 and 59 years. These pilots were subjected to audiometric examinations for obtaining or revalidating the functional capacity certificate in 2011. The degree of hearing loss was classified as normal, suspected noise-induced hearing loss, and no suspected hearing loss with other associated complications. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry was performed using supra-aural headphones and acoustic stimulus of the pure-tone type, containing tone thresholds of frequencies between 250 Hz and 6,000 Hz. The independent variables were professional categories, length of service, hours of flight, and right or left ear. The dependent variable was pilots with suspected noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure level was considered low/medium or high, and the latter involved periods > 5,000 flight hours and > 10 years of flight service. RESULTS A total of 29.3% pilots had suspected noise-induced hearing loss, which was bilateral in 12.8% and predominant in the left ear (23.7%). The number of pilots with suspected hearing loss increased as the noise exposure level increased. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss in civilian pilots may be associated with noise exposure during the period of service and hours of flight. PMID:25372170

  5. Kinetics and substrate selectivity of a Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI) resistant D11F/R122D variant of Bacillus subtilis XynA xylanase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Enggaard; Sørensen, Jens F.; Meyer, Anne S.


    ), water-unextractable arabinoxylan (WUAX), birchwood xylan, and wheat bran. Both the BsX and the BsX(mut) catalyzed the release of xylo-oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization from WUAX than from WEAX. At equimolar addition levels the activity of the BsX(mut) was lower than that of the Bs......X with respect to both the initial rate and the product yields obtained after prolonged reaction on the xylan substrates. The calculated substrate selectivity factors indicated that the BsX and the BsX(mut) both had higher catalytic rate on WUAX than on WEAX. Addition of a 100:1 (TAXI:xylanase) molar ratio...

  6. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.


    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  7. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom


    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  8. Canadair CL-227 Remotely Piloted Vehicle (United States)

    Clark, Andrew S.


    The Canadair CL-227 is a rotary winged Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) intended initially as the air-vehicle for a medium range battlefield surveillance and target acquisition system. The concept on which this vehicle is based brings together in-house expertise as a designer and manufacturer of surveillance drones (AN-USD-50l -MIDGE-) with experience in rigid rotor technology from the CL-84 tilt wing VTOL program. The vehicle is essentially modular in design with a power module containing the engine, fuel and related systems, a rotor module containing the two counter-rotating rotors and control actuators, and a control module containing the autopilot, data link and sensor system. The vehicle is a true RPV (as opposed to a drone) as it is flown in real time by an operator on the ground and requires relatively little skill to pilot.

  9. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw. (United States)

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W


    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw.

  10. Healthy Efficient New Gas Homes (HENGH) Pilot Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The Healthy Efficient New Gas Homes (HENGH) is a field study that will collect data on ventilation systems and indoor air quality (IAQ) in new California homes that were built to 2008 Title 24 standards. A pilot test was performed to help inform the most time and cost effective approaches to measuring IAQ in the 100 test homes that will be recruited for this study. Two occupied, single-family detached homes built to 2008 Title 24 participated in the pilot test. One of the test homes uses exhaust-only ventilation provided by a continuous exhaust fan in the laundry room. The other home uses supply air for ventilation. Measurements of IAQ were collected for two weeks. Time-resolved concentrations of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde were measured. Measurements of IAQ also included time-integrated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), volatile aldehydes, and NO2. Three perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) were used to estimate the dilution rate of an indoor emitted air contaminant in the two pilot test homes. Diagnostic tests were performed to measure envelope air leakage, duct leakage, and airflow of range hood, exhaust fans, and clothes dryer vent when accessible. Occupant activities, such as cooking, use of range hood and exhaust fans, were monitored using various data loggers. This document describes results of the pilot test.

  11. Gaining Through Training: Pilot Proficiency in Modern Combat Aviation (United States)


    GAINING THROUGH TRAINING : PILOT PROFICIENCY IN MODERN COMBAT AVIATION BY MAJOR TREVOR T. MERRELL A THESIS PRESENTED TO...the combat training of 567 aircrew in three RPA squadrons. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Arizona State...conceptual analysis of The Air Mail Fiasco, Arc Light, and Instructional Systems Development in ICBM training to identify contextual parallels to

  12. Lunar Landing Training vehicle piloted by Neil Armstrong during training (United States)


    A Lunar Landing Training Vehicle, piloted by Astronaut Neil Armstrong, goes through a checkout flight at Ellington Air Force Base on June 16, 1969. The total duration of the lunar simulation flight was five minutes and 59 seconds. Maximum altitude attained was about 300 feet.

  13. [Surgeons can learn from pilots: human factors in surgery]. (United States)

    Sockeel, P; Chatelain, E; Massoure, M-P; David, P; Chapellier, X; Buffat, S


    Human factors (HF) study is mandatory to get air transport pilot licences. In aviation, crew resource management (CRM) and declaration of adverse events (feedback) result in improving of air safety. Air missions and surgical procedures have similarities. Bridging the gap is tempting, despite severe warnings against simplistic adaptation. Putting HF theory into surgical practice: how to? Educational principles derived from CRM improve professional attitudes of a team. We propose to translate concepts of CRM to clinical teams. CRM training applying in surgery could allow the work environment to be restructured to reduce human error. Feedback: in aviation, the Bureau of Flight Safety deals with investigations for air events. Pilots, air traffic controllers can anonymously declare nuisance, resulting in a feedback for the whole air force. Adverse events are analysed. Usually, multilevel problems are found, rather than the only responsibility of the last operator. Understanding the mechanisms of human failure finally improves safety. In surgery, CRM and feedback would probably be helpful. Anyway, it requires time; people have to change their mind. Nevertheless people such as fighter pilots, who were very unwilling at the beginning, now consider HF as a cornerstone for security. But it is difficult to estimate the extent of HF-related morbidity and mortality. We propose as a first step to consider CRM and feedback in surgical procedure. HF deals with the mechanisms of human errors and the ways to improve safety and probably improve the surgical team's efficacy.

  14. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)


    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  15. APP对出租车市场竞争政策的挑战与重塑%Challenges and Reconstruction of Competition Policy in Taxi Market Resulting from APP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The majority of regulatory authorities in the world prohibit free access to taxi mar-ket and free bargaining for taxi fares between drivers and passengers .This kind of policy restric-ting competition results from the game between interests groups ,but also matches with signifi-cant information asymmetry in taxi market .APP remodels information transmission and trade competition mechanisms in taxi market ,overturns the legitimacy foundation of restricting compe-tition policy ,and makes taxi market policy pattern with global convergence fall apart .A triangle analytical framework ,so called group games-institutional environment-economic thoughts ,as the important means for studying the transition of competition policy ,can be used to reveal the gen-eral reasons for the transition of market regulation policy between competition openness and com-petition ban ,and indicates that taxi markets in different law domains will achieve competition lib-eralization asynchronously and converge constantly to regulation policy encouraging competition .%世界各地的监管当局,大多限制出租车服务市场的自由进入,限制司机与乘客自由议价。此类限制竞争政策是利益集团博弈的产物,但也与出租车市场显著的信息不对称特性相适应。APP重塑了出租车市场的信息传递机制与交易竞争机制,颠覆了限制竞争政策的正当性基础,使全球趋同的出租车市场政策格局趋于分崩离析。“集团博弈—制度环境—经济学思辨”的三维分析框架,作为竞争政策变迁研究的重要工具,能够揭示市场管制政策在“开放竞争”与“禁止竞争”两种取向之间变迁的一般动因,而且预示着各法域的出租车服务市场将不同步地实现竞争自由化,并逐渐向开放竞争的管制政策趋同。

  16. Design and Implementation of the Simulated Taxi Scheduling System Based on GPS%模拟基于GPS出租车调度系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The purpose of this thesis is the introduction of a higher degree of automation of the taxi scheduling system, taxi through the system can reasonably scheduling to reduce no-load operation, traffic congestion and waste of resources, user-friend-ly travel, improve the efficiency of taxi operators.This paper studies the GPS positioning information and network communica-tion based on TCP socket by simulating the reception of the GPS positioning information accurate location information points surrounding the scope of data, design a taxi real-time scheduling system. The system is divided into three parts, the client, the server and the appointment end. The system successfully simulated GPS positioning timely access to information, and complete sent about car demand scheduling processing of server-side and client response. The system can shorten the waiting time of about cars, taxi companies to improve the quality of service, increase taxi daily patronage reasonable automated vehicle scheduling to provide effective reference.%该文的研究目的是推出一个具有较高自动化程度的出租汽车调度系统,通过该系统可以对出租车进行合理调度,减少空载运营、交通堵塞和资源浪费,方便用户出行,提高出租车运营效率。该文主要研究GPS定位信息的获取和基于TCP的socket网络通信,通过模拟GPS定位信息的接收,对位置信息点周边范围的数据进行精确处理,设计出一套出租车实时调度系统。该系统主要分为三部分,分别是客户端、服务器端和预约端。该系统成功模拟了GPS定位信息的及时获取,并且完成发送约车人需求、服务器端调度处理和客户端响应。该系统可以缩短约车人等车时间,提高出租车公司的服务质量,增加出租车每日载客量,为车辆合理自动化调度提供有效参考。

  17. Air conducted and body conducted sound produced by own voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard


    When we speak, sound reaches our ears both through the air, from the mouth to ear, and through our body, as vibrations. The ratio between the air borne and body conducted sound has been studied in a pilot experiment where the air borne sound was eliminated by isolating the ear with a large...

  18. Service Catalog Pilot Project Summary (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the ServCat pilot project and offers recommendations for the full-scale implementation of the database. During the pilot project a total of...

  19. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics. (United States)

    van Blijderveen, Maarten; Bramer, Eddy A; Brem, Gerrit


    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

  20. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.


    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  1. Higher landing accuracy in expert pilots is associated with lower activity in the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen M Adamson

    Full Text Available The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66 were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land. Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8 or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12. High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62 ± 2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98 ± 1.04; p<.01. Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97 ± 0.80 compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91 ± 1.16 (p<.05. These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions

  2. Pilot selection and training (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.


    Personality and situational factors relevant to individual and group performance in highly demanding environments, such as those faced by astronauts or by jet transport crew, are discussed. It is emphasized that although technical competence and proficiency in pilot selection are prerequisites for safety, operating a modern jet transport is a group endeavor that requires the effective coordination of the entire crew. A self-report test battery for measuring positive and negative personality traits of pilot candidates, termed the Personal Characteristics Inventory, is described.

  3. PILOT optical alignment (United States)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.


    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  4. Air Power for Patton’s Army (United States)


    clarify further air-ground command and control procedures. If anything, it served to enhance the role of the ground comman- der and, in the eyes of...advance headquarters in Hillingdon House, Uxbridge, where a short time later IX Fighter Command’s advance headquarters joined them. At Hillingdon ...sion failed in this instance, the reconnaissance pilot performed as planned. Reconnaissance pilots not only served as the eyes of the ground forces

  5. Air Pollution (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  6. The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (United States)


    Views July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 101 The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Lt Col Lawrence Spinetta, PhD, USAF Those...number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Glass Ceiling for Remotely...promotion to flag rank. By design or effect, a bottleneck exists that guarantees a glass ceiling (i.e., a barrier to advancement) for RPA officers. This

  7. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somervgille, MA (United States)


    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  8. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow;

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using p...

  9. Evaluatie pilot elektronische volgsystemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, F.; Post, B.


    Naast het uitvoeren van een onderzoek naar de ervaringen met EVS (Elektronisch Volgsysteem) in het buitenland, worden er bij de sectoren GW (Gevangeniswezen), jeugd en tbs een aantal pilot-projecten opgestart waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van elektronische volgsystemen met GPS-techniek (GPS = Global

  10. Evaluatie pilot Endogene Factoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet AL; Fiolet D; Voortman JK; Rover C de; Hanning C; Uitenbroek D; Loon AJM van; PZO; GGD Achterhoek; GGD Midden Holland; GG&GD Amsterdam


    As a part of the project on the Local and National Monitor for Public Health several pilot studies were carried out in three Municipal Health Centres (GGDs). The first aim was to investigate the feasibility of a physical examination at the health centre in combination with a health interview (or pos

  11. Priming a Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus; Ie Pedersen, Maria

    Abstract. We report on the initial findings of an action research study about effects specifications. It is a part of larger IS pilot implementation project conducted in the Danish healthcare sector. Through interviews and a workshop we have identified and specified the main effects that comprise...

  12. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten


    implementation as a method for participatory design. We find that to foster participation and learning about user needs a pilot implementation must create a space for reflecting on use, in addition to the space for using the pilot system. The space for reflection must also exist during the activities preparing...... the use of the pilot system because the porters and nurses learned about their needs throughout the pilot implementation, not just during use. Finally, we discuss how the scope and duration of a pilot implementation influence the conditions for participation....

  13. Telemetry System Utilization for Stress Monitoring of Pilots During Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha


    Full Text Available Air transport development brings an increased focus on the safety of piloting. The safety conditions can be assessed by mental workload. Psychic discomfort or excessive stress on pilots can negatively influence the course of flights. Therefore it appears convenient to monitor such parameters, which represent the mental wellbeing, or discomfort of a pilot. Since physiological measurements can provide a good information about mental workload or stress, this work primarily focuses on the observation of the change in heart rate, as it is an indicator of stress during the training of pilots, using the designed modular telemetry system. Another aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of a change in the avionic data visualization. This can have an unfavorable effect on the piloting of an airplane. This work, based on the evaluation of heart rate shows, that the switch from analog visualization to glass cockpit creates increased levels of stress in pilots, which was proved for all examined subjects except one. Significant level of correlation in the heart beat rate change in subjects in the course of training was also discovered.

  14. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3) (United States)


    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  15. Virtual environment debriefing room for naval fighter pilots: phase I (United States)

    Long, Mark; Alexander, Joanna R.; Downes-Martin, Stephen; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Short, Elisabeth


    Current methods for debriefing Navy Fighter Pilots after real and simulated missions are insufficient for handling the speed and complexity of modern air combat. The state of the art in tactical air combat debriefing is essentially a two-dimensional plus time view of a problem whose dimensionality consists of three spatial dimensions plus time plus other non-spatial parameters. The David Sarnoff Research Center (Sarnoff) is developing an advanced debriefing system for Navy fighter jet training, combat development, and research. Called CyberView, the system consists of an advanced interactive data visualization system displaying multi-dimensional abstract and concrete combat data in three-dimensions plus time, an interactive data analysis system for rapid data manipulation and studies, and a faster than real-tie predictive simulation based on the branch wargaming paradigm of military planning for 'what if?' analysis. In our research and development of CyberView, we are attempting to give pilots and battle planners greater awareness of the complex situations which occur during air operations, and the ability to look into the future at the effects of decisions on battle outcomes. Our envisioned system when complete will be capable of intuitively displaying combat errors to pilots, permitting the pilots to re-fight the same battles with better awareness of their situation, giving battle planners the ability to perform tradeoff studies on tactical decisions in order to optimize battle outcomes, and providing an analytical testbed for automated forces paradigms, algorithms, and effectiveness.

  16. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training (United States)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.


    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  17. Pilot Preference, Compliance, and Performance With an Airborne Conflict Management Toolset (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik


    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted at the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers, investigating the En Route Free Maneuvering component of a future air traffic management concept termed Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM). NASA Langley test subject pilots used the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) airborne toolset to detect and resolve traffic conflicts, interacting with subject pilots and air traffic controllers at NASA Ames. Experimental results are presented, focusing on conflict resolution maneuver choices, AOP resolution guidance acceptability, and performance metrics. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the AOP interface and functionality.

  18. Regulations on Special Car Reservation Service and Taxi Market%专车服务与出租汽车市场的法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹欣; 张长青


    多地监管部门针对专车服务所进行的黑车式查处使得中国刚刚兴起的专车服务面临困境,是否应鼓励专车服务成为时下的热点话题。为解决专车服务在中国出租汽车市场所遭遇的身份尴尬问题,综合考虑出租汽车服务的准公共性、专车服务的现实需要以及合规性等因素展开探讨。指出尽管专车服务存在不符合法规的现象,但在中国却拥有广阔的市场发展前景。进而提出对待专车服务所采取的正确措施应该是:通过完善法律法规、适度放松数量管制、适度放松价格管制、加强质量与安全管制等措施,引导、规范不符合法规的专车服务行为,实现专车服务市场的规范化。%Investigations by local supervisory authorities in many cities on unlicensed vehicle providing taxi service have made the emerging special car reservation service face a terrible predicament. Whether to encourage special car reservation service is becoming a hot conversation topic. In order to address the awkward identity problem for special car reservation service in China, this paper discusses the quasi-public nature of taxi service, current need for special car reservation service and its legality. Although special car reservation service does not accord with the existing laws and regulations, it does have a broad market potential in China. Because of this, the paper proposes the practical solutions for special car reservation service: through standardizing the governing laws and regulations to reasonably lessen the control on quantity and price of special car reservation services and to enhance quality control and safety management. All these measurements would help to normalize the special car reservation market.

  19. On the Design and Implementation of the Terminal Intelligentized Taxi-carpool System%基于智能终端的出租车拼车系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门瑞; 郭涛; 曹建英


    设计构建一个基于智能终端的出租车拼车系统,该系统能够及时准确地获取乘客的当前位置、终点位置及随行人数;自动为发布出行信息的乘客检索系统中能够与其拼车的用户,并直接发送拼车请求到被检索方;乘客与乘客之间的联系解决了目前较为严重的出租车司机强制拼车问题。出租车司机可浏览系统中乘客和其他出租车的分布情况,实时掌握系统动态。从而为乘客及出租车司机等相关人群搭建一个信息交流平台,实现各方利益最大化,且能减少能源消耗,改善城市大气污染,具有积极的社会效益和经济效益。%This study aims at working the design and establishing a taxi carpool system that based on the intelli-gent terminal.This system not only gets accurate information about the passenger’s current position,target posi-tion and the number of the entourage ,but also retrieves other passengers who are likely taking a taxi with him au-tomatically and set messages to these persons directly.The driver of the taxi can look up the distribution of the passengers and other taxi driver and determine the traveling route .This system makes an information platform for passengers and taxi drivers,who can get profit maximization,reduce energy consumption and pollution.It can make positive social effect and economic effect .

