WorldWideScience

Sample records for air taxi crash

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relation between working conditions, aberrant driving behaviour and crash propensity among taxi drivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Li, Linchao; Prato, Carlo G

    2018-04-03

    Although the taxi industry is playing an important role in Chinese everyday life, little attention has been posed towards occupational health issues concerning the taxi drivers' working conditions, driving behaviour and road safety. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1021 taxi drivers from 21 companies in four Chinese cities and collected information about (i) sociodemographic characteristics, (ii) working conditions, (iii) frequency of daily aberrant driving behaviour, and (iv) involvement in property-damage-only (PDO) and personal injury (PI) crashes over the past two years. A hybrid bivariate model of crash involvement was specified: (i) the hybrid part concerned a latent variable model capturing unobserved traits of the taxi drivers; (ii) the bivariate part modelled jointly both types of crashes while capturing unobserved correlation between error terms. The survey answers paint a gloomy picture in terms of workload, as taxi drivers reported averages of 9.4 working hours per day and 6.7 working days per week that amount on average to about 63.0 working hours per week. Moreover, the estimates of the hybrid bivariate model reveal that increasing levels of fatigue, reckless behaviour and aggressive behaviour are positively related to a higher propensity of crash involvement. Lastly, the heavy workload is also positively correlated with the higher propensity of crashing, not only directly as a predictor of crash involvement, but also indirectly as a covariate of fatigue and aberrant driving behaviour. The findings from this study provide insights into potential strategies for preventive education and taxi industry management to improve the working conditions and hence reduce fatigue and road risk for the taxi drivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013: Burden, Fatal Risk Factors, and Evaluation of a Risk Index for Aviation Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B

    2015-01-01

    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA's General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board's data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes.

  4. Developing a Decision-Support-Tool for an Air Taxi Service in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Van Nes, R.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Sengers, P.; Ghijs, S.S.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a research proposal to develop a tool to analyze logistic concepts of the air taxi service of Aeolus Aviation in different scenarios. Based on this analysis recommendations can be done for a suitable logistic concept for Aeolus. Based on background analysis of the air taxi service

  5. [Occupational risk factors and perceptions of air pollution by motorcycle taxi drivers in Cotonou, Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawin, Hervé; Ayi Fanou, Lucie; Hinson, Vikkey; Tollo, Brice; Fayomi, Benjamin; Ouendo, Edgard-Marius

    Motorcycle taxis occupy a major place in urban transport. Motorcycle taxi drivers are exposed to occupational risk factors (ORF) including air pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate these ORF among motorcycle taxi drivers and their perceptions of air pollution. This mixed study was conducted on motorcycle taxi drivers in Cotonou. The qualitative study was based on focus groups concerning 16 items from the Participatory Occupational Risk Screening Guide (DEPARIS) until saturation and after triangulation of data. The quantitative study consisted of administering a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, cardiopulmonary diseases, and perception of air -pollution risk factors among 397 Cotonou motorcycle taxi drivers. Drivers perceived poor road conditions, effort and handling, and lack of social security as unsatisfactory ORF. Their mean age was 40.95 ± 8.75 years and 45.84% had primary -education. They had been working as motorcycle taxi drivers for an average of 134.95 ± 101.53 months with an average income of FCFA 3138 ± 1238. These occupational factors were significantly associated with cardiopulmonary disorders, observed in 63.2% of drivers. Less than 1/3 of drivers felt that air pollution affected their personal health. Motorcycle taxi drivers have a poor perception of ORF and the severity of exposure to air pollution in this occupation. There is a need to take action to promote the health of this population.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia, 2014: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigus Gebremedhin Asefa

    Full Text Available The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies.This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130 and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582 taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers' involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey.Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188 of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33-0.78, while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05-7.44, receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67-7.85, and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81-8.61 were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24-2.92 and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00-2.28 were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement.The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties.

  7. Filters from taxis air conditioning system: A tool to characterize driver's occupational exposure to bioburden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Monteiro, Ana; Dos Santos, Mateus; Faria, Tiago; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Quintal Gomes, Anita; Marchand, Geneviève; Lacombe, Nancy; Viegas, Susana

    2018-07-01

    Bioburden proliferation in filters from air conditioning systems of taxis represents a possible source of occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of fungi and bacteria in filters from the air conditioning system of taxis used for patient transportation and to assess the exposure of drivers to bioburden. Filters from the air conditioning systems of 19 taxis and 28 personal vehicles (used as controls) operating in three Portuguese cities including the capital Lisbon, were collected during the winter season. The occurrence and significance of bioburden detected in the different vehicles are reported and discussed in terms of colony-forming units (CFU) per 1 m 2 of filter area and by the identification of the most frequently detected fungal isolates based on morphology. Azole-resistant mycobiota, fungal biomass, and molecular detection of Aspergillus species/strains were also determined. Bacterial growth was more prevalent in taxis (63.2%) than in personal vehicles (26.3%), whereas fungal growth was more prevalent in personal vehicles (53.6%) than in taxis (21.1-31.6%). Seven different azole-resistant species were identified in this study in 42.1% taxi filters. Levels of fungal biomass were above the detection limit in 63% taxi filters and in 75% personal vehicle filters. No toxigenic species were detected by molecular analysis in the assessed filters. The results obtained show that bioburden proliferation occurs widely in filters from the air conditioning systems of taxis, including the proliferation of azole-resistant fungal species, suggesting that filters should be replaced more frequently. The use of culture based-methods and molecular tools combined enabled an improved risk characterization in this setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 65769 - Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Order to... issued to Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi and deny its application to resume commuter...

  9. Aspergillus prevalence in air conditioning filters from vehicles: taxis for patient transportation, forklifts, and personal vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Moreira, Ricardo; Faria, Tiago; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    2018-05-04

    The frequency and importance of Aspergillus infections is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to assess the occupational exposure of forklifts and taxi drivers to Aspergillus spp. Nineteen filters from air conditioning system of taxis, 17 from forklifts and 37 from personal vehicles were assessed. Filters extract were streaked onto MEA, DG18 and in azole-supplemented media. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of selected Aspergillus species-complex was also performed. Forklifts filter samples presented higher median values. Aspergillus section Nigri was the most observed in forklifts filters in MEA (28.2%) and in azole-supplemented media. DNA from Aspergillus sections Fumigati and Versicolores was successfully amplified by qPCR. This study enlightens the added value of using filters from the air conditioning system to assess Aspergillus spp. occupational exposure. Aspergillus azole resistance screening should be included in future occupational exposure assessments.

  10. A Heuristic Approach to Solve Air Taxi Scheduling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Chavan, Harish Dnyandeo

    2003-01-01

    All passengers travel at the hour most convenient to them. But it is not always possible to find a flight at the right time to fly them to their destination. In the case where service in any one time period is insufficient to meet air travel demanded, it may be expected that some unfilled demand passengers will either delay their flight or will advance it, thus adding to the effective demand of the adjoining time periods.The obvious alternate means of travel is a rental car. It takes a lot mo...

  11. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Procedure proposed for performance of a probabilistic safety analysis for the event of ''Air plane crash''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    A procedures guide for a probabilistic safety analysis for the external event 'Air plane crash' has been prepared. The method is based on analysis done within the framework of PSA for German NPPs as well as on international documents. Both crashes of military air planes and commercial air planes contribute to the plant risk. For the determination of the plant related crash rate the air traffic will be divided into 3 different categories of air traffic: - The landing and takeoff phase, - the airlane traffic and waiting loop traffic, - the free air traffic, and the air planes into different types and weight classes. (orig./GL) [de

  14. The influence of fixed-route taxi on road accidents and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fedotov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of market economy in Russia expands the need for movement of groups of people of large mega cities on time to a place at simultaneous reduction of the number of groups with identical purposes. Therefore for many cities a wide use of fixed-route taxis the service of passengers at a constant increase of the numbers of routes and the numbers of transport units was characteristic. At the certain intensity of the movement of fixed-route taxis on separate sites of city highways the transport stream and the changing quality of environment raises the risk of road accident and becomes ecologically unsafe. The results of the estimation of the negative influence of fixed-route taxis in comparison with other categories of vehicles are presented. The research was made on city highways running through the zones with a greater number of cultural and community places, shopping centers and administrative establishments. Perspective ways of the increase of traffic safety and the decrease of concentration of harmful emissions are offered.

  15. A cross-sectional study with an improved methodology to assess occupational air pollution exposure and respiratory health in motorcycle taxi driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawin, Herve; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Ayelo, Paul; Kagima, Jacqueline; Sonoukon, Rodrigue; Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand H.; Awopeju, Olayemi; Vollmer, William M.; Nemery, Benoit; Burney, Peter; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Motorcycle taxi driving is common in many African cities. This study tested whether this occupation is associated with more respiratory disorders in a context of widespread urban air pollution with an improved methodology. Methods: In a cross sectional study we compared 85 male motorcycle taxi drivers in the capital city of the Republic of Benin (Cotonou) with an age and neighborhood matched control group. All participants carried a portable carbon monoxide data logger for 8 hours per day to assess exposure to air pollution. Respiratory symptoms were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry. Results: The two groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.10) in their age, height, educational level, and exposures to smoke from biomass fuels and tobacco products. The taxi drivers were exposed to higher mean (SD) levels of carbon monoxide (7.6 ± 4.9 ppmvs. 5.4 ± 3.8 ppm p = 0.001). They reported more phlegm and tended to have slightly lower levels of lung function, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this cross sectional study of young motorcycle taxi drivers with substantial exposure to urban traffic and a matched control group, we found no evidence for respiratory impairment. A follow-up of such study population with other pollution exposure surrogate and other clinical endpoint may provide a more robust conclusion regarding the exposure response in this professional group. - Highlights: • Need of improved study method to assess air pollution effect in exposed workers • This study compared motorcycle taxi drivers and a matched control group • Personal carbon monoxide exposure and respiratory disorders were collected • No evidence of more respiratory disorders even though pollutant exposure was higher

  16. A cross-sectional study with an improved methodology to assess occupational air pollution exposure and respiratory health in motorcycle taxi driving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawin, Herve, E-mail: hervelawin@yahoo.fr [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Agodokpessi, Gildas [Centre National Hospitalier et Universitaire de Pneumo-Phtisiologie, Cotonou (Benin); Ayelo, Paul [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Kagima, Jacqueline [Department of internal medicine, Egerton University (Kenya); Sonoukon, Rodrigue [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand H. [Department of Internal Medicine, Douala General Hospital, Cameroon Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala (Cameroon); Awopeju, Olayemi [Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria); Vollmer, William M. [Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland (United States); Nemery, Benoit [Dept. of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Insurance Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Burney, Peter [National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fayomi, Benjamin [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin)

    2016-04-15

    Introduction: Motorcycle taxi driving is common in many African cities. This study tested whether this occupation is associated with more respiratory disorders in a context of widespread urban air pollution with an improved methodology. Methods: In a cross sectional study we compared 85 male motorcycle taxi drivers in the capital city of the Republic of Benin (Cotonou) with an age and neighborhood matched control group. All participants carried a portable carbon monoxide data logger for 8 hours per day to assess exposure to air pollution. Respiratory symptoms were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry. Results: The two groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.10) in their age, height, educational level, and exposures to smoke from biomass fuels and tobacco products. The taxi drivers were exposed to higher mean (SD) levels of carbon monoxide (7.6 ± 4.9 ppmvs. 5.4 ± 3.8 ppm p = 0.001). They reported more phlegm and tended to have slightly lower levels of lung function, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this cross sectional study of young motorcycle taxi drivers with substantial exposure to urban traffic and a matched control group, we found no evidence for respiratory impairment. A follow-up of such study population with other pollution exposure surrogate and other clinical endpoint may provide a more robust conclusion regarding the exposure response in this professional group. - Highlights: • Need of improved study method to assess air pollution effect in exposed workers • This study compared motorcycle taxi drivers and a matched control group • Personal carbon monoxide exposure and respiratory disorders were collected • No evidence of more respiratory disorders even though pollutant exposure was higher.

  17. Exposure of bus and taxi drivers to urban air pollutants as measured by DNA and protein adducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, K.; Zhang, L.F.; Krüger, J.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, lymphocyte DNA adducts, serum protein-bound PAH and hemoglobin-bound alkene adducts were analysed from 4 groups of non-smoking men: urban and suburban bus drivers, taxi drivers and suburban controls. The only differences between the groups were in DNA adducts between...... suburban bus drivers and controls, and in DNA adduct and plasma protein PAH-adducts between taxi drivers and controls....

  18. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  19. Forensic odontological observations in the victims of DANA air crash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Forensic odontology or forensic dentistry is that aspect of forensic science that uses the application of dental science for the identification of unknown human remains and bite marks. Deaths resulting from mass disasters such as plane crash or fire incidence have always been given mass burial in Nigeria.

  20. Evaluating the experiences with an Information and Referral Center (IRC) following a large air crash disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.L.; Drogendijk, A.N.

    2017-01-01

    Study/Objective: To evaluate the use of, and experiences with a ‘one-stop-shop’ website for information and referral for bereaved people following an air crash disaster. Background: On July 17, 2014 the disaster of Flight MH17 (Malaysia Airlines) took place above Eastern Ukraine. None of the 298

  1. Remembering the Musi - SilkAir Flight MI 185 crash victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Hui; Wee, Keng Poh; Sahelangi, Peter

    2007-10-01

    On 19 December 1997, SilkAir Flight MI 185, a Boeing B737-300 airliner crashed into the Musi River near Palembang, Southern Sumatra, enroute from Jakarta, Indonesia to Singapore. All 104 passengers and crew onboard were killed. Of the human remains recovered, 6 positive identifications were made, including that of one Singaporean. Two of the identifications were by dental records, 2 by fingerprints, 1 by age estimation and 1 by personal effects. This paper describes the crash victim identification of Flight MI 185. The authors were part of an Indonesia- Singapore forensic team deployed for 3 weeks in Palembang to assist the Indonesian authorities in human remains identification.

  2. Airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, P.

    1975-01-01

    In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60 Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

  3. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  4. Investigation of in-cabin volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in taxis; influence of vehicle's age, model, fuel, and refueling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Reza; Hadei, Mostafa; Hopke, Philip K; Shahsavani, Abbas; Rastkari, Noushin; Kermani, Majid; Yarahmadi, Maryam; Ghaderpoori, Afshin

    2018-06-01

    The air pollutant species and concentrations in taxis' cabins can present significant health impacts on health. This study measured the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the cabins of four different taxi models. The effects of taxi's age, fuel type, and refueling were investigated. Four taxi models in 3 age groups were fueled with 3 different fuels (gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)), and the concentrations of 6 air pollutants were measured in the taxi cabins before and after refueling. BTEX, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde sampling were actively sampled using NIOSH methods 1501, 2541, and 2538, respectively. The average BTEX concentrations for all taxi models were below guideline values. The average concentrations (±SD) of formaldehyde in Model 1 to Model 4 taxis were 889 (±356), 806 (±323), 1144 (±240), and 934 (±167) ppbv, respectively. Acetaldehyde average concentrations (±SD) in Model 1 to Model 4 taxis were 410 (±223), 441 (±241), 443 (±210), and 482 (±91) ppbv, respectively. Refueling increased the in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants primarily the CNG and LPG fuels. BTEX concentrations in all taxi models were significantly higher for gasoline. Taxi age inversely affected formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In conclusion, it seems that refueling process and substitution of gasoline with CNG and LPG can be considered as solutions to improve in-vehicle air concentrations for taxis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Modeling taxi driver anticipatory behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Zhong; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a wider behavioral agent-based model that simulates taxi drivers’ dynamic passenger-finding behavior under uncertainty, we present a model of strategic behavior of taxi drivers in anticipation of substantial time varying demand at locations such as airports and major train stations. The

  6. Methods for determining unimpeded aircraft taxiing time and evaluating airport taxiing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to improve the methods of determining unimpeded (nominal taxiing time, which is the reference time used for estimating taxiing delay, a widely accepted performance indicator of airport surface movement. After reviewing existing methods used widely by different air navigation service providers (ANSP, new methods relying on computer software and statistical tools, and econometrics regression models are proposed. Regression models are highly recommended because they require less detailed data and can serve the needs of general performance analysis of airport surface operations. The proposed econometrics model outperforms existing ones by introducing more explanatory variables, especially taking aircraft passing and over-passing into the considering of queue length calculation and including runway configuration, ground delay program, and weather factors. The length of the aircraft queue in the taxiway system and the interaction between queues are major contributors to long taxi-out times. The proposed method provides a consistent and more accurate method of calculating taxiing delay and it can be used for ATM-related performance analysis and international comparison.

  7. Comparison of Taxi Time Prediction Performance Using Different Taxi Speed Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2017-01-01

    In the STBO modeler and tactical surface scheduler for ATD-2 project, taxi speed decision trees are used to calculate the unimpeded taxi times of flights taxiing on the airport surface. The initial taxi speed values in these decision trees did not show good prediction accuracy of taxi times. Using the more recent, reliable surveillance data, new taxi speed values in ramp area and movement area were computed. Before integrating these values into the STBO system, we performed test runs using live data from Charlotte airport, with different taxi speed settings: 1) initial taxi speed values and 2) new ones. Taxi time prediction performance was evaluated by comparing various metrics. The results show that the new taxi speed decision trees can calculate the unimpeded taxi-out times more accurately.

  8. Toxic fear: the management of uncertainty in the wake of the Amsterdam air crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boin, A; van Duin, M; Heyse, L

    2001-12-14

    This paper examines the management of uncertainty among emergency responders, the media, and the public following the crash of an Israeli cargo plane carrying apparently hazardous cargo in Amsterdam's Bijlmermeer area. While the authorities' management of the emergency created by the initial crash was effective, the long-term crisis management performance was considerably less effective. It is argued that, particularly in hazardous materials emergencies, considerable management attention is required in the long-term aftermath rather than seeking a quick declaration of "all clear" or determination that the crisis is over. This paper examines the roles of all actors in the crisis and addresses the nature of communications in the "disaster after the disaster". The evolution of a "toxic fear" among citizens is documented and the social psychology of crisis management in the aftermath is examined.

  9. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  10. Assessing and reducing fine and ultrafine particles inside Los Angeles taxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; Zhu, Yifang

    2018-05-01

    Taxi drivers and passengers are exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants, but their exposures to fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) and related mitigation strategies are rarely explored. In this study, UFP and PM2.5 concentrations were monitored concurrently inside and outside of 22 taxis under different ventilation and mitigation conditions. Under realistic working conditions (no mitigation; NM), the average UFP and PM2.5 levels inside taxis were 1.46 × 104 particles/cm3 and 26 μg/m3, respectively. When the taxi ventilation was set to outside air mode and the windows kept closed, in-cabin UFP and PM2.5 concentrations are significantly associated with on-road concentrations, driving speed, and cabin air filter usage. The average in-cabin to on-roadway (I/O) ratios for UFP and PM2.5 were reduced from 0.60 to 0.75 under NM, to 0.47 and 0.52 under the most stringent mitigation strategy of keeping the windows closed and operating a high efficiency cabin air filter (WC + HECA). Among all tested taxi models, Toyota Prius exhibited the lowest UFP and PM2.5 I/O ratios under WC + HECA. Switching cabin air filters from the originally equipped manufacturer filter (OEM) to a HECA filter reduced the UFP and PM2.5 I/O ratios most effectively in Toyota Prius taxis as well.

  11. Injury and side impact air bag deployment in near and far sided motor vehicle crashes, United States, 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadter, Greg; Grabowski, Jurek G; Burke, Christine; Aldaghlas, Tayseer A; Robinson, Linda; Fakhry, Samir M

    2008-12-01

    Side impact crashes, the most lethal type, account for 26% of all motor vehicle crashes in the United States. The purpose of this study is to delineate side impact airbag (SIAB) deployment rates, injury rates, and analyze crash factors associated with SIAB deployment and occupant injury. All passenger vehicles equipped with SIABs that were involved in a side impact crash were identified from the National Automotive Sampling System database. Crashes with multiple impacts, ejections, unbelted drivers or rollovers were excluded from the study. The outcome variables of interest were SIAB deployment and driver injury. SIAB deployment was compared in similar crashes to analyze the impact on driver's injury severity score. Other crash factors were also examined to analyze what role they play in SIAB deployment rates and injury rates, such as plane of contact, striking object and Delta-V. The data set for this study contained 247 drivers in near and far side crashes in vehicles with installed SIABs. Overall SIAB deployment was 43% in side impact crashes. A significant factor associated with both the SIAB deployment rate and the driver's injury rate was increased Delta-V. SIABs do not deploy consistently in crashes with a high Delta-V or with a lateral primary direction of force and a front plane of contact. In these two scenarios, further research is warranted on SIAB deployments. With SIAB deployment, it appears drivers are able to sustain a higher Delta-V impact without serious injury.

  12. The Aircraft Electric Taxi System: A Qualitative Multi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Frank

    The problem this research addresses is the airline industry, and the seemingly unwillingness attitude towards adopting ways to taxi aircraft without utilizing thrust from the main engines. The purpose of the study was to get a better understanding of the decision-making process of airline executives, in respect to investing in cost saving technology. A qualitative research method is used from personal interviews with 24 airline executives from two major U.S. airlines, related industry journal articles, and aircraft performance data. The following three research questions are addressed. RQ1. Does the cost of jet fuel influence airline executives' decision of adopting the aircraft electric taxi system technology? RQ2 Does the measurable payback period for a return on investment influence airline executives' decision of adopting ETS technology? RQ3. Does the amount of government assistance influence airline executives' decision of adopting ETS technology? A multi case research study design is used with a triangulation technique. The participant perceptions indicate the need to reduce operating costs, they have concerns about investment risk, and they are in favor of future government sponsored performance improvement projects. Based on the framework, findings and implications of this study, a future research paper could focus on the positive environmental effects of the ETS application. A study could be conducted on current airport area air quality and the effects that aircraft main engine thrust taxiing has on the surrounding air quality.

  13. among Taxi Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Long years of driving [AOR =4.6 (95%CI, 1.6-12.9)], involvement in a similar activity prior to becoming taxi driver .... full time taxi driver; produce a valid driving license; .... Self-employee .... professional car drivers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

  14. Integration of electric vehiclesin cooper atives taxi ambato. Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Esperanza Ruiz Guajala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from combustion vehicles towards a new electrical system friendly to the environment, is a decision to be taken by carrier based on cost-benefit analysis which generates buying it, and contribute to society not only for the service they provide, but to prevent air pollution we breathe, and if we add the future energy supply, since the Ecuadorian State in 2016 will provide the whole country of this important resource. The study focuses on two parts: the first on surveys of taxi owners to describe their perception of the integration of electric vehicles, and the second in determining the economic and financial feasibility of acquiring the vehicle Nissan Leaf by the member of the cooperative taxi. The most important conclusion is that the carriers are willing to buy an electric vehicle to mitigate the emission of toxic gases, and that its decision would save 50% in annual operating costs of your vehicle.

  15. Pedestrian Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving pedestrians in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  16. Bicycle Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving bicyclists in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  17. Modeling of the service taxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Bezborodnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and optimization business processes are ongoing challenges of modernity. Based on the study of business processes to anticipate and avoid many problems in the work of companies linked primarily with an increased level of costs, the low quality of the performed works and manufactured products, excessive run time functions. Application of simulation tool for business processes allows at the stage of planning to assess various indicators of the effectiveness of processes to identify the best sequence of functions, determine resource costs to calculate personnel workload, thereby facilitating timely adoption of the correct administrative decisions. The article deals with the modeling of the business process “Order processing” taxi service Heat the city of Orenburg. Based on the methodology of modeling Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN built functional diagram of the business process (with freely distributed software product Bizagi Modeler, given the resources used, the costs of their use, built calendar schedules. Next, the operation was carried out simulations with different process input data: the number of incoming applications, the number of controllers and advertising budget. It is shown that the efficiency of the business process will contribute to the increase in the total number of dispatchers up to 6 people, as well as increasing advertising costs doubled. As a result of the decisions taken is expected to increase the net income of the company to 76 794 RUR and the average salary of the staff (in particular taxi drivers to 42 281 RUR, dispatchers and 22 799 RUR, as well as reducing the duration of processing a single order up to 31 minutes.

  18. Definition of the risk grounding fatalities due to unintentional airplane crashes by calculates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.Л. Государська

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  Estimates of the expected number of grounding fatalities, are given which probably will arise due to accident of air carriers, air taxi and general aviation. Measures regulation of the risk is considered.

  19. Taxis and crowd-taxis: sharing as a private activity and public concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merethe Dotterud Leiren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy has generated interest among economists for its customer focus and potential to enhance competition. However, it has also caused uproar in industries which have felt competitive pressure, for example among the established stakeholders in the taxi industry. While regulations currently impose considerable costs on the taxi industry, they do not cover virtual transport innovations such as Uber. The lack of a level playing field between taxis and such ‘crowd-taxis’ has generated media attention and conflict. Taxi owners worry about decreasing revenues and taxi drivers about poor working conditions. Other concerns are related to poor transport preparedness, accessibility issues, quality assurance and tax evasion. Despite considerable media attention, there has so far been a lack of scholarly literature addressing the consequences of the sharing economy in the transport sector. Focusing on the Norwegian taxi market, we argue that crowd-taxis will likely produce a range of unanticipated effects, necessitating regulation. For example, crowd-taxis may contribute to a loss of transport preparedness in rural areas. The findings are based on first and secondary data and 19 interviews.

  20. Development of a micro-hybrid system for a three-wheeled motor taxi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Tas, van der S.G.; Ooms, W.; Van Meijl, E. W P; Laugeman, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    In large cities in Asia and Africa millions of auto-rickshaws offer their taxi-services. At the same time these three-wheelers cause severe air-pollution and produce large amounts of green house gasses (carbon dioxide). The goal of the research presented in this paper is to develop a compact, robust

  1. Predicting motorcycle crash injury severity using weather data and alternative Bayesian multivariate crash frequency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Gill, Gurdiljot Singh; Sakrani, Taha; Dasu, Mohan; Zhou, Jiao

    2017-11-01

    Motorcycle crashes constitute a very high proportion of the overall motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, and many studies have examined the influential factors under various conditions. However, research on the impact of weather conditions on the motorcycle crash severity is not well documented. In this study, we examined the impact of weather conditions on motorcycle crash injuries at four different severity levels using San Francisco motorcycle crash injury data. Five models were developed using Full Bayesian formulation accounting for different correlations commonly seen in crash data and then compared for fitness and performance. Results indicate that the models with serial and severity variations of parameters had superior fit, and the capability of accurate crash prediction. The inferences from the parameter estimates from the five models were: an increase in the air temperature reduced the possibility of a fatal crash but had a reverse impact on crashes of other severity levels; humidity in air was not observed to have a predictable or strong impact on crashes; the occurrence of rainfall decreased the possibility of crashes for all severity levels. Transportation agencies might benefit from the research results to improve road safety by providing motorcyclists with information regarding the risk of certain crash severity levels for special weather conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring Urban Taxi Drivers’ Activity Distribution Based on GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information communication technology and data mining technology, we can obtain taxi vehicle’s real time operation status through the large-scale taxi GPS trajectories data and explore the drivers’ activity distribution characteristics. Based on the 204 continuous hours of 3198 taxi vehicles’ operation data of Shenzhen, China, this paper analyzed the urban taxi driver’s activity distribution characteristics from different temporal and spatial levels. In the time level, we identified the difference with taxi daily operation pattern (weekday versus weekends, continuous time in one day, passengers in vehicle time, and taxi drivers’ operation frequency; in the space level, we explored the taxi driver’s searching pattern, including searching activity space distribution and the relationship between the pick-up locations and the drop-off locations. This research can be helpful for urban taxi drivers’ operation and behavior pattern identification, as well as the contribution to the geographical activity space analysis.

  3. REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN, EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION MODE OF TAXI VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norayr Oganesovich Bludyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of international experience in application of requirements for the taxi vehicles design and equipment. The approaches to improvement of cabbing have been defined by determination of requirements for taxi vehicles.

  4. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  5. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patricia; Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla; Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO 2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO 2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  6. Taxi and limousine industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, J.; Civettini, S.

    2007-01-01

    Taxi and limousine service plays an important role in the movement of people within a city. In 2004, the total revenue in this industry in Canada was $1.305 billion, and an estimated 35,339 carriers served the industry. In Canada, economic and safety regulations of taxi supply were imposed in most cities during the 1930s and 1940s and continue to this date. Although the industry is regulated, the competition law also applies. The appropriateness of these regulations continues to be challenged and regulatory reforms in the major cities in Canada have concentrated their efforts on increasing the rate of services, improving the quality of vehicles and enhancing the training of taxi drivers. Indicators for the 1999-2004 period reveal that the taxi and limousine industry in Canada did not perform very well. Revenue increased by only 1.7 per cent per year and margins deteriorated by -1.78 per cent together with the operating ratio. The purpose of this paper was to examine the taxi and limousine industry in Canada. First, the structure of the industry in Canada was examined followed by a review of the economic regulation of the industry. Recent regulatory developments in Canada and in other countries were then reviewed with arguments for or against deregulation. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhang

    Full Text Available How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers' destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big

  8. A COMMUNITY STUDY OF TAXI VIOLENCE AND DISTRESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting & Subjects: Five hundred and four Xhosa speaking youth aged 9-20 years, from 5 primary schools in Khayelitsha; 396 attending 4 schools in close proximity to ... Those who had been in a taxi that was shot at, those who had been at a taxi rank when people were shot, and those who had seen taxi men shooting, had ...

  9. Effectiveness of clean taxi priority incentive at Amsterdam Central Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Flier, A.S.; Dam, J.; van den Hoed, R.

    2017-01-01

    The municipality of Amsterdam wants to have an emission free taxi sector by 2025. In order to reach that goal, the city has taken a number of measures which favour clean taxis above conventional taxis. One of these measures is an innovative priority privilege scheme at the Amsterdam Central Station

  10. A Study on Optimal Resource Allocation of Taxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Xiao Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As taxis play an increasingly important role in urban traffic system, the research on the supply and demand of taxis and the design of an optimal model of taxis supply has an importantly practical significance. In this paper, we used the traffic bureau data of Guangzhou, and determined the rate of empty driving as the index to establish the model. Nonlinear programming method was uesd to establish the optimal model of taxis quantity to meet the maximum income and maximum passenger satisfaction. Finally we got the optimal number of taxis was 37537.59

  11. Characterizing urban structure using taxi GPS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhou, Suhong; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have explored urban structure from many perspectives. Developments in ICT have made it possible to discover spatial patterns in activities using big data. The identified patterns allow us to better understand urban structure. This chapter reports the collection of taxi GPS records for a

  12. Cross-country VFR crashes: pilot and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, David; Owen, Douglas

    2002-04-01

    General Aviation (GA) cross-country crashes, particularly those involving weather, continue to be a major source of fatalities, with a fatality rate more than four times greater than for GA crashes in general. There has been much speculation and little solid evidence on the causes of these crashes. We have designed a program of laboratory and database research into the causes of cross-country weather-related crashes including an analysis of air crashes in New Zealand between 1988 and 2000. There were 1308 reported occurrences in this period. We examined in detail 77 crashes where it could be determined that the aircraft was on a cross-country flight. In our first analysis we compared the characteristics of crashes that occurred in response to externally driven failures with crashes where the aircraft continued to be flown at the pilot's discretion up until the point of the crash. Clear differences were found for visibility, altitude, crash severity, and for several pilot characteristics. These differences are highly consistent with those found for previous research on pilot characteristics and crash involvement. In the second analysis we made comparisons between the weather-related and nonweather-related crashes in the discretionary control group and between subcategories of weather-related crashes. These data show that weather-related crashes occur further into the flight and closer to the planned destination than other kinds of cross-country crashes in GA. Pilots involved in these crashes are younger and have more recent flight time than pilots involved in other crashes. Their increased involvement cannot be explained simply by exposure (flight-time) but must be due to other factors.