  20. Hadoop支持下海量出租车轨迹数据预处理技术研究%Based on the Hadoop Massive Taxi Trajectory Data Preprocessing Technology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕江波; 张永忠


    海量出租车轨迹数据预处理是轨迹数据挖掘和应用的前提。出租车轨迹数据是典型的大数据,传统的数据处理技术无法解决大规模出租车轨迹数据误差分析和处理问题,文章在分析轨迹数据误差来源和误差类型的基础上,提出基于Hadoop的海量出租车轨迹数据预处理模型,使用Hive实现轨迹数据误差统计分析,设计MapReduce并行处理程序实现轨迹数据预处理。实验结果表明,该模型可以有效解决大规模出租车轨迹数据预处理问题,处理方式可靠性较高,大大提高了轨迹数据预处理效率,为后期轨迹数据深入挖掘和分析奠定了基础。%Massive taxi trajectory data preprocessing is the precondition of trajectory data mining and the application. Taxi trajectory data is a typical big data,the traditional data processing technology can not solve the problem of large scale taxi track data error analysis and preprocessing,on the basis of analyzing the trajectory data error source and error type, study of mass trajectory error statistical analysis method and data processing method,the taxi trajectory data preprocessing model based on Hadoop is put forward,using the hive for the realization of the trajectory error statistics,design MapReduce parallel processing procedures for the realization of trajectory data preprocessing. Experimental results show that,the model can effectively solve the problem of large scale taxi trajectory data preprocessing,high reliability,greatly improve the effi-ciency of the trajectory data preprocessing,late for trajectory data digging and analysis laid a foundation.

  1. Real-Time Adjustment Strategy of Aircraft Taxiing Routes for A-SMGCS%A-SMGCS航空器场面滑行路由实时调整策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇; 胡明华; 黄荣顺; 刘卫东; 吴宏刚; 朱新平; 徐自励


    为解决运行阶段场面滑行路由调整计算量大,难以满足A-SMGCS系统实时性需求的问题,建立了面向机场滑行资源的着色Petri网模型,提出把路由抽象成航空器对路段的访问优先级,通过降低优先级对延迟航空器进行惩罚实现路由调整。对调整优先级后可能导致的两类场面滑行冲突:对头冲突和循环等待冲突,通过分析模型中链路和回路等特殊结构特性,给出无冲突滑行充分条件及优先级调整策略。算例研究表明:本文方法能有效实现滑行路由无冲突调整,算法耗时小于10 s,满足A-SMGCS系统对路由规划时间的要求,控制规则简单,适用于实时控制。%Adjustment of airport taxiing routes in operation phase of aircrafts needs a large amount of calculation,which makes it difficult to meet the real-time requirements for A-SMGCS (advanced surface movement guidance and control system). In order to resolve this problem,a colored taxiway-oriented Petri net model was built and a method of aircraft taxiing routes adjustment was proposed. The method abstracted taxiing routes to the visiting priorities of aircrafts on a road section. The delayed aircrafts were punished by decreasing the priorities to visit the road section. To change priorities of aircrafts might lead to two kinds of conflicts:head-on conflicts and circular wait conflicts. Sufficient condition and priority change strategy of aircrafts conflict-free taxiing were proposed to solve those conflicts by analyzing the special structural characteristics of cycle chains and circuits of the colored taxiway-oriented Petri net model. An application example shows that the proposed method can avoid conflicts in aircrafts taxiing routes adjustment. The computation time is less than 10 s,which meets the planning time requirements of A-SMGCS. The control rules are simple,effective and suitable for real-time control.

  2. Promoting hierarchical grid internal control model to crack taxi industry regulatory problems%推广“层级式网格化”内控模式破解出租汽车行业监管难题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    出租车作为游客出行的重要交通工具,在提供优质服务、展示城市形象等方面至关重要。出租汽车行业关乎百姓的切身利益和城市的服务环境,是一个城市的文明窗口,也是一张城市的流动名片。出租汽车从业人员多,流动性大,素质参差不齐,没有集约化管理的实体公司,抗风险能力差。针对这种实际情况,为规范出租汽车行业管理,提高行业服务水平,维护社会稳定,特提出制定“层级式网格化”内控管理新模式,使得出租汽车行业实现“单一管理向互动管理、粗放管理向精细管理、突击管理向常态管理”三大转变。%An important transportation taxi as tourists,to provide quality services,is essential to show the image of the city. The taxi industry is related to the vital interests of the people and city service environment,is a city of civilization window,is also a city name card. The flow of taxi practitioners,high mobility. Uneven quality,no intensive management of the entity,the ability to resist risk. Aiming at the situation, to regulate the taxi industry management,improve the level of service industry,to maintain social stability,and formulate a new mode of "most internal management of hierarchical grid,the taxi industry to achieve a" single management to interactive management,extensive to fine management and management,management of three major changes to assault the normal management.

  3. 城市出租汽车客运服务质量感知差距分析——以杭州市为例%Taxi Service Quality Perception Gaps in Urban Areas: A Case of Hangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志刚; 袁球明


    将Parasuranman、Zeithaml和Berry(PZB)服务质量差距模型扩展后用于分析出租汽车客运企业管理人员、驾驶员和乘客之间的服务质量感知差距,以杭州市为例进行出租汽车客运服务质量调查,发现驾驶员的服务感知值最高、企业管理人员次之、乘客最低.驾驶员与乘客的感知差距超过企业管理人员与驾驶员的感知差距,且两个差距均与总体服务质量评价显著负相关;企业管理人员与乘客间的感知差距部分显著,且感知差距与总体服务质量评价结果的负相关性不显著.结果表明,出租汽车客运服务人员的服务质量评价过于乐观,改善出租汽车客运服务质量要缩小驾驶员与乘客的服务感知差距.%Three gaps of taxi service quality are added to the Gaps model proposed by Parasuranman, Zeithaml and Berry. The perception gaps of taxi service quality among management staff, driver and passenger are analyzed based on a survey in Hangzhou, China. The most perception scales of drivers are higher than those of management staff and passenger indicate that the service provider always overestimates the service quality. The gaps between drivers and passengers are larger than that between drivers and management staff, and two kinds of gaps have significantly negative impacts on the overall taxi service quality. The gaps between management staff and passengers have partly significant difference and its negative impacts on the overall taxi service quality are not significant. The result indicates that the service provider always overestimates the service quality and gaps between drivers and passengers should be eliminated to improve taxi service quality.

  4. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp (United States)


    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science

  5. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas


    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  6. Pilot Candidate Selection (United States)


    pilot selection system and to best support up-front track selection for SUPT? Assumptions The USAF Trainer Masterplan does not include a plan to...replace the T-41 with a new flight screening aircraft. In addition, the Masterplan states that candidates will be track selected prior to entry into (3:10) While the Masterplan is not a static document and aircraft procurement plans and/or the timing of track selection are subject to

  7. The fighter pilot's egg (United States)

    Fry, Dale W.


    Of common interest to fighter pilots is what maneuver should be flown to accomplish a 360° heading change in the least time. Among the infinite possibilities, analytic expressions for a very commonly used maneuver, a roughly circular planar turn that accomplishes the required heading change, are derived and examined under four realistic assumptions. Contrary to common belief, the time to complete the stated heading change turns out to be independent of the inclination of the plane of the turn.

  8. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.


    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be sent, as a script to be run, or it can be fetched from a remote location. A pilot 2.0 can run on every computing resource, e.g.: on CREAM Computing elements, on DIRAC Computing elements, on Virtual Machines as part of the contextualization script, or IAAC resources, provided that these machines are properly configured, hiding all the details of the Worker Nodes (WNs) infrastructure. Pilots 2.0 can be generated server and client side. Pilots 2.0 are the “pilots to fly in all the skies”, aiming at easy use of computing power, in whatever form it is presented. Another aim is the unification and simplification of the monitoring infrastructure for all kinds of computing resources, by using pilots as a network of distributed sensors coordinated by a central resource monitoring system. Pilots 2.0 have been developed using the command pattern. VOs using DIRAC can tune pilots 2.0 as they need, and extend or replace each and every pilot command in an easy way. In this

  9. Chiari-I malformation in two fighter pilots. (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Canakci, Zafer; Sen, Ahmet; Tore, Hasan F


    This report describes two cases of Chiari Malformation Type I (Chiari-I) in fighter pilots of the Turkish Air Force. Chiari-I is a congenital malformation characterized by herniation of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Patients have symptoms and signs related to dysfunction of the brainstem, spinal cord, and cerebellum. They generally are symptomatic in the earlier years of life. However, asymptomatic cases can eventually become symptomatic in later years. Symptoms can be provoked by increasing intracranial pressure (Valsalva or straining). We report on two pilots with Chiari-I malformation who had no symptoms or signs in their daily activities. Furthermore, these pilots had successfully completed physiological training, including centrifuge training, without any symptoms. However, they suffered from headache, neck spasms, and/or disequilibrium under +Gz during flight training sorties. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, possibility of acquired cases, and aeromedical disposition of Chiari malformations are discussed.

  10. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military...

  11. Unit for air decontamination; Unidad para descontaminacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E


    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  12. The Pilot Scale Research of Air Flotation-SBR Technology to Treating Mixed Pesticide Wastewater%混凝-SBR工艺处理混合型农药废水的中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晗; 彭书传


    The feature of mixed industrial wastewater in Hefei circular economy park is high concentration and bad biodegradability, using the technology of coagulation-SBR to process typical mixed pesticide wastewater in chemical industrial park and do pilot scale test.First inspecting the coagulant and coagulant dosage on the physic-chemical wastewater treatment effect, and get the best pharmaceutical dosage; then verify the process on the chemical industry park mixed pesticide wastewater treatment effect, and finally carried out the process impact the ability of the experimental. The result shows that the treatment effect of this technology to wastewater in chemical industry park is well, the removal rate of COD, ammonia is more than 80 %, so to some extent the process can treat such wastewater.%针对合肥市循环经济园园区内混合农药污水浓度较高、可生化性较差等特点,采用混凝-SBR物化处理和生化处理相结合的工艺处理典型化工园区混合型农药废水,并进行中试研究。首先考察了混凝剂和助凝剂投加量对废水物化处理效粜的影响,并得到最佳药剂投加量;然后验证了此工艺对化工园区混合农药废水的处理效果,最后进行了此工艺抗冲击能力的实验。结果表明,此物化、生化相结合的处理工艺对化工园区混合农药废水处理效果良好,COD,氨氮的去处率达80%以上,说明该工艺可以在一定程度上处理此类废水。

  13. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement (United States)

    Paramo, V.


    stringent emission levels of the gasoline fleet; update the detention of pollutant vehicles program; partial exemption of the inspection and maintenance program for cleaner and or highly efficient vehicles; substitution of 3,000 microbuses, 40,000 taxis and 1,200 buses; commissioning of the first Bus Rapid Transit system; implementation of a program for the emissions reduction for the 300 most polluted industrial facilities; and continuous update of the air quality environmental management programs. To continue improving the air quality in the MCMA, the environmental authorities will continue the implementation of the 2002-2010 Air Quality Improvement Program. In 2007 the Green Program was started, this includes those actions that have proven to be effective reduction of pollutant emissions and incorporates new actions for the reduction of local and global pollutant emissions. The most important of these new actions are: substitution of 9,500 microbuses; renewal of all the taxis fleet; commissioning of 10 Bus Rapid Transit lines; commissioning of Line 12 of the underground system; schedules and routes limitations to the cargo fleet; increase 5 percent the number of non-motorized trips (bicycling and walking); regulation of the private public transport passenger stops; requirement of private schools to provide school transport; regulation of non-occupied taxis in circulation; modifications to the circulation of 350 critical crossing points in the city; adoption of intelligent traffic lights systems; complete substitution of the local government vehicle's fleet; implement the inspection and maintenance of the cargo fleet; introduction of low- sulfur diesel, among other measures.

  14. Pilot-Assisted Inertial Navigation System Aiding Using Bearings-Only Measurements Taken Over Time (United States)


    Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command in Partial...their classroom . The students in the GNC track at AFIT, our long tech- nical discussions over coffee or a rip it will be some of my fondest memories...while eliminating 78 a large portion of the free INS error. Verified as a proof of concept in simulation, tasking the pilot to track a stationary ground

  15. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program (United States)


    ... Program (62 FR 48693). A request for participation in the Pilot Program must be initiated by the filing of... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... (SJU) preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program...

  16. 75 FR 56857 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification (United States)


    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 141 RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification AGENCY... Register on August 21, 2009. That final rule revised the training, qualification, certification, and... Certification and Training Branch, AFS-810, General Aviation and Commercial Division, Flight Standards...

  17. Chinese Female Jet-Fighter Pilots Change New Uniforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Prior to the 60th anniversary of founding of People's Republic of China that marks calendar day of Oct.1st this year,Chinese armed forces stage on a new change of uniforms to welcome the birthday of the New China that was announced by Chairman Mao 60 years ago.On Aug.30th,a ceremony was started at an air-force base in North China to show a new generation of air-force uniforms for the female jet-fighter pilots.A total of 16 Chinese female jetfighter pilots to debut on National Day are expected to appear in new dress for an unprecedented dress parade on the Oct.1st.

  18. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.


    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  19. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.


    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.


    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  1. A randomised controlled pilot study to compare filtration factor of a novel non-fit-tested high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering facemask with a fit-tested N95 mask. (United States)

    Au, S S W; Gomersall, C D; Leung, P; Li, P T Y


    Use of a fit-tested N95 or FFP2 mask is recommended to protect against transmission of airborne pathogens. This poses considerable logistic problems when preparing for, or dealing with, an epidemic. Some of these problems might be overcome by use of a compact reusable high-efficiency particulate air filtering mask that can be cut to size. We carried out a randomised controlled cross-over study to compare the efficacy of such a mask (Totobobo, Dream Lab One Pte Ltd, Singapore) with fit-tested N95 masks (1860 or 1860s or 1862; 3M, St Paul, MN, USA) in 22 healthy volunteers. The median (interquartile range) reduction in airborne particle counts was significantly higher [193-fold (145-200)] for N95 masks than for Totobobo masks [135-fold (83-184)] (P or =100-fold between N95 (19/22) and Totobobo (16/22) masks. We conclude that use of the Totobobo mask without fit testing cannot be recommended, but its performance is sufficiently promising to warrant further investigation.

  2. Correlations between visual test results and flying performance on the advanced simulator for pilot training (ASPT). (United States)

    Kruk, R; Regan, D; Beverley, K I; Longridge, T


    Looking for visual differences in pilots to account for differences in flying performance, we tested five groups of subjects: Air Force primary student jet pilots, graduating (T38 aircraft) students, Air Force pilot instructors, and two control groups made up of experienced nonpilot aircrew and nonflying civilians. This interim report compares 13 different visual test results with low-visibility landing performance on the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory ASPT simulator. Performance was assessed by the number of crashes and by the distance of the aircraft from the runway threshold at the time of the first visual flight correction. Our main finding was that, for student pilots, landing performance correlated with tracking performance for a target that changed size (as if moving in depth) and also with tracking performance for a target that moved sideways. On the other hand, landing performance correlated comparatively weakly with psychophysical thresholds for motion and contrast. For student pilots, several of the visual tests gave results that correlated with flying grades in T37 and T38 jet aircraft. Tracking tests clearly distinguished between the nonflying group and all the flying groups. On the other hand, visual threshold tests did not distinguish between nonflying and flying groups except for grating contrast, which distinguished between the nonflying group and the pilot instructors. The sideways-motion tracking task was sensitive enough to distinguish between the various flying groups.

  3. What Radiologists Can Learn From Fighter Pilots. (United States)

    Rinzler, Elliot


    Many principles of aviation safety have already been adopted into the field of health care. In this article, the author describes some of the core methodologies that contribute to the success of US Air Force fighter pilots and offers examples as to how these could be adapted to meet the challenges facing the practice of radiology. Key principles include "big picture" tactical training, the use of checklists, teamwork, safety, and performance improvement concepts. The need for cultural support of change is emphasized.

  4. Survivability rate among pilots in case of ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GHEORGHIU


    Full Text Available The current paper presents a statistical analysis of a recent research made by the author [1], showing the factors causing the accidents that happened in Romanian Air Force from 1952 to 2014. Also the decision of ejection is analyzed. The study contains 225 events: 110 catastrophes and 115 accidents. 280 fighter pilots and 235 aircraft were involved in this analysis. The below information is a personal one and does not reflect an official position of the Ministry of National Defence.

  5. A Bibliographic Database for the History of Pilot Training Selection (United States)


    Estudio psicofisiolôgico de la profesiôn de piloto aviador. Revista de Psicologia i Pedagogia, 2, 54-79. Describes test content, scoring...generali e ricerche sperimentali sulla selezione dei piloti di aviazione. Rivista di Psicologia , 25, 180-194. Gemelli, A. (1929). Ricerche sulla...Revista de Psicologia del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 20(2), 249-261. Morin, D. P. (1997). Training Air Service Pursuit Pilots in World War I

  6. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ


    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  7. HL-10 on lakebed with pilot Major Jerauld R. Gentry (United States)


    Pilot Major Jerauld R. Gentry stands in front of the HL-10 Lifting Body. Gentry was the Air Force project pilot for the HL-10 while it was making the early glide and powered flights in 1968 following its modification. He made a total of nine flights in the vehicle. For his work on the HL-10, Gentry was awarded the Harmon International Trophy for his outstanding contribution to the science of flying. He later became the Air Force pilot for the X-24A. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting bodies (M2-F2/F3, HL-10, X-24A). The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the Lifting Body program. On Feb. 18, 1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228 mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 feet, which became the highest altitude reached in the program. Some new and

  8. Thoracolumbar pain among fighter pilots. (United States)

    Hämäläinen, O


    High +Gz forces place high stress on the spinal column, and fighter pilots flying high-performance fighter aircraft frequently] report work-related thoracic and lumbar spine pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether +Gz exposure causes work-related thoracolumbar spine pain among fighter pilots. A questionnaire was used to establish the occurrence of thoracic and lumbar spine pain during the preceding 12 months and during duties over the whole working career among 320 fighter pilots and 283 nonflying controls matched for age and sex. Thirty-two percent of the pilots and 19% of the controls had experienced pain in the thoracic spine during the preceding 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-3.5; p = 0.002 for the pilots). Among the pilots, the OR increased up to 6.1 (95% CI = 1.6-23.1; p = 0.0007) with the number of +Gz flight hours. There was no difference between the groups with regard to lumbar pain during the preceding 12 months, but over their whole working careers fighter pilots (58%) had experienced lumbar pain during their duties more often than controls (48%) (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3-2.6; p = 0.002). The greater the number of +Gz flight hours, the greater the occurrence of lumbar spine pain when on duty (OR = 26.9; 95% CI = 6.2-116; p = 0.0001 for the most experienced fighter pilots). The same was not true with regard to the number of +Gz flight hours and lumbar pain during the preceding 12 months. Age had no effect on pain in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Fighter pilots flying high-performance aircraft have more work-related thoracic and lumbar spine pain than controls of the same age and sex. The difference is explained by the pilots' exposure to +Gz forces.

  9. 对出租车行业特许模式的经济学和行政法学分析%Exploring the franchise system of taxi industry——on the basis of administrative law and economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Problems occur in taxi industry every year in our country,The root is the franchise system.From the angle of administrative law and economics perspective,this article discusses the legitimacy and rationality of the quantitative control of the taxi industry.In the view of administrative law perspective,the taxi industry does not belong to the administrative licensing scope of "administrative licensing law".The implementation of quantitative control also violates the principle of administration.In the view of economics,the quantitative control of the taxi industry can not eliminate the negative externality,but can lead to the rent-seeking behaviors and the loss of social welfare.The government will consume more manpower and material resources in order to maintain the control effect,which directly leads to the increase of the social cost.In the world,the practice of the relaxation of the quantity control has proved that it will do no harm to the safety and service level,also will not cause the economic disorder with the implementation of strict service standards and safety control.Only let the taxi industry return back to a normal competitive industry,we can really solve the problems continuing appearing of the taxi industry.%我国出租车行业诸多问题年年不绝,深层原因都和作为该行业制度核心的特许经营权制度密不可分。本文从行政法学和经济学视角,对出租车行业实行数量管制的合法性和合理性进行探讨。从行政法学视角看,出租车行业不属于《行政许可法》规定的行政特许范围,实施数量管制也违反了行政法学上的依法行政原则和比例原则;从经济学视角看,数量管制无法消除出租车行业的负外部性,反而导致权力寻租和社会福利损失,政府为了维持管制效果会耗费更多人力物力,直接导致社会成本增加。世界各国放松数量管制的实践证明,只要实施严格的服务和安全标

  10. 沈阳市出租车司机慢性前列腺炎患病情况分析%Investigation and Analysis of Chronic Prostatitis of taxi Drivers in Shenyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙智; 李湛民; 史俊萍; 崔勇


    目的:调查沈阳市出租车司机前列腺炎患病率状况。方法2009年8月-2010年8月对沈阳市23~45岁男性出租车司机进行慢性前列腺炎症状指数(CPSI)调查表评分和前列腺液常规白细胞计分进行评估。在162名NIH-CPSI积分阳性的出租车司机中进行症状出现频次的统计。结果根据慢性前列腺炎症状指数(CPSI)调查表计算阳性率为27.00%;前列腺液常规阳性率为25.83%。3个驾龄分组之间比较,CPSI评分和前列腺液常规白细胞计分存在统计学差异。162名NIH-CPSI积分阳性的出租车司机的症状出现频次最高的是小腹部疼痛,其次是尿频,第三是会阴部疼痛,其出现频次都在50%以上。结论出租车司机行业是慢性前列腺炎的高发行业,而且随着驾龄的增长发病率也越高,大部分出租车司机出现的症状以小腹部疼痛、会阴部疼痛和尿频为主,应予高度重视。%Objective Investigate the taxi driver prostatitis incidence in shenyang. Methods In August 2009 to August 2009 in shenyang, 23 to 45 years old male taxi drivers to chronic inflammatory prostate index (CPSI) questionnaire scores and routine prostatic fluid leukocyte score were evaluated. In the 162 NIH - CPSI integral positive symptoms frequency statis-tics of the taxi driver. Results According to chronic inflammatory prostate index (CPSI) questionnaire to calculate positive rate is 27.00%; Prostate fluid routine positive rate was 25.83%. 3 comparison between the jialing group, CPSI score and routine prostatic fluid leukocyte scoring statistics difference. 162 NIH - CPSI integral positive symptoms as a taxi driver is the highest frequency of small abdominal pain, followed by urinary frequency, the third is the perineal pain, the frequency of 50% or more. Conclusion The taxi driver industry is high-risk industry, chronic prostatitis and as driving experience and the higher growth rates, most taxi drivers symptoms in

  11. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F; McNab, A; Luzzi, C


    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be s...

  12. Analysis and Simulation of a Large Amphibian Aircraft Taxiing%大型水陆两栖飞机地面滑跑稳定性分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩纪军; 许锋; 聂宏


    The landing gear system works in concert with the safety of the aircraft's take off and landing directly, therefore it is one of the most important parts and systems of an aircraft. The landing gear design of an amphibian aircraft need to coordinate aerodynamics and liquid dynamics. It is a complicated dynamical problem, and it is the problem which is faced during the process of the large amphibian aircraft design nowadays. Depending on multi - body dynamical theories and the simulating plate of LMS Virtual. Lab, the dynamical model of a large amphibian aircraft taxiing process is proposed. By simulating the model, the a-nalysis of the heading stability during taxiing is conducted. The dynamical analysis and simulation of a large amphibian aircraft's heading taxiing is achieved.%起落装置直接关系到飞行器的起飞与着陆安全,是其重要部件和系统之一.大型水陆两栖飞机的起落架设计需在空气动力学与水动力学领域得到协调,是一个更为复杂的动力学问题,同时也是当前大型飞机研制中亟待解决的问题之一.基于多体动力学理论与LMS Virtual.Lab仿真环境,建立某大型水陆两栖飞机地面滑跑过程的动力学模型,通过对其地面对称滑跑等情况的仿真计算,着重对滑跑过程中的航向稳定性进行分析,实现水陆两栖飞机对称滑跑动力学分析与仿真.

  13. 以市场机制倒逼出租车行业改革的经济学分析%Economic Analysis on the Reform of the Taxi Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莺; 孙福明


    专车服务这一新生产关系出现,撬动了出租车行业的利益杠杆。十几年的行业问题为何能被“专车”撼动。不难看出,社会财富再分配的严重失衡,是“专车”倒逼出租车行业改革的社会根源。共享经济的到来,使移动信息服务平台(叫车软件公司)解决了消费者和司机信息供需不畅的问题。当前行业的首要任务是处理好增量改革(专车市场)与存量改革(出租车市场)的关系,促使传统出租车行业在“互联网+”下实现跨产业整合的制度创新。%Special train service as the new relations of production, leverage the interests of taxi industry. why the special train service can direct more than ten years of industry problems. Obviously, a serious imbalance in the redistribution of wealth is the main reason of taxi industry reform. At the same time, the current sharing economy make the special train service company can connect consumers and driver. The primary task of the current industry is to deal with the incremental reform and stock reform, and promote the traditional taxi industry in the“Internet+” background, to achieve system innovation of cross industry integration.

  14. Effects of plateau flight mission on heart rate and respiratory rate of high performance fighter pilots%高原飞行对高性能战斗机飞行员心率和呼吸频率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 王生成; 陈清禄; 景百胜; 罗永昌


    Objective To investigate the effects of plateau flight on physiological parameters and flight workload of high performance fighter pilots.Methods Thirteen healthy male highperformance fighter pilots entered plateau in 2 batches,8 pilots stationed for 3 months and the others stationed for 1 week.Pilots' heart rate was tested before flight and compared with the referenced value that previously tested at normal altitude level.Pilots' physiological parameters were detected for 25 sorties that covered 4 flight conditions (patrol,air combat,night flight,virgin flight on plateau).The changes of heart rate and respiratory rate were analyzed.Results ① Pilots' heart rate detected before flight was significant higher than the referenced value (t=5.447,3.269,P<0.05).②Heart rate significantly varied in different flight phases and among different flight conditions (F=9.831-204.906,P<0.01).Pilots' heart rate in preparation,taxiing and taking-off,approaching and landing phases was significant higher than that in level flying phase (P<0.01).Condition 4 (virgin flight on plateau) caused higher heart rate than that in other flight conditions in all phases except in quiet (P<0.01).③There was significant difference on respiratory rate in different flight phases and conditions (F=1.971-140.035,P<0.01).Pilots' respiratory rate in the landing of condition 2,3 and 4 was much higher than that in condition 1.Pilots' respiratory rate in all phases of flight condition 4 was the highest (P<0.05 or 0.01).④Pilots' heart rate significantly reduced when backup oxygen supplied in landing and the mean decrease was (15.89±6.37) beat/min (t=5.580,P<0.01).Conclusions For the pilots stationed on plateau the physiological and flight workloads are much higher than theirs on plain.It is recommended that keeping pilots mask wearing and backup oxygen supply in landing would be beneficial to reduce the cardio-pulmonary loads caused by hypoxia.%目的 观察高原飞行对飞行员

  15. Clustering Taxi Quantity Regulatory Levels of Chinese Capital Cities%中国省会城市客运出租汽车数量管制强度分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志刚; 程高


    由于不同管制目标下的城市客运出租汽车数量管制绩效存在差异,为掌握省会城市客运出租汽车数量管制强度,将人口拥有率、建成区面积拥有率、公交客运量比率、GDP拥有率、道路面积拥有率和对外客运量比率作为分类指标,运用模糊-均值聚类法对中国省会城市客运出租汽车的数量管制强度进行分类,进行Matlab 7.0编程,经聚类有效性分析和F-统计量检验后获得最佳分类方案.结果表明,将31个样本城市的客运出租汽车数量管制强度分为低、较低、中、较高、高5个等级最佳,分类结果为建立出租汽车数量调控模型奠定了基础.%Different purposes of taxi quantity control lead to different performances of quantity regulation in Chinese urban areas. To obtain a clear division of taxi quantity regulation levels of Chinese capital cities, a fuzzy c-means clustering is presented. The paper identifies six important demanding factors such as population, urban built-up area, transit volume, GDP, road area and amount of intercity passenger to get the corresponding indexes of urban taxi quantity regulatory levels. An efficient classification scheme is selected with clustering effectiveness analysis and F-statistics test after running a dedicated the MATLAB 7. 0 program. The result indicates that thirty-one capital cities of mainland China are definitely classified into five categories. The categorization of quantity regulatory levels in this paper provide references for formulating the of taxi license supply models.

  16. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.


    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  17. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project (United States)

    Hoover, John J.


    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  18. Priming a Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt; Pedersen, Maria Ie


    Abstract. We report on the initial findings of an exploratory action research study about effects specifications using the systems development method Effects-driven IT development. It is part of a larger IS pilot implementation project conducted in the Danish healthcare sector. Through interviews...... and a workshop we have identified and specified effects that comprise the basis for an evaluation of the project between several organisational agents with diverse professional backgrounds. Gathering organisational participants at a workshop with a common goal of discussing and prioritizing a finished list...... of effects has proved to be a valuable approach to create mutual learning process amongst the participants and the facilitators of the workshop. The challenges we experienced during the effects specification process were to balance a dichotomous focus between on one hand the visions of the participants...

  19. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes


    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  20. A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components (United States)


    for pilots will depend on the • number of active component pilots who separate • fraction of separating pilots who affiliate with the reserve ...when tracking economic output over a period of time. GDP data were collected from the Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED), Federal Reserve Bank of St...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components

  1. Air separation by the Moltox process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D. C.


    The report describes results of a development program on a new and energy saving process for air separation. The Moltox process involves reversibly reacting oxygen in air with a recirculating salt solution, such that oxygen is extracted without depressurizing the remaining nitrogen. Energy savings of approximately 50% are indicated for this process compared to conventional cryogenic air separation. The development program consisted of design, construction, and operation of a 6 liter/minute pilot plant; optimization of the process flowsheet through computer modelling; investigation of engineering aspects of the process including corrosion, safety, and NO/sub x/ generation; and an economic comparison to conventional cryogenic practice. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved except for continuous operation of the pilot plant, and the modifications necessary to achieve that have been identified. Economically the Moltox process shows a substantial advantage over large scale cryogenic plants which are powered by fuel vice electricity.

  2. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  3. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots (United States)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS


    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  4. Rockfish Pilot Permit Program (RPP) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rockfish Pilot Program was a five-year project that allowed harvesters to form voluntary cooperatives and receive an exclusive harvest privilege for groundfish...

  5. Lytic spondylolisthesis in helicopter pilots. (United States)

    Froom, P; Froom, J; Van Dyk, D; Caine, Y; Ribak, J; Margaliot, S; Floman, Y


    Trauma to the back from the force of chronic stress is thought to be an etiologic factor in isthmic spondylolisthesis (SLL). The relationship of first degree spondylolisthesis to low back pain (LBP) is controversial. We compare the prevalence of SLL in helicopter pilots who are subject to strong vibrational forces, with other airforce personnel. Helicopter pilots had more than a four times higher prevalence of SLL (4.5%) than did cadets (1.0%) and transport pilots (0.9%). Low back pain was more frequent in pilots with SLL than in those without this lesion but in no case was the pain disabling or the defect progressive. We conclude that SLL may be induced by vibrational forces and although SLL is associated with LBP, the pain was little clinical significance.

  6. Intelligent Taxi Call System and Its Contribution to Low-carbon Economy%智能化出租车呼叫系统对低碳经济的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文所论述的系统技术是根据目前我国出租车行业营运的现状,为解决其搭载难、浪费能源,道路拥堵等问题而提出的.本技术方案是通过利用已拥有的无线通信网和GPS1资源,建立一个专用平台--出租车呼叫管理系统,来解决这些问题.并实现使民服务、节能减排,提高城市管理等现代化形象和目标,为低碳经济做出贡献.%System technology discussed in this paper is based on the current status of the operation of the taxi industry in China to address the carring difficult,waste of energy and road congestion and other issues.The technical program is already owned by using wireless communication network and GPS resources.The establishment of a dedicated platform-Call Taxi Management System is to solve the above problem and achieve energy conseration,convenience services,and improve urban management and other modern image and objectives.

  7. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas


    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  8. Analyzing a Mid-Air Collision Over the Hudson River (United States)

    Brown, Sean; Holloway, C. Michael


    On August 8, 2009, a private airplane collided with a sightseeing helicopter over the Hudson River near Hoboken, New Jersey. All three people aboard the airplane, the pilot and two passengers, and all six people aboard the helicopter, the pilot and five passengers, were killed. The National Transportation Safety Board report on the accident identified inherent limitations of the see-and-avoid concept, inadequate regulations, and errors by the pilots and an air traffic controller as causing or contributing to the accident. This paper presents the results of analyzing the accident using the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) approach to determining accident causation.

  9. Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system (United States)

    Kelly, J. T.; Brown, R. A.; Chu, E. K.; Wightman, J. B.; Pam, R. L.; Swenson, E. L.; Merrick, E. B.; Busch, C. F.


    A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the furnance walls. Such separation of secondary combustion air creates a fuel rich zone in the center of the furnace where NOx production is minimized. This combustion modification technique lowers NOx 64%, relative to conventional tangential firing, by injecting 85% of the secondary air along the furnace walls. Under these conditions, NO emissions are 180 ppm corrected to 0% 02. Also at these conditions, CO, UHC, and unburned carbon emissions are less than 40 ppm, 3 ppm, and 2.4%, respectively, comparable to conventional tangentially fired pilot scale results.

  10. The Virtual Flier: The Link Trainer, Flight Simulation, and Pilot Identity. (United States)

    Jeon, Chihyung


    The Link Trainer is often described as the first successful attempt at what we now recognize as flight simulation and even virtual reality. Instead of asking how well the device simulated flight conditions, this article shows that what the Link Trainer simulated was not the conditions of the air, but rather the conditions of the cockpit that was gradually filled with flight instruments. The article also considers the Link Trainer as a cultural space in which shifting ideas about what it meant to be a pilot were manifested. A pilot in the Link Trainer was trained into a new category of flier-the virtual flier-who was an avid reader of instruments and an attentive listener to signals. This article suggests that, by situating the pilot within new spaces, protocols, and relationships, technologies of simulation have constituted the identity of the modern pilot and other operators of machines.

  11. Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering


    It is well known that the operation of dual fuel engines at lower loads suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned percentages of fuel. To rectify this problem, tests have been conducted on a special single cylinder compression ignition research engine (Ricardo E6) to investigate the effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of an indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with gaseous fuel. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel and methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted into the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. Through experimental investigations, it is shown that, the low efficiency and excess emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the amount of pilot fuel, while increasing the amount of pilot fuel at high loads led to early knocking. (author)

  12. Fighter pilots' heart rate, heart rate variation and performance during an instrument flight rules proficiency test. (United States)

    Mansikka, Heikki; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don; Simola, Petteri


    Increased task demand will increase the pilot mental workload (PMWL). When PMWL is increased, mental overload may occur resulting in degraded performance. During pilots' instrument flight rules (IFR) proficiency test, PMWL is typically not measured. Therefore, little is known about workload during the proficiency test and pilots' potential to cope with higher task demands than those experienced during the test. In this study, fighter pilots' performance and PMWL was measured during a real IFR proficiency test in an F/A-18 simulator. PMWL was measured using heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV). Performance was rated using Finnish Air Force's official rating scales. Results indicated that HR and HRV differentiate varying task demands in situations where variations in performance are insignificant. It was concluded that during a proficiency test, PMWL should be measured together with the task performance measurement.