  13. A hybrid life cycle and multi-criteria decision analysis approach for identifying sustainable development strategies of Beijing's taxi fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yanpeng; Applegate, Scott; Yue, Wencong; Cai, Jianying; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Gengyuan; Li, Chunhui

    2017-01-01

    To identify and evaluate sustainable strategies of taxi fleet in Beijing in terms of economic, policy, and environmental implications, a hybrid approach was developed through incorporating multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods within a general life-cycle analysis (LCA) framework. The approach can (a) help comprehensive evaluate environmental impacts of multiple types of vehicles, (b) facilitate analysis of environmental, economic and policy features of such vehicles, and (c) identify desirable taxi fleet development strategies for the city. The developed approach represented an improvement of the decision-making capability for taxi implementation based on multiple available technologies and their performance that can be specifically tailored to Beijing. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach could comprehensively reflect multiple implications of strategies for the taxi fleet in Beijing to reduce air pollution in the city. The results also indicated that the electric vehicle powered with the year 2020 electricity projections would be the ideal solution, outranking the other alternatives. The conventional vehicle ranked the lowest among the alternatives. The plug-in hybrid vehicle powered by 2020 electricity projects ranked the third, followed by the plug-in hybrid vehicle ranking the fourth, and the hybrid vehicle ranking the fifth. - Highlights: • An hybrid approach was proposed for evaluating sustainable strategies of Beijing's taxi fleet. • This approach was based on the combination of multi-criteria decision analysis methods and life-cycle assessment. • Environmental, economic and policy performances of multiple strategies were compared. • Detailed responses of taxi drivers and local residents were interviewed. • The electric vehicle would be the ideal solution for Beijing Taxi fleet.

  14. The application of algorithm in taxi security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chengyu

    2017-08-01

    With the booming of the society and economy today, Taxis and private cars have gradually become one of the most popular tools in transportation for their low price and convenience. However, because of the breakdown in the security system, a few accidents occurred due to the illegal taxi. The unreliable security management has attributed to the lack of trust in taxi companies and relevant regulatory authorities, which considered to be the reason why people are worried about it. Accordingly, we put forward a design for a taxi security system, making use of modern technology such as NFC, iBeacon, GPS combined with algorithms, automatically recognize the taxi we take, and reflecting basic information of taxi and driver on our mobile phone.

  15. Automation of orders in taxi service

    OpenAIRE

    Simčič, Matej

    2012-01-01

    Automation is rapidly growing in the last years. The advantages it brings are cost reduction, faster and better performance of tasks that would be otherwise done by humas. It began in the manufacturing industry and later expanded to other sectors. Today's technology allows the implementation of automation in a wide range of areas. The thesis deals with the implementation of a system that allows automated ordering of a taxi. The system consists of four components. They are two mobile app...

  16. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  17. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  18. Fuel cell drive for a taxi; Brennstoffzellen-Antrieb fuer ein Elektro-Taxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Phil; Rosario, Leon; Sharp, Jon; Pouzet, Axel [Lotus Engineering, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Together with some partners Lotus Engineering has developed a fuel cell drive for a taxi. The prototype uses a Lithium Polymer battery pack as the peak power source and is analysed as an alternative for diesel drives in urban areas with stringent emission regulations. (orig.)

  19. Distribution of Total Volatile Organic Compounds at taxi drivers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Golhosseini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is currently the most serious environmental health threat worldwide. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are considered as the main effective factors in causing air pollution. Vehicles are among the major sources which emit these compounds, so it seems that automobiles’ microenvironment is one of the places where people are exposed to high concentration of VOC. Evaluating the exposure amount of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC can indeed be used as an indicator to estimate the amount of exposure to every individual VOC. This study was conducted on the concentration of TVOC inside Tehran taxies for a period of one year. For this purpose, a real time instrument equipped with photo-ionization detector (PID was used. Consequently, the highest and the lowest measured TVOC in taxies equaled 3.33 ppm and 0.72 ppm, respectively. In addition, the arithmetic mean of TVOC concentration was 1.77±0.53 ppm inside the examined taxies. In this study, the parameters like measurement time, climate and vehicle conditions were found to have significant effect on the amount of exposure to TVOC.

  20. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use by Taxi Drivers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...

  1. Evaluating the accuracy of GPS-based taxi trajectory records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Zhong; Rasouli, Soora; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Taxi data are an underused source of travel information. A handful of research has been concerned with the processing of raw taxi GPS data to minimize random error. The study of methods that systematically detect erroneous data has, however, received less attention. Generally, an origin and a

  2. Dansk Taxi Råd har brug for et sprogkursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Helle Bach

    2011-01-01

    16.10. afviser formanden for Dansk Taxi Råd, John Lindbom, at det nyindførte pointsystem har til hensigt at holde indvandrere fra at blive vognmænd. I stedet siger han, at det handler om at højne fagets status og serviceniveau. Dansk Taxi Råd kan komme langt ved at forbedre sin interkulturelle...

  3. Health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendani S. Ramukumba

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: The findings implicate that the health status of taxi operators in Tshwane was a serious concern and urgent concerted effort is needed to engage in lifestyle modification of taxi drivers. The need for health promotion and formalised occupational health services was recommended.

  4. Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samoori sakhvidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers Samoori-Sakhvidi F (MSc* Barkhordari A (PhD** Dehghani A (PhD*** Tavakoli-Manesh S (MSc**** *Corresponding Author: MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran ** Professor, Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran *** Professor, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran **** MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran Abstract Introduction: One of the most common sources of whole body vibration are vehicles in which the driver is exposed to vibration caused by the vehicle and the road. Including the people who continuously exposure to whole-body vibration can be noted to taxi drivers. Taxi drivers during their work shift Encountered with numerous deleterious effects such as noise, vibration, air pollution, and psychological stress and long work shifts. Long-term exposure to whole body vibration in the taxi drivers can communicate with adverse effects such as reduce perception, annoyance, disturbance of vision and fine motor tasks, spinal cord injury, damage to the digestive and reproductive systems. The purpose of this study was cross - sectional study of whole body vibration exposure in Yazd city taxi drivers. Methods: This study was designed to evaluate exposure to whole body vibration in taxi drivers, vibration measurement Was carried out in 80 taxi from 3 vehicle (Samand-Peugeot 405 and Pridein 3 mileage groups, with 63 male drivers and 17 female drivers. parameters Including the vibration Weighing the acceleration frequency (rms, Equivalent acceleration (Aeq and vibration doseVDV in 3-axis was recorded. The results obtained were compared with the values recommended by the standard (ISO 2631-1. Results: The mean (rms acceleration

  5. Large-scale deployment of electric taxis in Beijing: A real-world analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yuan; Wei, Shouyang; Sun, Fengchun; Hu, Xiaosong; Shiao, Yaojung

    2016-01-01

    The national and municipal government of China enacted a series of regulations and policies to stimulate/promote the development of new energy vehicles, in order to mitigate the increasingly serious carbon emissions, environmental pollution, and energy shortage. As a large metropolitan and populated city subject to the notorious air pollution, Beijing has been making a remarkable progress in the large-scale demonstration of new energy vehicles in recent years, which could result in a significant impact on both transport and electricity sectors. As a result, there is an urgent necessity to study the characteristics of the large-scale new energy vehicles adoption for a deep understanding of operational status (e.g., energy consumption and battery charging patterns) and benefits, as well as charging facilities. Based on the operational data collected from realistic electric-taxi demonstration in Beijing, the driver behavior and charging characteristics are examined in this paper. The energy consumption and efficiency of two representative electric-taxi platforms are compared, and the influence of the driving schedules is discussed. The results show that the average driving distance per day of these electric taxes is 117.98 km, and 92% of drivers recharge their cars twice per day. Further study shows that the drivers make two trips per day, and the two peaks in the distribution of departure and arrival times coincide with the rush hour in the morning and evening. The taxi recharge duration is largely influenced by the charging power. Generally, the associated battery SOC (state of charge) swing is between 40% and 100%. By evaluating the energy consumption of 282 trips recorded in 2013 and 2014, we find that the two platforms have similar energy efficiency. The micro-trips method is utilized to probe the correlation of energy consumption and average speed. - Highlights: • Electric taxis' driver behavior and charging characteristics is analyzed based on operation data

  6. Comparison Of Taxis And Logical Semantic Systems In Indonesian And Malaysian Newspapers About Airasia Qz8501 Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Syahputra, Yudha

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to describe the comparative portion of taxis and logical semantic systems between Malaysian and Indonesian newspapers’ articles about AirAsia QZ8501 accident. The data are clause complexes in Indonesia naval captain says may have located missing plane tail’s section’s New Straits Times (Text A) and AirAsia tail section located, blackbox still missing’s The Jakarta Post (Text B) articles. This study uses qualitative-descriptive method. As the result, both par...

  7. Optimization of the revenue of the New York city taxi service using Markov Decision Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, P.; Bhulai, Sandjai; van Essen, J.T.; Bhulai, Sandjai; Kardaras, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Taxis are an essential component of the transportation system in most urban centers. The ability to optimize the efficiency of routing represents an opportunity to increase revenues for taxi drivers. The vacant taxis cruising on the roads are not only wasting fuel consumption, the time of a taxi

  8. Energy Taxis Is the Dominant Behavior in Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gladys; Greer, Suzanne E.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxis encompasses aerotaxis, phototaxis, redox taxis, taxis to alternative electron acceptors, and chemotaxis to oxidizable substrates. The signal for this type of behavior is originated within the electron transport system. Energy taxis was demonstrated, as a part of an overall behavior, in several microbial species, but it did not appear as the dominant determinant in any of them. In this study, we show that most behavioral responses proceed through this mechanism in the alpha-proteobacterium Azospirillum brasilense. First, chemotaxis to most chemoeffectors typical of the azospirilla habitat was found to be metabolism dependent and required a functional electron transport system. Second, other energy-related responses, such as aerotaxis, redox taxis, and taxis to alternative electron acceptors, were found in A. brasilense. Finally, a mutant lacking a cytochrome c oxidase of the cbb3 type was affected in chemotaxis, redox taxis, and aerotaxis. Altogether, the results indicate that behavioral responses to most stimuli in A. brasilense are triggered by changes in the electron transport system. PMID:11029423

  9. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  10. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  11. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  12. Three-wheeled scooter taxi: A safety analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three-wheel scooter taxis (TSR) form an essential part of public transport for the urban ... These low cost vehicles will remain a major mode of travel in the South Asian region ... commercial codes can be avoided for computational efficiency.

  13. Hubungan Upah dan Penawaran Tenaga Kerja Supir Taxi di Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Solihin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing 50 (fifty of taxi drivers, who has been observing around 100 (one hundred working days, this study exploring whether the prediction of Neoclassical theory or the Reference Dependence Point (RDP about income targetting are followed by the taxi drivers in Surabaya city. Neoclassical theory assume that workers will respond positively with the transitory wage change, while the Reference Dependence Point, especially income targetting predict there is negative relationship between labor supply and positive wage income transitory. RDP theory predict that workers will decide reducing their working hours or stopping to work when their wage income has exceed their targetted income. Most of the previous studies evaluate the RDP hiphotesis on taxi drivers. In this study we find that among 50 (fifty taxi drivers being observed in Surabaya following the prediction of RDP theory. The point elasticity of labor supply in respond to positive wage changing has been found on the range of -0.004 % to -0.0012%.

  14. Research on taxi software policy based on big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Daoming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through big data analysis, statistical analysis of a large number of factors affect the establishment of the rally car index set, By establishing a mathematical model to analyze the different space-time taxi resource “to match supply and demand” degree, combined with intelligent deployment to solve the “taxi difficult” this hot social issues. This article takes Shanghai as an example, the central park, Lu Xun park, century park three areas as the object of study. From the “sky drops fast travel intelligence platform” big data, Extracted passenger demand and the number of taxi Kongshi data. Then demand and supply of taxis to establish indicators matrix, get the degree of matching supply needs of the region. Then through the big data relevant policies of each taxi company. Using the method of cluster analysis, to find the decisive role of the three aspects of the factors, using principal component analysis, compare the advantages and disadvantages of the existing company’s programs. Finally, according to the above research to develop a reasonable taxi software related policies.

  15. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  16. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  17. A Geo-Aware Taxi Carrying Management System by Using Location Based Services and Zone Queuing Techniques on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyi-Ren Dow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxi plays a crucial role in the transportation system because of the characteristic that can be hailed conveniently. Most of the taxi drivers obtain passengers by hunting on the road or waiting in a fixed taxi queuing point; however these methods have poor performance, high vacancy rate, and several critical problems such as air pollution and foul up traffic. This study proposed a taxi carrying management system by using location based services and zone queuing techniques on Internet of things. The proposed system allows drivers to both hunt on the road and wait in a queuing zone. A queuing table is used in the control center and neighbor tables are used in RSUs for zone queuing establishment. Joining and leaving mechanisms are developed for zone queuing management. To enhance service efficiency and quality, we present a scheme to prevent the ping-pong effect which is based on the location based services, a hunting rate calculation scheme, and a path planning service for taxi drivers according to the history carrying record. PRISM is used to simulate the proposed system, and the results indicated that our scheme outperforms the waiting and hunting models in terms of number of customers, vacancy rate, and profit.

  18. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  19. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  20. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2016. Fields include injury severity,...

  1. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2017. Fields include injury severity,...

  2. Influence of Tire Characteristics of Interurban Taxis on Exposure Level to Drivers Whole-Body Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Derakhshanjazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taxi drivers’ exposure to repeat whole-body vibrations can cause back pain and digestive disorders. Since this type of vibration depends on the car components, this study was carried out to determine the influence of tire characteristics on the amount of whole-body vibrations transmitted to the Peugeot 405 taxi drivers. Methods: In this experimental study, vibration characteristics were measured according to the ISO2631-1 with each of the statuses: tubeless tires fixed and fluid in it (normal air or nitrogen and also the fluid in the tires fixed with tubes or tubeless on asphalt-paved road. Other variables including tire pressure, engine speed, road gradient, number of passengers, springs, and shock absorbers were kept constant. Then the effect of changes was analyzed using an appropriate statistical test. Results: After changing nitrogen to normal air and tubeless tires to tube, the average of RMS in Z-axis, eight-hour equivalent acceleration A(8 and crest factor were reduced (P 0.9 m/s2 to caution zone (0.45-0.9 m/s2 with a value of 0.8 m/s2. Conclusions: The amount of vibration transmitted to the whole body is sensitive to existence of tubes and tires inflation so that we can reduce the amount of whole-body vibration to lower than the upper limit of the health risk by changing the characteristics of the tire

  3. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Subasish Das; Xiaoduan Sun; Fan Wang; Charles Leboeuf

    2015-01-01

    At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the a...

  4. Critical market crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2003-04-01

    This review presents a general theory of financial crashes and of stock market instabilities that his co-workers and the author have developed over the past seven years. We start by discussing the limitation of standard analyses for characterizing how crashes are special. The study of the frequency distribution of drawdowns, or runs of successive losses shows that large financial crashes are “outliers”: they form a class of their own as can be seen from their statistical signatures. If large financial crashes are “outliers”, they are special and thus require a special explanation, a specific model, a theory of their own. In addition, their special properties may perhaps be used for their prediction. The main mechanisms leading to positive feedbacks, i.e., self-reinforcement, such as imitative behavior and herding between investors are reviewed with many references provided to the relevant literature outside the narrow confine of Physics. Positive feedbacks provide the fuel for the development of speculative bubbles, preparing the instability for a major crash. We demonstrate several detailed mathematical models of speculative bubbles and crashes. A first model posits that the crash hazard drives the market price. The crash hazard may sky-rocket at some times due to the collective behavior of “noise traders”, those who act on little information, even if they think they “know”. A second version inverses the logic and posits that prices drive the crash hazard. Prices may skyrocket at some times again due to the speculative or imitative behavior of investors. According the rational expectation model, this entails automatically a corresponding increase of the probability for a crash. We also review two other models including the competition between imitation and contrarian behavior and between value investors and technical analysts. The most important message is the discovery of robust and universal signatures of the approach to crashes. These precursory

  5. Research on Taxi Driver Strategy Game Evolution with Carpooling Detour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of taxi carpooling detour, this paper studies driver strategy choice with carpooling detour. The model of taxi driver strategy evolution with carpooling detour is built based on prospect theory and evolution game theory. Driver stable strategies are analyzed under the conditions of complaint mechanism and absence of mechanism, respectively. The results show that passenger’s complaint mechanism can effectively decrease the phenomenon of driver refusing passengers with carpooling detour. When probability of passenger complaint reaches a certain level, the stable strategy of driver is to take carpooling detour passengers. Meanwhile, limiting detour distance and easing traffic congestion can decrease the possibility of refusing passengers. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to formulating taxi policy.

  6. Crash sequence based risk matrix for motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Thor, Craig P; Chen, Sheng-Yin

    2018-04-05

    Considerable research has been conducted related to motorcycle and other powered-two-wheeler (PTW) crashes; however, it always has been controversial among practitioners concerning with types of crashes should be first targeted and how to prioritize resources for the implementation of mitigating actions. Therefore, there is a need to identify types of motorcycle crashes that constitute the greatest safety risk to riders - most frequent and most severe crashes. This pilot study seeks exhibit the efficacy of a new approach for prioritizing PTW crash causation sequences as they relate to injury severity to better inform the application of mitigating countermeasures. To accomplish this, the present study constructed a crash sequence-based risk matrix to identify most frequent and most severe motorcycle crashes in an attempt to better connect causes and countermeasures of PTW crashes. Although the frequency of each crash sequence can be computed from crash data, a crash severity model is needed to compare the levels of crash severity among different crash sequences, while controlling for other factors that also have effects on crash severity such drivers' age, use of helmet, etc. The construction of risk matrix based on crash sequences involve two tasks: formulation of crash sequence and the estimation of a mixed-effects (ME) model to adjust the levels of severities for each crash sequence to account for other crash contributing factors that would have an effect on the maximum level of crash severity in a crash. Three data elements from the National Automotive Sampling System - General Estimating System (NASS-GES) data were utilized to form a crash sequence: critical event, crash types, and sequence of events. A mixed-effects model was constructed to model the severity levels for each crash sequence while accounting for the effects of those crash contributing factors on crash severity. A total of 8039 crashes involving 8208 motorcycles occurred during 2011 and 2013 were

  7. Agent-Based Modeling of Taxi Behavior Simulation with Probe Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Ranjit

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taxi behavior is a spatial–temporal dynamic process involving discrete time dependent events, such as customer pick-up, customer drop-off, cruising, and parking. Simulation models, which are a simplification of a real-world system, can help understand the effects of change of such dynamic behavior. In this paper, agent-based modeling and simulation is proposed, that describes the dynamic action of an agent, i.e., taxi, governed by behavior rules and properties, which emulate the taxi behavior. Taxi behavior simulations are fundamentally done for optimizing the service level for both taxi drivers as well as passengers. Moreover, simulation techniques, as such, could be applied to another field of application as well, where obtaining real raw data are somewhat difficult due to privacy issues, such as human mobility data or call detail record data. This paper describes the development of an agent-based simulation model which is based on multiple input parameters (taxi stay point cluster; trip information (origin and destination; taxi demand information; free taxi movement; and network travel time that were derived from taxi probe GPS data. As such, agent’s parameters were mapped into grid network, and the road network, for which the grid network was used as a base for query/search/retrieval of taxi agent’s parameters, while the actual movement of taxi agents was on the road network with routing and interpolation. The results obtained from the simulated taxi agent data and real taxi data showed a significant level of similarity of different taxi behavior, such as trip generation; trip time; trip distance as well as trip occupancy, based on its distribution. As for efficient data handling, a distributed computing platform for large-scale data was used for extracting taxi agent parameter from the probe data by utilizing both spatial and non-spatial indexing technique.

  8. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  9. System dynamics model of taxi management in metropolises: Economic and environmental implications for Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Junhua; Wang, Zhifeng; Li, Guijun; Yang, Yuqi

    2018-05-01

    Taxis are an important component of urban passenger transport. Research on the daily dispatching of taxis and the utility of governmental management is important for the improvement of passenger travel, taxi driver income and environmental impacts. However, urban taxi management is a complex and dynamic system that is affected by many factors, and positive/negative feedback relationships and nonlinear interactions exist between each subsystem and variable. Therefore, conventional research methods can hardly depict its characteristics comprehensively. To bridge this gap, this paper develops a system dynamics model of urban taxi management, in which the empty-loaded rate and total demand are selected as key factors affecting taxi dispatching, and the impacts of taxi fares on driver income and travel demand are taken into account. After the validation of the model, taxi operations data derived from a prior analysis of origin-destination data of Beijing taxis are used as input for the model to simulate the taxi market in Beijing. Finally, economic and environmental implications are provided for the government to optimise policies on taxi management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applicative Research on Psychological Demand of Audience and the TAXI for People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether TAXI for People from Beijing traffic channel, the only special program customized for taxi driver in Beijing, knows about the psychological feature of the certain taxi group is an important factor that affects the development of program. Based on demand theory of psychology, this article uses the questionnaire method to find out the psychological feature and lifestyle of audience, and discusses the degree to the TAXI for People which meets the psychological demand of taxi driver audience by analysis on the program content. It is said from the research that the TAXI for People basically meets the psychological demand from taxi drivers. However, this program shall focus more on their basic needs and provide the opportunity for the audience to participate in the program and activity.

  11. Autonomous vehicles are cost-effective when used as taxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Isaac G; Kim, Ellen; Muennig, Peter A

    2018-06-04

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will radically re-shape the health and well-being of people in the United States in good ways and bad. We set out to estimate a reasonable time-to-adoption using cost-effectivenessmodels to estimate the point at which AVs become reasonably safe and affordable for widespread adoption. We used Waymo data (previously, Google Self-Driving Car Project) and a microsimulation model to explore projected costs and safety issues today and five years from today to get a sense of the speed of consumer adoption were AVs brought to the market. The adoption of AVs for private use was associated with an ICER of 1,396,110/QALY gained today, a figure that would decline to 173,890/QALY gained 5-years in the future. However, AV taxis are both less expensive and potentially already safer than human-piloted taxis. While AVs are not unlikely to be used a family vehicles any time soon, it would make economic sense to adopt them as taxis today. Legislation enhancing the benefits while mitigating the potential harmful health impacts of AV taxis is needed with some urgency.

  12. Transcendence, Taxis, Trust: Richard Kearney and Jacques Derrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmiedel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Whatever else it takes to drive a taxi, it takes trust. Day after day, the driver has to decide whether the other is or is not trustworthy. I take the taxi as a test case to analyze and assess Richard Kearney’s diacritical hermeneutics of the other. I argue that Kearney functionalizes the concept of transcendence in order to connect the transcendence of the finite other to the transcendence of the infinite other. However, in his central critique of the deconstructionists following Jacques Derrida, Kearney counters his connection. While Kearney’s critique of Derrida’s account of absolute alterity is correct and compelling, I argue that Derrida’s critique of a distinction between the trustworthy other and the non-trustworthy other might be more crucial than Kearney contends. Insisting on openness to the other’s otherness, Derrida provokes any hermeneutic of the other to trust in transcendence. The taxi is taken as a test to illustrate the implications which diacritical and deconstructive drivers might have for evaluating the entanglement of ethics and eschatology—inside and outside the taxi.

  13. Factor Analysis of Passenger Cars Using as a Taxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deriugin O.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to select passenger cars has been proposed. The procedure helps substantiate choice of effective transportation means in accordance with taxi class to meet consumption requirements of those taking part in transportation process from the viewpoint of comfort, safety, and minimum expenditures in the context of such transportation type.

  14. Social optimal shifts and fares of taxi services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanova Grau, J.M.; Estrada Romeu, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for supporting the decision and policy making related to the optimal determination of shifts and fares of taxi services in a major city. The model is based on the system’s generalized cost function and uses continuous approximations and geometric probabilities for estimating the key performance indicators of the taxi market, which are waiting and access time for the customers (in-vehicle travel time does not depend on the offer side) and benefits for the drivers. The model is based on an econometric model with the inclusion of an elastic demand, which allows the estimation of the optimal values for the two decision variables of the problem: fare structure and the taxi fleet size. The model also accounts for a full-day time period instead of the one-hour time frame models used in most of the taxi models, which allows for providing insights on the daily duration and distribution of the shifts that should be defined by the policy makers. (Author)

  15. Het CBb en 'Der digitale Taxi-Krieg'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, M.

    2015-01-01

    UberPOP, the taxi service company that claims to be based on the concept of shared economy, offering a positive effect on mobility, environment and usage of energy, in reality confronts us with the question whether we are able to protect 'on demand' workers against exploitation and underpayment. The

  16. Cost, Energy, and Environmental Impact of Automated Electric Taxi Fleets in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gordon S; Greenblatt, Jeffery B; Gerke, Brian F

    2018-04-17

    Shared automated electric vehicles (SAEVs) hold great promise for improving transportation access in urban centers while drastically reducing transportation-related energy consumption and air pollution. Using taxi-trip data from New York City, we develop an agent-based model to predict the battery range and charging infrastructure requirements of a fleet of SAEVs operating on Manhattan Island. We also develop a model to estimate the cost and environmental impact of providing service and perform extensive sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our predictions. We estimate that costs will be lowest with a battery range of 50-90 mi, with either 66 chargers per square mile, rated at 11 kW or 44 chargers per square mile, rated at 22 kW. We estimate that the cost of service provided by such an SAEV fleet will be $0.29-$0.61 per revenue mile, an order of magnitude lower than the cost of service of present-day Manhattan taxis and $0.05-$0.08/mi lower than that of an automated fleet composed of any currently available hybrid or internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). We estimate that such an SAEV fleet drawing power from the current NYC power grid would reduce GHG emissions by 73% and energy consumption by 58% compared to an automated fleet of ICEVs.

  17. Speed, speed variation and crash relationships for urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhou, Qingya; Quddus, Mohammed; Fan, Tianxiang; Fang, Shou'en

    2018-04-01

    Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for. In terms of data collection, traditional fixed-based methods have been widely used in previous studies, but they fail to capture the spatio-temporal distributions of speed along a road. A new approach is introduced to estimate speed variation by integrating spatio-temporal speed fluctuation of a single vehicle with speed differences between vehicles using taxi-based high frequency GPS data. With this approach, this paper aims to comprehensively establish a relationship between mean speed, speed variation and traffic crashes for the purpose of formulating effective speed management measures, specifically using an urban dataset. From a total of 234 one-way road segments from eight arterials in Shanghai, mean speed, speed variation, geometric design features, traffic volume, and crash data were collected. Because the safety effects of mean speed and speed variation may vary at different segment lengths, arterials with similar signal spacing density were grouped together. To account for potential correlations among these segments, a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with random effects was developed. Results show that a 1% increase in mean speed on urban arterials was associated with a 0.7% increase in total crashes, and larger speed variation was also associated with increased crash frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  19. Comparison between internal combustion engines and simulated electrical propulsion of taxis; Vergleich zwischen verbrennungsmotorischem und simuliertem elektrischen Antrieb von Taxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Stefan [Stefan Wallner Energietechnik, Unterhaching (Germany); Thym, Jochen

    2011-03-15

    The term 'triumphal procession of electromobility' produces an enormous expectation at the end users side, but intensive development work has still to be done. The transition from today's vehicles towards electric propulsion is not to be expected to take place overnight but will start with slot applications. Energietechnik Wallner has analysed the potential of taxis. (orig.)

  20. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Phantom crash confirms models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To test computer models of how a nuclear reactor's containment building would fare if an airplane crashed into it, the Muto Institute in Tokyo sponsored a 3.2 million dollar project at Sandia National Laboratory to slam an F-4 Phantom jet into a 500 ton concrete wall. The results showed that the computer calculations were accurate

  2. Advances in Crash Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.

  3. a Web-Based Platform for Visualizing Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Big Taxi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, H.; Chen, L.; Gui, Z.

    2017-09-01

    With more and more vehicles equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), access to large-scale taxi trajectory data has become increasingly easy. Taxis are valuable sensors and information associated with taxi trajectory can provide unprecedented insight into many aspects of city life. But analysing these data presents many challenges. Visualization of taxi data is an efficient way to represent its distributions and structures and reveal hidden patterns in the data. However, Most of the existing visualization systems have some shortcomings. On the one hand, the passenger loading status and speed information cannot be expressed. On the other hand, mono-visualization form limits the information presentation. In view of these problems, this paper designs and implements a visualization system in which we use colour and shape to indicate passenger loading status and speed information and integrate various forms of taxi visualization. The main work as follows: 1. Pre-processing and storing the taxi data into MongoDB database. 2. Visualization of hotspots for taxi pickup points. Through DBSCAN clustering algorithm, we cluster the extracted taxi passenger's pickup locations to produce passenger hotspots. 3. Visualizing the dynamic of taxi moving trajectory using interactive animation. We use a thinning algorithm to reduce the amount of data and design a preloading strategyto load the data smoothly. Colour and shape are used to visualize the taxi trajectory data.

  4. A WEB-BASED PLATFORM FOR VISUALIZING SPATIOTEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF BIG TAXI DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With more and more vehicles equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS, access to large-scale taxi trajectory data has become increasingly easy. Taxis are valuable sensors and information associated with taxi trajectory can provide unprecedented insight into many aspects of city life. But analysing these data presents many challenges. Visualization of taxi data is an efficient way to represent its distributions and structures and reveal hidden patterns in the data. However, Most of the existing visualization systems have some shortcomings. On the one hand, the passenger loading status and speed information cannot be expressed. On the other hand, mono-visualization form limits the information presentation. In view of these problems, this paper designs and implements a visualization system in which we use colour and shape to indicate passenger loading status and speed information and integrate various forms of taxi visualization. The main work as follows: 1. Pre-processing and storing the taxi data into MongoDB database. 2. Visualization of hotspots for taxi pickup points. Through DBSCAN clustering algorithm, we cluster the extracted taxi passenger’s pickup locations to produce passenger hotspots. 3. Visualizing the dynamic of taxi moving trajectory using interactive animation. We use a thinning algorithm to reduce the amount of data and design a preloading strategyto load the data smoothly. Colour and shape are used to visualize the taxi trajectory data.

  5. 78 FR 59880 - Enhanced Consumer Protections for Charter Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Protections for Charter Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), U.S. Department of... charter air transportation. First, this proposal would require air taxis and commuter air carriers that sell charter air transportation but rely on others to perform that air transportation to make certain...

  6. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  7. Fuel Consumption and Emissions from Airport Taxi Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Developed a method to calculate fuel consumption and emissions of phases of taxi operations. Results at DFW showed that up to 18% of fuel can be saved by eliminating stop-and-go situations. Developed an energy efficient and environmentally friendly surface concept: Spot and Runway Departure Advisory (SARDA) tool. The SARDA tool has been identified as a potential candidate for a technology transfer to the FAA.