  13. Pilot and Controller Workload and Situation Awareness with Three Traffic Management Concept (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Kraut, Joshua; Bacon, Paige; Minakata, Katsumi; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter


    This paper reports on workload and situation awareness of pilots and controllers participating in a human-in-the-loop simulation using three different distributed air-ground traffic management concepts. Eight experimental pilots started the scenario in an en-route phase of flight and were asked to avoid convective weather while performing spacing and merging tasks along with a continuous descent approach (CDA) into Louisville Standiford Airport (SDF). Two controllers managed the sectors through which the pilots flew, with one managing a sector that included the Top of Descent, and the other managing a sector that included the merge point for arrival into SDF. At 3-minute intervals in the scenario, pilots and controllers were probed on their workload or situation awareness. We employed one of three concepts of operation that distributed separation responsibility across human controllers, pilots, and automation to measure changes in operator situation awareness and workload. We found that when pilots were responsible for separation, they had higher levels of awareness, but not necessarily higher levels of workload. When controllers are responsible and actively engaged, they showed higher workload levels compared to pilots and changes in awareness that were dependent on sector characteristics.

  14. Polymer Science Pilot Program (United States)

    Maier, Mary L.


    Natural polymers such as cellulose, proteins, and DNA have been part of earth's store of chemicals long before chemists existed. However, polymers synthesized by chemists first appeared on this planet only sixty years ago. A veritable explosion of materials first known as plastics, later polymers, followed. Today polymers, natural and synthetic, are everywhere, and it is appropriate to include an introduction to polymers in the education of future scientists. The Polymer Science Pilot Program consists of a sequence of experiences with polymers, designed to focus upon the ways in which these materials resemble and/or compare with nonpolymers in physical properties, versatility, and function. The modular format makes it possible for educators to select specific sections of the program for integration into other college chemistry courses. The team learning aspect of he program can also be recommended to educators who select a specific module. When this program was presented at a Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, some attendees were concerned about the limited number of participants as compared with the seemingly large number of college instructors. It was explained that the concentrated format of the four day program necessitates this instructor-to-student ratio; one class consisting of eighteen participants was tried and it was found that some aspects of the program, especially the research paper preparation, were not as thoroughly moderated.

  15. The "Plane" Truth about DoD Undergraduate Helicopter Pilot Training Consolidation (United States)


    the DOD’s Trainer Aircraft Masterplan ( Masterplan ) which was a planning document for the procurement of Navy and Air Force training aircraft...procurement strategy outlined in the Masterplan . The purpose of the DoDIG Audit Report was to determine whether the programs contained in the... Masterplan would enhance the quality and adequacy of Navy and Air Force pilots, overcome existing and anticipated training deficiencies, improve training

  16. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Characteristics during BOBMEX-Pilot Experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Bhat; S Ameenulla; M Venkataramana; K Sengupta


    The atmospheric boundary layer characteristics observed during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment are reported. Surface meteorological data were acquired continuously through an automatic weather monitoring system and manually every three hours. High resolution radiosondes were launched to obtain the vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere. The study area was convectively active, the SSTs were high, surface air was warm and moist, and the surface air moist static energy was among the highest observed over the tropical oceans. The mean sea air temperature difference was about 1.25°C and the sea skin temperature was cooler than bucket SST by 0.5°C. The atmospheric mixed layer was shallow, fluctuated in response to synoptic conditions from 100 m to 900 m with a mean around 500 m.

  17. Roll paper pilot. [mathematical model for predicting pilot rating of aircraft in roll task (United States)

    Naylor, F. R.; Dillow, J. D.; Hannen, R. A.


    A mathematical model for predicting the pilot rating of an aircraft in a roll task is described. The model includes: (1) the lateral-directional aircraft equations of motion; (2) a stochastic gust model; (3) a pilot model with two free parameters; and (4) a pilot rating expression that is a function of rms roll angle and the pilot lead time constant. The pilot gain and lead time constant are selected to minimize the pilot rating expression. The pilot parameters are then adjusted to provide a 20% stability margin and the adjusted pilot parameters are used to compute a roll paper pilot rating of the aircraft/gust configuration. The roll paper pilot rating was computed for 25 aircraft/gust configurations. A range of actual ratings from 2 to 9 were encountered and the roll paper pilot ratings agree quite well with the actual ratings. In addition there is good correlation between predicted and measured rms roll angle.

  18. [Sphygmographic parameters in fighter and transport pilots]. (United States)

    Gai, Y; Tian, G; Yu, Y; Zhao, Y; Liang, B


    To evaluate and discover hidden cardiovascular trouble in pilots, the cardiovascular function of 129 active male pilots was examined with a new sphygmographic method. 13 pilots (10.3%) were found to have abnormal cardiovascular function. The average arterial blood pressure and medium artery modulus of the fighter pilots aged from 30 to 34 years are inferior to those aged from 25 to 29 obviously, however, that is not the case in transport pilots. This indicates that frequent examination of cardiovascular function with convenient special method is necessary for the improvement of the quality of medical monitor on pilots.

  19. Monitoring air quality in the Valley of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Cuadra Sanches, O.A. de (Grupo Crasa, S.A., Mexico City (Mexico))


    Mexico City is one of the most densely populated areas of the world, with more than 15 million inhabitants. Approximately 3 million vehicles and 30,000 industries in region emit about 4.5 million tons of contaminants into the atmosphere annually, most of which is generated by cars, buses, taxis and trucks. Industries nestled in the Valley of Mexico produce large quantities of particulate, due to lack of air filters, scrubbers and collection systems. This lack of proper pollution control equipment provokes already-elevated levels of sulfur dioxide from the approximately 110,000 public service and transport vehicles that run on heavy diesel fuel. High SO[sub 2] concentrations ally with industrial hydrocarbons and steam emissions which, in sunlight, produce dangerous levels of ozone. To formulate preventive and corrective measures, and keep the public informed, air contamination levels are monitored. A program containing 100 action items -- including driving restrictions, and industrial facility audits and closures -- has been instituted to mitigate and reverse environmental deterioration.

  20. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells (United States)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.


    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  1. Pilot Neil Armstrong and X-15 #1 (United States)


    Dryden pilot Neil Armstrong is seen here next to the X-15 ship #1 (56-6670) after a research flight. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 feet long with a wingspan of 22 feet. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 was flown over a period of nearly 10 years, from June 1959 to October 1968. It set the world's unofficial speed and altitude records. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the development of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo manned spaceflight programs, and also the Space Shuttle program. The X-15s made a total of 199 flights, and were manufactured by North American Aviation. X-15-1, serial number 56-6670, is now located at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington DC. North American X-15A- 2, serial number 56-6671, is at the United States Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. X-15-3, serial number 56-6672, crashed on November 15, 1967, resulting in the death of Major Michael J. Adams.

  2. Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Performing the Air Refueling Mission (United States)


    comes to dealing with ignorant, uncooperative, or openly defiant RPA operators. In the words of Barnhart et al. (2012:47), As market forces create...autonomous system’s ability to perfume various mission and tasks. Environmental complexity, on the other hand, measures an autonomous system’s

  3. 14 CFR 91.1101 - Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training. 91.1101 Section 91.1101 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations...

  4. Innovative Debrief Solutions for Mission Training & Simulation: Making fighter pilot training more effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Cornelisse, E.; Schavemaker-Piva, O.


    To enhance and improve the quality of mission training and simulation for fighter pilots, TNO and the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) investigate various innovative debrief concepts. In this paper we will describe our work on Innovative Debrief Solutions for Mission Training through Distributed

  5. 76 FR 11308 - Notification of Pilot-in-Command; Notice of Public Meeting (United States)


    ... information regarding Notification to Pilot in Command (NOPICs) (see 49 CFR 175.33 and ICAO TI 7;4.1). The International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel has begun to examine this issue and....1 of the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO TI)....

  6. Feasibility of Reducing Incidence of Low Back Pain in Helicopter Pilots Using Improved Crewseat Cushions (United States)


    APPENIX A SAMPLE PILOT SURVEY SLACK HAW CREMSEAT CONFORT A.- 1 BLACK HAWK CRENSEAT CONFORT Simula Inc. under contract to the U.S. Air Force Aerospace...Any other comments: __...... .. _ _ A-4 ,rI, APPEiDIX B SUNNARY OF CONNENTS FPRO CONFORT EVALUATION B-1 Comments from 5th-, 5Oth-, and 95th

  7. Channel Characteristics of UAV Ground-to-air Datalink and Broadband Data Transmission%无人机地空链路信道特性与宽带数据传输

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高保生; 朱良彬


    无人机地空链路数据传输存在多径衰落的影响。详细分析了无人机在滑行、起降和巡航3种状态下地空信道的传输特性。针对滑行、起降阶段多径时延大、存在频率选择性衰落的问题,提出了宽带数据传输技术——单载波频域均衡(SC-FDE)和正交频分复用(OFDM),并对SC-FDE进行了性能仿真。仿真结果表明,SC-FDE可以有效解决无人机滑行、起降阶段的多径衰落影响,提高宽带数据传输质量。%The multipath fading exists during the Ground-to-air data transmission of UAV.This paper analyzes the characteristics of the ground-to-air communication at taxiing scenario,arrival and takeoff scenario and en-route scenario.Aiming at the multipath fading caused serious frequency selective fading at taxiing scenario,arrival and takeoff scenario,broadband transmission scheme is given,such as SC-FDE and OFDM.The analysis and simulation results of SC-FDE demonstrate that it can eliminate the multipath fading influence at the taxiing scenario,arrival and takeoff scenario of the UAV system and the data transmission performance is improved.

  8. Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition Intelligence Testing of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Training Candidates Compared with Manned Airframe Training Candidates (United States)


    schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , and autism spectrum disorders ) and not on very high functioning populations such as aviators...pilots and to the development of a U.S. Air Force (USAF) RPA pilot career field. Effective recruitment into this new career field is critical to...high levels of intelligence, dexterity, visual-spatial abilities, memory, attention /concentration, psychomotor reaction time, as well as speed and

  9. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  10. 76 FR 63183 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification... (United States)


    ..., 2011 (76 FR 54095). In that rule, the FAA amended its regulations to revise the pilot, flight..., 2011 (76 FR 54095), the FAA published a final rule that amended the pilot, flight instructor, and pilot... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) published on August 31, 2009 (74 FR 44779), the FAA proposed...

  11. 49 CFR 381.400 - What is a pilot program? (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a pilot program? 381.400 Section 381.400... PILOT PROGRAMS Initiation of Pilot Programs § 381.400 What is a pilot program? (a) A pilot program is a... that would be subject to the regulations. (b) During a pilot program, the participants would be...

  12. 14 CFR 121.437 - Pilot qualification: Certificates required. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Certificates required... Pilot qualification: Certificates required. (a) No pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft (or... pilots) unless he holds an airline transport pilot certificate and an appropriate type rating for...

  13. Influence of UAS Pilot Communication and Execution Delay on Controller's Acceptability Ratings of UAS-ATC Interactions (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Morales, Gregory; Chiappe, Dan; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Jay; Buker, Timothy J


    Successful integration of UAS in the NAS will require that UAS interactions with the air traffic management system be similar to interactions between manned aircraft and air traffic management. For example, UAS response times to air traffic controller (ATCo) clearances should be equivalent to those that are currently found to be acceptable with manned aircraft. Prior studies have examined communication delays with manned aircraft. Unfortunately, there is no analogous body of research for UAS. The goal of the present study was to determine how UAS pilot communication and execution delays affect ATCos' acceptability ratings of UAS pilot responses when the UAS is operating in the NAS. Eight radar-certified controllers managed traffic in a modified ZLA sector with one UAS flying in it. In separate scenarios, the UAS pilot verbal communication and execution delays were either short (1.5 s) or long (5 s) and either constant or variable. The ATCo acceptability of UAS pilot communication and execution delays were measured subjectively via post trial ratings. UAS verbal pilot communication delay, were rated as acceptable 92% of the time when the delay was short. This acceptability level decreased to 64% when the delay was long. UAS pilot execution delay had less of an influence on ATCo acceptability ratings in the present stimulation. Implications of these findings for UAS in the NAS integration are discussed.

  14. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment. (United States)


    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.771... a second pilot, the rotorcraft must be controllable with equal safety from either pilot seat; and...

  15. Retaining U.S. Air Force Pilots When the Civilian Demand for Pilots Is Growing (United States)


    by June. Big airlines have been shutting their smallest hubs for financial reasons for years, and United blamed the decision partly on weak demand...shocks and may include a good assignment; a dangerous mission; a strong or weak civilian job market; an opportunity for pro- motion; the choice of...sample likelihood that we used to estimate the model parameters for each occupation using maxi - mum likelihood methods. Optimization is done using the

  16. 76 FR 19267 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment (United States)


    ... entitled, ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Final Rule'' (74 FR 42500). That...: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on August 21, 2009 (74 FR 42500). In that rule, the FAA... Administration 14 CFR Part 61 RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification;...

  17. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  18. Dynamic response of cement concrete pavement under aircraft taxiing load%飞机滑行作用下水泥混凝土道面板动响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁兴中; 寇雅楠; 颜祥程


    研究了飞机滑行作用下机场水泥混凝土道面板动响应问题.将道面结构视为粘弹性层状地基上单块四边自由的矩形板,采用半解析法,建立力学模型和计算方法.飞机滑行作用在道面板上的荷载是由自身重量和滑行产生的升力决定的;并计算了飞机滑行作用下道面板的响应.采用在道面内部钻孔安装位移传器的方法,对H-6飞机以不同滑行速度通过道面板时,道面板产生的动挠度进行了实测.计算结果与实测结果对比表明,两者误差在3%以内.说明所建立的计算方法是正确的,该方法可用来进行机场水泥混凝土道面板在飞机滑行作用下动响应的计算.%The dynamic responses of airfield cement concrete pavement were analysed when an aircraft taxies on the pavement. The pavement was regarded as a single rectangular slab with free edges resting on a viscoelastic layered foundation. A semi-analysis method was proposed and a mechanical model was established to calculate the dynamic response of slab under aircraft taxiing load, which consists of its weight and the lift force. The displacement transducers were installed inside the hole drilled on the pavement, and the dynamic deflections of the slab were measured when H-6 aircraft taxies on the pavement at different velocities. The theoretical solutions compared with the experimental results show the relative error between them is less than 3%. It indicates that the calculating method is correct and effective.

  19. The Effect and Potential Study of Eco-driving on Taxi Fuel Consumption%出租车驾驶员驾驶行为对油耗的影响及潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 陈晨; 伍毅平; 荣建; 刘莹; 程颖; 胡莹


    Taxi actual operating data on Beijing urban basic freeway section is taken and then divided according to driving cycle and level of service(LOS), based on which the effect and potential to fuel consumption of eco-driving under different conditions is analyzed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to analyze the effect to fuel consumption of driver behavior under different conditions. The result shows that taxis accelerating and decelerating are frequently on urban basic freeway section. With the improvement of LOS, taxi fuel consumption is increased under the condition of acceleration and steady running, but it is reduced under deceleration. The main vehicle fuel consumption comes from the accelerating process at low LOS. Considering the conditions' contribution to total fuel consumption, eco-driving fuel-saving potential calculation method is proposed to analyze benefits of eco-driving. It turns out that accelerating process has highest fuel-saving potential and the whole fuel consumption reduction on urban basic freeway section could be 11.18%when adopting eco-driving.%本文基于北京市出租车实际运行数据,研究城市快速路基本路段不同工况、服务水平下驾驶行为对出租车油耗的影响,分析各条件下生态驾驶节能潜力.应用方差分析方法,分析不同条件下驾驶行为对出租车油耗的影响.研究结果表明,出租车在城市快速路基本路段加、减速频繁;随服务水平提高,加速、匀速工况下车辆油耗升高,减速工况下车辆油耗降低;低服务水平下加速工况油耗是车辆油耗的主要来源.考虑各条件下油耗对出租车总油耗的贡献,提出生态驾驶行为节能潜力计算方法.分析结果表明,加速工况下生态驾驶节能潜力最高,出租车在快速路基本路段取生态驾驶行为的综合节能潜力可达11.18%.

  20. Estimation Models for Average Speed of Traffic Flow Based on GPS Data of Taxi%基于出租车GPS数据的路段平均速度估计模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜桂艳; 常安德; 李琦; 伊峰


    The existing average speed estimation models based on GPS ( global positioning system) data of taxis are not applicable where high precision and low cost are of necessities. Two traditional models, namely a time integral model and a time interpolation model, based on the GPS data of taxis were modified, and the two modified models were combined to form a hybrid model. The three new models were verified using GPS data of taxis obtained from a part of road network of a large city. The results shown that the estimating precisions of the two modified models increased by 1. 5% and 19.7% , respectively, compared with the original time integral model and time interpolation model, and those of the hybrid model by 2. 8% and 8. 8% , respectively, compared with the two modified models.%为了解决现有基于GPS数据的路段平均速度估计模型应用条件苛刻、难以满足低成本和高精度信息需求问题,考虑不同类型GPS车辆运行特征,设计了两个基于出租车GPS数据估计路段平均速度的改进模型.基于两个改进模型,设计了路段平均速度的融合估计方法.用某城市局部路网的出租车GPS数据验证两个改进模型,并与传统模型进行了对比分析.结果表明,在不增加成本的条件下,两个改进模型的估计精度分别比传统模型提高了1.5%与19.7%;融合估计方法的精度比两个改进模型分别提高了2.8%与8.8%.