  8. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2009-05-27

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25,000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature.

  9. Safety Risk of Mobile Phone Use while Driving in Sample of Taxi Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Darçın; Murat Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that mobile phone use while driving increases the risk of being involved in an accident. This paper investigates the reported frequency of taxi drivers' mobile phone use and its effects on traffic safety. A representative sample of taxi drivers was included in an interview-based survey by trained interviewers. It was found that 81% of the taxi drivers reported talking by using hand-held phone while driving. There is a relationship between the phoning while driving ...

  10. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIMARU, Tomohiro; ARPHORN, Sara; JIRAPONGSUWAN, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from par...

  11. Perbandingan Stock Market Crash 1987 : Dan Stock Market Crash 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Indridewi Atmadjaja, Yovita Vivianty

    1999-01-01

    Stock market crash refers to the condition, which is marked with the large dropping of stock Market price index. Historically, stock market crash has happened three times, namely in 1929, 1987 and 1997. This paper will discuss the causes of 1987's and 1997's stock market Crash and the similarities and the differences between 1987's and 1997's stock market crash. The structure of the paper is as follows. The paper starts with the introduction. The second Section briefly explains the causes of ...

  12. Detecting Traffic Anomalies in Urban Areas Using Taxi GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale GPS data contain hidden information and provide us with the opportunity to discover knowledge that may be useful for transportation systems using advanced data mining techniques. In major metropolitan cities, many taxicabs are equipped with GPS devices. Because taxies operate continuously for nearly 24 hours per day, they can be used as reliable sensors for the perceived traffic state. In this paper, the entire city was divided into subregions by roads, and taxi GPS data were transformed into traffic flow data to build a traffic flow matrix. In addition, a highly efficient anomaly detection method was proposed based on wavelet transform and PCA (principal component analysis for detecting anomalous traffic events in urban regions. The traffic anomaly is considered to occur in a subregion when the values of the corresponding indicators deviate significantly from the expected values. This method was evaluated using a GPS dataset that was generated by more than 15,000 taxies over a period of half a year in Harbin, China. The results show that this detection method is effective and efficient.

  13. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. 2014.

  14. Advances in Crash Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.  Created: 6/29/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 6/29/2009.

  15. Assessment procedure and probability determination methods of aircraft crash events in siting for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiyan; Zhang Lijun; Huang Weiqi; Yin Qingliao

    2010-01-01

    Assessment procedure of aircraft crash events in siting for nuclear power plants, and the methods of probability determination in two different stages of prelimi- nary screening and detailed evaluation are introduced in this paper. Except for general air traffic, airport operations and aircraft in the corridor, the probability of aircraft crash by military operation in the military airspaces is considered here. (authors)

  16. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  17. Calidad del servicio de taxis del municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joheni A. Urdaneta G.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la calidad del servicio de los taxis en el municipio Maracaibo, ya que los mismos forman parte del sistema de transporte urbano de la ciudad, y es un servicio público fundamental para la convivencia de la sociedad; para lograr este objetivo se realizó una adaptación del modelo SERVPERF, diseñando un instrumento tipo cuestionario, con 32 ítems en 6 dimensiones, adecuado a las características propias del servicio de taxi, con la finalidad de confirmar que los ítems de los instrumentos se correspondían con las dimensiones adaptadas se aplicó la técnica de análisis factorial resultando un nuevo instrumento con 24 ítems en 3 dimensiones. Se utilizó la escala de Likert con tres (3 alternativas de respuesta. La investigación es de tipo descriptiva y aplicada, bajo diseño no experimental de tipo transeccional descriptiva y de campo. La población quedó conformada por los usuarios de las líneas de taxis del municipio Maracaibo. Se aplicó muestreo aleatorio por conglomerado. La confiabilidad del instrumento se midió a través del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach resultando de 0,82 lo cual se considera aceptable. Los resultados revelan que la calidad del servicio de taxis del municipio Maracaibo es mediana por lo tanto este servicio es susceptible a mejoras, las cuales son necesarias para elevar la calidad de vida de los marabinos. Este resultado se obtuvo con el instrumento originalmente adaptado de 32 ítems y con el cuestionario resultante del análisis factorial, de 24 ítems; esto confirma lo apropiado de esta técnica, ya que se redujo el número de ítems y de las dimensiones originalmente adaptadas y no se encontraron diferencias significativas en los resultados con ambos instrumentos; de esta manera se puede medir la calidad del servicio de taxis en el municipio Maracaibo a través de las dimensiones: confiabilidad del servicio, socialización y responsabilidad.

  18. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  19. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  20. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  1. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  2. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  3. Omitted variable bias in crash reduction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Transportation planners and traffic engineers are increasingly turning to crash reduction factors to evaluate changes in road : geometric and design features in order to reduce crashes. Crash reduction factors are typically estimated based on segment...

  4. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  5. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  6. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  7. Mitigating Wind Induced Truck Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-25

    Dangerous weather and high wind in particular, is a common contributing factor in truck crashes. High wind speeds have been documented as a perennial cause of truck crashes in Kansas and other Great Plains states. The possibility of reducing such cra...

  8. Optimizing Cruising Routes for Taxi Drivers Using a Spatio-Temporal Trajectory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the taxi route-planning literature has focused on driver strategies for finding passengers and determining the hot spot pick-up locations using historical global positioning system (GPS trajectories of taxis based on driver experience, distance from the passenger drop-off location to the next passenger pick-up location and the waiting times at recommended locations for the next passenger. The present work, however, considers the average taxi travel speed mined from historical taxi GPS trajectory data and the allocation of cruising routes to more than one taxi driver in a small-scale region to neighboring pick-up locations. A spatio-temporal trajectory model with load balancing allocations is presented to not only explore pick-up/drop-off information but also provide taxi drivers with cruising routes to the recommended pick-up locations. In simulation experiments, our study shows that taxi drivers using cruising routes recommended by our spatio-temporal trajectory model can significantly reduce the average waiting time and travel less distance to quickly find their next passengers, and the load balancing strategy significantly alleviates road loads. These objective measures can help us better understand spatio-temporal traffic patterns and guide taxi navigation.

  9. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  10. Utilising excess minibus-taxi capacity for South African townships tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.H.; Makoriwa, Collins; de Boer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the

  11. 76 FR 33639 - Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary Fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary Fireworks, Upper New York Bay, Red Hook, NY... New York Water Taxi. The fireworks will commence at 9 p.m. on June 21, 2011 and will last... CFR Part 165 Harbors, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements...

  12. Feedback control of occupant motion during a crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesseling, R.J.; Steinbuch, M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Klisch, T.

    2006-01-01

    Passive in-vehicle safety systems such as the air bag and the belt restrain the occupant during a crash. However, often their behavior is not optimal in terms of occupant injuries. This paper discusses an approach to design an ideal restraint system. The problem is formulated as a feedback tracking

  13. The liver taxis of receptor mediated lactosaminated human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zelian; Shi Lin; Li Tongling; Pang Qijie; He Juying; Guan Changtian

    2002-01-01

    Radiography imaging is used to assess liver taxis mechanism of anti-dwarfism drug lactosaminated human growth hormone (L-rhGH). Both L-rhGH and rhGH labelled with 131 I are used to study their biodistribution in animals (including rabbits, cocks and rats). The results show that L-rhGH is of specific hepatic targeting property, and the maximum hepatic concentration rate is 76.8%, which is two times of rhGH. Its hepatic binding is receptor mediated

  14. Analysis of the characteristics of taxi services as a prerequisite for their improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of services sector is the characteristics of modern and developed societies that influence national economy. Therefore, the analysis of services, as a concept and part of marketing is very significant. In this sense, the paper researches a particular service - the taxi services in the capital of Serbia. Through this research, the authors try to define the groups of customer of taxi services and their preference and attitudes. The research was performed in period May to July 2014, by direct contact with customer of taxi services. The results of research have confirmed the initial hypothesis and provide possibilities for further insight into the way of using taxi services and general circumstances that characterize them in mentioned region. On this basis, it is provided proposals for improvement of taxi services and easier outreach of target groups.

  15. Braking news: link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    across severity levels were estimated to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity. The sample used for estimation consisted of data for single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System crash database for the period from 2005 to 2009. Results showed the correlation between...... of lower crash severity. These trends suggest that efforts to understand the mechanisms of reactions to different critical events should be made to improve in-vehicle warning systems, promote responsible driving behavior, and design forgiving infrastructures....

  16. Considering the effects of ambient particulate matter on the lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hara, Kunio; Mahasandana, Suwisa

    2018-02-01

    The motorcycle taxi drivers of Bangkok have been heavily exposed to high concentrations of PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm), and the impact of this on their lungs has been neither documented nor studied. This study examines the association between exposure to PM 10 and lung function decline among motorcycle taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangkok between two groups: a subject group of motorcycle taxi drivers and control group of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers. The findings of the Thailand Pollution Control Department were used to estimate the annual ambient PM 10 concentration levels in the metropolis. Pulmonary functions of motorcycle taxi drivers and enclosed vehicle taxi drivers were measured and compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the effects of PM 10 exposure on the lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers. A total of 1283 motorcycle taxi drivers and 600 taxi drivers were investigated. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) of the motorcycle taxi drivers was significantly lower than that of the taxi drivers (P Organization (WHO) vehicular emission standards should be recognized and eventually enforced.

  17. Statistical analysis of vehicle crashes in Mississippi based on crash data from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Traffic crash data from 2010 to 2014 were collected by Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) and extracted for the study. Three tasks were conducted in this study: (1) geographic distribution of crashes; (2) descriptive statistics of crash ...

  18. Intelligent geocoding system to locate traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao; Parker, Steven; Liu, Yi; Graettinger, Andrew J; Forde, Susie

    2013-01-01

    State agencies continue to face many challenges associated with new federal crash safety and highway performance monitoring requirements that use data from multiple and disparate systems across different platforms and locations. On a national level, the federal government has a long-term vision for State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to report state route and off-state route crash data in a single network. In general, crashes occurring on state-owned or state maintained highways are a priority at the Federal and State level; therefore, state-route crashes are being geocoded by state DOTs. On the other hand, crashes occurring on off-state highway system do not always get geocoded due to limited resources and techniques. Creating and maintaining a statewide crash geographic information systems (GIS) map with state route and non-state route crashes is a complicated and expensive task. This study introduces an automatic crash mapping process, Crash-Mapping Automation Tool (C-MAT), where an algorithm translates location information from a police report crash record to a geospatial map and creates a pinpoint map for all crashes. The algorithm has approximate 83 percent mapping rate. An important application of this work is the ability to associate the mapped crash records to underlying business data, such as roadway inventory and traffic volumes. The integrated crash map is the foundation for effective and efficient crash analyzes to prevent highway crashes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  20. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  1. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  2. Motorcycle crashes potentially preventable by three crash avoidance technologies on passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2018-07-04

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the motorcycle crash population that would be potential beneficiaries of 3 crash avoidance technologies recently available on passenger vehicles. Two-vehicle crashes between a motorcycle and a passenger vehicle that occurred in the United States during 2011-2015 were classified by type, with consideration of the functionality of 3 classes of passenger vehicle crash avoidance technologies: frontal crash prevention, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection. Results were expressed as the percentage of crashes potentially preventable by each type of technology, based on all known types of 2-vehicle crashes and based on all crashes involving motorcycles. Frontal crash prevention had the largest potential to prevent 2-vehicle motorcycle crashes with passenger vehicles. The 3 technologies in sum had the potential to prevent 10% of fatal 2-vehicle crashes and 23% of police-reported crashes. However, because 2-vehicle crashes with a passenger vehicle represent fewer than half of all motorcycle crashes, these technologies represent a potential to avoid 4% of all fatal motorcycle crashes and 10% of all police-reported motorcycle crashes. Refining the ability of passenger vehicle crash avoidance systems to detect motorcycles represents an opportunity to improve motorcycle safety. Expanding the capabilities of these technologies represents an even greater opportunity. However, even fully realizing these opportunities can affect only a minority of motorcycle crashes and does not change the need for other motorcycle safety countermeasures such as helmets, universal helmet laws, and antilock braking systems.

  3. Safety Risk of Mobile Phone Use while Driving in Sample of Taxi Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Darçın

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that mobile phone use while driving increases the risk of being involved in an accident. This paper investigates the reported frequency of taxi drivers' mobile phone use and its effects on traffic safety. A representative sample of taxi drivers was included in an interview-based survey by trained interviewers. It was found that 81% of the taxi drivers reported talking by using hand-held phone while driving. There is a relationship between the phoning while driving and drivers' self-reported involvement in a dangerous situation. It is clear that the use of mobile phone while driving is an important traffic safety issue.

  4. Cost Reduction of Taxi Enterprises at the Expense of Automobile Fleet Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novytskyi А.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of taxi service operation using techniques of queuing system theory have been demonstrated. It has been shown that probability of service denial is the key quality criterion of transport services for taxi services. It is expedient to use total expenditures of queuing system as target function to estimate the efficiency of taxi service. It has been determined that application of queuing theory techniques makes it possible to identify optimum value of the number of operating motor vehicles for specific environment. The value is optimum according to minimum-cost criterion.

  5. "Crashing the gates" - selection criteria for television news reporting of traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceunynck, Tim; De Smedt, Julie; Daniels, Stijn; Wouters, Ruud; Baets, Michèle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates which crash characteristics influence the probability that the crash is reported in the television news. To this purpose, all news items from the period 2006-2012 about traffic crashes from the prime time news of two Belgian television channels are linked to the official injury crash database. Logistic regression models are built for the database of all injury crashes and for the subset of fatal crashes to identify crash characteristics that correlate with a lower or higher probability of being reported in the news. A number of significant biases in terms of crash severity, time, place, types of involved road users and victims' personal characteristics are found in the media reporting of crashes. More severe crashes are reported in the media more easily than less severe crashes. Significant fluctuations in media reporting probability through time are found in terms of the year and month in which the crash took place. Crashes during week days are generally less reported in the news. The geographical area (province) in which the crash takes place also has a significant impact on the probability of being reported in the news. Crashes on motorways are significantly more represented in the news. Regarding the age of the involved victims, a clear trend of higher media reporting rates of crashes involving young victims or young fatalities is observed. Crashes involving female fatalities are also more frequently reported in the news. Furthermore, crashes involving a bus have a significantly higher probability of being reported in the news, while crashes involving a motorcycle have a significantly lower probability. Some models also indicate a lower reporting rate of crashes involving a moped, and a higher reporting rate of crashes involving heavy goods vehicles. These biases in media reporting can create skewed perceptions in the general public about the prevalence of traffic crashes and eventually may influence people's behaviour. Copyright © 2015

  6. Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Introduction. We performed the audit in response to allegations to the Defense Hotline that the Defense Supply Center, Columbus, outsourcing study for bus and taxi service operations was based on incorrect methodology...

  7. Switching from motorcycle taxi to walking: A case study of transit station access in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornraht Pongprasert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the factors affecting residents near transit stations within 1000 m, who are referred to as transit-oriented development (TOD residents, to reduce motorcycle taxi use and encourage walking to stations. These two modes of commuting are the most popular among over 85% of residents. However, motorcycle taxis are the main pedestrian barriers that hinder easy access and walkability in TODs of Bangkok, because they ride, stop, and provide services on sidewalks. From 2013 to 2015, these problems substantially increased the number of motorcycle taxis that are not willing and able to follow the rules. The increasing number of pedestrian accidents on sidewalks is related to the increase in the number of motorcycle taxis. According to a survey on pedestrian safety with 249 respondents, over 25% of walkers feel unsafe to walk, while 40% of motorcycle-taxi users riding to stations do not walk because they are afraid of accidents. In modal split, the share of walking reduces from 76% for areas < 500 m, to 25% for areas between 500 and 1000 m from transit stations, respectively. Hence, the number of motorcycle taxis in the 500–1000 m range is twice as high compared to that within the 500 m area. If motorcycle taxi users would accept a longer walking distance to station by 36 m or would be willing to walk to the station within 9.15 min, 54% of them may switch to walking to stations. Moreover, based on the estimation results of the logistic regression models, middle-adult aged residents, office employees, residents owning a car, and people living far from stations are less likely to walk. Average income households and commuters during non-peak hours tend to use motorcycle taxis more. On the other hand, residents living far from stations tend to use motorcycle taxis less, because most of the motorcycle taxi services are located near transit stations. Keywords: Transit accessibility, Pedestrian, Walkability

  8. Les aspects matériels de la taxis byzantine The material aspects of the Byzantine taxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie‑France Auzépy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La taxis grecque – correspondant exact de l’ordo latin – est un aspect essentiel de la civilisation byzantine : elle organise cette société de manière à ce que celle-ci soit un reflet aussi exact que possible de la société céleste, décrite en particulier par Denys l’Aréopagite. La taxis est donc à la fois précise et contraignante et nous a été transmise dans des livres décrivant le protocole : le De Cerimoniis au Xe siècle, le Traité du pseudo-Kodinos au XIVe siècle. Au cours de cérémonies où tous les aspects matériels – l’habit, la couronne, le trône, les acclamations à la gloire de l’empereur, l’orgue qui les accompagne, les gestes accomplis par l’empereur comme par ceux qui l’entourent – ont un sens, l’Empire byzantin affirme ainsi son équilibre et sa qualité de peuple élu. Jusqu’en 1204, les autres nations ont jalousé la qualité que s’était octroyée l’Empire romain d’Orient : celle d’image de la cour céleste, qui est figurée dans le cérémonial. Cette jalousie a pris d’autres formes après 1453, et l’on s’intéressera aux souverains européens qui, tel Louis XIV, ont voulu faire figure d’héritiers de l’empire défunt et relever ses cérémonies.The Greek taxis(order– the exact equivalent of the Latin ordo – is an essential aspect of Byzantine civilization: it organized society in such a way that it would reflect the celestial society as closely as possible, as has been described by Dionysius the Areopagite. The taxis is therefore both precise and restrictive and has been passed down to us through writings describing the protocol: the De Cerimoniis in the tenth century and the treatise of Pseudo-Kodinos in the fourteenth century. Through ceremonies in which all the material aspects have a meaning – the dress, the crown, the throne, the proclaiming of the glory of the emperor, the accompanying organ, the gestures of the emperor and of those around

  9. A Mobile, Dynamic, and Privacy-Preserving Matching System for Car and Taxi Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, rates of vehicle ownership have risen globally, exacerbating problems including air pollution, lack of parking, and traffic congestion. While many solutions to these problems have been proposed, carpooling remains one of the most effective approaches. Recently, several carpooling platforms have been built on cloud computing systems, with originators posting online list of departure/arrival points and schedules from which participants can search for rides that match their needs. However, it can be difficult to make matches quickly and the systems are subject to privacy concerns in that they may disclose private information such as names, registration data, and departure/arrival schedules. This paper proposes a dynamic matching method for car/taxi pools for use in mobile devices via ad hoc Wi-Fi networks. The proposed method also preserves user privacy including names and departure/arrival schedules. Moreover, the system does not require the user to register any personal data, so such data cannot be leaked. The system was implemented on the Android mobile platform, allowing users to immediately and securely access the system via their smart phones.

  10. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  11. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Carbon Emissions and Taxi Travel Using GPS Data in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlei Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxis are significant contributors to carbon dioxide emissions due to their frequent usage, yet current research into taxi carbon emissions is insufficient. Emerging data sources and big data–mining techniques enable analysis of carbon emissions, which contributes to their reduction and the promotion of low-carbon societies. This study uses taxi GPS data to reconstruct taxi trajectories in Beijing. We then use the carbon emission calculation model based on a taxi fuel consumption algorithm and the carbon dioxide emission factor to calculate emissions and apply a visualization method called kernel density analysis to obtain the dynamic spatiotemporal distribution of carbon emissions. Total carbon emissions show substantial temporal variations during the day, with maximum values from 10:00–11:00 (57.53 t, which is seven times the minimum value of 7.43 t (from 03:00–04:00. Carbon emissions per kilometer at the network level are steady throughout the day (0.2 kg/km. The Airport Expressway, Ring Roads, and large intersections within the 5th Ring Road maintain higher carbon emissions than other areas. Spatiotemporal carbon emissions and travel patterns differ between weekdays and weekends, especially during morning rush hours. This research provides critical insights for taxi companies, authorities, and future studies.

  12. Taxi-Out Time Prediction for Departures at Charlotte Airport Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the taxi-out times of departures accurately is important for improving airport efficiency and takeoff time predictability. In this paper, we attempt to apply machine learning techniques to actual traffic data at Charlotte Douglas International Airport for taxi-out time prediction. To find the key factors affecting aircraft taxi times, surface surveillance data is first analyzed. From this data analysis, several variables, including terminal concourse, spot, runway, departure fix and weight class, are selected for taxi time prediction. Then, various machine learning methods such as linear regression, support vector machines, k-nearest neighbors, random forest, and neural networks model are applied to actual flight data. Different traffic flow and weather conditions at Charlotte airport are also taken into account for more accurate prediction. The taxi-out time prediction results show that linear regression and random forest techniques can provide the most accurate prediction in terms of root-mean-square errors. We also discuss the operational complexity and uncertainties that make it difficult to predict the taxi times accurately.

  13. Statewide analysis of bicycle crashes : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An extensive literature review was conducted to locate existing studies in four areas: (1) risk factors that affect the frequency and severity of bicycle crashes; (2) bicycle crash causes, patterns, and contributing factors; (3) network screening met...

  14. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  15. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  16. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  17. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  18. Teen driver crashes : a report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...

  19. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  20. Conscientious personality and young drivers’ crash risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method: Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes...

  1. Building concepts against airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, F.O.; Woelfel, H.

    1984-01-01

    In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

  2. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Guobao; Zhen, Zijian; Wang, Peng; Li, Yang; Yin, Huaixian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effec...

  3. THE ROUTE DETERMINATION OF FILING A TAXI TO THE CUSTOMER IN TERMS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Davidich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues of overall performance increase of taxi transport due to improvement of automated system of dispatching management by its technological processes are considered. The route of taxi submission to a customer is offered to be determined by a criterion of minimum time. To solve the given task the taxi submission route determination technique is developed. It will promote the reduction of passengers’ waiting time and the decrease in operational expenses of a carrier.

  4. From “Crash!” to Crash: Adapting the Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Matek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on J.G. Ballard’s various adaptations of his own material related to the issue of the sexual and sensual nature of an automobile crash, and suggests that adaptation is one of the key methods in art and literature which can be used as a means of contemplating and developing various aesthetic and political ideas. Ballard’s short story “Crash!” was first published in the ICA’s (Institute of Contemporary Arts Eventsheet in February 1969, and later became a chapter of his experimental novel The Atrocity Exhibition (1970. At the same time, Ballard adapts the idea into the “Crashed Cars” exhibition (1970 in London. The short story was then adapted into a short film, Crash!, directed by Harley Cokeliss (1971 and starring Ballard himself, to be finally adapted into the novel Crash (1973. Ballard’s adaptation of his initial ideas across literary forms and media testifies to the importance of adaptation as a process and method of creating art. Thus, rather than suggesting that adaptations merely “breathe life” into the written word, the paper points to the conclusion that the form and content are mutually influential and that, in this case, the novel itself is an adaptation, rather than a hypotext (which it becomes in 1996 to David Cronenberg as he adapts it to film. The complexity of the relationship between the source text and its many adaptations has already contributed to the deconstruction, in Derrida’s terms, of the hierarchy (opposition between the original and the copy. Rather, Ballard’s crossmedial and transmedial adaptations of his own ideas show how, as Ray would suggest, an adaptation cites the source and grafts it into a new context, giving it a new function, both aesthetic and political.

  5. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  6. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  7. Technostress: Surviving a Database Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobb, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of technostress in libraries focuses on a database crash at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Steps taken to restore the data are explained, strategies for handling technological accidents are suggested, the impact on library staff is discussed, and a 10-item annotated bibliography on technostress is provided.…

  8. Crash simulations for interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeze, E.; Slaats, P.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    With the increasing number of compact cars, safety aspects becomes increasingly important for interior designs. The smaller dimensions of these cars do not only decrease the car mass, but also the energy absorption length, resulting in a more severe crash pulse. As a consequence, the inertia loading

  9. 2008 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2008 were down to 980, a 9.6 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 7.5 percent to 74,568 and total crashes dropped 2.5 percent to 316,057. Most : no...

  10. 2009 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2009 were down to 871, a 11.1 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 4.9 percent to 70,931 and total crashes dropped 7.9 percent to 290,978. Most : n...

  11. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reporting on cyclist crashes in Australian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Aboss, Ahmad; Montgomery, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    To assess information on cyclist crashes reported in Australian newspapers. The Factiva news archive was searched for articles on cyclist crashes published in major Australian newspapers between 2010 and 2013. Information on the circumstances of cyclist crashes were extracted and coded. A total of 160 cyclist crashes were covered by 198 newspaper articles, with 44% of crashes resulting in cyclist fatalities. Crashes reported by more than one newspaper were more likely to involve public figures or protracted court cases. Individual characteristics of cyclists as well as the location of the crash were reported for more than 80% of crashes. The road user at fault was reported for more than half of crashes. In contrast, information on helmet use, alcohol and cycling lanes was mentioned for only about 10% of crashes. Fewer than one in five articles mentioned prevention strategies including education campaigns, legislative and infrastructure changes. Australian newspapers tend to focus on the most dramatic and more 'newsworthy' aspects of cyclist crashes. Cycling advocates need to work with journalists to improve the quality of this coverage. Better communication between cycling advocates and journalists is likely to have a positive impact on the safety and the uptake of cycling in the community. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  14. Crash Lethality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    of Death from Burn Injuries, New England Journal of Medicine. Massachusetts, Feb 1998. 11. Crull, Michelle. Tatom, John. Conway, Robert . SPIDER 2... Raymer , Daniel P. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach. Washington DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-930403...Patuxent River, MD 20670 NAVAIRSYSCOM (AIR-5.1G - Roberts ), Bldg. 8010 (1) 47320 Priests Point Loop, St. Inigoes, MD 20684-4017 NAVAIRSYSCOM (UASTD

  15. Naturalistic Assessment of Novice Teenage Crash Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female

  16. Effect of Accounting for Crash Severity on the Relationship between Mass Reduction and Crash Frequency and Risk per Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Building Technology and Urban Systems Division. Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-20

    Previous analyses have indicated that mass reduction is associated with an increase in crash frequency (crashes per VMT), but a decrease in fatality or casualty risk once a crash has occurred, across all types of light-duty vehicles. These results are counter-intuitive: one would expect that lighter, and perhaps smaller, vehicles have better handling and shorter braking distances, and thus should be able to avoid crashes that heavier vehicles cannot. And one would expect that heavier vehicles would have lower risk once a crash has occurred than lighter vehicles. However, these trends occur under several alternative regression model specifications. This report tests whether these results continue to hold after accounting for crash severity, by excluding crashes that result in relatively minor damage to the vehicle(s) involved in the crash. Excluding non-severe crashes from the initial LBNL Phase 2 and simultaneous two-stage regression models for the most part has little effect on the unexpected relationships observed in the baseline regression models. This finding suggests that other subtle differences in vehicles and/or their drivers, or perhaps biases in the data reported in state crash databases, are causing the unexpected results from the regression models.

  17. Analysis of Traffic Crashes Involving Pedestrians Using Big Data: Investigation of Contributing Factors and Identification of Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Kurkcu, Abdullah; Yang, Hong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis. The cell-structured framework makes it easy to incorporate rich and diversified data into risk analysis. The cost of each crash, weighted by injury severity, was assigned to the cells based on the relative distance to the crash site using a kernel density function. A tobit model was developed to relate grid-cell-specific contributing factors to crash costs that are left-censored at zero. The potential for safety improvement (PSI) that could be obtained by using the actual crash cost minus the cost of "similar" sites estimated by the tobit model was used as a measure to identify and rank pedestrian crash hotspots. The proposed hotspot identification method takes into account two important factors that are generally ignored, i.e., injury severity and effects of exposure indicators. Big data, on the one hand, enable more precise estimation of the effects of risk factors by providing richer data for modeling, and on the other hand, enable large-scale hotspot identification with higher resolution than conventional methods based on census tracts or traffic analysis zones. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. DISPAQ: Distributed Profitable-Area Query from Big Taxi Trip Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Fadhilah Kurnia; Song, Giltae; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2017-09-25

    One of the crucial problems for taxi drivers is to efficiently locate passengers in order to increase profits. The rapid advancement and ubiquitous penetration of Internet of Things (IoT) technology into transportation industries enables us to provide taxi drivers with locations that have more potential passengers (more profitable areas) by analyzing and querying taxi trip data. In this paper, we propose a query processing system, called Distributed Profitable-Area Query ( DISPAQ ) which efficiently identifies profitable areas by exploiting the Apache Software Foundation's Spark framework and a MongoDB database. DISPAQ first maintains a profitable-area query index (PQ-index) by extracting area summaries and route summaries from raw taxi trip data. It then identifies candidate profitable areas by searching the PQ-index during query processing. Then, it exploits a Z-Skyline algorithm, which is an extension of skyline processing with a Z-order space filling curve, to quickly refine the candidate profitable areas. To improve the performance of distributed query processing, we also propose local Z-Skyline optimization, which reduces the number of dominant tests by distributing killer profitable areas to each cluster node. Through extensive evaluation with real datasets, we demonstrate that our DISPAQ system provides a scalable and efficient solution for processing profitable-area queries from huge amounts of big taxi trip data.

  19. Estimation of occupational and nonoccupational nitrogen dioxide exposure for Korean taxi drivers using a microenvironmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Busoon; Yang, Wonho; Breysse, Patrick; Chung, Taewoong; Lee, Youngshin

    2004-01-01

    Occupational and nonoccupational personal nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) exposures were measured using passive samplers for 31 taxi drivers in Asan and Chunan, Korea. Exposures were also estimated using a microenvironmental time-weighted average model based on indoor, outdoor and inside the taxi area measurements. Mean NO 2 indoor and outdoor concentrations inside and outside the taxi drivers' houses were 24.7±10.7 and 23.3±8.3 ppb, respectively, with a mean indoor to outdoor NO 2 ratio of 1.1. Mean personal NO 2 exposure of taxi drivers was 30.3±9.7 ppb. Personal NO 2 exposures for drivers were more strongly correlated with interior vehicle NO 2 levels (r=0.89) rather than indoor residential NO 2 levels (r=0.74) or outdoor NO 2 levels (r=0.71). The main source of NO 2 exposure for taxi drivers was considered to be occupational driving. Interestingly, the NO 2 exposures for drivers' using LPG-fueled vehicles (26.3±1.3 ppb) were significantly lower than those (38.1±1.3 ppb) using diesel-fueled vehicle (P 2 exposure with indoor and outdoor NO 2 levels of the residence, and interior vehicle NO 2 levels (P 2 levels because they drive diesel-using vehicles outdoors in Korea

  20. Greening London's black cabs: a study of driver's preferences for fuel cell taxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourato, Susana; Saynor, Bob; Hart, David

    2004-01-01

    Road transport accounts for about a quarter of all carbon emissions in the UK, highlighting the need for low carbon alternatives to current fuels and vehicles. Running on hydrogen and virtually emissions-free, fuel cell vehicles are considered to be one of the most promising ways of reducing transport-related emissions. Understanding the user benefits of fuel cell vehicles and the determinants of demand is essential for their successful penetration. This contingent valuation study investigates the preferences of London taxi drivers for driving emissions-free hydrogen fuel cell taxis, both in the short term as part of a pilot project, and in the longer term if production line fuel cell taxis become available. The results show that willingness to pay to participate in a pilot project seems to be driven mostly by drivers' expectation of personal financial gains. In contrast, however, environmental considerations are found to affect taxi drivers' longer-term vehicle purchasing decisions. The results also reveal that driving hydrogen-fuelled vehicles does not seem to raise safety concerns amongst taxi drivers

  1. Exploring Spatiotemporal Patterns of Long-Distance Taxi Rides in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangbin Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floating Car Data (FCD has been analyzed for various purposes in past years. However, limited research about the behaviors of taking long-distance taxi rides has been made available. In this paper, we used data from over 12,000 taxis during a six-month period in Shanghai to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of long-distance taxi trips. We investigated these spatiotemporal patterns by comparing them with metro usage in Shanghai, in order to determine the extent and how the suburban trains divert the passenger flow from taxis. The results identified 12 pick-up and six drop-off hotspots in Shanghai. Overall, the pick-up locations were relatively more concentrated than the drop-off locations. Temporal patterns were also revealed. Passengers on long-distance taxi rides were observed to avoid the rush hours on the street as their first priority and tried to avoid the inconvenience of interchanges on the metro lines as their second priority.