  1. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter (United States)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus


    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  2. Simulation of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (United States)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Murawski, Robert; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Raghavan, Rajesh S.


    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an operational plan for the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in which the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is envisioned to evolve into digital messaging that will take on an ever increasing role in controller to pilot communications, significantly changing the way the National Airspace System (NAS) is operating. According to FAA, CPDLC represents the first phase of the transition from the current analog voice system to an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant system in which digital communication becomes the alternate and perhaps primary method of routine communication. The CPDLC application is an Air Traffic Service (ATS) application in which pilots and controllers exchange messages via an addressed data link. CPDLC includes a set of clearance, information, and request message elements that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. These message elements encompass altitude assignments, crossing constraints, lateral deviations, route changes and clearances, speed assignments, radio frequency assignments, and various requests for information. The pilot is provided with the capability to respond to messages, to request clearances and information, to report information, and to declare/rescind an emergency. A 'free text' capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. This paper presents simulated results of the aeronautical telecommunication application Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (VDL Mode 3). The objective of this simulation study was to determine the impact of CPDLC traffic loads, in terms of timely message delivery and capacity of the VDL Mode 3 subnetwork. The traffic model is based on and is used for generating air/ground messages with different priorities. Communication is modeled for the en route domain of the Cleveland

  3. Taxi violence reflects larger problems

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Läti Kaubandus-Tööstuskoja esimees Zanete Jaunzeme-Grende leiab, et Riias toimuvad taksosõjad peegeldavad olukorda kogu riigis. Samuti arvab ta, et valitsus peaks aitama ettevõtjatetel oma konkurentsivõimet tõsta

  4. 75 FR 80561 - Community Express Pilot Program (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of short-term extension and termination of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice announces the termination of the Community Express Pilot Program following a four month extension to...

  5. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a notice and request for comments introducing the Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice,...

  6. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program (United States)


    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment@ in the subject line of the... examination pilot program for patent applications pertaining to green technologies, including greenhouse...

  7. 75 FR 473 - Community Express Pilot Program (United States)


    ... restructure the Community Express Pilot Program effective October 1, 2008. (73 FR 36950, June 30, 2008) The restructured pilot program was extended through December 31, 2009 (73 FR 36950). Extension of this restructured... ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION:...

  8. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program (United States)


    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C....

  9. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program (United States)


    ...'') (76 FR 9626). The CA Pilot Program was introduced to increase SBA-guaranteed loans to small businesses... financings that are approved by SBA. (76 FR 56262) In response to comments received on the CA Pilot Program... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  10. 48 CFR 212.7002 - Pilot program. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot program. 212.7002... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Pilot Program for Transition to Follow-On Contracting After Use of Other Transaction Authority 212.7002 Pilot program....

  11. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program (United States)


    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR 48693... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. Section 47134. The...

  12. 46 CFR 15.812 - Pilots. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilots. 15.812 Section 15.812 Shipping COAST GUARD....812 Pilots. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (f) of this section, the following vessels, not... direction and control of an individual qualified to serve as pilot under paragraph (b) or (c) of...

  13. 75 FR 64692 - Green Technology Pilot Program (United States)


    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request...: ] E-mail: . Include ``0651- 0062 Green Technology Pilot Program... Office (USPTO) implemented a pilot program on December 8, 2009, that permits patent...

  14. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.; Beelen, R.M.J.; Hoek, G.; Schouten, L.J.; Bausch-Goldbohm, S.; Fischer, P.; Armstrong, B.; Hughes, E.; Jerrett, M.; v.d. Brandt, P.A.


    Evidence is increasing that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases. In a 2002 pilot study, we reported clear indications that traffic-related air pollution, especially at the local scale, was related to cardiopulmonary mortality in a rando

  15. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations]. (United States)

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V


    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days.

  16. Survey on eating behavior and dietary structure of taxi drivers in Beijing%北京市出租车司机膳食结构与饮食行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段一凡; 潘丽莉; 赖建强; 闫玲; 张红梅; 荫士安; 葛可佑


    目的 了解北京市出租车司机膳食结构与饮食行为,为改善出租车司机的营养健康状况提供科学依据.方法 采用方便抽样的方法,在北京首都机场T3航站楼地下停车场候机排队的出租车中随机抽取1052人作为调查对象.采用问卷调查的方法收集司机的饮食行为、膳食结构等信息.结果 21.8%的出租车司机出车时3餐均在外就餐,郊区司机3餐进食时长低于城区司机.出租车司机不吃早餐、午餐、晚餐的比例分别是10.5%、4.4%和14.8%.出租车司机出车时午餐和晚餐的构成主要是“主食+荤菜+素菜”,较少司机选择加入水果,尤其是午餐.干净卫生和能吃饱是司机们选择就餐环境时考虑的主要因素,仅有少部分司机在选择午餐(20.4%)或晚餐(27.4%)时会考虑营养因素.结论 北京市出租车司机特别是郊区司机,目前仍存在饮食不规律、3餐分配及膳食结构不合理的现象.%Objective To investigate the eating behavior and dietary structure of taxi drivers in Beijing, and to provide scientific information for improving the nutrition and health of the taxi drivers. Methods Convenience sampling method was employed in the current study. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 1052 taxi drivers who were waiting for work at the parking of Terminal 3 capital airport. Results There are 21. 8% drivers had meals outside 3 times one day. This proportion was higher in the suburban drivers. Time for spending in eating in suburban drivers was shorter than urban drivers. The proportions of without breakfast lunch and dinner were 10. 5% , 4.4% and 14. 8% respectively. The drivers' dietary structure of lunch and dinner were "grain + meat + vegetables" during working outside, few drivers had some fruit, especially for the lunch. Drivers chose the lunch or dinner for clean and sanitary and for full, few for nutrition (20.4% or 27.4% ). Conclusion Eating disorders, unreasonable

  17. 不同班次出租车司机高血压危险因素分析%Analysis of risk factors for hypertension among taxi drivers on different shifts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振华; 王欲晓; 闫凤凤; 魏晓珉; 于素芳


    Objective To investigate the incidence and risk factors for hypertension among taxi drivers working different shifts.Methods Using the cluster sampling method,415 day-shift and 304 night-shift taxi drivers in Jinan,China were selected and investigated.The influencing factors for hypertension were analyzed,Results The incidence of hypertension in all taxi drivers was 33.2%.The incidence of hypertension in nightshift drivers was significantly higher than that in day-shift drivers (37.8% vs 29.9%,P<0.05).According to multivariate analysis,the incidence of hypertension in day-shift drivers was closely related to body mass index (BMI),working years,working hours,sleep duration,rest days,diet quality,water intake,and smoking,while the incidence of hypertension in night-shift drivers was closely related to BMI,working years,working hours,part-time job,sleep duration,rest days,and drinking.Conclusion BMI,working years,and working hours are the common risk factors for hypertension in day-shift and night-shift drivers.Sleep duration and rest days are the common protective factors.The risk factors for hypertension in taxi drivers vary with different shifts.%目的 了解不同班次出租车司机高血压患病情况及探讨高血压的影响因素.方法 采用整群抽样方法,对济南市415名白班出租车司机和304名夜班出租车司机进行问卷调查,并进行影响因素分析.结果 被调查出租车司机高血压患病率为33.2%,其中白班司机高血压患病率为29.9%,夜班司机高血压患病率为37.8%,夜班司机高血压患病率高于白班司机,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多因素分析表明,白班司机高血压患病与体重指数(BMI)、工作年限、工作时长、睡眠时长、休息天数、饮食质量、饮水量和吸烟密切相关;夜班司机高血压患病与BMI、工作年限、工作时长、兼职、睡眠时长、休息天数和饮酒密切相关.结论 BMI、工作年限、工作时长等是

  18. Joint Doctrine for Macedonian Air Component (United States)


    ARM. History of the Macedonian Air Force Surely, the author being from “old” Europe , this paper will start with retrospect of the “early days...kill tended to rise rapidly. On the basis of such experiences, reinforced by repetition, those who instructed neophyte pilots generalized this...identity, and to protect its independence and territorial integrity. 36 NCSD estimates are that there is no risk of conventional war in Europe , and that

  19. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea (United States)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho


    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

  20. LANCELOT pilot report, June 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente

    The aim of the Lancelot pilot evaluation process was to understand how teachers learn to teach and to relate to the online environment through the specific context of the Lancelot live online course. Following the Action Research in the autumn of 2006 the LANCELOT live online language course...

  1. D22 Analysis of Pilot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyle, Elizabeth; MacGregor, Sharon; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Manea, Madalina; Penanen, Tiina


    The evaluation of the CHERMUG games was carried out in 3 phases which contributed in different ways to the game development and evaluation. Different cohorts of staff and students were involved in each phase and a detailed account of the list of pilot institutions is shown in Deliverable 21. Phase 1

  2. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training. (United States)

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  3. OFDM System Channel Estimation with Hidden Pilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng; LIN Cheng-yu; ZHANG Wen-jun


    Channel estimation using pilot is common used in OFDM system. The pilot is usually time division multiplexed with the informative sequence. One of the main drawbacks is bandwidth losing. In this paper, a new method was proposed to perform channel estimation in OFDM system. The pilot is arithmetically added to the output of OFDM modulator. Receiver uses the hidden pilot to get an accurate estimation of the channel. Then pilot is removed after channel estimation. The Cramer-Rao lower bound for this method was deprived. The performance of the algorithm is then shown. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed algorithm increases the bandwidth efficiency dramatically.

  4. X-15 test pilots - Thompson, Dana, and McKay (United States)


    NASA pilots Milton O. Thompson, William H. 'Bill' Dana, and John B. 'Jack' McKay are seen here in front of the #2 X-15 (56-6671) rocket-powered research aircraft. Among them, the three NASA research pilots made 59 flights in the X-15 (14 for Thompson, 16 for Dana, and 29 for McKay). The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52 aircraft at 45,000 ft and a speed of about 500 mph. Depending on the mission, the rocket engine provided thrust for the first 80 to 120 sec of flight. The remainder of the

  5. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis (United States)

    Parker, L. C.


    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  6. Paresev in flight with pilot Milt Thompson (United States)


    large alpha vane on the wing apex with a scale at the trailing edge that the pilot could read directly. A curved bubble level measured the vehicle attitude, and a Fairchild camera recorded the glide slope. PARESEV 1-B The Paresev 1-B used the Paresev 1-A space frame with a smaller Dacron wing (100 square feet) and was flight tested to evaluate its handling qualities with lower lift-to-drag values. One project NASA engineer described its gliding ability as 'pretty scary.' PARESEV 1-C The space frame of this vehicle remained almost unchanged from the earlier vehicles. However, a new control box gave the pilot the ability to increase or decrease the nitrogen in the inflatable wing supports to compensate for the changing density of the air. Two bottles of nitrogen provided an extra supply of nitrogen. The vehicle featured an inflatable wing. Actually the whole wing was not inflatable; the three chambers that acted as spars and supported the wing inflated. The center spar ran fore and aft and measured 191 inches; two other inflatable spars formed the leading edges. These three compartments were filled with nitrogen under pressure to make them rigid. The Paresev in this configuration was expected to closely approximate the aerodynamic characteristics that would be encountered with the Gemini space capsule, only with a parawing extended. The Paresev was very unstable in flight with this configuration. The first Paresev flights began with tows across the dry lakebed, in 1962, using a NASA vehicle, an International Harvester carry-all (6 cylinder). Eventually ground and airtows were done using a Stearman sport biplane (450 horsepower), a Piper Super Cub (150-180 horsepower), Cessna L-19 (200 horsepower Bird Dog) and a Boeing-Vertol HC-1A. Speed range of the Paresev was about 35 to 65 miles per hour. The Paresev completed nearly 350 flights during a research program from 1962 until 1964. Pilots flying the Paresev included NASA pilots Milton Thompson, Bruce Peterson, and Neil

  7. Air Pollution (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: Email ...

  8. Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance. (United States)

    Svensson, Jonathan; Andersson, Jan

    Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards.

  9. Determination of the Mixing Layer Height Over two Sites, Using Pilot Balloons During the MILAGRO Campaign (United States)

    Wohrnschimmel, H.; Alonso, A. L.; Ángeles, F.; Sosa, G.; Varela, J.; Cárdenas, B.


    Among the mechanisms that affect air quality there is a variety of meteorological processes. An important process in this context are the changes in the mixing layer height during a day and over the year. The mixing layer height is the portion of the atmosphere close to the surface layer where air pollutants get diluted, without leaving this layer. Therefore, it is important to describe the variations in the height of the mixing layer, i.e. the vertical dilution of air pollution, since this is a process mitigating naturally the impact of emissions. There exist different methods to obtain information on the mixing layer height, among them radio soundings, the application of vertical wind profilers, and launching pilot balloons. In this study, pilot balloons have been used simultaneously over two sites of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign in March 2006. The objective was to determine the vertical wind profiles and derive information on the mixing layer height. Daily, four pilot balloons were launched, at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, and 18:00 hours, over Tenango del Aire (a rural area in the Southeast of Mexico City), and over Ciudad Universitaria, in the Southern metropolitan area. At some occasions, night time measurements have been carried out at 21:00 and 24:00. A variability of the diurnal evolution of the mixing layer was observed along March, which could be related to surface temperature. The diurnal evolution showed a sudden growth of the mixing layer between 9:00 and 12:00 hours. Data intercomparisons were carried out for pilot balloons versus radio soundings during a few days at a third site, Tula, in the North of Mexico City. Both intercomparisons showed that pilot balloons are an effective method to obtain information about the development of the mixing layer.

  10. The Burden of Disability among Active Duty Air Force Members (United States)


    regarding active duty pilots and navigators who experienced a cardiac event, which included myocardial infarctions, angina , and sudden death. The study...a Cohort of Active-Duty U.S. Air Force Members Authors: Anthony S. Robbins, MD, PhD, Susan Y. Chao, MS, Vincent P. Fonseca, MD, MPH, Michael R...Physical Fitness in a Cohort of Active-Duty U.S. Air Force Members Anthony S. Robbins, Susan Y. Chao, Vincent P. Fonseca, Michael R

  11. Culture Wars: Air Force Culture and Civil-Military Relations (United States)


    their place, the complexities of com- bat require an actual—or virtual—human presence over the battlefield. Autonomously Decisive The technological...war-fighting domains, unique subcultures have developed within insulated commands. Then–Chief of Staff of the Air Force Merrill Mc- Peak lamented... Wood , “Workloads and Pay Woes Driving Veteran Pilots Out of Air Force,” The Star-Ledger (Newark, NJ), 29 May 1997, 12; Paul K. White, Crises after the

  12. Numerical Analysis of Impulse Turbine for Isolated Pilot OWC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu


    Full Text Available Oscillating water column (OWC is the most widely used wave energy converting technology in the world. The impulse turbine is recently been employed as the radial turbine in OWC facilities to convert bidirectional mechanical air power into electricity power. 3D numerical model for the impulse turbine is established in this paper to investigate its operating performance of the designed impulse turbine for the pilot OWC system which is under the construction on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The proper mesh style, turbulence model, and numerical solutions are employed to study the velocity and air pressure distribution especially around the rotor blade. The operating coefficients obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with corresponding experimental data, which demonstrates that the 3D numerical model proposed here can be applied to the research of impulse turbines for OWC system. Effects of tip clearances on flow field distribution characteristics and operating performances are also studied.


    Bench scale laboratory studies and pilot scale studies in a simulated field-test situation were performed to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultaviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream if an air stripper unit as a technology for cost-effectively treating water...

  14. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.


    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  15. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiao; Yang Fujiang; Guo Zhihui


    Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transduc-ers. A high speed camera with CH*bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state grad-ually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  16. [Tryggve Gran--the first Norwegian heroic pilot]. (United States)

    Albretsen, C S


    Tryggve Gran grew up in an affluent family in Bergen, Norway. The German emperor, William II, often visited the families of his friends. Gran became a good skier, hence well prepared for Robert Scott's second expedition to the Antartic in 1910. Gran deeply regretted the Scott-Amundsen competition, and was cut off from the team heading for the South Pole. In 1913, Gran trained in England and France as an air pilot. On 30 July 1914 he became the first pilot to cross the North Sea from Scotland to Norway. He joined the Royal Air Force in 1916 under the pseudonym of Teddy Grant, passing himself off as a Canadian, and received the Military Cross for distinguished war service. During the Second World War, Gran was a member of Quisling's pro-German National Party. A commemorative stamp was issued in 1944 on the 30th anniversary of his North Sea flight, and a meeting held in his honour with Quisling and German officers present. In this article, the author discusses some psychological aspects of Tryggve Gran's choice of tasks and of his politics. Gran lost his father when he was only five and when he was 11 he was sent off to a pension in Switzerland for a year. Strongly ambivalent feelings from the oedipal period and from the latency may later have been released through hazardous activities, certainly with self-destructive aspects. His membership in Quisling's party might be seen in this context.

  17. Insect vision based collision avoidance system for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (United States)

    Jaenisch, Holger; Handley, James; Bevilacqua, Andrew


    Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) are designed to operate in many of the same areas as manned aircraft; however, the limited instantaneous field of regard (FOR) that RPA pilots have limits their ability to react quickly to nearby objects. This increases the danger of mid-air collisions and limits the ability of RPA's to operate in environments such as terminals or other high-traffic environments. We present an approach based on insect vision that increases awareness while keeping size, weight, and power consumption at a minimum. Insect eyes are not designed to gather the same level of information that human eyes do. We present a novel Data Model and dynamically updated look-up-table approach to interpret non-imaging direction sensing only detectors observing a higher resolution video image of the aerial field of regard. Our technique is a composite hybrid method combining a small cluster of low resolution cameras multiplexed into a single composite air picture which is re-imaged by an insect eye to provide real-time scene understanding and collision avoidance cues. We provide smart camera application examples from parachute deployment testing and micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) full motion video (FMV).