  2. DISPAQ: Distributed Profitable-Area Query from Big Taxi Trip Data †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Fadhilah Kurnia; Song, Giltae; Rao, Praveen

    2017-01-01

    One of the crucial problems for taxi drivers is to efficiently locate passengers in order to increase profits. The rapid advancement and ubiquitous penetration of Internet of Things (IoT) technology into transportation industries enables us to provide taxi drivers with locations that have more potential passengers (more profitable areas) by analyzing and querying taxi trip data. In this paper, we propose a query processing system, called Distributed Profitable-Area Query (DISPAQ) which efficiently identifies profitable areas by exploiting the Apache Software Foundation’s Spark framework and a MongoDB database. DISPAQ first maintains a profitable-area query index (PQ-index) by extracting area summaries and route summaries from raw taxi trip data. It then identifies candidate profitable areas by searching the PQ-index during query processing. Then, it exploits a Z-Skyline algorithm, which is an extension of skyline processing with a Z-order space filling curve, to quickly refine the candidate profitable areas. To improve the performance of distributed query processing, we also propose local Z-Skyline optimization, which reduces the number of dominant tests by distributing killer profitable areas to each cluster node. Through extensive evaluation with real datasets, we demonstrate that our DISPAQ system provides a scalable and efficient solution for processing profitable-area queries from huge amounts of big taxi trip data. PMID:28946679

  3. Examining the Interaction of Taxi and Subway Ridership for Sustainable Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaoyi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A transit ridership study is an essential part of sustainability, and can provide a deep understanding of people’s travel patterns for efficient transportation development and urbanization. However, there is a lack of empirical studies comparing subway and taxi services, and their interactions within a city, that is to say, the interdependent transportation networks. Incorporating new data, this study aims to examine the spatial variation of urban taxi ridership due to the impacts of a new subway line operation opened in 2014 in Wuxi, China. We examine the spatial patterns and interactions of ridership in Wuxi by integrating taxi trajectory from GPS data and subway data from continuously collected fare transactions. The results indicated that the demand for taxi and subway usage is quite elastic with respect to both location and time, and the new subway’s opening had more influence on areas adjacent to subway stations and urban center-suburban travel. Furthermore, increases in travel time and distance would increase the demand for subway, while taxi trips largely represented movements for those locations that the subway could not reach. This paper betters the understanding of travel patterns through large volumes of transportation data for sustainable urbanization policy design.

  4. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISHIMARU, Tomohiro; ARPHORN, Sara; JIRAPONGSUWAN, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers’ CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status. PMID:27151439

  5. Exploring Intracity Taxi Mobility during the Holidays for Location-Based Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxi mobility information can be considered as an important source of mobile location-based information for making marketing decisions. So, studying the behavioral patterns of taxis in a Chinese city during the holidays using the global positioning system (GPS can yield remarkable insights into people’s holiday travel patterns, as well as the odd-even day vehicle prohibition system. This paper studies the behavioral patterns of taxis during specific holidays in terms of pick-up and drop-off locations, travel distance, mobile step length, travel direction, and radius of gyration on the basis of GPS data. Our results support the idea of a polycentric city. It is concluded from the reporting results that there are no significant changes in the distribution of pick-up and drop-off locations, travel distance, or travel direction during holidays in comparison to work days. The results suggest that human travel by taxi has a stable regularity. However, the radius of gyration of movement by most of the taxis becomes significantly larger during holidays that indicate more long-distance travels. The current study will be helpful for location-based marketing during the holidays.

  6. Changes in the Severity and Injury Sources of Thoracic Aorta Injuries due to Vehicular Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Rabin, Joseph; Ho, Shiu

    Research using the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) suggested a decreased adjusted risk of thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) for newer vehicles during near-side crashes and an increased adjusted TAI risk during frontal crashes. This study attempted to explore possible explanations of these findings. Adult front seat occupants in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database through June 2012 were studied. TAI cases were compared with remaining cases in relation to crash and vehicular characteristics. TAI cases of later crash year (CY) (2004-2012) were compared to those in earlier CY (1996-2003) in relation to TAI severity (minor, moderate, severe and non-survivable). TAI cases in newer model year (MY) vehicles (1999-2012) were compared to those in older vehicles (1988-98) in relation to injury source (steering wheel, front, left, seat belt, air bag and other or unknown). Analysis was stratified by direction of impact (frontal and near-side) and the use of restraints. The similar TAI severity of earlier and later CY among frontal crashes suggests that the observed changes in the adjusted odds of injury seen in NASS-CDS are not due to an increase in injury detection. The decrease in TAI severity among newer vehicles in near-side crashes of later CY is consistent with a beneficial effect of crashworthiness improvements for this crash configuration. A shift of injury source in frontal crashes from the steering wheel in older vehicles to "front of vehicle structures", "seat belts" and "unknown and other" in newer vehicles should suggest potential sites for crashworthiness improvements.

  7. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control 1: Automatic rollout, turnoff, and taxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    A study developed for the TCV B-737, designed to apply existing navigation aids plus magnetic leader cable signals and develop breaking and reverse thrust guidance laws to provide for rapid automated rollout, turnoff, and taxi to reduce runway occupation time for a wide variety of landing conditions for conventional commercial-type aircraft, is described. Closed loop guidance laws for braking and reverse thrust are derived for rollout, turnoff, and taxi, as functions of the landing speed, the desired taxi speed and the distance to go. Brake limitations for wet runway conditions and reverse thrust limitations are taken into account to provide decision rules to avoid tire skid and to choose an alternate turnoff point, farther down the runway, to accommodate extreme landing conditions.

  8. Illiquidity Contagion and Liquidity Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Cespa; Thierry Foucault

    2014-01-01

    Liquidity providers often learn information about an asset from prices of other assets. We show that this generates a self-reinforcing positive relationship between price informativeness and liquidity. This relationship causes liquidity spillovers and is a source of fragility: a small drop in the liquidity of one asset can, through a feedback loop, result in a very large drop in market liquidity and price informativeness (a liquidity crash). This feedback loop provides a new explanation for c...

  9. Observed and unobserved correlation between crash avoidance manoeuvers and crash severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding drivers’ responses to critical events, analyzing drivers’ abilities to perform corrective manoeuvers, and investigating the correlation between these manoeuvers and crash severity provide the opportunity of increasing the knowledge about how to avoid crash occurrence or at least mit...

  10. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  11. Modeling with Robotran the autonomous electrical taxi and pushback operations of an Airbus A320

    OpenAIRE

    Quinet, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, commercial flights are very close to a full automation while several means of transport already made the move. Civilian transport airplanes offer the possibility to fly in a fully automated mode from a few seconds after take-off to the exit of the runway - down to 60 knots- after landing. However, three flight sequences are not covered yet by an automated solution : the take-off, the taxi and the pushback. This work is a global approach of an autonomous taxi and pushback system impl...

  12. Inconvenient and Unnecessary? Regulations in the U.S. Taxi Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Colton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN is a common requirement for a new business owner in services such as utilities, communications, healthcare, and transportation. However, studies have called into question the effectiveness and purpose of these laws when applied in certain industries. This study chronicles the development of and justifications provided for the enactment of CPCN laws. It then empirically tests the effectiveness of these laws in the taxi industry. This paper finds no evidence that the CPCN laws in the taxi industry are meeting their objectives. Some evidence suggests that CPCN laws achieve the opposite of their intention.

  13. An open-data approach for quantifying the potential of taxi ridesharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barann, Benjamin; Beverungen, Daniel; Müller, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    greenhouse gas emissions. We develop a one-to-one TRS approach that matches rides with similar start and end points. We evaluate our approach by analyzing an open dataset of > 5 million taxi trajectories in New York City. Our empirical analysis reveals that the proposed approach matches up to 48.34% of all...... taxi rides, saving 2,892,036 km of travel distance, 231,362.89 l of gas, and 532,134.64 kg of CO2 emissions per week. Compared to many-to-many TRS approaches, our approach is competitive, simpler to implement and operate, and poses less rigid assumptions on data availability and customer acceptance....

  14. Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crash risk and crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ross A; Haworth, Narelle L

    2013-08-01

    The increased popularity of mopeds and motor scooters in Australia and elsewhere in the last decade has contributed substantially to the greater use of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) as a whole. As the exposure of mopeds and scooters has increased, so too has the number of reported crashes involving those PTW types, but there is currently little research comparing the safety of mopeds and, particularly, larger scooters with motorcycles. This study compared the crash risk and crash severity of motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive data cleansing was undertaken to separate motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in police-reported crash data covering the five years to 30 June 2008. The crash rates of motorcycles (including larger scooters) and mopeds in terms of registered vehicles were similar over this period, although the moped crash rate showed a stronger downward trend. However, the crash rates in terms of distance travelled were nearly four times higher for mopeds than for motorcycles (including larger scooters). More comprehensive distance travelled data is needed to confirm these findings. The overall severity of moped and scooter crashes was significantly lower than motorcycle crashes but an ordered probit regression model showed that crash severity outcomes related to differences in crash characteristics and circumstances, rather than differences between PTW types per se. Greater motorcycle crash severity was associated with higher (>80km/h) speed zones, horizontal curves, weekend, single vehicle and nighttime crashes. Moped crashes were more severe at night and in speed zones of 90km/h or more. Larger scooter crashes were more severe in 70km/h zones (than 60km/h zones) but not in higher speed zones, and less severe on weekends than on weekdays. The findings can be used to inform potential crash and injury countermeasures tailored to users of different PTW types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Li, Zongzhi; Liu, Jingxian; Patel, Harshingar

    2016-01-01

    This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016) [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, modera...

  16. Understanding traffic crash under-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Hels, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aligns to the body of research dedicated to estimating the underreporting of road crash injuries and adds the perspective of understanding individual and crash factors contributing to the decision to report a crash to the police, the hospital, or both. Method: This study foc...... policy measures aimed at increasing the reporting rate by targeting specific road user groups (e.g., males, young road users) or specific situational factors (e.g., slight injuries, arm injuries, leg injuries, weekend)....

  17. Modelling and mitigation of Flash Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, John; Serbera, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The algorithmic trading revolution has had a dramatic effect upon markets. Trading has become faster, and in some ways more efficient, though potentially at the cost higher volatility and increased uncertainty. Stories of predatory trading and flash crashes constitute a new financial reality. Worryingly, highly capitalised stocks may be particularly vulnerable to flash crashes. Amid fears of high-risk technology failures in the global financial system we develop a model for flash crashes....

  18. AP English language & composition crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Hogue, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    AP English Language & Composition Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP English Language & Composition Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP English Language & Composition course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valua

  19. AP calculus AB & BC crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Rosebush, J

    2012-01-01

    AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our

  20. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  1. A comprehensive engineering analysis of motorcycle crashes in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify recurring or common road characteristics of motorcycle crashes : in Maryland from 1998 to 2007. Motorcycle crash data was obtained from the National Highway : Traffic Safety Administrations Crash Outcome Data...

  2. 2008 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2008 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  3. 2010 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical Trends and 2010 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity of ...

  4. 2009 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2009 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  6. Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a

  7. The share-a-ride problem : people and parcels sharing taxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, B.; Krushynskyi, D.; Reijers, H.A.; van Woensel, T.

    2014-01-01

    New city logistics approaches are needed to ensure efficient urban mobility for both people and goods. Usually, these are handled independently in dedicated networks. This paper considers conceptual and mathematical models in which people and parcels are handled in an integrated way by the same taxi

  8. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers.

  9. Aircrafts' taxi noise. Sound power level and directivity frequency band results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asensio, C.; Pavón, I.; Ruiz, M.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; Recuero, M.

    2009-01-01

    When noise mapping airports, the main noise sources are take offs and landings. But aircrafts' taxi noise can also be important, and should be considered, for instance when there are residential buildings near the airport's terminal. Main prediction tools, like Integrated Noise Model (INM), do not

  10. Institutional statism: an overview of the formulation of the taxi recapitalisation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. van Schalkwyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the government’s formulation of the taxi recapitalisation policy which is aimed at regulating the minibus taxi industry. Coupled with a brief social and politico-historical context of the policy, the aim is to highlight the government’s statist conduct in the formulation of the recapitalisation policy. The minibus taxi industry started to fulfil a prominent role in the 1970s as a result of a loophole in the legislation of the former apartheid government. It is currently the most accessible mode of public transport and conveys 65 per cent of the country’s commuters daily. Consequently, the Industry is an imperative force to be considered by the government in its formulation of transport policies. However, the industry is characterised by numerous problems, including a high rate of minibus taxis involved in accidents, unroadworthy vehicles and violence. It is in this context that the government formulated both the original and revised versions of the recapitalisation policy. However, the formulation of the policy has been problematic. The government followed a statist approach during the formulation process when it directed the course of the process according to its interests and without adequate consultation with relevant role players.

  11. Predicting Taxi-Out Time at Congested Airports with Optimization-Based Support Vector Regression Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Lian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of taxi-out time is significant precondition for improving the operationality of the departure process at an airport, as well as reducing the long taxi-out time, congestion, and excessive emission of greenhouse gases. Unfortunately, several of the traditional methods of predicting taxi-out time perform unsatisfactorily at congested airports. This paper describes and tests three of those conventional methods which include Generalized Linear Model, Softmax Regression Model, and Artificial Neural Network method and two improved Support Vector Regression (SVR approaches based on swarm intelligence algorithm optimization, which include Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Firefly Algorithm. In order to improve the global searching ability of Firefly Algorithm, adaptive step factor and Lévy flight are implemented simultaneously when updating the location function. Six factors are analysed, of which delay is identified as one significant factor in congested airports. Through a series of specific dynamic analyses, a case study of Beijing International Airport (PEK is tested with historical data. The performance measures show that the proposed two SVR approaches, especially the Improved Firefly Algorithm (IFA optimization-based SVR method, not only perform as the best modelling measures and accuracy rate compared with the representative forecast models, but also can achieve a better predictive performance when dealing with abnormal taxi-out time states.

  12. A Comparative Study of Back Pain among Taxi and Truck Drivers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was analyzed using SSPSS version 20. Descriptive and analytical statistics to analyze and present data. The prevalence of back pain in Port Harcourt for taxi drivers was 70.4% and 71.4% for truck drivers. The prevalence among truck drivers was due to age ,sitting position and shock absorbers. However variables like ...

  13. Pattern of seat belt use and its associated factors among taxi drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...

  14. Research on Strategy Control of Taxi Carpooling Detour Route under Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of route choice in taxi carpooling detour, considering the uncertainty of traffic and the characteristic of passengers’ noncomplete rationality, an evolutionary game model of taxi carpooling detour route is built, in which prospect theory is introduced and revenue of strategy is replaced by prospect value. The model reflects more really decision-making psychology of passengers. Then the stable strategies of the model are studied, and the influences of detour distance and traffic congestion on detour carpooling success are analyzed, respectively. The results show that when at least one route of which prospect values for two passenger sides are both positive exists, carpooling route can reach an agreement. The route is stable strategy of evolutionary game, and the passengers requiring short travel time tend to select the nondetour route. With the increase of detour distance and traffic congestion rate, the possibility of reaching an agreement decreases gradually; that is, possibility of carpooling failure increases. So taxi carpooling detour is possible under the certain condition, but some measures must be carried out such as constraints of detour distance and mitigation of traffic congestion to improve carpooling success probability. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to the formulation of taxi carpooling policy.

  15. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health.

  16. Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busisiwe Ncama

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  17. INFLUENCE OF SERVICE QUALITY AND FARE TOWARD CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND ITS IMPACT ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY OF EXPRESS TAXI IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to: to examine empirically the effect of service quality to customer satisfaction on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of fare to customer satisfaction on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of customer satisfaction to customer loyalty on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of service quality to customer loyalty on Express taxi, and to examine empirically the effect of fare to customer loyalty on Express taxi. Data collection using survey methods. Sample of this study are 200 respondents who have using services of Express taxi more than two times in last three months. Data analysis using SPSS version 23 and SEM (Structural Equation Modeling LISREL version 8.7. Results of hypothesis testing showed: service quality have positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction, fare have positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction, customer satisfaction have positive and significant effect on customer loyalty, service quality have positive and not significant effect to on customer loyalty. fare have positive and significant effect to on customer loyalty. Rated fit model with value of RMSEA 0.043, value of RMR 0.043, value of CMIN/DF 1.88, value of NFI 0.96, value of NNFI 0.98, and value of CFI 0.98. The results of this research beneficial to transportation company, especially Express taxi in Jakarta, to create better strategy in improving customer loyalty.

  18. Crash-Tech 2001. Conference; Crash-Tech 2001. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Improved active and passive safety of motor vehicles has resulted in a very much improved accident statistics. This conference discussed further optimisations in motor car safety. The harmonisation of test specifications world-wide was gone into, with particular interest in compatibility. Safety specifications resulting from current accident research and new legislation were gone into, and the current state of measuring and technology in crash testing was outlined. [German] Aufgrund der Verbesserungen in der aktiven und passiven Sicherheit von Fahrzeugen weisen die Unfallstatistiken in vielen europaeischen Laendern eine erfreuliche Tendenz auf. Die Tagung wird sich mit den Moeglichkeiten der weiteren Optimierung der Verkehrssicherheit befassen. Die 'Crash-Tech 2001' will sich mit dem Motto 'Sind wir auf dem Weg zum World NCAP?' der Harmonisierung der Testvorschriften unter Einbeziehung der Kompatibilitaet widmen. Dazu werden Anforderungen an die Fahrzeugsicherheit diskutiert, die sich sowohl aus der aktuellen Unfallforschung als auch aus den Vorschriften ergeben. Weiterhin wird der aktuelle Stand der Mess- und Versuchstechnik im Unfallversuch vorgestellt. (orig.)

  19. Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busisiwe Ncama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  20. System crash as dynamics of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Yubo; Wang, Zhen; Kurths, Jürgen; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-10-18

    Complex systems, from animal herds to human nations, sometimes crash drastically. Although the growth and evolution of systems have been extensively studied, our understanding of how systems crash is still limited. It remains rather puzzling why some systems, appearing to be doomed to fail, manage to survive for a long time whereas some other systems, which seem to be too big or too strong to fail, crash rapidly. In this contribution, we propose a network-based system dynamics model, where individual actions based on the local information accessible in their respective system structures may lead to the "peculiar" dynamics of system crash mentioned above. Extensive simulations are carried out on synthetic and real-life networks, which further reveal the interesting system evolution leading to the final crash. Applications and possible extensions of the proposed model are discussed.

  1. Advances in crash dynamics for aircraft safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, M.; Marulo, F.; Abrate, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the ability of the fuselage's lower lobe to absorb the energy during a crash landing, where the introduction of the composite materials can improve the crash survivability thanks to the crushing capability of structural parts to limit the effects of deceleration on the occupants. Providing a protective shell around the occupants and minimizing the risks of injuries during and immediately after the crash in the post-crash regime is a safety requirement. This study consists of: (1) numerical and experimental investigations on small components to verify design concepts using high performance composite materials; (2) analyses of full scale crashes of fuselage lower lobes. This paper outlines an approach for demonstrating the crashworthiness characteristics of the airframe performing a drop test at low velocity impact to validate a numerical model obtained by assembling structural components and materials' properties previously obtained by testing coupons and sub-elements.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of CNG urban taxi operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives : examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed : natural gas (CNG)....

  3. Crash data modeling with a generalized estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhirui; Xu, Yueru; Lord, Dominique

    2018-05-11

    The investigation of relationships between traffic crashes and relevant factors is important in traffic safety management. Various methods have been developed for modeling crash data. In real world scenarios, crash data often display the characteristics of over-dispersion. However, on occasions, some crash datasets have exhibited under-dispersion, especially in cases where the data are conditioned upon the mean. The commonly used models (such as the Poisson and the NB regression models) have associated limitations to cope with various degrees of dispersion. In light of this, a generalized event count (GEC) model, which can be generally used to handle over-, equi-, and under-dispersed data, is proposed in this study. This model was first applied to case studies using data from Toronto, characterized by over-dispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized with under-dispersion. The results from the GEC model were compared with those from the Negative binomial and the hyper-Poisson models. The cases studies show that the proposed model provides good performance for crash data characterized with over- and under-dispersion. Moreover, the proposed model simplifies the modeling process and the prediction of crash data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of ATC Tower Systems: Electronic Flight Strip System at LKPR and the Implementation of TAXI Milestone to SUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Černý

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Electronic Flight Strip System used at Václav Havel Airport Prague and presents the results of an analysis of the clearance input from ATCOs. The outcomes indicate that various clearances are frequently issued together in a common time frame, usually depending on the traffic flow structure. The focus then moves towards the implementation of the TAXI milestone into the Start-Up Manager. The used statistic methods indicate that the amount of TTOT recalculations after AOBT decreases, but not significantly. However, the accuracy of TTOT after TAXI clearance is considerably better. The mean and most common deviation of ATOT from TTOT after the implementation of TAXI milestone is -1 minute. The results are challenged and confirmed by a further analysis of the TTOT-ATOT difference regarding individual stand/RWY pairs. The results may be used to adjust the assumed taxi times.

  5. Turing-Hopf bifurcations in a predator-prey model with herd behavior, quadratic mortality and prey-taxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhang, Tonghua; Meng, Xinzhu; Zhang, Tongqian

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a predator-prey model with herd behavior and prey-taxis. Then, we analyze the stability and bifurcation of the positive equilibrium of the model subject to the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition. By using an abstract bifurcation theory and taking prey-tactic sensitivity coefficient as the bifurcation parameter, we obtain a branch of stable nonconstant solutions bifurcating from the positive equilibrium. Our results show that prey-taxis can yield the occurrence of spatial patterns.

  6. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  7. Braking News: the Link between Crash Severity and Crash Avoidance Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    the ordered-response nature of severity while allowing for changes in effects across severity levels. The data sample for estimation consists of single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the period 2005-2009. Results show the correlation between crash...... severity. These trends suggest that effort should be posed toward understanding the reaction mechanisms to different critical events, improving in-vehicle warning systems, promoting responsible driving behavior, and designing forgiving infrastructures....

  8. Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum.

  9. Video event data recording of a taxi driver used for diagnosis of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Sakurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A video event data recorder (VEDR in a motor vehicle records images before and after a traffic accident. This report describes a taxi driver whose seizures were recorded by VEDR, which was extremely useful for the diagnosis of epilepsy. The patient was a 63-year-old right-handed Japanese male taxi driver. He collided with a streetlight. Two years prior to this incident, he raced an engine for a long time while parked. The VEDR enabled confirmation that the accidents depended on an epileptic seizure and he was diagnosed with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. The VEDR is useful not only for traffic accident evidence; it might also contribute to a driver's health care and road safety.

  10. PENINGKATAN HASIL BELAJAR PERPAJAKAN MELALUI MEDIA TAXI SNADERS PADA SISWA XI B SMK PL TARCISIUS 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Hery Setyawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocational School (SMK is an educational institution to transfer knowledge about the tax. Unluckily, teaching learning process in delivering this material was monotonous, so it needed a medium called TAXI SNADERS. The objective of the study was to increase interest and learning outcomes taxation on Value Added Tax (VAT and Sales of Luxury through a medium called TAXI SNADERS. The result of the study showed that there was improvement toward students’ interest for 14.5%. On the 1st cycle, students’ interest was only 67.25%, then it increased up to 81.75% on the 2nd cycle. Moreover, students’ learning outcomes also increased for 20% in post test. It was 67% on the 1st cycle and rose to 87% on the 2nd cycle. 

  11. Spatio-temporal pattern formation in predator-prey systems with fitness taxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, Irene T.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2018-01-01

    We pose a spatial predator–prey model in which the movement of animals is not purely diffusive, but also contains a drift term in the direction of higher specific growth rates. We refer to this as fitness taxis. We conduct a linear stability analysis of the resulting coupled reaction–advection–di......We pose a spatial predator–prey model in which the movement of animals is not purely diffusive, but also contains a drift term in the direction of higher specific growth rates. We refer to this as fitness taxis. We conduct a linear stability analysis of the resulting coupled reaction...... of diffusive motion, is ecologically plausible, and provides an alternative mechanism for formation of patterns in spatially explicit ecosystem models, with emphasis on non-stationary spatio-temporal dynamics....

  12. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  13. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Almeida da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  14. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Almeida; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. Correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. Motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  15. Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Large Truck* Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) is based on a three-year data collection project conducted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)...

  16. Economic Cost of Crashes in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Idaho Transportation Departments Office of Highway Safety contracted with Cambridge Systematics (CS) for an assessment of the feasibility of calculating the Idaho-specific economic and comprehensive costs associated with vehicle crashes. Resea...

  17. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.

  18. Exploring cycle crash characteristics in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the cycle road crash trend, characteristics and injuries in Malaysia. It analyses the in-depth road crash investigation data collected by the Royal Malaysian Police which was made available to MIROS crash database. Fatality data was utilized due to its consistency. Cycle casualties reflected a continual downward pattern for year 2009 to 2014 in which the number of cycle crash involvement reduced by 49% and fatalities dropped by 42%. Among the prevalent factors of cycle fatalities are >60 age group, federal and state roads and straight road sections, rural and small towns, evening peak hours, and mainly involving cars and motorcycles. It is hoped that all these information would spark interests to improve cycle safety in Malaysia.

  19. Mining Open Datasets for Transparency in Taxi Transport in Metropolitan Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Noulas, Anastasios; Salnikov, Vsevolod; Lambiotte, Renaud; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Uber has recently been introducing novel practices in urban taxi transport. Journey prices can change dynamically in almost real time and also vary geographically from one area to another in a city, a strategy known as surge pricing. In this paper, we explore the power of the new generation of open datasets towards understanding the impact of the new disruption technologies that emerge in the area of public transport. With our primary goal being a more transparent economic landscape for urban...

  20. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine Benn

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared...... vehicle crashes throughout the follow-up period. This study suggests that syncope should be considered as one of several factors in a broad assessment of fitness to drive....

  1. Multinational Corporations and Stock Price Crash Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony May

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nascent literature in finance and accounting on tail risk in individual stock returns concludes that bad news hoarding by corporate managers engenders sudden, extreme crashes in a firm’s stock price when the bad news is eventually made public. This literature finds that firm-specific crash risk is higher among firms with more severe asymmetric information and agency problems. A hitherto disjointed literature spanning the fields of international business, finance, and accounting suggests that geographic dispersion in a firm’s operations, and especially dispersion across different countries, gives rise to organizational complexities and greater costs of monitoring that can exacerbate asymmetric information and agency problems. Motivated by the confluence of arguments and findings from these two strands of literature, this paper examines whether stock price crash risk is higher among multinational firms than domestic firms. Using a large sample of U.S. headquartered firms during 1987-2011, we find robust evidence that multinational firms are significantly more likely to crash than domestic firms. Moreover, we show that the difference in crash risk between multinational and domestic firms is most acute among firms with weaker corporate governance mechanisms, including weaker shareholder rights, less independent boards, and less stable institutional ownership. Our analysis indicates that stronger monitoring from each of these three governance mechanisms significantly attenuates the positive relation between crash risk and multinationality. Our findings are robust to the use of alternative measures of crash risk and to controlling for known determinants of crash risk identified in prior studies. Our study offers new insights that should hold value for scholars and market participants interested in understanding the implications of heighted agency problems that multinational firms are likely to encounter and scholars and market participants

  2. Taxi ! méthode de français : niveau 3

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Anne-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Taxi ! 3 est une méthode interactive, qui développe non seulement les connaissances, mais aussi les savoir-faire et les savoir-être de l'apprenant, à l'écrit comme à l'oral. La méthode est très simple à utiliser : une leçon = une double page. Taxi ! 3 couvre le niveau Bl du Cadre européen commun de référence pour l'apprentissage, l'enseignement et l'évaluation des langues. La méthode permet de se préparer aux épreuves A3 et A4 du DELF 1er degré. Une progression et des contenus fonctionnels et langagiers solides permettent à l'apprenant d'atteindre rapidement une autonomie en français dans des situations de la vie courante. Taxi ! 3 permet de mieux connaître la France d'aujourd'hui et les comportements des Français à travers une grande variété de documents authentiques (écrit et audio).

  3. Labeling Residential Community Characteristics from Collective Activity Patterns Using Taxi Trip Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    There existing a significant social and spatial differentiation in the residential communities in urban city. People live in different places have different socioeconomic background, resulting in various geographically activity patterns. This paper aims to label the characteristics of residential communities in a city using collective activity patterns derived from taxi trip data. Specifically, we first present a method to allocate the O/D (Origin/Destination) points of taxi trips to the land use parcels where the activities taken place in. Then several indices are employed to describe the collective activity patterns, including both activity intensity, travel distance, travel time, and activity space of residents by taking account of the geographical distribution of all O/Ds of the taxi trip related to that residential community. Followed by that, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is introduced to cluster the residential communities with similar activity patterns. In the case study of Wuhan, the residential communities are clearly divided into eight clusters, which could be labelled as ordinary communities, privileged communities, old isolated communities, suburban communities, and so on. In this paper, we provide a new perspective to label the land use under same type from people's mobility patterns with the support of big trajectory data.

  4. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  5. Relationship of Near-Crash/Crash Risk to Time Spent on a Cell Phone While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine in a naturalistic driving setting the dose-response relationship between cell phone usage while driving and risk of a crash or near crash. How is the increasing use of cell phones by drivers associated with overall near-crash/crash risk (i.e., during driving times both on and off the phone)? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. A random sample was selected comprised of 4 trips from each month that each driver was in the study, and in-vehicle video was used to classify driver behavior. The proportion of driving time spent using a cell phone was estimated for each 3-month period and correlated with overall crash and near-crash rates for each period. Thus, it was possible to test whether changes in an individual driver's cell phone use over time were associated with changes in overall near-crash/crash risk. Drivers in the study spent 11.7% of their driving time interacting with a cell phone, primarily talking on the phone (6.5%) or simply holding the phone in their hand or lap (3.7%). The risk of a near-crash/crash event was approximately 17% higher when the driver was interacting with a cell phone, due primarily to actions of reaching for/answering/dialing, which nearly triples risk (relative risk = 2.84). However, the amount of driving time spent interacting with a cell phone did not affect a driver's overall near-crash/crash risk. Vehicle speeds within 6 s of the beginning of each call on average were 5-6 mph lower than speeds at other times. Results of this naturalistic driving study are consistent with the observation that increasing cell phone use in the general driving population has not led to increased crash rates. Although cell phone use can be distracting and crashes have occurred during this distraction, overall crash rates appear unaffected by changes in the rate of cell phone use, even for individual drivers. Drivers compensate somewhat for the distraction

  6. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  7. The trend of road traffic crashes at urban signalised intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana Nasarrudin, Nurul; Razelan, Intan Suhana Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Road traffic crash is one of the main contributing factors for deaths in the world. Intersection is listed as the second road type which road crashes occurred frequently. Hence, the traffic light was installed to minimise the road crashes at intersection. However, the crashes are still occurring and arising. The objective of this study was to exhibit the trend of road crashes at the signalised intersections. The data of road crashes for the past 6 years were analysed using descriptive analysis. The results showed that the road traffic crashes at three- and four-legged signalised intersection recorded the increasing trend. In conclusion, this finding shows that the road traffic crashes for these types of signalised intersection in Malaysia is rising. It is also one the contributors to the increasing number of crashes in Malaysia. This finding will encourage the local authority to conduct awareness programs on the safety at the signalised intersection.

  8. Crash test rating and likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury in motor vehicle crashes: the new car assessment program side-impact crash test, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  9. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016 [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, moderate, and minor injury levels, property damage only (PDO, and unknown. The crash data was further used to rank intersections by equivalent injury crash frequency. The top 200 intersections with the highest number of crash occurrences identified based on crash frequency- and severity-based scenarios are shared in this brief. The provided data would be a valuable source for research in urban traffic safety analysis and could also be utilized to examine the effectiveness of traffic safety improvement planning and programming, intersection design enhancement, incident and emergency management, and law enforcement strategies.

  10. The Effect of Working Conditions to the Health Status in Taxi and Bus Drivers in Canakkale, Turkey; Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Uludag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.

  11. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X

  12. Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes on arterial roads in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimate the average crash costs applicable to a wide range of road-barrier scenarios that involved three types of road barriers (concrete barriers, W-beam guardrails, and high-tension cable barriers) to produce a suitable basis for comparing barrier-oriented design alternatives and road improvements. The intention was to perform the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis allowed by the cross-sectional method and the crash data available in Indiana. To accomplish this objective and to use the available data efficiently, the effects of barrier were estimated on the frequency of barrier-relevant (BR) crashes, the types of harmful events and their occurrence during a BR crash, and the severity of BR crash outcomes. The harmful events component added depth to the analysis by connecting the crash onset with its outcome. Further improvement of the analysis was accomplished by considering the crash outcome severity of all the individuals involved in a crash and not just drivers, utilizing hospital data, and pairing the observations with and without road barriers along same or similar road segments to better control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study confirmed that the total number of BR crashes tended to be higher where medians had installed barriers, mainly due to collisions with barriers and, in some cases, with other vehicles after redirecting vehicles back to traffic. These undesirable effects of barriers were surpassed by the positive results of reducing cross-median crashes, rollover events, and collisions with roadside hazards. The average cost of a crash (unit cost) was reduced by 50% with cable barriers installed in medians wider than 50ft. A similar effect was concluded for concrete barriers and guardrails installed in medians narrower than 50ft. The studied roadside guardrails also reduced the unit cost by 20%-30%. Median cable barriers were found to be the most effective

  13. Taxi trips distribution modeling based on Entropy-Maximizing theory: A case study in Harbin city-China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Zhang, Shen; Chen, Xinqiang; Liu, Fang; Zou, Yajie

    2018-03-01

    Understanding Origin-Destination distribution of taxi trips is very important for improving effects of transportation planning and enhancing quality of taxi services. This study proposes a new method based on Entropy-Maximizing theory to model OD distribution in Harbin city using large-scale taxi GPS trajectories. Firstly, a K-means clustering method is utilized to partition raw pick-up and drop-off location into different zones, and trips are assumed to start from and end at zone centers. A generalized cost function is further defined by considering travel distance, time and fee between each OD pair. GPS data collected from more than 1000 taxis at an interval of 30 s during one month are divided into two parts: data from first twenty days is treated as training dataset and last ten days is taken as testing dataset. The training dataset is used to calibrate model while testing dataset is used to validate model. Furthermore, three indicators, mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean percentage absolute error (MPAE), are applied to evaluate training and testing performance of Entropy-Maximizing model versus Gravity model. The results demonstrate Entropy-Maximizing model is superior to Gravity model. Findings of the study are used to validate the feasibility of OD distribution from taxi GPS data in urban system.

  14. Examination of factors associated in motorcycle crashes in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors associated with motorcycle crashes in work zones. This analysis was completed : through the collection and inspection of three types of data: 1) practices used throughout the country on this topic, : 2) crash reports a...

  15. Financial Services Advertising before and after the Crash of 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Stephen E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines institutional changes in advertising before and after the stock market "crash" of 1987 as represented in the "Wall Street Journal." Finds that financial institutions increased the frequency and size of ads after the crash. (RS)

  16. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that lack of sleep is a significant factor in motor vehicle crashes experienced by teenage drivers. This report examines the hypothesis that a later high school start time may reduce crash rates by reducing the interfere...

  17. Linear regression crash prediction models : issues and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The paper develops a linear regression model approach that can be applied to : crash data to predict vehicle crashes. The proposed approach involves novice data aggregation : to satisfy linear regression assumptions; namely error structure normality ...

  18. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, S

    2002-01-01

    ...), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S...

  19. Risk factors associated with high potential for serious crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Crashes are random events and low traffic volumes therefore dont always make crash hot-spot : identification possible. This project has used extensive data collection and analysis for a large sample : of Oregons low volume roads to develop a ri...

  20. Taxonomy of Older Driver Behaviors and Crash Risk : Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This projects objectives were to identify risky behaviors, driving habits, and exposure patterns that have been shown to increase the likelihood of crash involvement among older drivers; and to classify these crash-contributing factors according t...

  1. Evaluation of safety ratings of roads based on frontal crashes with known crash pulse and injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, H

    2009-06-01

    The objective in this study, using data from crashed cars fitted with on-board crash pulse recorders, was to present differences in average crash severity, distribution of crash severity, and injury outcomes, based on an independent safety rating of roads, also taking road type and speed limit into consideration. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate differences in injury risk, based on the distribution of crash severity. The investigation included both frontal two-vehicle crashes and single-vehicle crashes with known injury outcome. In total, 209 real-world crashes involving cars fitted with crash pulse recorders were included. For all crashes, average mean acceleration and change of velocity of the vehicle acceleration pulse were measured and calculated. All crash spots were classified according to an independent road safety rating program (European Road Assessment Programme Road Protection Score), where the safety quality of roads is rated in relation to posted speed limits. The crash severity and injury outcome in crashes that occurred on roads with good safety ratings were compared with crashes on roads with poor safety ratings. The data were also divided into subcategories according to posted speed limit and road type, to evaluate whether there was a difference in crash severity and injury outcome within the categories. In total, crash severity was statistically significantly lower in crashes occurring on roads with good safety ratings than in crashes occurring on roads with poor safety ratings. It was found that crash severity and injury risk were lower on roads with good safety ratings with a speed limit of above 90 km/h compared with roads with poor safety ratings, irrespective of speed limit. On the other hand, crash severity was higher on roads with good safety ratings with speed limit of 70 km/h than on roads with poor safety ratings with the same speed limit. Though it was found that a higher speed limit resulted in higher crash severity on roads

  2. Pre-crash scenarios at road junctions: A clustering method for car crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Philippe; Thomas, Pete; Stuetz, Rainer; Welsh, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    Given the recent advancements in autonomous driving functions, one of the main challenges is safe and efficient operation in complex traffic situations such as road junctions. There is a need for comprehensive testing, either in virtual simulation environments or on real-world test tracks. This paper presents a novel data analysis method including the preparation, analysis and visualization of car crash data, to identify the critical pre-crash scenarios at T- and four-legged junctions as a basis for testing the safety of automated driving systems. The presented method employs k-medoids to cluster historical junction crash data into distinct partitions and then applies the association rules algorithm to each cluster to specify the driving scenarios in more detail. The dataset used consists of 1056 junction crashes in the UK, which were exported from the in-depth "On-the-Spot" database. The study resulted in thirteen crash clusters for T-junctions, and six crash clusters for crossroads. Association rules revealed common crash characteristics, which were the basis for the scenario descriptions. The results support existing findings on road junction accidents and provide benchmark situations for safety performance tests in order to reduce the possible number parameter combinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bubbles, Post-Crash Dynamics, and the Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker H. Liu; Adam Nowak; Stuart Rosenthal

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents and explains previously unrecognized post-crash dynamics following the collapse of a housing bubble. A simple model predicts that speculative developers ensure stable pre-crash relative prices between small and large homes while their post-crash exit allows small-home relative values to fall. Evidence from Phoenix supports the model. Although home prices doubled 2004-2006, relative prices of small-to-large homes remained nearly constant but then plummeted post-crash. As s...

  4. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Drunk-Driving Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Guangqing Chi; Xuan Zhou; Timothy McClure; Paul Gilbert; Arthur Cosby; Li Zhang; Angela Robertson; David Levinson

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between changing gasoline prices and drunk-driving crashes. Specifically, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on drunk-driving crashes in Mississippi by age, gender, and race from 2004Ð2008, a period experiencing great fluctuation in gasoline prices. An exploratory visualization by graphs shows that higher gasoline prices are generally associated with fewer drunk-driving crashes. Higher gasoline prices depress drunk- driving crashes among younger...

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301..., Shuttle Services, Or Other Courtesy Transportation § 301-10.421 How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your agency...

  6. Kinetics and substrate selectivity of a Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI) resistant D11F/R122D variant of Bacillus subtilis XynA xylanase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Enggaard; Sørensen, Jens F.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the kinetics and substrate selectivity of a GH11 Bacillus subtilis XynA xylanase (BsX) sensitive to inhibition by TAXI and an engineered variant, which is much less inhibited by TAXI (BsX(mut)). The main purpose of the work was to elucidate any influence of the structural point...

  7. Conscientious personality and young drivers’ crash risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method Participants’ driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18 months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants’ KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Results Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c = −0.034, p = .09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a = −0.040, p = .09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a = −0.053, p = .03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b = 0.376, p = .02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c’ = −0.025, p = .20). Conclusions Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, suffered fewer CNC. Practical Applications Part of the variability in crash-risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage

  8. Conscientious personality and young drivers' crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Fox Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne; Perlus, Jessamyn G; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G

    2015-09-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate, and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants' KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c=-0.034, p=.09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a=-0.040, p=.09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a=-0.053, p=.03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b=0.376, p=.02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c'=-0.025, p=.20). Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, and suffered fewer CNC. Part of the variability in crash risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage drivers' personality into account when providing guidance, and establishing norms and

  9. The combined benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in preventing crashes and reducing crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing injury crashes, due to improved stability and braking performance. Both aspects may prevent crashes but may also reduce the crash severity when a collision occurs. However, it is still unknown to what extent the reductions in injury crashes with ABS may be due to a combination of these mechanisms. Swedish hospital and police reports (2003-2012) were used. The risk for permanent medical impairment (RPMI) was calculated, showing the risk of at least 1 or 10% permanent medical impairment. In total, 165 crashes involving ABS-equipped motorcycles were compared with 500 crashes with similar motorcycles without ABS. The analysis was performed in 3 steps. First, the reduction in emergency care visits with ABS was calculated using an induced exposure approach. Secondly, the injury mitigating effects of ABS were investigated. The mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ were analyzed for different crash types. The distributions of impairing injuries (PMI 1+) and severely impairing injuries (PMI 10+) were also analyzed. In the third step, the total reduction of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists was calculated by combining the reductions found in the previous steps. An additional analysis of combined braking systems (CBS) together with ABS was also performed. The results showed that emergency care visits were reduced by 47% with ABS. In the second step, it was found that the mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ with ABS were 15 and 37% lower, respectively. Finally, the third step showed that the total reductions in terms of crash avoidance and mitigation of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists with ABS were 67 and 55%, respectively. However, PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ leg injuries were not reduced by ABS to the same extent. Indications were found suggesting that the benefits of ABS together with CBS may be greater than ABS alone. This article indicated that motorcycle ABS reduced impairing injuries

  10. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Ning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effective method to solve this problem. Furthermore, the effects of price of electricity, price of battery package, life cycle of battery package, cost of battery-swapping devices and infrastructure, and driving mileage per day on the benefits of value holders are analyzed, which provide theoretical and practical reference for the deployment of electric vehicles, for the national subsidy criteria adjusment, technological innovation instruction, commercial mode selection, and infrastructure construction.

  11. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, G.D.; Lynam, D.R. [Air Conservation Department, Ethyl Corporation, 330 South Fourth Street, Richmond, VA (United States); Harrison, R.M. [The University of Birmingham, Environmental Health, School of Chemistry, Edgbaston, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM{sub 2.5} were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM{sub 2.5}, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rails, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear.

  12. Pre-crash system validation with PRESCAN and VEHIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Verburg, D.J.; Labibes, K.; Oostendorp, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the tools for design and validation of Pre-Crash Systems: the software tool PRE-crash SCenario ANalyzer (PRESCAN) and the VEhicle-Hardware-In-the-Loop (VEHIL) facility. PRESCAN allows to investigate a pre-crash scenario in simulation. This scenario can then be compared with tests

  13. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky : 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2004 through 2008. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Average and critical numbers and rates of crashe...

  14. Accesibilidad en el transporte público en Valladolid ferrocarril, autobús y taxi

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Peña, Mª Begoña; Herrero Rodríguez, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la medida en la que se cumple la normativa de accesibilidad al transporte público en la ciudad de Valladolid, en concreto ferrocarril, autobús y taxi, no sólo en el sentido estricto de la normativa sino también desde el punto de vista de la autonomía de una persona con discapacidad física. Departamento de Organización de Empresas y Comercialización e Investigación de Mercados Máster en Logística

  15. Factors associated with drug use among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Vu, Thinh Toan; Pham, Ha Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 291 male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs) recruited through social mapping technique in Hanoi, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with drug use among MMTDs using Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model. Among 291 MMTDs, 17.18% reported drug use sometime in their lives, 96% of whom were drug injectors. Being depressed, being originally borne in urban cities, currently residing in rural areas, having a longer time living apart from their wives/lovers, using alcohol, following Buddhism, and reporting lower motivation of HIV prevention predict significantly higher odds of uptaking drugs.

  16. Reduced fertility after the crash of a U.S. bomber carrying nuclear weapons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1995-01-01

    A register-based study was performed to elucidate whether workers employed on the Thule air base in the clean-up period after the crash of a U.S. B-52 bomber carrying nuclear bombs had reduced fertility, as measured by the numbers of liveborn children. The highest birth rates were among 25-34-year...... is that the accident has not reduced fertility....

  17. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  18. Health Status, Intention to Seek Health Examination, and Participation in Health Education Among Taxi Drivers in Jinan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Fan, Xiao-sheng; Tian, Cui-huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Li, Shu-qing

    2014-01-01

    Background: Taxi drivers are exposed to various risk factors such as work overload, stress, an irregular diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, which make these individuals vulnerable to many diseases. This study was designed to assess the health status of this occupational group. Objectives: The objective was to explore the health status, the intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in Jinan, China. Patients and Methods: The sample-size was determined scientifically. The systematic sampling procedure was used for selecting the sample. Four hundred taxi drivers were randomly selected from several taxi companies in Jinan. In total, 396 valid questionnaires (from 370 males and 26 females) were returned. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education were assessed by a self-designed questionnaire. Other personal information including sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, years of employment as a taxi driver, education level, and habits were also collected. Results: This survey revealed that 54.8% of taxi drivers reported illness in the last two weeks and 44.7% of participants reported chronic diseases. The prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gastroenteritis, arthritis, and heart disease were 18.2%, 8.8%, 26%, 18.4%, and 4.8% of questioned taxi drivers, respectively. Significant self-reported symptoms included fatigue, waist and back pain, headache, dyspepsia, and dry throat affecting 49.7%, 26.2%, 23.5%, 26%, and 27% of participants, respectively. In total, 90.1% of subjects thought that it was necessary to receive a regular health examination. Only 17.9% of subjects had been given information about health education, and significantly, more than 87% of subjects who had been given information about health education reported that the information had been helpful. Conclusions: Taxi drivers’ health was poor in our survey. Thus, using health education interventions

  19. Crash risk factors for interstate large trucks in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Carter, Daniel L; Smith, Sarah; McCartt, Anne T

    2017-09-01

    Provide an updated examination of risk factors for large truck involvements in crashes resulting in injury or death. A matched case-control study was conducted in North Carolina of large trucks operated by interstate carriers. Cases were defined as trucks involved in crashes resulting in fatal or non-fatal injury, and one control truck was matched on the basis of location, weekday, time of day, and truck type. The matched-pair odds ratio provided an estimate of the effect of various driver, vehicle, or carrier factors. Out-of-service (OOS) brake violations tripled the risk of crashing; any OOS vehicle defect increased crash risk by 362%. Higher historical crash rates (fatal, injury, or all crashes) of the carrier were associated with increased risk of crashing. Operating on a short-haul exemption increased crash risk by 383%. Antilock braking systems reduced crash risk by 65%. All of these results were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Other safety technologies also showed estimated benefits, although not statistically significant. With the exception of the finding that short-haul exemption is associated with increased crash risk, results largely bolster what is currently known about large truck crash risk and reinforce current enforcement practices. Results also suggest vehicle safety technologies can be important in lowering crash risk. This means that as safety technology continues to penetrate the fleet, whether from voluntary usage or government mandates, reductions in large truck crashes may be achieved. Practical application: Results imply that increased enforcement and use of crash avoidance technologies can improve the large truck crash problem. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A hot spot analysis of teenage crashes : an assessment of crashes in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Today, states have enacted laws to ensure that teen drivers are more skilled and drive safely. The result is : fewer accidents. However, in previous research, when teen crashes were mapped, certain streets and areas : appeared to have more accidents ...

  1. Patterns of severe injury in pediatric car crash victims: Crash Injury Research Engineering Network database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Kristine; Jing, Yuezhou; Wang, Stewart; Ehrlich, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) account for 50% of pediatric trauma. Safety improvements are typically tested with child crash dummies using an in vitro model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) provides an in vivo validation process. Previous research suggest that children in lateral crashes or front-seat locations have higher Injury Severity Scale scores and lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores than those in frontal-impact crashes. However, specific injury patterns and crash characteristics have not been characterized. Data were collected from the CIREN multidisciplinary crash reconstruction network (10 pediatric trauma centers). Injuries were examined with regard to crash direction (frontal/lateral), restraint use, seat location, and change in velocity at impact (DeltaV). Injuries were limited to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 3 or higher and included head, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, spine, and long bone (orthopedic) injuries. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years) were used. Statistical analyses used Fisher's Exact test and multiple logistic regressions. Four hundred seventeen MVCs with 2500 injuries were analyzed (males = 219, females = 198). Controlling for DeltaV and age, children in lateral-impact crashes (n = 232) were significantly more likely to suffer severe injuries to the head and thorax as compared with children in frontal crashes (n = 185), who were more likely to suffer severe spine and orthopedic injuries. Children in a front-seat (n = 236) vs those in a back-seat (n = 169) position had more injuries to the thoracic (27% vs 17%), abdominal (21% vs 13%), pelvic (11% vs 1%), and orthopedic (28% vs 10%) regions (P < .05 for all). Seat belts were protective for pelvic (5% vs 12% unbelted) and orthopedic (15% vs 40%) injuries (odds ratio = 3, P < .01 for both). A reproducible pattern of injury is noted for children involved in lateral-impact crashes characterized by head and chest injuries. The Injury Severity

  2. Sleep-related vehicle crashes on low speed roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, A J; Armstrong, K A; Watson, A; Smith, S S

    2017-02-01

    Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits. Police reports of all crashes occurring on low and high speed roads over a ten year period between 2000 and 2009 were examined for Queensland, Australia. Attending police officers identified all crash attributes, including 'fatigue/fell asleep', which indicates that the police believe the crash to have a causal factor relating to falling asleep, sleepiness due to sleep loss, time of day, or fatigue. Driver or rider involvement in crashes was classified as SR or not-SR. All crash-associated variables were compared using Chi-square tests (Cramer's V=effect size). A series of logistic regression was performed, with driver and crash characteristics as predictors of crash category. A conservative alpha level of 0.001 determined statistical significance. There were 440,855 drivers or riders involved in a crash during this time; 6923 (1.6%) were attributed as SR. SR crashes on low speed roads have similar characteristics to those on high speed roads with young (16-24y) males consistently over represented. SR crashes on low speed roads are noticeably different to not-SR crashes in the same speed zone in that male and young novice drivers are over represented and outcomes are more severe. Of all the SR crashes identified, 41% occurred on low speed roads. SR crashes are not confined to high speed roads. Low speed SR crashes warrant specific investigation because they occur in densely populated areas, exposing a greater number of people to risk and have more severe outcomes than not-SR crashes

  3. Motorcycle crash causes and outcomes : pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The number of motorcyclist crash-related fatalities has more than doubled during the past 10 years. In the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) P.L. 109-59, Congress directed the Secretary ...

  4. Child passengers injured in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-02-01

    During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. We found that about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal was significantly higher. The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism for rapid sawtooth crashes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    The sawtooth oscillations in the soft x-ray signals observed in tokamaks are associated with periodic changes in the central electron temperature, T/sub e/. Typically, a slow phase during which the central temperature slowly rises is followed by a fast drop in T/sub e/, associated with flattening of the central temperature. The time scale of the slow phase is determined by various transport processes such as ohmic heating. The resistive internal kink mode was invoked by Kadomtsev to explain the crash phase of the oscillations. Fast crash times observed in the large tokamaks are studied here, especially the fast crashes observed in JET. These sawtooth oscillations are characterized by the absence of any discrenible precursor oscillations, and a rapid collapse of the central temperature in about 100 microseconds. During the crash phase, the hot core region rapidly moves outward and is replaced by colder plasma. Then, this highly asymmetric state relaxes (in ∼100μsec) to a poloidally symmetric state in which a ring of hot plasma surrounds the colder core plasma, producing a hollow pressure profile

  6. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  7. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  8. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  9. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.

  10. 2010 traffic crash facts annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The death rate on Nebraska roadways during 2010 was .97 persons killed per 100 million vehicle miles traveled. This is the lowest death rate recorded since the state first began keeping motor vehicle crash statistics in 1936. The trend of declining d...

  11. Using linked data to evaluate hospital charges for motor vehicle crash victims in Pennsylvania : Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) linked data demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The report uses police-reported crash data that have been linked to hospital discharge data to evaluate charges for hospital care provided to motor vehicle crash victims in Pennsylvania. Approximately 17,000 crash victims were hospitalized in Pennsyl...

  12. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct medical costs of motorcycle crashes in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Daniel; Wasserstein, David; Nathens, Avery B; Bai, Yu Qing; Redelmeier, Donald A; Wodchis, Walter P

    2017-11-20

    There is no reliable estimate of costs incurred by motorcycle crashes. Our objective was to calculate the direct costs of all publicly funded medical care provided to individuals after motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes. We conducted a population-based, matched cohort study of adults in Ontario who presented to hospital because of a motorcycle or automobile crash from 2007 through 2013. For each case, we identified 1 control absent a motor vehicle crash during the study period. Direct costs for each case and control were estimated in 2013 Canadian dollars from the payer perspective using methodology that links health care use to individuals over time. We calculated costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes within 2 years using a difference-in-differences approach. We identified 26 831 patients injured in motorcycle crashes and 281 826 injured in automobile crashes. Mean costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes were $5825 and $2995, respectively ( p motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes (2194 injured annually/100 000 registered motorcycles v. 718 injured annually/100 000 registered automobiles; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8 to 3.3, p motorcycles v. 12 severe injuries annually/100 000 registered automobiles; IRR 10.4, 95% CI 8.3 to 13.1, p motorcycle in Ontario costs the public health care system 6 times the amount of each registered automobile. Medical costs may provide an additional incentive to improve motorcycle safety. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  14. Fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Liming; Evans, Leonard

    2017-12-01

    Adverse weather has been recognized as a significant threat to traffic safety. However, relationships between fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather are rarely studied according to the low occurrence of crashes involving large numbers of vehicles. By using all 1,513,792 fatal crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data, 1975-2014, we successfully described these relationships. We found: (a) fatal crashes involving more than 35 vehicles are most likely to occur in snow or fog; (b) fatal crashes in rain are three times as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather; (c) fatal crashes in snow [or fog] are 24 times [35 times] as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather. If the example had used 20 vehicles, the risk ratios would be 6 for rain, 158 for snow, and 171 for fog. To reduce the risk of involvement in fatal crashes with large numbers of vehicles, drivers should slow down more than they currently do under adverse weather conditions. Driver deaths per fatal crash increase slowly with increasing numbers of involved vehicles when it is snowing or raining, but more steeply when clear or foggy. We conclude that in order to reduce risk of involvement in crashes involving large numbers of vehicles, drivers must reduce speed in fog, and in snow or rain, reduce speed by even more than they already do. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Under-reporting of road traffic crash data in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Mohammed; Ackaah, Williams

    2012-01-01

    Having reliable estimates of the shortfalls in road traffic crash data is an important prerequisite for setting more realistic targets for crash/casualty reduction programmes and for a better appreciation of the socio-economic significance of road traffic crashes. This study was carried out to establish realistic estimates of the overall shortfall (under-reporting) in the official crash statistics in Ghana over an eight-year period (1997-2004). Surveys were conducted at hospitals and among drivers to generate relevant alternative data which were then matched against records in police crash data files and the official database. Overall shortfalls came from two sources, namely, 'non-reporting' and 'under-recording'. The results show that the level of non-reporting varied significantly with the severity of the crash from about 57% for property damage crashes through 8% for serious injury crashes to 0% for fatal crashes. Crashes involving cyclists and motorcyclists were also substantially non-reported. Under-recording on the other hand declined significantly over the period from an average of 37% in 1997-1998 to 27% in 2003-2004. Thus, the official statistics of road traffic crashes in Ghana are subject to significant shortfalls that need to be accounted for. Correction factors have therefore been suggested for adjusting the official data.

  16. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future.

  17. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment and cleanup of the Taxi Strip waste storage area at LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerer, A.

    1983-01-01

    In September 1982 the Hazards Control Department of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a final radiological survey of a former low-level radioactive waste storage area called the Taxi Strip so that the area could be released for construction of an office building. Collection of soil samples at the location of a proposed sewer line led to the discovery of an old disposal pit containing soil contaminated with low-level radioactive waste and organic solvents. The Taxi Strip area was excavated leading to the discovery of three additional small pits. The clean-up of Pit No. 1 is considered to be complete for radioactive contamination. The results from the chlorinated solvent analysis of the borehole samples and the limited number of samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicate that solvent clean-up at this pit is complete. This is being verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of a few additional soil samples from the bottom sides and ends of the pit. As a precaution, samples are also being analyzed for metals to determine if further excavation is necessary. Clean-up of Pits No. 2 and No. 3 is considered to be complete for radioactive and solvent contamination. Results of analysis for metals will determine if excavation is complete. Excavation of Pit No. 4 which resulted from surface leakage of radioactive contamination from an evaporation tray is complete

  19. Survivors’ experiences from a train crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Forsberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rarely described are people's lived experiences from severe injury events such as train crashes. The number of train crashes named disasters with ≥10 killed and/or ≥100 nonfatally injured grows globally and the trend shows that more people survive these disasters today than did so in the past. This results in an increased number of survivors needing care. The aim of the study was to explore survivors’ experiences from a train crash. Narrative interviews were performed with 14 passengers 4 years after a train crash event. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Experiences were captured in three main themes: (1 Living in the mode of existential threat describes how the survivors first lost control, then were thrown into a state of unimaginable chaos as they faced death. (2 Dealing with the unthinkable described how survivors restored control, the central role of others, and the importance of reconstructing the event to move forward in their processing. (3 Having cheated death shows how some became shackled by their history, whereas others overcame the haunting of unforgettable memories. Furthermore, the result shows how all experienced a second chance in life. Experiencing a train crash meant that the passengers experienced severe vulnerability and a threat to life and interdependence turned out to play a crucial role. Focusing on helping other passengers on site was one way to regain the loss of control and kept the chaos at bay. Family, friends, and fellow passengers turned out to be extremely important during the recovery process why such closeness should be promoted and facilitated.

  20. Analysis of the crash of TK 1951 using CATS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ale, B.J.M., E-mail: b.j.m.ale@tudelft.n [Risk Centre, TU-Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Bellamy, L.J. [White Queen BV, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Cooper, J. [JPSC Consultants, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ababei, D.; Kurowicka, D.; Morales, O. [TU-Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Spouge, J. [DNV, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    On February 25, 2009, flight TK 1951, a Boeing 737-800 operated by Turkish Airlines, crashed approximately 1.5 km before the intended runway at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. On board were 135 people-128 passengers and 7 crew. Of these 9 were killed and 86 were injured. The aircraft was destroyed. The official inquiry into the cause of the accident is being conducted by the Dutch Safety Board (Onderzoeksraad Voor Veiligheid, OvV). Prior to the accident the Netherlands Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management had already embarked on a project to model the accident genesis of air transport accidents with the aim of quantifying the risks of air traffic and supporting the development of further measures and methods to reduce these risks. In this paper information regarding the accident is confronted with an analysis using the Causal model for Air Transport Safety (CATS). This enables drawing of some more theoretical conclusions about the accident and about the validity of CATS.

  1. Analysis of the crash of TK 1951 using CATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, B.J.M.; Bellamy, L.J.; Cooper, J.; Ababei, D.; Kurowicka, D.; Morales, O.; Spouge, J.

    2010-01-01

    On February 25, 2009, flight TK 1951, a Boeing 737-800 operated by Turkish Airlines, crashed approximately 1.5 km before the intended runway at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. On board were 135 people-128 passengers and 7 crew. Of these 9 were killed and 86 were injured. The aircraft was destroyed. The official inquiry into the cause of the accident is being conducted by the Dutch Safety Board (Onderzoeksraad Voor Veiligheid, OvV). Prior to the accident the Netherlands Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management had already embarked on a project to model the accident genesis of air transport accidents with the aim of quantifying the risks of air traffic and supporting the development of further measures and methods to reduce these risks. In this paper information regarding the accident is confronted with an analysis using the Causal model for Air Transport Safety (CATS). This enables drawing of some more theoretical conclusions about the accident and about the validity of CATS.

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., shuttle service or other courtesy transportation? 301-10.420 Section 301-10.420 Public Contracts and... Courtesy Transportation § 301-10.420 When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy... other courtesy transportation (if charges result), in the following manner: (1) At your official station...