  18. Fluid bed gasification pilot plant fuel feeding system evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, W.A.; Fonstad, T.; Pugsley, T.; Gerspacher, R. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email:; Wang Zhiguo (Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email:


    Fluidized bed gasification (FBG) is a method for thermally converting solid biomass to a gaseous product termed syngas, which can be used as fuel for heat or electricity generation. Accurate and consistent feeding of biomass fuel into biomass FBG converters is a continuing, challenge, and was the subject of experimentation at the University of Saskatchewan biomass FBG pilot plant. The 2-conveyor feeding system for this pilot plant was tested using meat and bone meal (MBM) as feedstock, by conveying the feedstock through the system, and measuring the output rate as the fuel was discharged. The relationship between average mass-flowrate (F{sub M}) and conveyor speed (S) for the complete feeding system was characterized to be F{sub M}=0.2188S-0.42 for the tests performed. Testing of the metering conveyor coupled to the injection conveyor showed that operating these conveyors at drive synchronized speeds, air pulsed into the injection hopper, and 50 slpm injection air, produced the most consistent feed output rate. Hot fluidized bed tests followed, which showed that plugging of the injection nozzle occurred as bed temperatures increased past 700C, resulting in loss of fuel flow. The pneumatic injection nozzle was subsequently removed, and the system was found to perform adequately with it absent. (orig.)

  19. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  20. Conducting pilot and feasibility studies. (United States)

    Cope, Diane G


    Planning a well-designed research study can be tedious and laborious work. However, this process is critical and ultimately can produce valid, reliable study findings. Designing a large-scale randomized, controlled trial (RCT)-the gold standard in quantitative research-can be even more challenging. Even the most well-planned study potentially can result in issues with research procedures and design, such as recruitment, retention, or methodology. One strategy that may facilitate sound study design is the completion of a pilot or feasibility study prior to the initiation of a larger-scale trial. This article will discuss pilot and feasibility studies, their advantages and disadvantages, and implications for oncology nursing research. 

  1. Pilot Neil Armstrong in the X-15 #1 cockpit (United States)


    NASA pilot Neil Armstrong is seen here in the cockpit of the X-15 ship #1 (56-6670) after a research flight. A U.S. Navy pilot in the Korean War who flew 78 combat missions in F9F-2 jet fighters and who was awarded the Air Medal and two Gold Stars, Armstrong graduated from Purdue University in 1955 with a bachelor degree in aeronautical engineering. That same year, he joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio (today, the NASA Glenn Research Center). In July 1955, Armstrong transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station (HSFS, as Dryden Flight Research Center was then called) as an aeronautical research engineer. Soon thereafter, he became a research pilot. For the first few years at the HSFS, Armstrong worked on a number of projects. He was a pilot on the Navy P2B-1S used to launch the D-558-2 and also flew the F-100A, F-100C, F-101, F-104A, and X-5. His introduction to rocket flight came on August 15, 1957, with his first flight (of four, total) on the X-1B. He then became one of the first three NASA pilots to fly the X-15, the others being Joe Walker and Jack McKay. (Scott Crossfield, a former NACA pilot, flew the X-15 first but did so as a North American Aviation pilot.) The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft. The original three aircraft were about 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. The modified #2 aircraft (X-15A-2 was longer.) They were a missile-shaped vehicles with unusual wedge-shaped vertical tails, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was rated at 57,000 lb of thrust, although there are indications that it actually achieved up to 60,000 lb. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in

  2. Pilot test on radius of influence for air sparging——taking a coking plant in Beijing as a case study%确定空气注射技术影响半径的现场试验——以北京某焦化厂为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜林; 樊艳玲; 张丹; 姚珏君; 钟茂生; 刘辉


    以北京某焦化厂地下水污染场地为例,设计和建立了一套由1口注射井、3口地下水监测井和5口土壤气监测井组成的现场试验系统,并进行了现场注气压力与流量测试,地下水压力响应测试,溶解氧测试,氦气示踪测试与土壤气测试,确定了试验区域的最佳注气压力与流量和影响半径.注气压力与流量测试确定了最佳注气压力与流量为0.03MPa,23.2m3/h.在最佳注气条件下,地下水监测井G3、G5、G8中,水位分别在10,15,15min后上升到最大值0.36,0.11,0.04m,地下水溶解氧浓度分别在60,65,75min后增加到7.35、2.47、0.74mg/L,以上结果表明,G3和G5响应较明显,G8响应不明显.土壤气监测井S2、S4、S5中氮气浓度分别在10,7,6min后达到最大值83%、13%、41%,S6中氦气无检出;S2、S3、S4、S5、S6中O2浓度分别上升到19.9%、19.6%、19.2%、19.0%、16.6%,以上结果表明,S2~55响应较明显,S6响应不明显.综合分析以上4种测试结果,确定试验区域的影响半径为5m.%A pilot test scheme, which consists of 1 injection well, 3 groundwater monitoring wells and 5 soil gas monitoring wells, was designed and installed in a Beijing coke plant. Injection pressure and flow rate test, groundwater response test, dissolved oxygen test, helium tracing test and soil gas test were carried out for determining the optimum injection pressure and flow rate and radius of influence (ROI) of the air sparging system. The injection pressure and flow rate test shows that 0.03MPa, 23.2 mVh are the optimum injection pressure and flow rate. Under the suggested optimum injection pressure and flow rate, water tables in groundwater monitoring well G3, G5, G8 rose up to 0.36, 0.11, 0.04m in 10, 15, 15min, respectively, and DO rose up to 7.35, 2.47, 0.74mg/L in 60, 65, 75min, respectively, suggesting that response was obvious in G3 and G5, not G8. The highest helium concentration was 83%, 13%, 41% in S2, S4, S5 at 10

  3. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section 29... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section 27... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and...

  5. Removal of benzene and toluene from a refinery waste air stream by water sorption and biotrickling filtration


    Paolo Viotti; Marco Schiavon; Renato Gavasci; Capodaglio,Andrea G.


    The paper presents the results of an analysis of a two-stage pilot plant for the removal of toluene and benzene from the exhaust air of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The two-stage air process combines a water scrubber and a biotrickling filter (BTF) in sequence, and treats air stripped from the liquid phase compartments of the WWTP. During the experimental period, the pilot plant treated an airflow of 600 Nm3h-1. Average concentrations of the waste air stream entering the w...

  6. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  7. Pilot Implementation of Health Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.


    Pilot implementation is a powerful and widely used approach in identifying design flaws and implementation issues before the full-scale deployment of new health information systems. However, pilot implementations often fail in the sense that they say little about the usability and usefulness...... information system. Based on the findings from this study, we identify three main challenges: (1) defining an appropriate scope for pilot implementation, (2) managing the implementation process, and (3) ensuring commitment to the pilot. Finally, recommendations for future research and implications...... of the proposed system designs. This calls for studies that seek to uncover and analyze the reasons for failure, so that guidelines for conducting such pilots can be developed. In this paper, we present a qualitative field study of an ambitious, but unsuccessful pilot implementation of a Danish healthcare...

  8. Safety belt wearing among taxi drivers and passengers in Hefei city%合肥市出租车司乘人员安全带佩戴状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎春; 阎文厅; 陈晨; 赵亮; 钱会; 高孝斌


    Objective To investigate the situation of safety belt wearing among taxi drivers and passengers in Hefei city of Anhui province. Methods Five observation points were selected on the main roads and minor wads, respectively. Safety belt wearing among taxi drivers and front seat passengers were observed from 7:00 to 19:00 in two days( one work-ing day and one weekend)at each observation point. Fifty vehicle-times with passengers in the front seat were observed dur-ing each observation hour, with a total of 12 000 vehicle-times. Results The rates of wearing safety belt properly, improper-ly,and non-wearing of safety belt were 44. 2% ,3.4% ,52. 4% for the taxi drivers,respectively;while the rates of wearing safety belt properly,and non-wearing of safety belt were 0. 5% and 99. 5% for the front seat passengers. The rates of wear-ing safety belt properly for drivers were higher in working days than in weekend, showed an inerease-decrease-increase-de-crease tendency from 7:00 to 19:00,with peaks at 10:00 to 11:00,16:00 to 17:00,and a trough at 13:00. There was no significant difference between the rates on main roads and on minor roads. However,the rate was higher for female drivers than male drivers. Conclusion The rate of wearing safety belt properly was relatively low among taxi drivers and passen-gers in Hefei city. Monitoring and management of city traffic should be reinforced according to the time variation regularity of safety belt wearing among taxi drivers and it is also very important to take intervention on front seat belt wearing.%目的 调查安徽省合肥市出租车司乘人员安全带的佩戴情况.方法 在合肥市区分别选择5个主干道和5个支路路段观察点,每个观察点于工作日、双休日各观察1 d.自07:00~19:00连续12 h的每1 h时间段内,累计观察前排有乘客乘坐的出租车50车次,共观察12 000车次.结果 合肥市出租车司机安全带正确、不正确佩戴率及未佩戴率分别为44.2%,3.4%,52.4%;

  9. F-104 with research pilot Steve Ishmael (United States)


    NASA research pilot Stephen D. Ishmael in front of an F-104 in this 1984 photo. Ishmael became a NASA research pilot in 1977, and during the following year began flying the F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire aircraft. Ishmael also flew on the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)F-16 and the X-29 program among others. In the early 1990s, he was selected as one of two research pilots to fly the NASA SR-71s.

  10. X-15 test pilots - Engle, Rushworth, McKay, Knight, Thompson, and Dana (United States)


    The X-15 flight crew, left to right; Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay, Air Force pilot William J. 'Pete' Knight, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, and NASA pilot Bill Dana. of their 125 X-15 flights, 8 were above the 50 miles that constituted the Air Force's definition of the beginning of space (Engle 3, Dana 2, Rushworth, Knight, and McKay one each). NASA used the international definition of space as beginning at 62 miles above the earth. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large

  11. SR-71 Pilot Rogers E. Smith (United States)


    Research pilot Rogers E. Smith is shown here in front of the SR-71 Blackbird he flew for NASA. Rogers was one of the two original NASA research pilots assigned to the SR-71 high speed research program at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Smith has been a NASA research pilot at Dryden since 1982. Data from the SR-71 program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. The SR-71 is capable of flying more than 2200 mph (Mach 3+) and at altitudes of over 80,000 feet. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data

  12. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance (United States)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.


    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  13. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  14. 76 FR 60960 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) (United States)


    ... Program. (70 FR 69645). The pilot, including the waiver of regulations, was designed as a temporary... its waiver of the Agency regulations identified in the Federal Register notice at 70 FR 69645 with the... ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  15. 75 FR 53007 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) (United States)


    ... Agency regulations for the 7(a) Business Loan Program. (70 FR 69645). Because the pilot was designed as a... regulations identified in the Federal Register notice at 70 FR 69645 through September 30, 2011. SBA's waiver... ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  16. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  17. AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray (United States)


    Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in

  18. Use of piloted simulation for studies of fighter departure/spin susceptibility (United States)

    Gilbert, W. P.; Nguyen, L. T.


    The NASA-Langley Research Center has incorporated into its stall/spin research program on military airplanes the use of piloted, fixed-base simulation to complement the existing matrix of unique research testing techniques. The piloted simulations of fighter stall/departure flight dynamics are conducted on the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). The objectives of the simulation research are reviewed. The rationale underlying the simulation methods and procedures used in the evaluation of airplane characteristics is presented. The evaluation steps used to assess fighter stall/departure characteristics are discussed. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the flight dynamics phenomena dealt with. The considerable experience accumulated in the conduct of piloted stall/departure simulation indicates that simulation provides a realistic evaluation of an airplane's maneuverability at high angles of attack and an assessment of the departure and spin susceptibility of the airplane. This realism is obtained by providing the pilot a complete simulation of the airplane and control system which can be flown using a realistic cockpit and visual display in simulations of demanding air combat maneuvering tasks. The use of the piloted simulation methods and procedures described were found very effective in identifying stability and control problem areas and in developing automatic control concepts to alleviate many of these problems. A good level of correlation between simulated flight dynamics and flight test results were obtained over the many fighter configurations studied in the simulator.

  19. Bell Creek field micellar-polymer pilot demonstration. Third annual report, October 1978-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldburg, A.


    Gary Energy Corporation is conducting a DOE Demonstration Pilot to determine if micellar-polymer flooding is an economically feasible technique to enhance oil recovery from the Bell Creek Field, Powder River County, southeastern Montana. The pilot is a contained 40-acre 5-spot located in a representative watered-out portion of Unit A Reservoir. The pay is sandstone with an average net pay of 6.4 feet, air permeability of 1050 md, and water TDS of 4000 ppM. The current average remaining oil saturation in the 40-acre pilot area is estimated to be 28%. The pilot has four injectors (Wells MPP-1, MPP-2, MPP-3, and MPP-4) and one producer (Well 12-1). The overall micellar-polymer oil recovery is estimated at 47% of the remaining oil at the initiation of the micellar-polymer flood. In the third contract year (October 1978 to September 1979), all tasks including the initiation of soluble oil/micellar injection were completed. Test site development included completion of: (1) radioactive tracer survey and analysis, (2) core analysis, (3) pressure pulse tests and analysis, (4) reservoir description, and (5) test site facilities. Based on test site development data, soluble oil/micellar formulation was finalized and mathematical simulation work by Intercomp completed. The preflush injection phase of the demonstration program was completed, and the soluble oil/micellar injection was initiated at the end of the contract year. The pilot demonstration project has progressed as scheduled.

  20. Unified Theory for Aircraft Handling Qualities and Adverse Aircraft-Pilot Coupling (United States)

    Hess, R. A.


    A unified theory for aircraft handling qualities and adverse aircraft-pilot coupling or pilot-induced oscillations is introduced. The theory is based on a structural model of the human pilot. A methodology is presented for the prediction of (1) handling qualities levels; (2) pilot-induced oscillation rating levels; and (3) a frequency range in which pilot-induced oscillations are likely to occur. Although the dynamics of the force-feel system of the cockpit inceptor is included, the methodology will not account for effects attributable to control sensitivity and is limited to single-axis tasks and, at present, to linear vehicle models. The theory is derived from the feedback topology of the structural model and an examination of flight test results for 32 aircraft configurations simulated by the U.S. Air Force/CALSPAN NT-33A and Total In-Flight Simulator variable stability aircraft. An extension to nonlinear vehicle dynamics such as that encountered with actuator saturation is discussed.

  1. Back pain and exposure to whole body vibration in helicopter pilots. (United States)

    Bongers, P M; Hulshof, C T; Dijkstra, L; Boshuizen, H C; Groenhout, H J; Valken, E


    In a questionnaire survey the prevalence of back pain in 163 helicopter pilots was compared to that in a control group of 297 non-flying air force officers who underwent the same pre-employment medical examination. Since pilots document their hours of flight in a personal flight log, an accurate estimate of the duration of exposure could be made. In addition, vibration levels of the helicopters were measured and an accumulative vibration dose was calculated for each pilot. 'Transient' back pain of a short duration was more frequent amongst the pilots compared to the control group, and the prevalence of 'chronic' back pain of a persistent nature was also higher amongst the helicopter pilots. Transient back pain seemed to be most strongly related to the average hours of flight per day, whereas chronic back pain was more closely related to total hours of flight or the accumulative vibration dose. A significant higher prevalence of this chronic back pain was observed only after 2000 hours of flight or a vibration dose of 400 m2h/s4. The observed health effects may be due to vibration or constrained posture but are most likely due to concomitant exposure to both factors.

  2. 基于Android的出租车智能管理系统的研究与设计%Study and Design of Intelligent Management System of Taxi Based on Android

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾兴苇; 王丹志


    现代社会发展出租车智能管理系统能有效缓解有限的交通资源与日益增加的市民出行需求的矛盾.针对现有出租车打车软件存在的各种问题,本系统将电召软件与计价器、智能顶灯、监控终端、空车牌等硬件设备有机地结合在一起,以电召司机端软件作为重点,实现了普通运营、同一地点合乘、不同地点合乘等运营流程和订单记录查看、电子围栏设置等其他功能,达到了"界面简洁友好"、"操作简单直观"、"功能完整齐全"的要求.经过专业测试人员系统测试,本系统能准确方便地实现用户的需求,数据采集、统计准确率达到 98%及以上,车辆数据上传到后台服务器及时准确.已经在广州市白云区试运营,并取得了良好的效果.%Intelligent management system of taxi can effectively alleviate the contradiction between the growing demand for public travel and limited transportation resources.To solve the problems of existing taxi on-call software,this system combines on-call software and meter,intelligent dome,monitor terminal,empty plates and other hardware equipment together organically.Focusing on on-call software,the author accomplished regular operations,carpool at same place,and carpool at different places and check of record of orders,electronic enclosure and other functions.Thus this paper fulfilled requirements of 'simple and friendly interface','intuitive and easy operations',and 'complete functions'.After tested by professional testers,this system can accurately and easily achieve the needs of users.Data collection,statistical accuracy rate of 98 percent and above,the vehicle data is uploaded to the backend server timely and accurately.It has been in trial operation in Baiyun District of Guangzhou City,and achieved good results.