  3. Estimation of directivity and sound power levels emitted by aircrafts during taxiing, for outdoor noise prediction purpose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asensio, C.; Pavón, I.; Ruiz, M.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; Recuero, M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated noise model (INM) is the most internationally used software to calculate noise levels near airports. Take off, landing or pass by operations can be modeled by INM, but it does not consider aircrafts taxiing, which, in some cases, can be important to accurately evaluate and reduce

  4. Prediction of safe driving Behaviours based on health belief model: the case of taxi drivers in Bandar Abbas, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmara, Asghar; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Madani, Abdoulhossain; Hosseini, Zahra; Zare, Shahram

    2018-03-20

    Road accidents are among the main causes of mortality. As safe and secure driving is a key strategy to reduce car injuries and offenses, the present research aimed to explore safe driving behaviours among taxi drivers based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). This study was conducted on 184 taxi drivers in Bandar Abbas who were selected based on a multiple stratified sampling method. Data were collected by a questionnaire comprised of a demographic information section along with the constructs of the HBM. Data were analysed by SPSS ver19 via a Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regressions. The mean age of the participants was 45.1 years (SD = 11.1). They all had, on average, 10.3 (SD = 7/5) years of taxi driving experience. Among the HBM components, cues to action and perceived benefits were shown to be positively correlated with safe driving behaviours, while perceived barriers were negatively correlated. Cues to action, perceived barriers and perceived benefits were shown to be the strongest predictors of a safe drivers' behaviour. Based on the results of this study in designing health promotion programmes to improve safe driving behaviours among taxi drivers, cues to action, perceived benefits and perceived barriers are important. Therefore, advertising, the design of information campaigns, emphasis on the benefits of safe driving behaviours and modification barriers are recommended.

  5. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Behaviour of a spent fuel transport-storage cask during an airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malesys, P.

    1994-01-01

    TRANSNUCLEAIRE has got an order for the design and manufacturing of dual purpose, transport and storage, casks for spent fuel.An original item of the qualification of the design of this cask, for the storage aspect, is the necessity to demonstrate the resistance to an air crash.The typical case taken into account for design is the crash of a military fighter (F16) with a total mass of 14600kg and an impact speed of 150ms -1 . The demonstration of the ability of the cask to withstand this test is provided by both calculation and test.Two cases were considered. For the first one, the projectile hits the cask at the centre of the anti-crash lid. For the second one, it hits the cask in the plane of the closure system.The first step of the qualification is based on calculations performed with a code designed to study the effects of crashes. The aim of the calculations is, mainly, to determine the missile which has to be shot, and to select the worst orientation for the impact.To provide a full justification of the acceptability of the impact as concerned leaktightness, a test has been performed on a one-third scale model. It has shown that it was not altered by the impact.The paper provides a full description of the method of analysis, results of the numerical analysis, conclusion of the test and how the combination of calculation and test demonstrates the ability of the cask to withstand an airplane crash. ((orig.))

  7. Using an innovative price model to leverage the business model – The case of price model innovation in the largest Swedish taxi company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Petri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to describe how the biggest Swedish taxi company (Taxi Kurir developed an innovative price model to leverage the business model. Design/methodology/approach : The empirical data in the article describe Taxi Kurir’s development of a new price model. Data about the Swedish taxi market and about Taxi Kurir has been compiled though interviews and document studies. Detailed information about the background, development and implementation of Taxi Kurir’s new price model has been captured through interviews with representatives from Taxi Kurir. Findings : Based on both the empirical example, and other investigations, we have found that a company can create substantial changes in their price model, by just changing some of its basic characteristics. A well designed price model can contribute to leveraging the intentions of the business model. Practical implications : Most academic and practical texts about business models consider pricing to be an important component. However, they typically do not refer to the specifics of the price- or revenue models. According to the literature review in this paper, and the empirical findings, the configuration of a company’s price model should be aligned with its business model. This will contribute to leveraging the business model. Originality/value: The Swedish taxi market is one of the most deregulated in the world. Differently from most other countries, any individual or company can start and operate a taxi business. This case offers a unique description on how the biggest company in the market responded to the competition by introducing a fundamentally new price model, by making a small change in one of the dimensions in their existing price model.

  8. Neighborhood Influences on Vehicle-Pedestrian Crash Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic factors are known to be contributing factors for vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Although several studies have examined the socioeconomic factors related to the location of the crashes, limited studies have considered the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood where the road users live in vehicle-pedestrian crash modelling. This research aims to identify the socioeconomic factors related to both the neighborhoods where the road users live and where crashes occur that have an influence on vehicle-pedestrian crash severity. Data on vehicle-pedestrian crashes that occurred at mid-blocks in Melbourne, Australia, was analyzed. Neighborhood factors associated with road users' residents and location of crash were investigated using boosted regression tree (BRT). Furthermore, partial dependence plots were applied to illustrate the interactions between these factors. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 60% of the 20 top contributing factors to vehicle-pedestrian crashes. This research reveals that socioeconomic factors of the neighborhoods where the road users live and where the crashes occur are important in determining the severity of the crashes, with the former having a greater influence. Hence, road safety countermeasures, especially those focussing on the road users, should be targeted at these high-risk neighborhoods.

  9. Crash probability estimation via quantifying driver hazard perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Jianqiang; Kodaka, Kenji; Li, Keqiang

    2018-07-01

    Crash probability estimation is an important method to predict the potential reduction of crash probability contributed by forward collision avoidance technologies (FCATs). In this study, we propose a practical approach to estimate crash probability, which combines a field operational test and numerical simulations of a typical rear-end crash model. To consider driver hazard perception characteristics, we define a novel hazard perception measure, called as driver risk response time, by considering both time-to-collision (TTC) and driver braking response to impending collision risk in a near-crash scenario. Also, we establish a driving database under mixed Chinese traffic conditions based on a CMBS (Collision Mitigation Braking Systems)-equipped vehicle. Applying the crash probability estimation in this database, we estimate the potential decrease in crash probability owing to use of CMBS. A comparison of the results with CMBS on and off shows a 13.7% reduction of crash probability in a typical rear-end near-crash scenario with a one-second delay of driver's braking response. These results indicate that CMBS is positive in collision prevention, especially in the case of inattentive drivers or ole drivers. The proposed crash probability estimation offers a practical way for evaluating the safety benefits in the design and testing of FCATs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  11. Visual exploration of big spatio-temporal urban data: a study of New York City taxi trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nivan; Poco, Jorge; Vo, Huy T; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Cláudio T

    2013-12-01

    As increasing volumes of urban data are captured and become available, new opportunities arise for data-driven analysis that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through evidence-based decision making and policies. In this paper, we focus on a particularly important urban data set: taxi trips. Taxis are valuable sensors and information associated with taxi trips can provide unprecedented insight into many different aspects of city life, from economic activity and human behavior to mobility patterns. But analyzing these data presents many challenges. The data are complex, containing geographical and temporal components in addition to multiple variables associated with each trip. Consequently, it is hard to specify exploratory queries and to perform comparative analyses (e.g., compare different regions over time). This problem is compounded due to the size of the data-there are on average 500,000 taxi trips each day in NYC. We propose a new model that allows users to visually query taxi trips. Besides standard analytics queries, the model supports origin-destination queries that enable the study of mobility across the city. We show that this model is able to express a wide range of spatio-temporal queries, and it is also flexible in that not only can queries be composed but also different aggregations and visual representations can be applied, allowing users to explore and compare results. We have built a scalable system that implements this model which supports interactive response times; makes use of an adaptive level-of-detail rendering strategy to generate clutter-free visualization for large results; and shows hidden details to the users in a summary through the use of overlay heat maps. We present a series of case studies motivated by traffic engineers and economists that show how our model and system enable domain experts to perform tasks that were previously unattainable for them.

  12. Camera systems for crash and hyge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppers, Frederik

    1995-05-01

    Since the beginning of the use of high speed cameras for crash and hyge- testing substantial changements have taken place. Both the high speed cameras and the electronic control equipment are more sophisticated nowadays. With regard to high speed equipment, a short historical retrospective view will show that concerning high speed cameras, the improvements are mainly concentrated in design details, where as the electronic control equipment has taken full advantage of the rapid progress in electronic and computer technology in the course of the last decades. Nowadays many companies and institutes involved in crash and hyge-testing wish to perform this testing, as far as possible, as an automatic computer controlled routine in order to maintain and improve security and quality. By means of several in practice realize solutions, it will be shown how their requirements could be met.

  13. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10 -6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  14. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  15. Energy Taxis Drives Campylobacter jejuni toward the Most Favorable Conditions for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, C.S.; Brondsted, L.; Li, Yiping

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a serious food-borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. Poultry is a major reservoir, and C. jejuni appears highly adapted to the gastrointestinal tract of birds. Several factors are important for chicken colonization and virulence, including a taxis mechanism...... identified as new attractants of C. jejuni, and we observed that chemical substances promoting tactic attraction are all known to support the growth of this organism. The attractants could be categorized as carbon sources and electron donors and acceptors, and we furthermore observed a correlation between...... an attractant's potency and its efficiency as an energy source. The tactic attraction was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors HQNO (2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide) and sodium azide, which significantly reduce energy production by oxidative phosphorylation. These findings strongly indicate that energy...

  16. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.

  17. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  18. Air Cushion Crash Rescue Vehicle (ACCRV) (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    903-T 600 2450 *Detroit Diesel 8V-92TA 736 2250 Detroit Diesel 8V-71TA 600 2090 Detroit Disel 6V-53T* 350 1360 Garrett GT601 540 2170 John Deere...Dependent 6096 (Traction Limit) 596 4096 @ 1 mph DD8V9296A 2 cycle, 8 cycle diesel, turbo charged 4.84 inches 5.0 in. 736 cu in. 17:1 DF1

  19. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  20. Crash data and rates for age-sex groups of drivers, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The results of this research note are based on 1996data for fatal crashes, driver licenses, and estimates of total crashes based upon data obtained from the nationally representative sample of crashes gathered in the General Estimates System (GES). T...

  1. Association knowledge for fatal run-off-road crashes by Multiple Correspondence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2016-03-01

    Results of the MCA method can help researchers select the most effective crash countermeasures. Further work on the degree of association between the identified crash contributing factors can help safety management systems develop the most efficient crash reduction strategies.

  2. A feasibility study of mapping light-absorbing carbon using a taxi fleet as a mobile platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Krecl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-containing particles are associated with adverse health effects, and their light-absorbing fractions were recently estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide. Knowledge on the spatiotemporal variability of light-absorbing carbon (LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This work reports on the first mobile LAC mass concentrations (MLAC measured on-board four taxis in the Stockholm metropolitan area in November 2011. On average, concentrations were higher and more variable during daytime (median of 1.9 µg m−3 and median absolute deviation of 2.3 µg m−3. Night-time (21:00–05:00 measurements were very similar for all road types and also compared to levels monitored at an urban background fixed site (median of 0.9 µg m−3. We observed a large intra-urban variability in concentrations, with maxima levels inside road tunnels (median and 95th percentile of 7.5 and 40.1 µg m−3, respectively. Highways presented the second ranked concentrations (median and 95th percentile of 3.2 and 9.7 µg m−3, respectively associated with highest vehicle speed (median of 65 km h−1, traffic rates (median of 62 000 vehicles day−1 and 1500 vehicles h−1 and diesel vehicles share (7–10% when compared to main roads, canyon streets, and local roads. Multiple regression modelling identified hourly traffic rate and MLAC concentration measured at an urban background site as the best predictors of on-road concentrations, but explained only 25% of the observed variability. This feasibility study proved to be a time- and cost-effective approach to map out ambient MLAC concentrations in Stockholm and more research is required to represent the distribution in other periods of the year. Simultaneous monitoring of other pollutants, closely correlated to MLAC levels in traffic-polluted environments, and including video

  3. Reduction of particle emissions from light duty vehicles and from taxies; Reduktion af partikelelemissioner fra varebiler og taxier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Johan; Henriques, M.; Weibel, T.G. [TetraPlan A/S (Denmark)

    2006-11-03

    This project, 'Reduction of particle emissions from light duty vehicles and from taxies', analyses different strategies to reduce the particle emission, their effect for particle emissions, and the resulting cost for the society and for the companies. The project describes the EU regulation of emissions, the possibilities of reducing the emissions via special requirements in environmental zones and the Danish taxation of light duty vehicles. Further, the project includes interviews with owners of light duty vehicles and taxies and also with Danish producers of particle filters. The strategies analysed in the scenarios include: 1) Promotion of particle filters; 2) Shift from diesel to gasoline and; 3) Downsizing. The effects for particle emissions and for mortality are described. Further, the costs and benefits for the society and the cost for the companies are evaluated. The effects of the scenarios are analysed, both for initiatives implemented at a national level and for implementation in an environmental zone in the municipality of Copenhagen. The main results are that the socioeconomic benefits in the year 2012 are greater than the costs, if taxis and light duty vehicles have filters installed and if they are driving in the Copenhagen area. For light duty vehicles it is only profitable, if the prices of the filters fall to the price level that is expected in the future in the study. Further, the analysis shows that for light duty vehicles and taxies driving all over the country, the socioeconomic benefits achieved by installing particle filters are too small to cover the costs. The analysis shows that it is also profitable socio-economically to change from diesel to petrol for light duty vehicles and for taxies (except taxies driving nationally). The analysis is based on the producer prices including the general net tax level, while the specific taxes are not included. From the point of view of the companies it is not profitable to change to petrol

  4. An investigation of the speeding-related crash designation through crash narrative reviews sampled via logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Cole D; Rakasi, Saritha; Knodler, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Speed is one of the most important factors in traffic safety as higher speeds are linked to increased crash risk and higher injury severities. Nearly a third of fatal crashes in the United States are designated as "speeding-related", which is defined as either "the driver behavior of exceeding the posted speed limit or driving too fast for conditions." While many studies have utilized the speeding-related designation in safety analyses, no studies have examined the underlying accuracy of this designation. Herein, we investigate the speeding-related crash designation through the development of a series of logistic regression models that were derived from the established speeding-related crash typologies and validated using a blind review, by multiple researchers, of 604 crash narratives. The developed logistic regression model accurately identified crashes which were not originally designated as speeding-related but had crash narratives that suggested speeding as a causative factor. Only 53.4% of crashes designated as speeding-related contained narratives which described speeding as a causative factor. Further investigation of these crashes revealed that the driver contributing code (DCC) of "driving too fast for conditions" was being used in three separate situations. Additionally, this DCC was also incorrectly used when "exceeding the posted speed limit" would likely have been a more appropriate designation. Finally, it was determined that the responding officer only utilized one DCC in 82% of crashes not designated as speeding-related but contained a narrative indicating speed as a contributing causal factor. The use of logistic regression models based upon speeding-related crash typologies offers a promising method by which all possible speeding-related crashes could be identified. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  6. Cell phone use and traffic crash risk: a culpability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Brubacher, Jeff R; Chan, Herbert

    2013-02-01

    The use of a cell phone or communication device while driving is illegal in many jurisdictions, yet evidence evaluating the crash risk associated with cell phone use in naturalistic settings is limited. This article aims to determine whether cell phone use while driving increases motor vehicle crash culpability. Method Drivers involved in crashes where police reported cell phone use (n = 312) and propensity matched drivers (age, sex, suspect alcohol/drug impairment, crash type, date, time of day, geographical location) without cell phone use (n = 936) were drawn from Insurance Corporation of British Columbia Traffic Accident System data. A standardized scoring tool, modified to account for Canadian driving conditions, was used to determine crash culpability from police reports on all drivers from the crashes. The association between crash culpability and cell phone use was determined, with additional subgroup analyses based on crash severity, driver characteristics and type of licence. A comparison of crashes with vs without cell phones revealed an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.36; P = 0.002). This association was consistent after adjustment for matching variables and other covariates. Subgroup analyses demonstrated an association for male drivers, unimpaired drivers, injured and non-injured drivers, and for drivers aged between 26 and 65 years. Crash culpability was found to be significantly associated with cell phone use by drivers, increasing the odds of a culpable crash by 70% compared with drivers who did not use a cell phone. This increased risk was particularly high for middle-aged drivers.

  7. Wrong-way driving crashes on French divided roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemel, Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of divided roads is to increase users' safety by posting unidirectional traffic flows. It happens however that drivers proceed in the wrong direction, endangering themselves as well as other users. The crashes caused by wrong-way drivers are generally spotlighted by the media and call for public intervention. This paper proposes a characterization of wrong-way driving crashes occurring on French divided road on the 2008-2012 period. The objective is to identify the factors that delineate between wrong-way driving crashes and other crashes. Building on the national injury road crash database, 266 crashes involving a wrong-way driver were identified. Their characteristics (related to timing, location, vehicle and driver) are compared to those of the 22,120 other crashes that occurred on the same roads over the same period. The comparison relies on descriptive statistics, completed by a logistic regression. Wrong-way driving crashes are rare but severe. They are more likely to occur during night hours and on non-freeway roads than other crashes. Wrong-way drivers are older, more likely to be intoxicated, to be locals, to drive older vehicles, mainly passenger cars without passengers, than other drivers. The differences observed across networks can help prioritizing public intervention. Most of the identified WW-driving factors deal with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the specific countermeasures such as alternative road signs should be designed for and tested on cognitively impaired drivers. Nevertheless, WW-driving factors are also risk factors for other types of crashes (e.g. elderly driving, drunk driving and age of the vehicle). This suggests that, instead of (or in addition to) developing WW-driving specific countermeasures, managing these risk factors would help reducing a larger number of crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of the renewable wind and photovoltaic sources, for the recharge of a fleet of electric taxis in Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Torres, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Electrification of the transportation sector seems to be one of the alternatives in terms of restriction of pollutant from that sector. However, it is necessary to study the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from Generation Power Plants (EGPP) because could be more or less the same of that from the vehicles. Furthermore, Centralized GPP supply would result in distribution losses, bigger fuel consumption and more pollution. Thus, EVs development should be considered as a sustainable solution if powered by electricity systems with considerable share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In this paper, the study of the recharge of an EV taxi fleet during night, using photovoltaic and wind mills RES in Havana, Cuba, is analyzed. This work is aiming to find a feasible operational synergy between cited intermittent RES electricity generation and EVs taxi fleet recharge. (author)

  9. Crash simulation: an immersive learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenham, John; Bennett, Paul; Gleeson, Wendy

    2017-12-26

    Far West New South Wales Local Emergency Management Committee runs an annual crash simulation exercise to assess the operational readiness of all local emergency services to coordinate and manage a multi-casualty exercise. Since 2009, the Broken Hill University Department of Rural Health (BHUDRH) has collaborated with the committee, enabling the inclusion of health students in this exercise. It is an immersive interprofessional learning experience that evaluates teamwork, communication and safe effective clinical trauma management outside the hospital setting. After 7 years of modifying and developing the exercise, we set out to evaluate its impact on the students' learning, and sought ethics approval from the University of Sydney for this study. At the start of this year's crash simulation, students were given information sheets and consent forms with regards to the research. Once formal debriefing had finished, the researchers conducted a semi-structured focus-group interview with the health students to gain insight into their experience and their perceived value of the training. Students also completed short-answer questionnaires, and the anonymised responses were analysed. Crash simulation … evaluates teamwork, communication and safe effective clinical trauma management IMPLICATIONS: Participants identified that this multidisciplinary learning opportunity in a pre-hospital mass casualty situation was of value to them. It has taken them outside of their usually protected hospital or primary care setting and tested their critical thinking and communication skills. We recommend this learning concept to other educational institutions. Further research will assess the learning value of the simulated event to the other agencies involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  10. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B; Huysmans, G T.A.; Sips, A C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Crash testing the largest experiment on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Under Europe lies a 27 km tunnel that is both the coldest and hottest place on Earth. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has already found out what gives mass to all the matter in the Universe. It is now trying to go even deeper into what makes up everything we see around us. Dr Marija Cauchi writes about her research that helped protect this atom smasher from itself. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/crash-testing-the-largest-experiment-on-earth/

  12. Correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists in single-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Linjun; Lu, Jian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve motorcycle safety, this article examines the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists, under multiple precrash conditions. Ten-year crash data for single-vehicle motorcycle crashes from the General Estimates Systems (GES) were analyzed, using partial proportional odds models (i.e., generalized ordered logit models). The modeling results show that "braking (no lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of increased severity, whereas "braking (lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of decreased severity, under all precrash conditions. "Steering" is associated with a higher probability of reduced injury severity when other vehicles are encroaching, whereas it is correlated with high injury severity under other conditions. "Braking and steering" is significantly associated with a higher probability of low severity under "animal encounter and object presence," whereas it is surprisingly correlated with high injury severity when motorcycles are traveling off the edge of the road. The results also show that a large number of motorcyclists did not perform any crash avoidance maneuvers or conducted crash avoidance maneuvers that are significantly associated with high injury severity. In general, this study suggests that precrash maneuvers are an important factor associated with motorcyclists' injury severity. To improve motorcycle safety, training/educational programs should be considered to improve safety awareness and adjust driving habits of motorcyclists. Antilock brakes and such systems are also promising, because they could effectively prevent brake lock-up and assist motorcyclists in maneuvering during critical conditions. This study also provides valuable information for the design of motorcycle training curriculum.

  13. Two-fractal overlap time series: Earthquakes and market crashes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    velocity over the other and time series of stock prices. An anticipation method for some of the crashes have been proposed here, based on these observations. Keywords. Cantor set; time series; earthquake; market crash. PACS Nos 05.00; 02.50.-r; 64.60; 89.65.Gh; 95.75.Wx. 1. Introduction. Capturing dynamical patterns of ...

  14. Drug and alcohol crash risk : a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study used a case-control design to estimate the risk of crashes involving drivers using drugs, alcohol or both. Data was collected in Virginia Beach, Virginia, for 20 months. The study obtained biological measures on more than 3,000 crash...

  15. In pedestrian crashes, it's vehicle speed that matters the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-13

    A recently prepared report on pedestrian injuries provides these two main findings: 1) regardless of age, pedestrians involved in crashes are more likely to be killed as vehicle speeds increase; and 2) in crashes at any speed, older pedestrians are m...

  16. Impact of connected vehicles on mitigating secondary crash risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the risk of secondary crashes is a key goal for effective traffic incident management. However, only few countermeasures have been established in practices to achieve the goal. This is mainly due to the stochastic nature of both primary and secondary crashes. Given the emerging connected vehicle (CV technologies, it is highly likely that CVs will soon be able to communicate with each other through the ad-hoc wireless vehicular network. Information sharing among vehicles is deemed to change traffic operations and allow motorists for more proactive actions. Motorists who receive safety messages can be motivated to approach queues and incident sites with more caution. As a result of the improved situational awareness, the risk of secondary crashes is expected to be reduced. To examine whether this expectation is achievable or not, this study aims to assess the impact of connectivity on the risk of secondary crashes. A simulation-based modeling framework that enables vehicle-to-vehicle communication module was developed. Since crashes cannot be directly simulated in micro-simulation, the use of surrogate safety measures was proposed to capture vehicular conflicts as a proxy for secondary crash risk upstream of a primary crash site. An experimental study was conducted based on the developed simulation modeling framework. The results show that the use of connected vehicles can be a viable way to reduce the risk of secondary crashes. Their impact is expected to change with an increasing market penetration of connected vehicles.

  17. Prediction equation for vehicle-pedestrian crash and safety analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrences of vehicle-pedestrian crashes at signalized intersections were investigated using a 3 year (2004-2006) crash records of 82 signalized intersections in Accra, Kumasi, Tema, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale. The data were analyzed using Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package. Traffic flow characteristics ...

  18. Analysis of Traffic Crash Data in Kentucky (2012-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2012 through 2016. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of high...

  19. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky (2009-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2009 through 2013. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of high...

  20. Robust collaborative process interactions under system crash and network failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Wombacher, Andreas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Chi, Chihung

    2013-01-01

    With the possibility of system crashes and network failures, the design of robust client/server interactions for collaborative process execution is a challenge. If a business process changes its state, it sends messages to the relevant processes to inform about this change. However, server crashes

  1. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.952 Fuel system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 29.952... of fuel fires to occupants following an otherwise survivable impact (crash landing), the fuel systems...

  2. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.952 Fuel system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 27.952... of fuel fires to occupants following an otherwise survivable impact (crash landing), the fuel systems...

  3. Social costs of road crashes : an international analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, W. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income

  4. Road Crashes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Empirical Findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    studies on road crashes forecasted road traffic fatalities to be the second ... Ethiopia's capital city – shares 60% out of the total number of vehicles in the ... network density and vehicle ownership, the country (Ethiopia) has been cited as ... crash related injury case confirmation. ..... to thank you in advance for your cooperation!

  5. Digital collaborative consumption and social issues: The clash of taxi and Uber driver in Surabaya and Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholifatus Saadah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the occurrence of application-based taxi, phenomenon and resistance have emerged in metropolitan cities around the world. One of the main issues highlighted is digital collaborative consumption which emerges as the consequences of globalization. As an interpretive case study research, this paper aims to analyze the use of Uber as an alternative to public transportation in Taipei and Surabaya. Authors discuss the issue by comparing the reaction toward the occurrence of Uber and Taipei and Surabaya. Authors apply the theory from Hegre, Gissinger, & Gledtisch (2002 about globalization and social conflict to explain social issues as the consequences of digital collaborative consumption as the new consumption model. According to the theory, globalization creates a deprivation which makes the struggle to access source of capital become more intense. Poverty is the main generator of radical action and violence. Analyzing the phenomena of Uber usage and the resistance from traditional taxi businessmen in Taipei and Surabaya, the authors argue that globalization reflected on digital collaborative consumption could lead to social unrest for parties who cannot adapt to the changes in economic practice. As shown by many cases of app-based rejection taxi in public places such as airport, train station and bus station; the traditionalists show resistance towards globalization and the economic shift of public transportation business model.

  6. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TrajGraph: A Graph-Based Visual Analytics Approach to Studying Urban Network Centralities Using Taxi Trajectory Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Chao; Ye, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis.

  8. A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed.

  9. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Robert D; Smith, Richard L; O'Brien, Natalie P

    2018-04-26

    Shifting school start times to 8:30 am or later has been found to improve academic performance and reduce behavior problems. Limited research suggests this may also reduce adolescent driver motor vehicle crashes. A change in the school start time from 7:30 am to 8:45 am for all public high schools in one North Carolina county presented the opportunity to address this question with greater methodologic rigor. We conducted ARIMA interrupted time-series analyses to examine motor vehicle crash rates of high school age drivers in the intervention county and 3 similar comparison counties with comparable urban-rural population distribution. To focus on crashes most likely to be affected, we limited analysis to crashes involving 16- & 17-year-old drivers occurring on days when school was in session. In the intervention county, there was a 14% downward shift in the time-series following the 75 min delay in school start times (p = .076). There was no change approaching statistical significance in any of the other three counties. Further analysis indicated marked, statistically significant shifts in hourly crash rates in the intervention county, reflecting effects of the change in school start time on young driver exposure. Crashes from 7 to 7:59 am decreased sharply (-25%, p = .008), but increased similarly from 8 to 8:59 am (21%, p = .004). Crashes from 2 to 2:59 pm declined dramatically (-48%, p = .000), then increased to a lesser degree from 3 to 3:59 pm (32%, p = .024) and non-significantly from 4 to 4:59 (19%, p = .102). There was no meaningful change in early morning or nighttime crashes, when drowsiness-induced crashes might have been expected to be most common. The small decrease in crashes among high school age drivers following the shift in school start time is consistent with the findings of other studies of teen driver crashes and school start times. All these studies, including the present one, have limitations, but the similar

  10. Numerical analyses of an aircraft crash on containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Hyun; Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The containment building is responsible to isolate and protect internal devices against external conditions like earthquake, hurricane and impact loading. It has also to protect leakage of radioactivity, like LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident), when severe accidents occurred. Meanwhile, social awareness such as terrorism has been increased globally after international aircraft crashes at World Trade Center and Pentagon. In this paper, FE (Finite Element) analyses according to variation of crash locations and speeds were carried out to examine the aircraft crash impact on a domestic containment building. In this paper, numerical analyses of aircraft crash on NPP's containment building were performed taking into account different locations and aircraft speeds. (1) Amounts of concrete failure were dependent on the crash locations and the connector was the most delicate location comparing to the dome and wall part. (2) Maximum stress values generated at the liner plate and rebars did not exceed their UTS values.

  11. Numerical analyses of an aircraft crash on containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Hyun; Chang, Yoon Suk

    2016-01-01

    The containment building is responsible to isolate and protect internal devices against external conditions like earthquake, hurricane and impact loading. It has also to protect leakage of radioactivity, like LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident), when severe accidents occurred. Meanwhile, social awareness such as terrorism has been increased globally after international aircraft crashes at World Trade Center and Pentagon. In this paper, FE (Finite Element) analyses according to variation of crash locations and speeds were carried out to examine the aircraft crash impact on a domestic containment building. In this paper, numerical analyses of aircraft crash on NPP's containment building were performed taking into account different locations and aircraft speeds. (1) Amounts of concrete failure were dependent on the crash locations and the connector was the most delicate location comparing to the dome and wall part. (2) Maximum stress values generated at the liner plate and rebars did not exceed their UTS values

  12. The October 2014 United States Treasury bond flash crash and the contributory effect of mini flash crashes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S Levine

    Full Text Available We investigate the causal uncertainty surrounding the flash crash in the U.S. Treasury bond market on October 15, 2014, and the unresolved concern that no clear link has been identified between the start of the flash crash at 9:33 and the opening of the U.S. equity market at 9:30. We consider the contributory effect of mini flash crashes in equity markets, and find that the number of equity mini flash crashes in the three-minute window between market open and the Treasury Flash Crash was 2.6 times larger than the number experienced in any other three-minute window in the prior ten weekdays. We argue that (a this statistically significant finding suggests that mini flash crashes in equity markets both predicted and contributed to the October 2014 U.S. Treasury Bond Flash Crash, and (b mini-flash crashes are important phenomena with negative externalities that deserve much greater scholarly attention.

  13. The October 2014 United States Treasury bond flash crash and the contributory effect of mini flash crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary S; Hale, Scott A; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the causal uncertainty surrounding the flash crash in the U.S. Treasury bond market on October 15, 2014, and the unresolved concern that no clear link has been identified between the start of the flash crash at 9:33 and the opening of the U.S. equity market at 9:30. We consider the contributory effect of mini flash crashes in equity markets, and find that the number of equity mini flash crashes in the three-minute window between market open and the Treasury Flash Crash was 2.6 times larger than the number experienced in any other three-minute window in the prior ten weekdays. We argue that (a) this statistically significant finding suggests that mini flash crashes in equity markets both predicted and contributed to the October 2014 U.S. Treasury Bond Flash Crash, and (b) mini-flash crashes are important phenomena with negative externalities that deserve much greater scholarly attention.

  14. Gasoline prices and traffic crashes in Alabama, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; McClure, Timothy E; Brown, David B

    2012-09-01

    The price of gasoline has been found to be negatively associated with traffic crashes in a limited number of studies. However, most of the studies have focused either on fatal crashes only or on all crashes but measured over a very short time period. In this study, we examine gasoline price effects on all traffic crashes by demographic groups in the state of Alabama from 1999 to 2009. Using negative binomial regression techniques to examine monthly data from 1999 to 2009 in the state of Alabama, we estimate the effects of changes in gasoline price on changes in automobile crashes. We also examine how these effects differ by age group (16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-64, and 65+), gender (male and female), and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). The results show that gasoline prices have both short-term and long-term effects on reducing total traffic crashes and crashes of each age, gender, and race/ethnicity group (except Hispanic due to data limitations). The short-term and long-term effects are not statistically different for each individual demographic group. Gasoline prices have a stronger effect in reducing crashes involving drivers aged 16 to 20 than crashes involving drivers aged 31 to 64 and 65+ in the short term; the effects, however, are not statistically different across other demographic groups. Although gasoline price increases are not favored, our findings show that gasoline price increases (or decreases) are associated with reductions (or increases) in the incidence of traffic crashes. If gasoline prices had remained at the 1999 level of $1.41 from 1999 to 2009, applying the estimated elasticities would result in a predicted increase in total crashes of 169,492 (or 11.3%) from the actual number of crashes. If decision makers wish to reduce traffic crashes, increasing gasoline taxes is a possible option-however, doing so would increase travel costs and lead to equity concerns. These findings may help to shape transportation

  15. Crashes and near-crashes on horizontal curves along rural two-lane highways: Analysis of naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Hallmark, Shauna; Savolainen, Peter; Dong, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown the probability of a crash occurring on horizontal curves to be significantly higher than on similar tangent segments, and a disproportionally higher number of curve-related crashes occurred in rural areas. Challenges arise when analyzing the safety of horizontal curves due to imprecision in integrating information as to the temporal and spatial characteristics of each crash with specific curves. The second Strategic Highway Research Program(SHRP 2) conducted a large-scale naturalistic driving study (NDS),which provides a unique opportunity to better understand the contributing factors leading to crash or near-crash events. This study utilizes high-resolution behavioral data from the NDS to identify factors associated with 108 safety critical events (i.e., crashes or near-crashes) on rural two-lane curves. A case-control approach is utilized wherein these events are compared to 216 normal, baseline-driving events. The variables examined in this study include driver demographic characteristics, details of the traffic environment and roadway geometry, as well as driver behaviors such as in-vehicle distractions. Logistic regression models are estimated to discern those factors affecting the likelihood of a driver being crash-involved. These factors include high-risk behaviors, such as speeding and visual distractions, as well as curve design elements and other roadway characteristics such as pavement surface conditions. This paper successfully integrated driver behavior, vehicle characteristics, and roadway environments into the same model. Logistic regression model was found to be an effective way to investigate crash risks using naturalistic driving data. This paper revealed a number of contributing factors to crashes on rural two-lane curves, which has important implications in traffic safety policy and curve geometry design. This paper also discussed limitations and lessons learned from working with the SHRP 2 NDS data. It will benefit

  16. Assessing Patient bypass Behavior Using Taxi Trip Origin–Destination (OD Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gege Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many patients prefer to use the best hospitals even if there are one or more other hospitals closer to their homes; this behavior is called “hospital bypass behavior”. Because this behavior can be problematic in urban areas, it is important that it be reduced. In this paper, the taxi GPS data of Beijing and Suzhou were used to measure hospital bypass behavior. The “bypass behavior index” (BBI represents the bypass behavior for each hospital. The results indicated that the mean hospital bypass trip distance value ranges from 5.988 km to 9.754 km in Beijing and from 4.168 km to 10.283 km in Suzhou. In general, the bypass shares of both areas show a gradually increasing trend. The following hospitals exhibited significant patient bypass behavior: the 301 Hospital, Beijing Children’s Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and the Suzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The hospitals’ reputation, transport accessibility and spatial distribution were found to be the main factors affecting patient bypass behavior. Although the hospital bypass phenomena generally appeared to be more pronounced in Beijing, the bypass trip distances between hospitals were found to be more significant in Suzhou.

  17. A competitive carbon emissions scheme with hybrid fiscal incentives: The evidence from a taxi industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Han, Liyan; Yin, Ziqiao; Luo, Kongyi

    2017-01-01

    As two major approaches to reduce carbon emissions, command-and-control instruments and market-based carbon trading systems have their own weaknesses. Our paper first proposes a type of endogenous equilibrium methodology to dynamically derive the industrial carbon emissions standards. At the equilibrium, the sum of all carbon assets and liabilities is zero in the considered industry. Moreover, the standards fall over time with low-carbon technological advance. Most importantly, combining Pigou's and Coase's ideas, we construct a fiscal instrument accounting for both carbon taxes and allowances based on the dynamically improved emissions standards and carbon trading prices. This “No revenue for government” method implements a self-operated ecology for carbon trading market. Finally, considering the “Waterloo” recession of carbon prices, we introduce an adjustment factor into the model, which generates a negative-feedback mechanism with carbon prices. To support our idea, we present the application to Beijing taxi industry in detail and raise relative policy implications based on the evidence. - Highlights: • Dynamic endogenous equilibrium standards for carbon emissions. • A public policy oriented market mechanism combining command-and-control instruments and carbon trading. • Hybrid incentives to emission reduction combining carbon taxes and allowances. • The adjustment coefficient generating a negative feedback mechanism with carbon prices.

  18. Improvement of Aircraft Crash Effective Areas for Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoti, S.; Dongmo, G.B.; Combrink, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA): Tool for determining safe functioning of nuclear power plant to meet regulatory requirements; One of the inputs to the PSA are the frequency and consequences of an aircraft crash. Overview: Frequency of Aircraft Crash; Effective Area of an Aircraft Crashing into Koeberg - Aviation Categories, - Shielding of sensitive target buildings; Impact of refining the Effective AreaFrequency of Aircraft Crash

  19. Modeling crash injury severity by road feature to improve safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2018-01-02

    The objective of this research is 2-fold: to (a) model and identify critical road features (or locations) based on crash injury severity and compare it with crash frequency and (b) model and identify drivers who are more likely to contribute to crashes by road feature. Crash data from 2011 to 2013 were obtained from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the state of North Carolina. Twenty-three different road features were considered, analyzed, and compared with each other as well as no road feature. A multinomial logit (MNL) model was developed and odds ratios were estimated to investigate the effect of road features on crash injury severity. Among the many road features, underpass, end or beginning of a divided highway, and on-ramp terminal on crossroad are the top 3 critical road features. Intersection crashes are frequent but are not highly likely to result in severe injuries compared to critical road features. Roundabouts are least likely to result in both severe and moderate injuries. Female drivers are more likely to be involved in crashes at intersections (4-way and T) compared to male drivers. Adult drivers are more likely to be involved in crashes at underpasses. Older drivers are 1.6 times more likely to be involved in a crash at the end or beginning of a divided highway. The findings from this research help to identify critical road features that need to be given priority. As an example, additional advanced warning signs and providing enlarged or highly retroreflective signs that grab the attention of older drivers may help in making locations such as end or beginning of a divided highway much safer. Educating drivers about the necessary skill sets required at critical road features in addition to engineering solutions may further help them adopt safe driving behaviors on the road.

  20. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  1. Overview of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) Full Scale Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 ATDs were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the horizontal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  2. Minor Crashes and ‘Whiplash’ in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Adam J.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R.; Wiechel, John F.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define ‘whiplash’ injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4g (s.d. = 0.5...

  3. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  4. Construct exploit constraint in crash analysis by bypassing canary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Huang, Shuguang; Huang, Hui; Chang, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Selective symbolic execution is a common program testing technology. Developed on the basis of it, some crash analysis systems are often used to test the fragility of the program by constructing exploit constraints, such as CRAX. From the study of crash analysis based on symbolic execution, this paper find that this technology cannot bypass the canary stack protection mechanisms. This paper makes the improvement uses the API hook in Linux. Experimental results show that the use of API hook can effectively solve the problem that crash analysis cannot bypass the canary protection.

  5. Suicide plane crash against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.

    2002-01-01

    Cea (French atomic energy commission) and EDF (Electricity of France) are reassessing their safety standards concerning suicide plane attacks against nuclear facilities. The general idea is to study the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete in case of mechanical impact. American studies carried out in 1988 show that a F-14 phantom crashing into a 3,6 meter thick wall at a speed of 774 km/h penetrates only the first 5 cm of the wall. More recent studies performed in Germany and based on computerized simulations show that the reactor containment can sustain impacts from a F15 plane or even from a 747-Boeing but contiguous buildings like the one which houses spent fuels might be more easily damaged because of their metal roofing. (A.C.)

  6. A multinomial-logit ordered-probit model for jointly analyzing crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    ' propensity to engage in various corrective maneuvers in the case of the critical event of vehicle travelling. Five lateral and speed control maneuvers are considered: “braking”, “steering”, “braking & steering”, and “other maneuvers”, in addition to a “no action” option. The analyzed data are retrieved from...... the United States National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the years 2005-2009. Results show (i) the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity, and (ii) the link between drivers' attributes, risky driving behavior, road characteristics...

  7. Some failure analyses of South African Air Force aircraft engine and airframe components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure analyses of various engine and airframe components from South African Air Force aircraft have been performed by the Division of Materials Science and Technology over several years and these have ranged from crash investigations to minor...

  8. MOTORCYCLE CRASH PREDICTION MODEL FOR NON-SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HARNEN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to develop a prediction model for motorcycle crashes at non-signalized intersections on urban roads in Malaysia. The Generalized Linear Modeling approach was used to develop the model. The final model revealed that an increase in motorcycle and non-motorcycle flows entering an intersection is associated with an increase in motorcycle crashes. Non-motorcycle flow on major road had the greatest effect on the probability of motorcycle crashes. Approach speed, lane width, number of lanes, shoulder width and land use were also found to be significant in explaining motorcycle crashes. The model should assist traffic engineers to decide the need for appropriate intersection treatment that specifically designed for non-exclusive motorcycle lane facilities.

  9. Motorcycle crash causes and outcomes: pilot study : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The number of motorcyclist crash-related fatalities has more than doubled during the past 10 years. In the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), Congress directed the Secretary of Transport...

  10. Preliminary plan for case-control crash risk study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-31

    The goal of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is to reduce commercial vehicle-related fatalities and injuries. This is achieved through a thorough understanding of crash characteristics, precursors, and risk factors. This will h...

  11. Solutions for acceleration measurement in vehicle crash tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, D. S.; Covaciu, D.

    2017-10-01

    Crash tests are useful for validating computer simulations of road traffic accidents. One of the most important parameters measured is the acceleration. The evolution of acceleration versus time, during a crash test, form a crash pulse. The correctness of the crash pulse determination depends on the data acquisition system used. Recommendations regarding the instrumentation for impact tests are given in standards, which are focused on the use of accelerometers as impact sensors. The goal of this paper is to present the device and software developed by authors for data acquisition and processing. The system includes two accelerometers with different input ranges, a processing unit based on a 32-bit microcontroller and a data logging unit with SD card. Data collected on card, as text files, is processed with a dedicated software running on personal computers. The processing is based on diagrams and includes the digital filters recommended in standards.

  12. Crash Prediction and Risk Evaluation Based on Traffic Analysis Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety evaluation for traffic analysis zones (TAZs plays an important role in transportation safety planning and long-range transportation plan development. This paper aims to present a comprehensive analysis of zonal safety evaluation. First, several criteria are proposed to measure the crash risk at zonal level. Then these criteria are integrated into one measure-average hazard index (AHI, which is used to identify unsafe zones. In addition, the study develops a negative binomial regression model to statistically estimate significant factors for the unsafe zones. The model results indicate that the zonal crash frequency can be associated with several social-economic, demographic, and transportation system factors. The impact of these significant factors on zonal crash is also discussed. The finding of this study suggests that safety evaluation and estimation might benefit engineers and decision makers in identifying high crash locations for potential safety improvements.

  13. Finite Element Crash Simulations and Impact-Induced Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mackerle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element simulations of crashes, impact-induced injuries and their protection that were published in 1980–1998. 390 citations are listed.

  14. Pedestrian and bicycle crash data analysis : 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    The safety of pedestrians and bicyclists using the roadway is an increasing concern for the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). This report summarizes data for motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists in Michigan from 2005...

  15. Crash Data Improvement Program : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    This report provides a summary of the Crash Data Improvement Program (CDIP) peer : exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Office of Safety : on August 4, 2011. The peer exchange was hosted in conjunction with the annual :...

  16. Relationship between organisational safety culture dimensions and crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmazyar, Sakineh; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Arghami, Shirazeh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about organisational safety culture in public transportation system can provide an appropriate guide to establish effective safety measures and interventions to improve safety at work. The aim of this study was investigation of association between safety culture dimensions (leadership styles and company values, usage of crashes information and prevention programmes, management commitment and safety policy, participation and control) with involved self-reported crashes. The associations were considered through Spearman correlation, Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression. The results showed an association among self-reported crashes (occurrence or non-occurrence) and factors including leadership styles and company values; management commitment and safety policy; and control. Moreover, it was found a negative correlation and an odds ratio less than one between control and self-reported crashes.

  17. Maintenance program decision-making utilizing crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This document describes methods that may be used by UDOT Maintenance personnel to improve highway safety. Four programs have been recommended using crash data to make more informed decisions concerning maintenance programs as follows: : Snow & Ic...

  18. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donier, Jonathan; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes. PMID:26448333

  19. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The phenomenon of traffic crash under-reporting has been extensively documented in terms of its extent, but not equally analysed in terms of its reasons. As police distrust has been recently identified as a major reason for crash under-reporting, the purpose of this paper is to look...... at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web......-based survey on the basis of the SERVQUAL approach to detecting strengths, opportunities and threats with crash reporting to the police at a strategic level. Transportation stakeholders (e.g. researchers, authorities, consultants, NGO representatives, suppliers) with an interest in traffic safety in Denmark...

  20. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donier, Jonathan; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes.

  1. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Donier

    Full Text Available Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes.

  2. Traffic crash involvement: experiential driving knowledge and stressful contextual antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legree, Peter J; Heffner, Tonia S; Psotka, Joseph; Martin, Daniel E; Medsker, Gina J

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have rarely examined stressful environments and psychological characteristics as predictors of driving behavior in the same study. The authors hypothesized that (a) safer drivers more accurately assess physical and emotional traffic hazards and (b) stress and emotional states elevate crash risk. The hypotheses were evaluated with procedural and declarative tacit driving knowledge tests requiring assessment of emotional and contextual hazards and with accident reports describing crash antecedents, including stressful events and environmental conditions. Analyses identified separate driving knowledge factors corresponding to emotional and contextual hazards that were significantly related to the crash criteria. Accident report analyses show that stress significantly elevates at-fault crash risk. The results demonstrate the importance of experiential knowledge acquired without instruction (procedural or tacit knowledge) and provide safety recommendations.

  3. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman; 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Al-Bulushi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system.

  4. Data mining the Kansas traffic-crash database : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Traffic crashes results from the interaction of different parameters which includes highway geometrics, traffic characteristics and human factors. Geometric variables include number of lanes, lane width, median width, shoulder width, roadway section ...

  5. Data mining the Kansas traffic-crash database : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Traffic crashes results from the interaction of different parameters which includes highway geometrics, traffic : characteristics and human factors. Geometric variables include number of lanes, lane width, median width, shoulder : width, roadway sect...

  6. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  7. Object Tracking with LiDAR: Monitoring Taxiing and Landing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Koppanyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensors used in car navigation and robotics, such as the Velodyne’s VLP-16 and HDL-32E, allow for sensing the surroundings of the platform with high temporal resolution to detect obstacles, tracking objects and support path planning. This study investigates the feasibility of using LiDAR sensors for tracking taxiing or landing aircraft close to the ground to improve airport safety. A prototype system was developed and installed at an airfield to capture point clouds to monitor aircraft operations. One of the challenges of accurate object tracking using the Velodyne sensors is the relatively small vertical field of view (30°, 41.3° and angular resolution (1.33°, 2°, resulting in a small number of points of the tracked object. The point density decreases with the object–sensor distance, and is already sparse at a moderate range of 30–40 m. The paper introduces our model-based tracking algorithms, including volume minimization and cube trajectories, to address the optimal estimation of object motion and tracking based on sparse point clouds. Using a network of sensors, multiple tests were conducted at an airport to assess the performance of the demonstration system and the algorithms developed. The investigation was focused on monitoring small aircraft moving on runways and taxiways, and the results indicate less than 0.7 m/s and 17 cm velocity and positioning accuracy achieved, respectively. Overall, based on our findings, this technology is promising not only for aircraft monitoring but for airport applications.

  8. Assessment of the probability of an aircraft accidentally crashing on a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravero; Lezer; Lucenet

    1975-01-01

    The probability of an accidental aircraft crash on a power station not situated near a commercial airport is assessed. Three major points in the general analysis of the problem are developed: analysis of accidents as a function of the phase of the flight and in particular during a flight in transit and examin-ation of aircraft crash conditions to determine the angle of impact on the reactor building for example; determination of the apparent surface of buildings allowing for several parameters: geometry of the building and of the aircraft, geography of the site, relative position of the buildings; assessment of air traffic above the region for the year under consideration distinguishing the weight of the aircraft which implies an investigation of the problem for commercial aviation on the one hand (regular or irregular flights, inter-national or internal) and for general aviation on the other hand. The analysis is determined for the years 1980 - 2000 so that ir will be necessary to extrapolate some of the parameters (development of air traffic, safety of transport, etc). (author)

  9. Minor Crashes and ‘Whiplash’ in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R.; Wiechel, John F.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define ‘whiplash’ injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4g (s.d. = 0.5g), respectively. A total of 113 struck vehicle occupants were diagnosed within five weeks post-crash with 761 ICD-9-CM complaints and 427 AIS injuries (99.5% AIS1) attributed to the crashes. No striking vehicle occupants reported complaints. The main ICD-9-CM diagnoses were 40.6% cervical, 22.5% lumbar/sacral and 10.2% thoracic and the main AIS1 diagnoses were 29.7% cervical, 23.2% lumbar/sacral and 14.3% thoracic. The diagnosis disparity was mainly due to coding for pre-existing degenerative diagnosis in ICD-9-CM. Degenerative spine conditions were not significant for increased AIS1 injury risk. Surprisingly, many non-‘whiplash’ diagnoses were found. The AIS injury diagnosis distribution and frequency in these minor delta-V crashes did not correspond with previous minor rear crash studies. A prospectively collected and unbiased minor rear crash databank in the model of CIREN or NASS is highly desirable to verify or refute these results for the U.S. population since the current study cohort may have been influenced by litigation. PMID:19026229

  10. Minor crashes and 'whiplash' in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Gilbertson, Lars G; Prakash, Vikas; Morr, Douglas R; Wiechel, John F

    2008-10-01

    In the United States there is currently a paucity of available real world minor rear crash data with struck vehicle delta-V, or speed change, less than or equal to 15 kilometers per hour. These data are essential as researchers attempt to define 'whiplash' injury risk potential in these minor crashes. This study analyzed a new set of 105 U.S. minor rear aligned crashes between passenger vehicles. Mean struck vehicle delta-V and acceleration were 6.3 km/h (s.d. = 2.1 km/h) and 1.4 g (s.d. = 0.5 g), respectively. A total of 113 struck vehicle occupants were diagnosed within five weeks post-crash with 761 ICD-9-CM complaints and 427 AIS injuries (99.5% AIS1) attributed to the crashes. No striking vehicle occupants reported complaints. The main ICD-9-CM diagnoses were 40.6% cervical, 22.5% lumbar/sacral and 10.2% thoracic and the main AIS1 diagnoses were 29.7% cervical, 23.2% lumbar/sacral and 14.3% thoracic. The diagnosis disparity was mainly due to coding for pre-existing degenerative diagnosis in ICD-9-CM. Degenerative spine conditions were not significant for increased AIS1 injury risk. Surprisingly, many non-'whiplash' diagnoses were found. The AIS injury diagnosis distribution and frequency in these minor delta-V crashes did not correspond with previous minor rear crash studies. A prospectively collected and unbiased minor rear crash databank in the model of CIREN or NASS is highly desirable to verify or refute these results for the U.S. population since the current study cohort may have been influenced by litigation.

  11. Cell phone use while driving and attributable crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Braitman, Keli A; Lund, Adrian K

    2010-10-01

    Prior research has estimated that crash risk is 4 times higher when talking on a cell phone versus not talking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the extent to which drivers talk on cell phones while driving and to compute the implied annual number of crashes that could have been avoided if driver cell phone use were restricted. A national survey of approximately 1200 U.S. drivers was conducted. Respondents were asked to approximate the amount of time spent driving during a given day, number of cell phone calls made or received, and amount of driving time spent talking on a cell phone. Population attributable risk (PAR) was computed for each combination of driver gender, driver age, day of week, and time of day. These were multiplied by the corresponding crash counts to estimate the number of crashes that could have been avoided. On average, drivers were talking on cell phones approximately 7 percent of the time while driving. Rates were higher on weekdays (8%), in the afternoon and evening (8%), and for drivers younger than 30 (16%). Based on these use rates, restricting cell phones while driving could have prevented an estimated 22 percent (i.e., 1.3 million) of the crashes in 2008. Although increased rates of cell phone use while driving should be leading to increased crash rates, crash rates have been declining. Reasons for this paradox are unclear. One possibility is that the increase in cell phone use and crash risk due to cell phone use have been overestimated. Another possibility is that cell phone use has supplanted other driving distractions that were similarly hazardous.

  12. Operations of electric taxis to serve advance reservations by trip chaining: Sensitivity analysis on network size, customer demand and number of charging stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the performance of an Electric Taxi (ET fleet that catered solely for customers with advance reservations. In a previously related research, a customized Paired Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Window and Charging Station (PPDPTWCS had been formulated to solve for the minimum number of taxis that would serve a fixed set of customer demand. The concept behind this fleet optimization was to chain multiple customer trips and trips to Charging Stations (CSs to form a route and assigned to a taxi driver. In this paper the sensitivity of the ET fleet’s operations with respect to network sizes, customer demand densities and number of CSs have been investigated. It also analyzed the market shares of the CSs and the occupancy of a CS over time. The results showed that, (1 the expansion of network size or the increase in customer demand density led to increase in fleet size, number of trips to the CSs and maximum occupancies at the CSs but these performance measures grew at different rates; (2 when the network size and number of CSs were fixed, an increase in customer demand density led to a better utilization of taxis in terms of more customers served per taxi and higher average revenue per taxi; (3 given the same network size and demand density, the ET fleet’s performance was relatively insensitive to the number of CSs; and (4 the usage of individual CS was affected by the number of CS and their locations; and (5 when all the ETs were fully charged at the beginning of the same shift hour, they visited the CSs in bunches when their batteries were about to run out. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the operations of the ET fleet and the CSs. They could be used for making better decisions in the planning of ET operations.

  13. Structural Integrity Assessment of Reactor Containment Subjected to Aircraft Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junyong; Chang, Yoonsuk

    2013-01-01

    When an accident occurs at the NPP, containment building which acts as the last barrier should be assessed and analyzed structural integrity by internal loading or external loading. On many occasions that can occur in the containment internal such as LOCA(Loss Of Coolant Accident) are already reflected to design. Likewise, there are several kinds of accidents that may occur from the outside of containment such as earthquakes, hurricanes and strong wind. However, aircraft crash that at outside of containment is not reflected yet in domestic because NPP sites have been selected based on the probabilistic method. After intentional aircraft crash such as World Trade Center and Pentagon accident in US, social awareness for safety of infrastructure like NPP was raised world widely and it is time for assessment of aircraft crash in domestic. The object of this paper is assessment of reactor containment subjected to aircraft crash by FEM(Finite Element Method). In this paper, assessment of structural integrity of containment building subjected to certain aircraft crash was carried out. Verification of structure integrity of containment by intentional severe accident. Maximum stress 61.21MPa of horizontal shell crash does not penetrate containment. Research for more realistic results needed by steel reinforced concrete model

  14. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2015-10-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings.

  15. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  16. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  17. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A.; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2015-01-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings. PMID:27169094

  18. Development of a prediction model for crash occurrence by analyzing traffic crash and citation data : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-30

    It is commonly acknowledged that factors such as human factors, vehicle characteristics, road design and environmental factors highly contribute to the occurrence of traffic crashes (WHO, 2004). Since human factors usually have the most significant i...

  19. Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. Methods We conducted a carbon audit of two clinical trials (the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 trials), quantifying the carbon dioxide emissions produced over a one-year audit period. Carbon emissions arising from the coordination centre, freight delivery, trial-related travel and commuting were calculated and compared. Results The total emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents during the one-year audit period were 181.3 tonnes for CRASH-1 and 108.2 tonnes for CRASH-2. In total, CRASH-1 emitted 924.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents compared with 508.5 tonnes for CRASH-2. The CRASH-1 trial recruited 10,008 patients over 5.1 years, corresponding to 92 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The CRASH-2 trial recruited 20,211 patients over 4.7 years, corresponding to 25 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The largest contributor to emissions in CRASH-1 was freight delivery of trial materials (86.0 tonnes, 48% of total emissions), whereas the largest contributor in CRASH-2 was energy use by the trial coordination centre (54.6 tonnes, 30% of total emissions). Conclusions Faster patient recruitment in the CRASH-2 trial largely accounted for its greatly increased carbon efficiency in terms of emissions per randomized patient. Lighter trial materials and web-based data entry also contributed to the overall lower carbon emissions in CRASH-2 as compared to CRASH-1. Trial Registration Numbers CRASH-1: ISRCTN74459797 CRASH-2: ISRCTN86750102 PMID:21291517

  20. Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Ian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. Methods We conducted a carbon audit of two clinical trials (the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 trials, quantifying the carbon dioxide emissions produced over a one-year audit period. Carbon emissions arising from the coordination centre, freight delivery, trial-related travel and commuting were calculated and compared. Results The total emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents during the one-year audit period were 181.3 tonnes for CRASH-1 and 108.2 tonnes for CRASH-2. In total, CRASH-1 emitted 924.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents compared with 508.5 tonnes for CRASH-2. The CRASH-1 trial recruited 10,008 patients over 5.1 years, corresponding to 92 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The CRASH-2 trial recruited 20,211 patients over 4.7 years, corresponding to 25 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The largest contributor to emissions in CRASH-1 was freight delivery of trial materials (86.0 tonnes, 48% of total emissions, whereas the largest contributor in CRASH-2 was energy use by the trial coordination centre (54.6 tonnes, 30% of total emissions. Conclusions Faster patient recruitment in the CRASH-2 trial largely accounted for its greatly increased carbon efficiency in terms of emissions per randomized patient. Lighter trial materials and web-based data entry also contributed to the overall lower carbon emissions in CRASH-2 as compared to CRASH-1. Trial Registration Numbers CRASH-1: ISRCTN74459797 CRASH-2: ISRCTN86750102

  1. Creating pedestrian crash scenarios in a driving simulator environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, Susan T; Ahmad, Omar; Schwarz, Chris W

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 in the United States, pedestrian injuries accounted for 3.3% of all traffic injuries but, disproportionately, pedestrian fatalities accounted for roughly 14% of traffic-related deaths (NHTSA 2014 ). In many other countries, pedestrians make up more than 50% of those injured and killed in crashes. This research project examined driver response to crash-imminent situations involving pedestrians in a high-fidelity, full-motion driving simulator. This article presents a scenario development method and discusses experimental design and control issues in conducting pedestrian crash research in a simulation environment. Driving simulators offer a safe environment in which to test driver response and offer the advantage of having virtual pedestrian models that move realistically, unlike test track studies, which by nature must use pedestrian dummies on some moving track. An analysis of pedestrian crash trajectories, speeds, roadside features, and pedestrian behavior was used to create 18 unique crash scenarios representative of the most frequent and most costly crash types. For the study reported here, we only considered scenarios where the car is traveling straight because these represent the majority of fatalities. We manipulated driver expectation of a pedestrian both by presenting intersection and mid-block crossing as well as by using features in the scene to direct the driver's visual attention toward or away from the crossing pedestrian. Three visual environments for the scenarios were used to provide a variety of roadside environments and speed: a 20-30 mph residential area, a 55 mph rural undivided highway, and a 40 mph urban area. Many variables of crash situations were considered in selecting and developing the scenarios, including vehicle and pedestrian movements; roadway and roadside features; environmental conditions; and characteristics of the pedestrian, driver, and vehicle. The driving simulator scenarios were subjected to iterative testing to

  2. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  3. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-08-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. The program encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  4. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-12-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. This program, which began in 1975, encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography, the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  5. Integrated traffic conflict model for estimating crash modification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdah, Usama; Saccomanno, Frank; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2014-10-01

    Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are usually obtained through observational models based on reported crashes. Observational Bayesian before-and-after methods have been applied to obtain more precise estimates of CMFs by accounting for the regression-to-the-mean bias inherent in naive methods. However, sufficient crash data reported over an extended period of time are needed to provide reliable estimates of treatment effects, a requirement that can be a challenge for certain types of treatment. In addition, these studies require that sites analyzed actually receive the treatment to which the CMF pertains. Another key issue with observational approaches is that they are not causal in nature, and as such, cannot provide a sound "behavioral" rationale for the treatment effect. Surrogate safety measures based on high risk vehicle interactions and traffic conflicts have been proposed to address this issue by providing a more "causal perspective" on lack of safety for different road and traffic conditions. The traffic conflict approach has been criticized, however, for lacking a formal link to observed and verified crashes, a difficulty that this paper attempts to resolve by presenting and investigating an alternative approach for estimating CMFs using simulated conflicts that are linked formally to observed crashes. The integrated CMF estimates are compared to estimates from an empirical Bayes (EB) crash-based before-and-after analysis for the same sample of treatment sites. The treatment considered involves changing left turn signal priority at Toronto signalized intersections from permissive to protected-permissive. The results are promising in that the proposed integrated method yields CMFs that closely match those obtained from the crash-based EB before-and-after analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compulsive Cell Phone Use and History of Motor Vehicle Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Stephen S.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; King, Kevin M.; Kernic, Mary A.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian; Mack, Christopher D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use and explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. Methods We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an on-line assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. Results We found the CPOS to be comprised of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (RR 1.13, CI 1.01 to 1.26). For each one-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Conclusions Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. PMID:23910571

  7. Understanding fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-28

    This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014. Information relating to the ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. The average rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.2), which was more than double the average rate of fatal middle-aged road user crashes (3.6, 95% CI 2.5-4.6). There was a significant relationship between age group and deceased road user type (χ 2 (15, N = 226) = 3.56, p road" (87.0%), on roads that were paved (94.2%), dry (74.2%), and had light traffic volume (38.3%). Road user error was identified by the police and/or coroner for the majority of fatal ORU crashes (57.9%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORU deemed to have "misjudged" (40.9%) or "failed to yield" (37.9%). Road user error was the most significant risk factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the Victorian road system to fully accommodate road user errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, and speed zones, as well as behavioral approaches, are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal older road user crashes in the future.