  3. 基于NoSQL的海量出租车GPS数据Web服务研究%Research of Massive Taxi GPS Data Web Service Based on NoSQL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓英; 何首武; 苏树海


    【目的】针对传统关系型数据库扩展性差、存取效率低等问题,提出一种基于非关系型数据库(NoSQL)的海量出租车 GPS数据 Web服务方案,满足海量空间数据高效存储管理与实时在线服务的需求。【方法】利用 MongoDB地理空间索引实现基于位置的查询,基于 Node.j s 技术提供 Web service 服务,采用 Express MVC框架构建 Web应用。【结果】与 MySQL Spatial相比,MongoDB在区域查询方面具有较高的查询效率,数据量多时,其性能尤为显著。【结论】基于 NoSQL的出租车 GPS数据 Web 服务方案可以支持海量位置数据的实时查询与地图显示,具有一定的应用参考价值。%Objective]In order to meet the demand of massive spatial data storage manage-ment and real-time online service,the massive taxi GPS data Web service based on NoSQL was discussed in this paper.The solution is to overcome the problem of poor scalability and low access efficiency in traditional relational database.[Methods]In our solution,location-based query was realized by the MongoDB geospatial indexes.Web services was built on the Node.j s technology.The Express MVC framework was used for building Web application.[Results]The region query experiments on the MongoDB and MySQL Spatial Extensions was carried out for performance comparisons.The results showed that MongoDB had higher que-ry efficiency.When there was large amount of data,its performance was particularly signifi-cant.[Conclusion]The taxi GPS data Web service based on NoSQL can support the real-time query and display of location data on the digital map.The result has certain reference value for the similar study.

  4. Ejection experience in Serbian air force, 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ejection injuries are the problem for air forces. The present risk for injuries is still too high, approximately 30-50%. This study was an effort to determine factors responsible for and contributing to injuries in the Serbian Air Force (SAF in the last two decades. Methods. All ejection cases in the SAF between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed. The collected data were: aircraft type, ejection seat generation, pilots ´ age and experience, causes of ejection, aeronautical parameters, the condition of aircraft control and types of injuries. For ease of comparison the U.S. Air Force Safety Regulation was used to define of major injuries: hospitalization for 5 days or more, loss of consciousness for over 5 min, bone fracture, joint dislocation, injury to any internal organ, any third-degree burn, or second-degree burn over 5% of the body surface area. Results. There were 52 ejections (51 pilots and 1 mechanic on 44 airplanes. The ejected persons were from 22 to 46 years, average 32 years. Major injuries were present in 25.49% cases. Of all the ejected pilots 9.61% had fractures of thoracic spine, 11.53% fractures of legs, 3.48% fractures of arms. Of all major injuries, fractures of thoracic spine were 38.46%. None of the pilots had experienced ejection previously. Conclusion. Our results suggest to obligatory take preventive measures: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan must be included in the standard pilot selection procedure and procedure after ejection. Physical conditioning of pilots has to be improved. Training on ejection trainer has to be accomplished, too.

  5. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  6. Objective measure of pilot workload (United States)

    Kantowitz, B. H.


    Timesharing behavior in a data-entry task, similar to a pilot entering navigation data into an on-board computer is investigated. Auditory reaction time as a function of stimulus information and dimensionality is examined. This study has direct implications for stimulus selection for secondary tasks used in the GAT flight simulator at Ames Research Center. Attenuation effects of heat and cold stress in a psychological refractory period task were studied. The focus of interest is the general effects of stress on attention rather than upon specific temperature related phenomena.

  7. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring (United States)


    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  8. STS-38 Pilot Culbertson removes film from an OV-104 middeck stowage locker (United States)


    STS-38 Pilot Frank L. Culbertson removes photographic film from stowage locker MF43E located on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Additional items fastened to the forward lockers include a doll, meal tray assemblies, a SONY Walkman, a camera lens, and a Department of Air Force insignia (decal). The crew escape pole (CEP) extends over Culbertson's head and the open airlock hatch appears behind him.

  9. Utilization of simple and double control subsonic aircraft for advanced combat training of the military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The use of subsonic single control aircraft and especially of double–control ones, instead of supersonic combat aircraft in the military pilot training programs in the operational units, has be-come a necessity due to the economic and financial world-wide crisis which began during the 70’s-80’s, with the advent of the oil crisis, affecting many countries, which have their own Military Air Forces.

  10. Simulation Modeling of Advanced Pilot Training: The Effects of a New Aircraft Family of Systems (United States)


    Vendor 4 Figure 2. Advanced Pilot Training The shaded portion of Figure 2 depicts T-38s utilized by the Air Education and Training Command...requirements and resource availability on student throughput. The model runs each scenario fifty times to generate the appropriate data in analysis...parameters in this study can be determined with 10 or 20 replications, however MTBM requires fifty replications to gain accuracy within ±.1 maintenance

  11. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijderveen, M. van; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.


    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The inco

  12. Paraguayan Education Study: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Garcia, Patricia

    A qualitative pilot study, guided by an ecological framework, illustrates the complexities involved in studying the unique linguistic situation in Paraguay between Spanish and the indigenous language of Guarani, and its relationship with education. The pilot study interviewing eight kindergarten children. Seventy five children have been…

  13. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration


    The pilot model used by the ATLAS production system has been in use for many years. The model has proven to be a success with many advantages over push models. However one of the negative side-effects of using a pilot model is the presence of 'empty pilots' running on sites which consume a small amount of walltime and not running a useful payload job. The impact on a site can be significant with previous studies showing a total 0.5% walltime usage with no benefit to either the site or to ATLAS. Another impact is the number of empty pilots being processed by a site's Compute Element and batch system which can be 5% of the total number of pilots being handled. In this paper we review the latest statistics using both ATLAS and site data and highlight edge cases where the number of empty pilots dominate. We also study the effect of tuning the pilot factories to reduce the number of empty pilots.

  14. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment. (United States)


    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.771... a second pilot, the rotorcraft must be controllable with equal safety from either pilot position. Flight and powerplant controls must be designed to prevent confusion or inadvertent operation when...

  15. Pilot Task Demand Load During RNAV Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.M.


    The question that started this research was: “Why is approach A more difficult to fly for a pilot than approach B?”. To find an answer to this question, pilots flew a large variety of Area Navigation (RNAV) approaches during several flight simulator and real flight experiments. The results of these

  16. Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duplissy, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Aplin, K.L.;


    During a 4-week run in October-November 2006, a pilot experiment was performed at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in preparation for the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment, whose aim is to study the possible influence of cosmic rays on clouds. The purpose of the pilot experiment...

  17. 28 CFR 11.2 - Pilot program. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pilot program. 11.2 Section 11.2 Judicial... Pilot program. The Assistant Attorney General for Administration, in consultation with the Executive Office for United States Attorneys, shall designate the districts that will participate in the...

  18. Decision Support System for Fighter Pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randleff, Lars Rosenberg


    During a mission over enemy territory a fighter aircraft may be engaged by ground based threats. The pilot can use different measures to avoid the aircraft from being detected by e.g. enemy radar systems. If the enemy detects the aircraft a missile may be fired to seek and destroy the aircraft...... and countermeasures that can be applied to mitigate threats. This work is concerned with finding proper evasive actions when a fighter aircraft is engaged by ground based threats. To help the pilot in deciding on these actions a decision support system may be implemented. The environment in which such a system must...... platforms (aircraft, ships, etc.) is described. Different approaches to finding the combination of countermeasures and manoeuvres improving the pilots survivability is investigated. During training a fighter pilot will learn a set of rules to follow when threat occurs. For the pilot these rules...

  19. [Heart morphologic state in retired fighter pilots]. (United States)

    Yang, X E; Chen, Z G; Long, L; Zhai, D S; Zhao, X J; Fang, R Y


    Objective. To study the heart morphology in the retired fighter pilots, and to provide clinical evidence for protection combined G-loads (+ Gz), heat, noise, hypoxic and vibration stress induced cardiac structural damage. Method. Parameters of heart morphology were studied using Doppler echocardiography in 40 retired fighter pilots with 40 veteran cadres as control. Result. LVDd, LVDs, LADs, LVEDV, LVPWs and LVM in pilot group were somewhat higher than those in control group (NS); while IVSs and LVMI in pilot group were slightly lower than those in control group (NS); LVESV, aortic valve area, internal diameter of the ring and sinus in pilot group were significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Analysis of the results revealed no pathomorphologic damage of the heart. It suggest that all the variations can be regarded as adaptive changes due to the effects of the combined environmental factors experienced in long time flying.

  20. Pilot Implementations as an Approach to Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie; Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á

    In this paper we introduce pilot implementation, a supplement to information systems development, as an approach to study and design work infrastructures. We report from two pilot implementations in the Danish healthcare, which showed signs of grappling with aligning the past, present...... and the future while using a pilot system in real use situations and with real users. Based on our initial findings we believe that pilot implementations can address some of the challenges of studying infrastructures, because they make the infrastructure visible and because they can integrate the long......-term with the short-term aspects. The paper is based on work-in-progress and the purpose is not as much to make conclusions as to spark discussion about whether pilot implementations could offer a way to study and design work infrastructures during information system development....

  1. 112例慢性腹泻飞行员肠道菌群中产超广谱β-内酰胺酶菌的检测与分析%Detection and Analysis of Extenden Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Bacterium in Intestinal Flora of 112 Chinese Air Force Pilots with Chronic Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海谱; 李仕英; 王缚鲲; 季雯; 朱庆尧


    Objective To investigate the detection rate and drug resistance of extenden spectrum beta-lactamase ( ESBLs)bacterium in intestinal flora of pilots with chronic diarrhea,and to explore the influence of antibacterials on the generation of ESBLs positive escherichia coli. Methods A total of 112 pilots with chronic diarrhea in one flight college during December 2012 and October 2013 were selected. The ESBLs of faeces samples were detected. The contrastive a-nalysis of drug resistance and antibacterials use was performed between ESBLs positive escherichia coli group( group A) and ESBLs negative escherichia coli group( group B). Results The colonization rate of ESBLs bacterium in chronic di-arrhea pilots was 34. 82%. The drug resistance rate in group A was significantly higher than that in group B(P80%。抗菌药物、头孢菌素类或氟喹诺酮类药物应用、应用抗菌药物种类多(≥2种)与 ESBLs大肠埃希菌产生密切相关(P<0.05,P<0.01)。结论慢性腹泻飞行员产 ESBLs菌定植率较高,需要积极明确病因、排除致病菌感染、减少抗菌药物应用、对产 ESBLs细菌携带者适当采取隔离措施,以控制产ESBLs菌的定植传播。

  2. R9 Air Districts (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  3. AirData (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  4. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  5. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD); McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Biberacher, M. [Research Studios Austria AG (RSA), Salzburg (Austria)


    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  6. Piloting improved cookstoves in India. (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica J; Bhojvaid, Vasundhara; Brooks, Nina; Das, Ipsita; Jeuland, Marc A; Patange, Omkar; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K


    Despite the potential of improved cookstoves to reduce the adverse environmental and health impacts of solid fuel use, their adoption and use remains low. Social marketing-with its focus on the marketing mix of promotion, product, price, and place-offers a useful way to understand household behaviors and design campaigns to change biomass fuel use. We report on a series of pilots across 3 Indian states that use different combinations of the marketing mix. We find sales varying from 0% to 60%. Behavior change promotion that combined door-to-door personalized demonstrations with information pamphlets was effective. When given a choice amongst products, households strongly preferred an electric stove over improved biomass-burning options. Among different stove attributes, reduced cooking time was considered most valuable by those adopting a new stove. Households clearly identified price as a significant barrier to adoption, while provision of discounts (e.g., rebates given if households used the stove) or payments in installments were related to higher purchase. Place-based factors such as remoteness and nongovernmental organization operations significantly affected the ability to supply and convince households to buy and use improved cookstoves. Collectively, these pilots point to the importance of continued and extensive testing of messages, pricing models, and different stove types before scale-up. Thus, we caution that a one-size-fits-all approach will not boost improved cookstove adoption.

  7. 细菌群体趋药性算法在农产品配送车辆调度中的应用%Application of Bacterial Colony Chemo - taxis Algorithm in Agricultural Products Vehicle Routing Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    描述了农产品配送车辆调度中存在的问题,建立了带有时间窗口约束的多目标农产品配送车辆调度模型,提出基于细菌群体趋药性算法的求解方法,仿真结果表明,基于细菌体趋药性算法的结果优于遗传算法,为农产品配送车辆调度问题的解决提供了新思路.%The vehicle routing problems for agricultural product distribution were described, the multi-objective vehicle routing model of agricultural products distribution with time window constraints was established, and a solution method based on bacterial colony chemo-taxis algorithm was put forward. The simulation results showed that the algorithm is superior to the results of genetic algorithm for solving vehicle scheduling problem of agricultural productions distribution.

  8. Conflictividad por la operación del transporte público de pasajeros (modalidad taxi en conjuntos urbanos de Tecámac, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmín Hernández Romero


    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone resultados parciales de una investigación sobre los conflictos surgidos en el transporte públicode pasajeros, específicamente con organizaciones de la modalidad de taxi en el municipio de Tecámac, Estado de México,que buscan la operación en nuevos conjuntos urbanos, derivados de la reconfiguración urbano-espacial acaecida en estazona. El hecho resulta relevante, ya que no se trata de espacios habitables que surjan de manera “natural” o irregular, sinode espacios que son resultado de un proceso de planificación urbana. Dicha indagación se llevó a cabo mediante inves-tigación documental y hemerográfica, así como a través de entrevistas a actores involucrados. Dentro de los resultadosobtenidos se encontró, como conclusión parcial, que no existe una articulación adecuada entre la planificación urbanacon la planeación del servicio público de transporte; además de que, las proyecciones urbanas no toman en cuenta losconflictos que pueden resultar de los procesos de interacción social entre actores locales –viejos y nuevos–.

  9. X-15 #3 with test pilot Milt Thompson (United States)


    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson stands next to the X-15 #3 ship after a research flight. Milton 0. Thompson was a research pilot, Chief Engineer and Director of Research Projects during a long career at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Thompson was hired as an engineer at the Flight Research Facility on March 19, 1956, when it was still under the auspices of NACA. He became a research pilot on May 25, 1958. Thompson was one of the 12 NASA, Air Force, and Navy pilots to fly the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft between 1959 and 1968. He began flying X-15s on October 29, 1963. He flew the aircraft 14 times during the following two years, reaching a maximum speed of 3723 mph (Mach 5.42) and a peak altitude of 214,100 feet on separate flights. Thompson concluded his active flying career in 1968, becoming Director of Research Projects. In 1975 he was appointed Chief Engineer and retained the position until his death on August 8, 1993. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, andunique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudders on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable

  10. X-15 mock-up with test pilot Milt Thompson (United States)


    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson is seen here with the mock-up of X-15 #3 that was later installed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Milton 0. Thompson was a research pilot, Chief Engineer and Director of Research Projects during a long career at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Thompson was hired as an engineer at the flight research facility on 19 March 1956, when it was still under the auspices of NACA. He became a research pilot on 25 May 1958. Thompson was one of the 12 NASA, Air Force, and Navy pilots to fly the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft between 1959 and 1968. He began flying X-15s on 29 October 1963. He flew the aircraft 14 times during the following two years, reaching a maximum speed of 3723 mph (Mach 5.42) and a peak altitude of 214,100 feet on separate flights. (On a different flight, he reached a Mach number of 5.48 but his mph was only 3712.) Thompson concluded his active flying career in 1968, becoming Director of Research Projects. In 1975 he was appointed Chief Engineer and retained the position until his death on 8 August 1993. The X-15 was a rocket powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense

  11. Air Warfare (United States)


    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  12. Illustrations and Supporting Texts for Sound Standing Waves of Air Columns in Pipes in Introductory Physics Textbooks (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Smith, Chris; Poelzer, G. Herold; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Corpuz, Edgar; Yanev, George


    In our pilot studies, we found that many introductory physics textbook illustrations with supporting text for sound standing waves of air columns in open-open, open-closed, and closed-closed pipes inhibit student understanding of sound standing wave phenomena due to student misunderstanding of how air molecules move within these pipes. Based on…

  13. TASAR Flight Trial 2: Assessment of Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of TASAR Requests (United States)

    Idris, Husni; Enea, Gabriele


    In support of the Flight Trial (FT-2) of NASA's prototype of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept, observations were conducted at the air traffic facilities to identify and assess the main factors that affect the acceptability of pilot requests by air traffic controllers. Two observers shadowed air traffic controllers at the Atlanta (ZTL) and Jacksonville (ZJX) air traffic control centers as the test flight pilot made pre-scripted requests to invoke acceptability issues and then they interviewed the observed and other controllers voluntarily. Fifty controllers were interviewed with experience ranging from one to thirty-five years. All interviewed controllers were enthusiastic about the technology and accounting for sector boundaries in pilot requests, particularly if pilots can be made aware of high workload situations. All interviewed controllers accept more than fifty percent of pilot requests; forty percent of them reject less than ten percent of requests. The most common reason for rejecting requests is conflicting with traffic followed by violating letters of agreement (LOAs) and negatively impacting neighboring sector workload, major arrival and departure flows and flow restrictions. Thirty-six requests were made during the test, eight of which were rejected due to: the aircraft already handed off to another sector, violating LOA, opposing traffic, intruding into an active special use airspace (SUA), intruding into another center, weather, and unfamiliarity with the requested waypoint. Nine requests were accepted with delay mostly because the controller needed to locate unfamiliar waypoints or to coordinate with other controllers.

  14. 46 CFR 78.19-1 - Use of auto pilot. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 78.19-1 Section 78.19-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 78.19-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used in—...

  15. 46 CFR 97.16-1 - Use of auto pilot. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 97.16-1 Section 97.16-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 97.16-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is...

  16. 46 CFR 401.510 - Operation without Registered Pilots. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation without Registered Pilots. 401.510 Section 401... REGULATIONS Penalties; Operations Without Registered Pilots § 401.510 Operation without Registered Pilots. (a... Registered Pilot when the vessel or its cargo is in distress or jeopardy. (b) A vessel may be navigated...

  17. 14 CFR 61.83 - Eligibility requirements for student pilots. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for student pilots... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots. To be eligible for a student...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  19. 38 CFR 21.5290 - Educational Assistance Pilot Program. (United States)


    ... Pilot Program. 21.5290 Section 21.5290 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Educational Assistance Pilot Program § 21.5290 Educational Assistance Pilot Program. (a) Purpose. The Educational Assistance Pilot Program is designed to...

  20. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system (United States)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle


    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  1. Advanced engineering environment pilot project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegel, Jill; Pomplun, Alan R.; Abernathy, Rusty (Parametric Technology Corporation, Needham, MA)


    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a concurrent engineering concept that enables real-time process tooling design and analysis, collaborative process flow development, automated document creation, and full process traceability throughout a product's life cycle. The AEE will enable NNSA's Design and Production Agencies to collaborate through a singular integrated process. Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) are working together on a prototype AEE pilot project to evaluate PTC's product collaboration tools relative to the needs of the NWC. The primary deliverable for the project is a set of validated criteria for defining a complete commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solution to deploy the AEE across the NWC.

  2. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan


    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  3. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies (United States)

    Smaldino, Joseph J.


    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  4. Common Mistakes of a Lancair Pilot facing Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Zorrilla


    Full Text Available This article discusses the origin of the main causes of accidents that occur in experimental Lancair aircrafts. By its nature, the experimental aircrafts exhibit unique flight conditions that could become difficult during inclement weather. For this study, we used the database of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB in the United States, from January 2005 to December 2014, taking into account ten cases of fatal accidents involving planes from this brand. It was concluded that the disorientation and decision-making related to errors were the main reasons, which are directly associated with pilots skills at the time of the accident. Also, a thorough analysis of this research is recommended for a subsequent application to actual cases in the Colombian Air Force.

  5. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Studer, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  6. Combustion characteristics of spark-ignition and pilot flame ignition systems in a model Wankel stratified charge engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroki, T. [Kanagawa Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kanagawa (Japan); Moriyoshi, Y. [Chiba Univ., Dept. of Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Chiba (Japan)


    In a stratified charge engine, a glow plug pilot flame ignition system has been compared with a spark-ignition system for a model stratified charge Wankel combustion chamber. A motored two-stroke diesel engine was operated as a rapid compression and expansion machine with the cylinder head replaced by a model Wankel combustion chamber designed to simulate the temporal changes of air flow and pressure fields inside the chamber of an actual engine. It was found that the pilot flame ignition system had better ignitability and improved combustion characteristics, especially in the lean mixture range, relative to the spark-ignition system. (Author)

  7. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)


    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  8. 14 CFR 61.58 - Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight... (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember. 61.58 Section 61.58 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.58 Pilot-in-command proficiency...

  9. Investigation of the Effect of Pilot Burner on Lean Blow Out Performance of A Staged Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jinhu; ZHANG Kaiyu; LIU Cunxi; RUAN Changlong; LIU Fuqiang; XU Gang


    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes.Moreover,it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine,which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission.However,lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation,so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine.In this work,the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section.The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access.Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns.Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance.The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition.Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization,which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly.Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results.It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel,atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO.In the end of the paper,conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  10. Analysis of Pilot-Induced-Oscillation and Pilot Vehicle System Stability Using UAS Flight Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay K. Mandal


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a Pilot-Induced Oscillation (PIO and human pilot control characterization study performed using flight data collected with a Remotely Controlled (R/C unmanned research aircraft. The study was carried out on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Several existing Category 1 and Category 2 PIO criteria developed for manned aircraft are first surveyed and their effectiveness for predicting the PIO susceptibility for the R/C unmanned aircraft is evaluated using several flight experiments. It was found that the Bandwidth/Pitch rate overshoot and open loop onset point (OLOP criteria prediction results matched flight test observations. However, other criteria failed to provide accurate prediction results. To further characterize the human pilot control behavior during these experiments, a quasi-linear pilot model is used. The parameters of the pilot model estimated using data obtained from flight tests are then used to obtain information about the stability of the Pilot Vehicle System (PVS for Category 1 PIOs occurred during straight and level flights. The batch estimation technique used to estimate the parameters of the quasi-linear pilot model failed to completely capture the compatibility nature of the human pilot. The estimation results however provided valuable insights into the frequency characteristics of the human pilot commands. Additionally, stability analysis of the Category 2 PIOs for elevator actuator rate limiting is carried out using simulations and the results are compared with actual flight results.

  11. Models of Pilot Behavior and Their Use to Evaluate the State of Pilot Training (United States)

    Jirgl, Miroslav; Jalovecky, Rudolf; Bradac, Zdenek


    This article discusses the possibilities of obtaining new information related to human behavior, namely the changes or progressive development of pilots' abilities during training. The main assumption is that a pilot's ability can be evaluated based on a corresponding behavioral model whose parameters are estimated using mathematical identification procedures. The mean values of the identified parameters are obtained via statistical methods. These parameters are then monitored and their changes evaluated. In this context, the paper introduces and examines relevant mathematical models of human (pilot) behavior, the pilot-aircraft interaction, and an example of the mathematical analysis.

  12. Monitoringrapport Groen Proeven Pilots 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, J.T.M.


    Dit rapport is een verslag van een jaar monitoring van de uitgevoerde pilots met Groen proeven. De monitoring van de Groen Proevenpilots is, in nauwe samenwerking met de projectleiding van Groen Proeven, uitgevoerd.

  13. Remotely piloted vehicles; A selective bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, R. [comp.


    This report is a bibliography from the International Aerospace Abstracts and the Scientific and Technical Aerospace Abstracts on remotely piloted vehicles. Most of the applications of these RPV`s are military in nature.

  14. LHCb: Pilot Framework and the DIRAC WMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Graciani, R; Casajus, A


    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, pilot jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach. Details of the implementation and the security aspects of this framework will be discussed.

  15. The importance of piloting an RCT intervention. (United States)

    Feeley, Nancy; Cossette, Sylvie; Côté, José; Héon, Marjolaine; Stremler, Robyn; Martorella, Geraldine; Purden, Margaret


    The pilot study provides a unique opportunity to identify and prepare for the challenges of evaluating an intervention. Ultimately, it will enhance the scientific rigour and value of the full-scale study. Although some journals publish reports of pilot studies, little attention has been given to the types of research questions and issues specific to these studies. This article focuses on the utility of a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) as a first step towards conducting an RCT. Three major objectives of a pilot RCT are discussed: assessing the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, assessing the feasibility and acceptability of the design and procedures, and facilitating the determination of effect sizes for use in sample-size calculations.

  16. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar


    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  17. Humboldt SK pilot biodigester receives funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Canada-Saskatchewan Western Economic Partnership Agreement (WEPA) will provide funding for Canada's first pilot-scale biodigester to be built in Humboldt, Saskatchewan. The $208,138 pilot facility will use household garbage as well as agricultural waste such as manure and livestock operations, abattoirs and food processing to create heat or power and fertilizer. Support for this bio-energy facility, which could also reduce greenhouse gases, will come from the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute which has received $186,138 from Canada and Saskatchewan in the form of cost-shared federal-provincial funding. The pilot plant will test different combinations of waste material feedstocks and the characteristics of the resulting gas end products. The pilot facility will also provide design information for full-scale biodigester manufacturers in Canada. It is expected that 25 full-scale biodigesters will be constructed in Canada in the near future.

  18. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel


    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  19. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  20. Nowhere to Hide: The Growing Threat to Air Bases (United States)


    revealed the destruc- tion of six AV-8B Harrier jets and damage to two other aircraft; addi- tionally, “six aircraft hangers [sic] suffered damage,” and...seam that a technologically savvy enemy could exploit. We must develop modeling, simulation , and defenses to ac- count for these new threats before a...aircraft worthless or can wipe out a barracks occupied by essential personnel such as pilots or aircraft technicians. The Air Force and coalition

  1. John Boyd and the AirLand Battle Doctrine (United States)


    Command and General Staff College 731 McClellan Avenue Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-1350 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY...peninsula, Boyd achieved his childhood dream and entered pilot training at Columbus Air Force Base ( AFB ), Mississippi. Boyd soon found himself Korea, after completing training in the F-86 Sabre at Williams AFB , Arizona. Since he did not arrive in Korea until 1953, he flew only 22 combat

  2. Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Capability on Human Automation Trust: A Case Study of Auto-GCAS Experimental Test Pilots (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Cacanindin, Artemio; Johnson, Walter; Lyons, Joseph


    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Force's newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the case's politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerability/ high risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  3. Air Sensor Toolbox (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  4. HEPA air filter (image) (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  5. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  6. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  7. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model


    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  8. Taxis Responses of Holotrichia cheni Chang (Coleoptera. Melolonthidae) to Leaf Volatiles from Three Tree Species in the Olive Garden%橄榄园不同树叶挥发性物质对陈齿爪鳃金龟选择行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闰争亮; 马惠芬; 李勇杰; 泽桑梓; 宁德鲁


    利用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对水蒸气蒸馏法提取的油橄榄、板栗和杨梅树叶的挥发油进行了分析,在3种树叶挥发性提取物中分别检测出了58,40和43个成分.利用"Y"型嗅觉仪测试了陈齿爪鳃金龟对3种树叶挥发油的趋向反应.在单项选择试验中,陈齿爪鳃金龟雌、雄虫对油橄榄和板栗树叶挥发物表现出明显的趋向反应,且雌虫的趋向反应率大于雄虫;陈齿爪鳃金龟对杨梅树叶挥发物则表现出明显的忌避反应.在双项选择试验中,油橄榄与板栗和杨梅相比,陈齿爪鳃金龟更趋向于油橄榄树叶挥发物;而板栗与杨梅相比,则更趋向于板栗树叶挥发物.%Volatile oils of the leaves of Olea europaea, Castanea mollissima and Myrica rubra were extracted by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS, their attraction activities to Holotrichia cheni were test- ed in a Y-tube olfactometer. A total of 58, 40 and 43 components were detected from O. europaea, C. mollissima and M. rubra, respectively. In a one-way choice experiment, male and female adults of H. cheni expressed statistically significant taxis responses to volatiles of O. europaea and C. mollissima, and the taxis responses of the females to both volatile oils were higher than those of the males. However, the leaf volatiles of M. rubra were repellent to the scarab beetles. In a two-way choice experiment, H. cheni beetles showed greater taxis to the volatiles of O. europaea than to those of C. mollissima and M. rubra, and greater taxis to the volatiles of C. mollissima than to those of M. rubra.

  9. 北京市朝阳区部分出租车司机非酒精性脂肪肝病危险因素的分析%Analysis on Risk Factors of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Some Taxi Drivers of Chaoyang District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯琴; 古艳婷


    目的:探讨男性出租车司机非酒精性脂肪肝病及相关疾病的防治方法。方法:对229名男性出租车司机测量其身高、体质量、血压,分析血清指标,通过问卷调查的方法获取其病史、工作和生活情况方面的信息进行综合分析,制定防治方法。结果:229名男性出租车司机,年龄30~40岁,体重指数(BMI)越大患病率较高,伴有血脂、血糖紊乱的为非酒精性脂肪肝病的危险因素(P<0.05)。结论:有危险因素的出租车司机需经常锻炼身体、注意饮食、休息,预防疾病的发生,并坚持每年1次的体检,早发现疾病和积极治疗。%[ABSTRACT]Objective:To investigate the prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and related diseases in male taxi drivers. Methods: The height, weight, blood pressure and blood pressure of 229 male taxi drivers were measured, and the information of their medical history, work and life situation were analyzed through questionnaire survey. Results: 229 male taxi drivers, age 30~40yers, body mass index (BMI) had a higher prevalence, and the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(P<0.05) were associated with lipid and blood glucose disorder. Conclusion: The risk factors of taxi drivers need to exercise regularly, pay attention to diet, rest, prevent the occurrence of disease, and adhere to the 1 annual physical examination, early detection of disease and active treatment.

  10. A survey of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides in indoor and outdoor air using passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, M.; Harner, T. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (Canada); Wilford, B.; Jones, K. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science; Zhu, J. [Chemistry Research Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa (Canada)


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has recently emerged as a priority environmental pollutant due to its widespread detection in biological samples from remote regions including the Arctic and the Mid-North Pacific Ocean. Because PFOS is fairly involatile, it is hypothesized that its occurrence in remote regions is the result of atmospheric transport of more volatile precursor compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASs). PFASs are used in variety of consumer products for water and oil resistance including surface treatments for fabric, upholstery, carpet, paper and leather. In a recent pilot study employing high volume air samples, indoor air concentrations of PFASs were approximately 100 times greater than outdoor levels. This is of significance because people typically spend about 90% of their time indoors 5 and this exposure may serve as an important uptake pathway. Indoor air also serves as a source of PFASs to the outside where PFASs are ultimately transported and distributed throughout the environment. The current study is intended to be a more comprehensive survey of indoor and outdoor air allowing more confident conclusions to be made. Passive air samplers comprised of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were used. These are quiet, non-intrusive samplers that operate without the aid of a pump or electricity. Air movement delivers chemical to the sampler which has a high retention capacity for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PUF disks samplers have been previously used successfully to monitor different classes of hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants POPs.

  11. Identity Federation and Its Importance for NASA's Future: The SharePoint Extranet Pilot (United States)

    Baturin, Rebecca R.


    My project at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the spring 2013 Project Management and Systems Engineering Internship was to functionalJy test and deploy the SharePoint Extranet system and ensure successful completion of the project's various lifecycle milestones as described by NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7 120.7. I worked alongside NASA Project Managers, Systems Integration Engineers, and Information Technology (IT) Professionals to pilot this collaboration capability between NASA and its External Partners. The use of identity federation allows NASA to leverage externally-issued credentials of other federal agencies and private aerospace and defense companies, versus the traditional process of granting and maintaining full NASA identities for these individuals. This is the first system of its kind at NASA and it will serve as a pilot for the Federal Government. Recognizing the novelty of this service, NASA's initial approach for deployment included a pilot period where nearby employees of Patrick Air Force Base would assist in testing and deployment. By utilizing a credential registration process, Air Force users mapped their Air Force-issued Common Access Cards (CAC) to a NASA identity for access to the External SharePoint. Once the Air Force stands up an Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) instance within their Data Center and establishes a direct trust with NASA, true identity federation can be established. The next partner NASA is targeting for collaboration is Lockheed Martin (LMCO), since they collaborate frequently for the ORION Program. Through the use of Exostar as an identity hub, LMCO employees will be able to access NASA data on a need to know basis, with NASA ultimately managing access. In a time when every dollar and resource is being scrutinized, this capability is an exciting new way for NASA to continue its collaboration efforts in a cost and resource effective manner.

  12. EURObservational Research Programme: the Heart Failure Pilot Survey (ESC-HF Pilot)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Aldo P; Dahlström, Ulf; Filippatos, Gerasimos;


    The primary objective of the new ESC-HF Pilot Survey was to describe the clinical epidemiology of outpatients and inpatients with heart failure (HF) and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across 12 participating European countries. This pilot study was specifically aimed at validating...... the structure, performance, and quality of the data set, for continuing the survey into a permanent registry....

  13. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check...

  14. 76 FR 22412 - Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot... (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot Contact Information Correction AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On April 13, 2011, at 71 FR 20699, HUD published a notice announcing HUD's proposal to conduct...

  15. EURObservational Research Programme : The Heart Failure Pilot Survey (ESC-HF Pilot)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggioni, Aldo P.; Dahlstrom, Ulf; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Crespo Leiro, Marisa; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Gullestad, Lars; Logeart, Damien; Metra, Marco; Parissis, John; Persson, Hans; Ponikowski, Piotr; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Voors, Adriaan A.; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Zannad, Faiez; Tavazzi, Luigi


    The primary objective of the new ESC-HF Pilot Survey was to describe the clinical epidemiology of outpatients and inpatients with heart failure (HF) and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across 12 participating European countries. This pilot study was specifically aimed at validating the

  16. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  17. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ... (United States)


    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  18. Upper Air Reference Materials (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Instructions for observing and recording radiosonde, pilot balloon and other in-situ observations above the earth's surface. Includes Weather Bureau Circular O.

  19. Control of a Buoyancy-Based Pilot Underwater Lifting Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Haugen


    Full Text Available This paper is about position control of a specific small-scale pilot underwater lifting body where the lifting force stems from buoyancy adjusted with an air pocket in the lifting body. A mathematical model is developed to get a basis for a simulator which is used for testing and for designing the control system, including tuning controller parameters. A number of different position controller solutions were tried both on a simulator and on the physical system. Successful control on both the simulator and the physical system was obtained with cascade control based on feedback from measured position and height of the air pocket in the lifting body. The primary and the secondary controllers of the cascade control system were tuned using Skogestad's model-based PID tuning rules. Feedforward from estimated load force was implemented in combination with the cascade control system, giving a substantial improvement of the position control system, both with varying position reference and varying disturbance (load mass.

  20. The Cognitive Pilot Helmet: enabling pilot-aware smart avionics (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Melzer, James E.; Robbins, Steve J.


    We hypothesize that human-aware helmet display systems can drastically improve situation awareness (SA), reduce workload, and become the cognitive gateway to two-way human-systems information. We designed a ruggedized prototype helmet liner that was fitted with active electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and pulse oxymetry sensor. This liner was integrated into a helmet that was fitted with a binocular SR-100A helmet mounted display. We modified the SR-100A to include dual-eye tracking capability. The resulting system is able to pick up physiological signals from the wearer in real-time for cognitive state characterization by the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS). We conducted a preliminary test of the cognitive state estimation system in a simulated close-air-support task in the laboratory and found that workload throughout the mission could be gauged using physiological parameters. Cognitively-linked helmet systems can increase situation awareness by metering the amount of information based on available cognitive bandwidth and eventually, we feel that they will be able to provide anticipatory information to the user by means of cognitive intent recognition. Considerable design challenges lie ahead to create robust models of cognitive state characterization and intent recognition. However, the rewards of such efforts could be systems that allow a dramatic increase in human decision making ability and productivity in dynamical complex situations such as air combat or surface warfare.