  8. Compulsive cell phone use and history of motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Whitehill, Jennifer M; King, Kevin M; Kernic, Mary A; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian W; Mack, Christopher D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use, and to explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an online assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style, to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. We found the CPOS to be composed of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (relative ratio, 1.13; confidence interval, 1.01-1.26). For each 1-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multivariate poisson lognormal modeling of crashes by type and severity on rural two lane highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ivan, John N; Ravishanker, Nalini; Jackson, Eric

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to improve traffic safety, there has been considerable interest in estimating crash prediction models and identifying factors contributing to crashes. To account for crash frequency variations among crash types and severities, crash prediction models have been estimated by type and severity. The univariate crash count models have been used by researchers to estimate crashes by crash type or severity, in which the crash counts by type or severity are assumed to be independent of one another and modelled separately. When considering crash types and severities simultaneously, this may neglect the potential correlations between crash counts due to the presence of shared unobserved factors across crash types or severities for a specific roadway intersection or segment, and might lead to biased parameter estimation and reduce model accuracy. The focus on this study is to estimate crashes by both crash type and crash severity using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) Multivariate Poisson Lognormal (MVPLN) model, and identify the different effects of contributing factors on different crash type and severity counts on rural two-lane highways. The INLA MVPLN model can simultaneously model crash counts by crash type and crash severity by accounting for the potential correlations among them and significantly decreases the computational time compared with a fully Bayesian fitting of the MVPLN model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper describes estimation of MVPLN models for three-way stop controlled (3ST) intersections, four-way stop controlled (4ST) intersections, four-way signalized (4SG) intersections, and roadway segments on rural two-lane highways. Annual Average Daily traffic (AADT) and variables describing roadway conditions (including presence of lighting, presence of left-turn/right-turn lane, lane width and shoulder width) were used as predictors. A Univariate Poisson Lognormal (UPLN) was estimated by crash type and

  10. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • Not just a rural occurrence: differences in agricultural equipment crash characteristics by rural-urban crash site and proximity to town.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harland, Karisa K; Greenan, Mitchell; Ramirez, Marizen

      2014-09-01

      Although approximately one-third of agricultural equipment-related crashes occur near town, these crashes are thought to be a rural problem. This analysis examines differences between agricultural equipment-related crashes by their urban-rural distribution and distance from a town. Agricultural equipment crashes were collected from nine Midwest Departments of Transportation (2005-2008). Crash zip code was assigned as urban or rural (large, small and isolated) using Rural-Urban Commuting Areas. Crash proximity to a town was estimated with ArcGIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of crashing in an urban versus rural zip codes and across rural gradients. ANOVA analysis estimated mean distance (miles) from a crash site to a town. Over four years, 4444 crashes involved agricultural equipment. About 30% of crashes occurred in urban zip codes. Urban crashes were more likely to be non-collisions (aOR=1.69[1.24-2.30]), involve ≥2 vehicles (2 vehicles: aOR=1.58[1.14-2.20], 3+ vehicles: aOR=1.68[0.98-2.88]), occur in a town (aOR=2.06[1.73-2.45]) and within one mile of a town (aOR=1.65[1.40-1.95]) than rural crashes. The proportion of crashes within a town differed significantly across rural gradients (Purban-rural distribution (Pagricultural equipment are unexpectedly common in urban areas and near towns and cities. Education among all roadway users, increased visibility of agricultural equipment and the development of complete rural roads are needed to increase road safety and prevent agricultural equipment-related crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    • Hotspots and causes of motor vehicle crashes in Baltimore, Maryland: A geospatial analysis of five years of police crash and census data.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dezman, Zachary; de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo; El-Gabri, Deena; Johnson, Abree; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Staton, Catherine A

      2016-11-01

      Road traffic injuries are a leading killer of youth (aged 15-29) and are projected to be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030. To better understand road traffic crash locations and characteristics in the city of Baltimore, we used police and census data, to describe the epidemiology, hotspots, and modifiable risk factors involved to guide further interventions. Data on all crashes in Baltimore City from 2009 to 2013 were made available from the Maryland Automated Accident Reporting System. Socioeconomic data collected by the US CENSUS 2010 were obtained. A time series analysis was conducted using an ARIMA model. We analyzed the geographical distribution of traffic crashes and hotspots using exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial autocorrelation. Spatial regression was performed to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic indicators on hotspots. In Baltimore City, between 2009 and 2013, there were a total of 100,110 crashes reported, with 1% of crashes considered severe. Of all crashes, 7% involved vulnerable road users and 12% had elderly or youth involvement. Reasons for crashes included: distracted driving (31%), speeding (6%), and alcohol or drug use (5%). After 2010, we observed an increasing trend in all crashes especially from March to June. Distracted driving then youth and elderly drivers were consistently the highest risk factors over time. Multivariate spatial regression model including socioeconomic indicators and controlling for age, gender and population size did not show a distinct predictor of crashes explaining only 20% of the road crash variability, indicating crashes are not geographically explained by socioeconomic indicators alone. In Baltimore City, road traffic crashes occurred predominantly in the high density center of the city, involved distracted driving and extremes of age with an increase in crashes from March to June. There was no association between socioeconomic variables where crashes occurred and hotspots. In depth analysis of

    • Evaluation of Vehicle-Based Crash Severity Metrics.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tsoi, Ada H; Gabler, Hampton C

      2015-01-01

      Vehicle change in velocity (delta-v) is a widely used crash severity metric used to estimate occupant injury risk. Despite its widespread use, delta-v has several limitations. Of most concern, delta-v is a vehicle-based metric which does not consider the crash pulse or the performance of occupant restraints, e.g. seatbelts and airbags. Such criticisms have prompted the search for alternative impact severity metrics based upon vehicle kinematics. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the occupant impact velocity (OIV), acceleration severity index (ASI), vehicle pulse index (VPI), and maximum delta-v (delta-v) to predict serious injury in real world crashes. The study was based on the analysis of event data recorders (EDRs) downloaded from the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 2000-2013 cases. All vehicles in the sample were GM passenger cars and light trucks involved in a frontal collision. Rollover crashes were excluded. Vehicles were restricted to single-event crashes that caused an airbag deployment. All EDR data were checked for a successful, completed recording of the event and that the crash pulse was complete. The maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) was used to describe occupant injury outcome. Drivers were categorized into either non-seriously injured group (MAIS2-) or seriously injured group (MAIS3+), based on the severity of any injuries to the thorax, abdomen, and spine. ASI and OIV were calculated according to the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware. VPI was calculated according to ISO/TR 12353-3, with vehicle-specific parameters determined from U.S. New Car Assessment Program crash tests. Using binary logistic regression, the cumulative probability of injury risk was determined for each metric and assessed for statistical significance, goodness-of-fit, and prediction accuracy. The dataset included 102,744 vehicles. A Wald chi-square test showed each vehicle-based crash severity metric

    • Potential Occupant Injury Reduction in Pre-Crash System Equipped Vehicles in the Striking Vehicle of Rear-end Crashes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

      2010-01-01

      To mitigate the severity of rear-end and other collisions, Pre-Crash Systems (PCS) are being developed. These active safety systems utilize radar and/or video cameras to determine when a frontal crash, such as a front-to-back rear-end collisions, is imminent and can brake autonomously, even with no driver input. Of these PCS features, the effects of autonomous pre-crash braking are estimated. To estimate the maximum potential for injury reduction due to autonomous pre-crash braking in the striking vehicle of rear-end crashes, a methodology is presented for determining 1) the reduction in vehicle crash change in velocity (ΔV) due to PCS braking and 2) the number of injuries that could be prevented due to the reduction in collision severity. Injury reduction was only performed for belted drivers, as unbelted drivers have an unknown risk of being thrown out of position. The study was based on 1,406 rear-end striking vehicles from NASS / CDS years 1993 to 2008. PCS parameters were selected from realistic values and varied to examine the effect on system performance. PCS braking authority was varied from 0.5 G's to 0.8 G's while time to collision (TTC) was held at 0.45 seconds. TTC was then varied from 0.3 second to 0.6 seconds while braking authority was held constant at 0.6 G's. A constant braking pulse (step function) and ramp-up braking pulse were used. The study found that automated PCS braking could reduce the crash ΔV in rear-end striking vehicles by an average of 12% - 50% and avoid 0% - 14% of collisions, depending on PCS parameters. Autonomous PCS braking could potentially reduce the number of injured drivers who are belted by 19% to 57%.

    • The Correlation between Duration of Employment, Body Posture and Smoking Habit on Low Back Pain Incidence An Analytic Observational Study Among Taxi Driver in Semarang Municipality

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Syifa Dian Firmanita

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available Introduction: Low back pain ((LBP ranks as number two of neurological disease’s highest prevalence after cephalgia and migraine in Indonesia. Objective: This study aim to determine the relationship between duration of employment, body posture and smoking habit on the incidence of low back pain on taxi driver. Method: This research is an observational analytic cross sectional design. Seventyfour taxi drivers in Semarang municipality was screened with Beck’s Depression Inventory Scale to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Respondents were then given Risk Factor of LBP questionnaire. Data were analyzed with a bivariate correlation test contingency coefficient to see the relationship between duration of employment, body posture, smoking habit and low back pain.Result: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years were moderate smokers and having astenis body posture. The analysis of correlation coefficients contingency test showed a significance relationship between duration of employment (p = 0,000, body posture (p = 0,000, and moderate smokers (p=0.010 with the incidence of LBP. Conclusion: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years with astenis body posture, and moderate smokers were posstively correlated with LBP.

    • Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

      2010-01-01

      Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    • Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle crashes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.

      2016-01-01

      A decade ago, compactness/sprawl indices were developed for metropolitan areas and counties which have been widely used in health and other research. In this study, we first update the original county index to 2010, then develop a refined index that accounts for more relevant factors, and finally seek to test the relationship between sprawl and traffic crash rates using structural equation modelling. Controlling for covariates, we find that sprawl is associated with significantly higher direct and indirect effects on fatal crash rates. The direct effect is likely due to the higher traffic speeds in sprawling areas, and the indirect effect is due to greater vehicle miles driven in such areas. Conversely, sprawl has negative direct relationships with total crashes and non-fatal injury crashes, and these offset (and sometimes overwhelm) the positive indirect effects of sprawl on both types of crashes through the mediating effect of increased vehicle miles driven. The most likely explanation is the greater prevalence of fender benders and other minor accidents in the low speed, high conflict traffic environments of compact areas, negating the lower vehicle miles travelled per capita in such areas.

    • Human fatigue and the crash of the airship Italia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gregg A. Bendrick

      2016-07-01

      Full Text Available The airship Italia, commanded by General Umberto Nobile, crashed during its return flight from the North Pole in 1928. The cause of the accident was never satisfactorily explained. We present evidence that the crash may have been fatigue-related. Nobile's memoirs indicate that at the time of the crash he had been awake for at least 72 h. Sleep deprivation impairs multiple aspects of cognitive functioning necessary for exploration missions. Just prior to the crash, Nobile made three command errors, all of which are of types associated with inadequate sleep. First, he ordered a release of lift gas when he should have restarted engines (an example of incorrect data synthesis, with deterioration of divergent thinking; second, he inappropriately ordered the ship above the cloud layer (a deficiency in the assessment of relative risks; and third, he remained above the cloud layer for a prolonged period of time (examples of attention to secondary problems, and calculation problems. We argue that as a result of these three errors, which would not be expected from such an experienced commander, there was no longer enough static lift to maintain level flight when the ship went below the cloud layer. Applying Circadian Performance Simulation Software to the sleep–wake patterns described by Nobile in his memoirs, we found that the predicted performance for someone awake as long as he had been is extremely low. This supports the historical evidence that human fatigue contributed to the crash of the Italia.

    • How accurate is accident data in road safety research? An application of vehicle black box data regarding pedestrian-to-taxi accidents in Korea.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chung, Younshik; Chang, IlJoon

      2015-11-01

      Recently, the introduction of vehicle black box systems or in-vehicle video event data recorders enables the driver to use the system to collect more accurate crash information such as location, time, and situation at the pre-crash and crash moment, which can be analyzed to find the crash causal factors more accurately. This study presents the vehicle black box system in brief and its application status in Korea. Based on the crash data obtained from the vehicle black box system, this study analyzes the accuracy of the crash data collected from existing road crash data recording method, which has been recorded by police officers based on accident parties' statements or eyewitness's account. The analysis results show that the crash data observed by the existing method have an average of 84.48m of spatial difference and standard deviation of 157.75m as well as average 29.05min of temporal error and standard deviation of 19.24min. Additionally, the average and standard deviation of crash speed errors were found to be 9.03km/h and 7.21km/h, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    • Expert systems for crash data collection

      Science.gov (United States)

      1995-08-01

      The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognizes that many metropolitan areas are struggling with how to respond adequately to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), particu...

  1. Fatal and serious road crashes involving young New Zealand drivers: a latent class clustering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    , infrastructure characteristics, environmental conditions, demographic characteristics, driving behaviour, and pre-crash manoeuvres. The analysis yielded 15 and 8 latent classes of, respectively, single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes, and average posterior probabilities measured the odds of correct...

  2. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  3. New evidence concerning fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M

    2001-05-01

    Fatal crash rates for passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. A prior study, based on fatal crash experience through 1995, reported that vehicle models with antilock brakes were more likely than identical but 1-year-earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, but were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles. Overall, there was no significant effect of antilocks on the likelihood of fatal crashes. Similar analyses, based on fatal crash experience during 1996-98, yielded very different results. During 1996-98, vehicles with antilock brakes were again less likely than earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles, but they were no longer overinvolved in crashes fatal to their own occupants.

  4. Societal costs of traffic crashes and crime in Michigan : 2011 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    "Cost estimates, including both monetary and nonmonetary quality-of-life costs specific to Michigan, were : estimated for overall traffic crashes and index crimes by experts in the field of economics of traffic crashes : and crimes. These cost estima...

  5. Feasibility of a web-based system for police crash report review and information recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Police crash reports include useful additional information that is not available in crash summary records. : This information may include police sketches and narratives and is often needed for detailed site-specific : safety analysis. In addition, so...

  6. Development of requirements and functional specifications for crash event data recorders : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. DOT has conducted research on the requirements for a Crash Event Data Recorder to facilitate the reconstruction of commercial motor vehicle crashes. This report documents the work performed on the Development of Requirements and Functiona...

  7. Correlation Analysis of Freeway Traffic Status and Crashes with Nevada Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-11

    This project is to study the correlation between freeway traffic status and crash risks with the historical freeway ITS data and related crash data in Nevada. With the comprehensive review of previous research results, the Center for Advanced Transpo...

  8. Taxonomy of Older Driver Behaviors and Crash Risk : with Appendices A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This projects objectives were to identify risky behaviors, driving habits, and exposure patterns that have been shown to increase the likelihood of crash involvement among older drivers; and to classify these crash-contributing factors according t...

  9. Glass half-full: On-road glance metrics differentiate crashes from near-crashes in the 100-Car data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppelt, Bobbie D; Seaman, Sean; Lee, Joonbum; Angell, Linda S; Mehler, Bruce; Reimer, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Much of the driver distraction and inattention work to date has focused on concerns over drivers removing their eyes from the forward roadway to perform non-driving-related tasks, and its demonstrable link to safety consequences when these glances are timed at inopportune moments. This extensive literature has established, through the analyses of glance from naturalistic datasets, a clear relationship between eyes-off-road, lead vehicle closing kinematics, and near-crash/crash involvement. This paper looks at the role of driver expectation in influencing drivers' decisions about when and for how long to remove their eyes from the forward roadway in an analysis that consider the combined role of on- and off-road glances. Using glance data collected in the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS), near-crashes were examined separately from crashes to examine how momentary differences in glance allocation over the 25-s prior to a precipitating event can differentiate between these two distinct outcomes. Individual glance metrics of mean single glance duration (MSGD), total glance time (TGT), and glance count for off-road and on-road glance locations were analyzed. Output from the AttenD algorithm (Kircher and Ahlström, 2009) was also analyzed as a hybrid measure; in threading together on- and off-road glances over time, its output produces a pattern of glance behavior meaningful for examining attentional effects. Individual glance metrics calculated at the epoch-level and binned by 10-s units of time across the available epoch lengths revealed that drivers in near-crashes have significantly longer on-road glances, and look less frequently between on- and off- road locations in the moments preceding a precipitating event as compared to crashes. During on-road glances, drivers in near-crashes were found to more frequently sample peripheral regions of the roadway than drivers in crashes. Output from the AttenD algorithm affirmed the cumulative net benefit of longer on

  10. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Overreaction or Fundamentals: Some Lessons from Insiders' Response to the Market Crash of 1987.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyhun, H Nejat

    1990-01-01

    This paper shows that the 1987 crash was a surprise to corporate insiders; insiders became buyers of stock in record numbers immediately following the crash; stocks that declined more during the crash were also purchased more by insiders; and stocks that were purchased more extensively by insiders during October 1987 showed larger positive returns in 1988. The overall evidence suggests that overreaction was an important part of the crash. Copyright 1990 by American Finance Association.

  12. Association Rule Mining on Five Years of Motor Vehicle Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher Jean Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, road accidents kill more than a million people and injure more than 20 million worldwide. This paper aims to offer guidance on road safety and create awareness by pinpointing the major causes of traffic accidents. The study investigates motor vehicle crashes in the Genesee Finger Lakes Region of New York State. Frequency Pattern Growth algorithm is utilized to cultivate knowledge and create association rules to highlight the time and environment settings that cause the most catastrophic crashes. This knowledge can be used to warn drivers about the dangers of accidents, and how the consequences are worse given a specific context. For instance, a discovered rule from the data states that ‘most of the crashes occur between 12:00 pm and 6:00pm’; hence, it is suggested to modify existing navigation application to warn drivers about the increase in risk factor.

  13. Bayesian log-periodic model for financial crashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir; Knapik, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Bayesian approach in econophysics literature about financial bubbles in order to estimate the most probable time for a financial crash to occur. To this end, we propose using noninformative prior distributions to obtain posterior distributions. Since these distributions...... cannot be performed analytically, we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to draw from posterior distributions. We consider three Bayesian models that involve normal and Student’s t-distributions in the disturbances and an AR(1)-GARCH(1,1) structure only within the first case. In the empirical...... part of the study, we analyze a well-known example of financial bubble – the S&P 500 1987 crash – to show the usefulness of the three methods under consideration and crashes of Merval-94, Bovespa-97, IPCMX-94, Hang Seng-97 using the simplest method. The novelty of this research is that the Bayesian...

  14. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  15. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

    2014-02-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC AND TRAFFIC FLOW FACTORS FOR VEHICLE CRASHES USING SPATIOTEMPORAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gill

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety is a major concern in the transportation industry due to immense monetary and emotional burden caused by crashes of various severity levels, especially the injury and fatality ones. To reduce such crashes on all public roads, the safety management processes are commonly implemented which include network screening, problem diagnosis, countermeasure identification, and project prioritization. The selection of countermeasures for potential mitigation of crashes is governed by the influential factors which impact roadway crashes. Crash prediction model is the tool widely adopted by safety practitioners or researchers to link various influential factors to crash occurrences. Many different approaches have been used in the past studies to develop better fitting models which also exhibit prediction accuracy. In this study, a crash prediction model is developed to investigate the vehicular crashes occurring at roadway segments. The spatial and temporal nature of crash data is exploited to form a spatiotemporal model which accounts for the different types of heterogeneities among crash data and geometric or traffic flow variables. This study utilizes the Poisson lognormal model with random effects, which can accommodate the yearly variations in explanatory variables and the spatial correlations among segments. The dependency of different factors linked with roadway geometric, traffic flow, and road surface type on vehicular crashes occurring at segments was established as the width of lanes, posted speed limit, nature of pavement, and AADT were found to be correlated with vehicle crashes.

  17. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least...

  18. Characteristics of cyclist crashes in Italy using latent class analysis and association rule mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Prati

    Full Text Available The factors associated with severity of the bicycle crashes may differ across different bicycle crash patterns. Therefore, it is important to identify distinct bicycle crash patterns with homogeneous attributes. The current study aimed at identifying subgroups of bicycle crashes in Italy and analyzing separately the different bicycle crash types. The present study focused on bicycle crashes that occurred in Italy during the period between 2011 and 2013. We analyzed categorical indicators corresponding to the characteristics of infrastructure (road type, road signage, and location type, road user (i.e., opponent vehicle and cyclist's maneuver, type of collision, age and gender of the cyclist, vehicle (type of opponent vehicle, and the environmental and time period variables (time of the day, day of the week, season, pavement condition, and weather. To identify homogenous subgroups of bicycle crashes, we used latent class analysis. Using latent class analysis, the bicycle crash data set was segmented into 19 classes, which represents 19 different bicycle crash types. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between class membership and severity of the bicycle crashes. Finally, association rules were conducted for each of the latent classes to uncover the factors associated with an increased likelihood of severity. Association rules highlighted different crash characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of severity for each of the 19 bicycle crash types.

  19. Investigation of Roadway Geometric and Traffic Flow Factors for Vehicle Crashes Using Spatiotemporal Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G.; Sakrani, T.; Cheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2017-09-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the transportation industry due to immense monetary and emotional burden caused by crashes of various severity levels, especially the injury and fatality ones. To reduce such crashes on all public roads, the safety management processes are commonly implemented which include network screening, problem diagnosis, countermeasure identification, and project prioritization. The selection of countermeasures for potential mitigation of crashes is governed by the influential factors which impact roadway crashes. Crash prediction model is the tool widely adopted by safety practitioners or researchers to link various influential factors to crash occurrences. Many different approaches have been used in the past studies to develop better fitting models which also exhibit prediction accuracy. In this study, a crash prediction model is developed to investigate the vehicular crashes occurring at roadway segments. The spatial and temporal nature of crash data is exploited to form a spatiotemporal model which accounts for the different types of heterogeneities among crash data and geometric or traffic flow variables. This study utilizes the Poisson lognormal model with random effects, which can accommodate the yearly variations in explanatory variables and the spatial correlations among segments. The dependency of different factors linked with roadway geometric, traffic flow, and road surface type on vehicular crashes occurring at segments was established as the width of lanes, posted speed limit, nature of pavement, and AADT were found to be correlated with vehicle crashes.

  20. Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: DOE standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This standard provides the user with sufficient information to evaluate and assess the significance of aircraft crash risk on facility safety without expending excessive effort where it is not required. It establishes an approach for performing a conservative analysis of the risk posed by a release of hazardous radioactive or chemical material resulting from an aircraft crash into a facility containing significant quantities of such material. This can establish whether a facility has a significant potential for an aircraft impact and whether this has the potential for producing significant offsite or onsite consequences. General implementation guidance, screening and evaluation guidelines, and methodologies for the evaluations are included

  1. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrenholt Lars

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  2. Biomechanical Response and Behavior of Users under Emergency Buffer Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miralbes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the biomechanical effects on elevator users and the injuries sustained should an elevator crash happen. The analysis will focus on buffer impact, signaling that the earlier mentioned buffer is usually located at the bottom of the pit. In order to carry out this analysis, a numerical technique based on finite element method will be used, while elevator users will be simulated by means of automotive dummies. Two crash factors will be studied, namely, location of dummy and fall velocity. The analysis criteria will be damages sustained by the dummy, based on biomechanical index such as HIC, CSI, forces, and accelerations.

  3. Lévy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Bartumeus, Frederic; Grasso, Frank W.

    2009-10-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Lévy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Lévy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Lévy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accomodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for

  4. Levy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Grasso, Frank W; Bartumeus, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Levy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Levy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Levy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accommodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for food

  5. Levy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Grasso, Frank W [BioMimetic and Cognitive Robotics Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, The City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn 11210, NY (United States); Bartumeus, Frederic [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Princeton Environmental Institute, 106 Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton 08544, NJ (United States)], E-mail: zpast@yahoo.com

    2009-10-30

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Levy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Levy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Levy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accommodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for food

  6. Flight-Deck Interface for High-Precision Taxi Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Faced with ever-increasing projections of air traffic, NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have been developing advanced technologies to increase...

  7. Protection against head injuries should not be optional: a case for mandatory installation of side-curtain air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuke, Lance E; Nirula, Raminder; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2010-10-01

    More than 9,000 vehicle occupants die each year in side-impact vehicle collisions, primarily from head injuries. The authors hypothesized that side-curtain air bags significantly improve head and neck safety in side-impact crash testing. Side-impact crash-test data were obtained from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, which ranks occupant protection as good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. Vehicles of the same make and model that underwent side-impact crash testing both with and without side-curtain air bags were compared, as well as the protective effect of these air bags on occupants' risk for head and neck injury. Of all the passenger vehicles, 25 models have undergone side-impact crash testing with and without side-curtain air bags by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Only 3 models without side-curtain air bags (12%) provided good head and neck protection for drivers, while 21 cars with side-curtain air bags (84%) provided good protection (P bags was less dramatic but significant (84% without vs 100% with side-curtain air bags, P = .04). Side-curtain air bags significantly improve vehicle occupant safety in side-impact crash tests. Installation of these air bags should be federally mandated in all passenger vehicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations just before and right after the driving tests were also determined. Data were collected under three driving conditions (i.e. no mitigation (NM), window closed (WC), and window closed plus using high efficiency cabin air filters (WC+HECA)) for each taxi and driver. The results show that, compared to NM, the WC+HECA reduced in-cabin PM2.5 and UFP concentrations, by 37% and 47% respectively (p health.

  9. Factors influencing pediatric Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale in pediatric automobile crashes: results from the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Peter F; Brown, J Kristine; Sochor, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C; Eichelberger, Martin E

    2006-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for more than 50% of pediatric injuries. Triage of pediatric patients to appropriate centers can be based on the crash/injury characteristics. Pediatric motor vehicle crash/injury characteristics can be determined from an in vitro laboratory using child crash dummies. However, to date, no detailed data with respect to outcomes and crash mechanism have been presented with a pediatric in vivo model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network is comprised of 10 level 1 trauma centers. Crashes were examined with regard to age, crash severity (DeltaV), crash direction, restraint use, and airbag deployment. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as outcomes. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18) were used. The database is biases toward a survivor population with few fatalities. Four hundred sixty-one motor vehicle crashes with 2500 injuries were analyzed (242 boys, 219 girls). Irrespective of age, DeltaV > 30 mph resulted in increased ISS and decreased GCS (eg, for 0-4 years, DeltaV 30: ISS = 19.5, GCS = 10.6; P 15) injuries than did backseat passengers (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-3.4). A trend was noted for children younger than 12 years sitting in the front seat to have increased ISS and decreased GCS with airbag deployment but was limited by case number. A reproducible pattern of increased ISS and lower GCS characterized by high severity, lateral crashes in children was noted. Further analysis of the specific injuries as a function and the crash characteristic can help guide management and prevention strategies.

  10. Finite pressure effects on the tokamak sawtooth crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasutaro

    1998-07-01

    The sawtooth crash is a hazardous, disruptive phenomenon that is observed in tokamaks whenever the safety factor at the magnetic axis is below unity. Recently, Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) experimental data has revealed interesting features of the dynamical pressure evolution during the crash phase. Motivated by the experimental results, this dissertation focuses on theoretical modeling of the finite pressure effects on the nonlinear stage of the sawtooth crash. The crash phase has been studied numerically employed a toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) initial value code deduced from the FAR code. For the first time, by starting from a concentric equilibrium, it has been shown that the evolution through an m/n = 1/1 magnetic island induces secondary high-n ballooning instabilities. The magnetic island evolution gives rise to convection of the pressure inside the inversion radius and builds up a steep pressure gradient across the island separatrix, or current sheet, and thereby triggers ballooning instabilities below the threshold for the axisymmetric equilibrium. Due to the onset of secondary ballooning modes, concomitant fine scale vortices and magnetic stochasticity are generated. These effects produce strong flows across the current sheet, and thereby significant modify the m = 1 driven magnetic reconnection process. The resultant interaction of the high-n ballooning modes with the magnetic reconnection process is discussed

  11. STOCK MARKET CRASH AND EXPECTATIONS OF AMERICAN HOUSEHOLDS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUDOMIET, PÉTER; KÉZDI, GÁBOR; WILLIS, ROBERT J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper utilizes data on subjective probabilities to study the impact of the stock market crash of 2008 on households’ expectations about the returns on the stock market index. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study that was fielded in February 2008 through February 2009. The effect of the crash is identified from the date of the interview, which is shown to be exogenous to previous stock market expectations. We estimate the effect of the crash on the population average of expected returns, the population average of the uncertainty about returns (subjective standard deviation), and the cross-sectional heterogeneity in expected returns (disagreement). We show estimates from simple reduced-form regressions on probability answers as well as from a more structural model that focuses on the parameters of interest and separates survey noise from relevant heterogeneity. We find a temporary increase in the population average of expectations and uncertainty right after the crash. The effect on cross-sectional heterogeneity is more significant and longer lasting, which implies substantial long-term increase in disagreement. The increase in disagreement is larger among the stockholders, the more informed, and those with higher cognitive capacity, and disagreement co-moves with trading volume and volatility in the market. PMID:21547244

  12. STOCK MARKET CRASH AND EXPECTATIONS OF AMERICAN HOUSEHOLDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudomiet, Péter; Kézdi, Gábor; Willis, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    This paper utilizes data on subjective probabilities to study the impact of the stock market crash of 2008 on households' expectations about the returns on the stock market index. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study that was fielded in February 2008 through February 2009. The effect of the crash is identified from the date of the interview, which is shown to be exogenous to previous stock market expectations. We estimate the effect of the crash on the population average of expected returns, the population average of the uncertainty about returns (subjective standard deviation), and the cross-sectional heterogeneity in expected returns (disagreement). We show estimates from simple reduced-form regressions on probability answers as well as from a more structural model that focuses on the parameters of interest and separates survey noise from relevant heterogeneity. We find a temporary increase in the population average of expectations and uncertainty right after the crash. The effect on cross-sectional heterogeneity is more significant and longer lasting, which implies substantial long-term increase in disagreement. The increase in disagreement is larger among the stockholders, the more informed, and those with higher cognitive capacity, and disagreement co-moves with trading volume and volatility in the market.

  13. Nonparametric Analyses of Log-Periodic Precursors to Financial Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    We apply two nonparametric methods to further test the hypothesis that log-periodicity characterizes the detrended price trajectory of large financial indices prior to financial crashes or strong corrections. The term "parametric" refers here to the use of the log-periodic power law formula to fit the data; in contrast, "nonparametric" refers to the use of general tools such as Fourier transform, and in the present case the Hilbert transform and the so-called (H, q)-analysis. The analysis using the (H, q)-derivative is applied to seven time series ending with the October 1987 crash, the October 1997 correction and the April 2000 crash of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), the Standard & Poor 500 and Nasdaq indices. The Hilbert transform is applied to two detrended price time series in terms of the ln(tc-t) variable, where tc is the time of the crash. Taking all results together, we find strong evidence for a universal fundamental log-frequency f=1.02±0.05 corresponding to the scaling ratio λ=2.67±0.12. These values are in very good agreement with those obtained in earlier works with different parametric techniques. This note is extracted from a long unpublished report with 58 figures available at , which extensively describes the evidence we have accumulated on these seven time series, in particular by presenting all relevant details so that the reader can judge for himself or herself the validity and robustness of the results.

  14. The cost of crashes in South Africa 2016

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, F

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available to eradicate poverty and grow the economy. The previous Road Traffic Crashes (RTCs) cost estimation was published in 2004 by the Department of Transport (DoT). Though it was useful for benefit/cost evaluation of road safety programmes and projects targeting...

  15. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-12

    Jan 12, 2010 ... Globally, trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a major cause of death and disability with majority occur- ... Bodabodas are a major form of transport in the city of. Kampala and in other towns in East Africa. .... Injury Control Injury Surveillance Reports (2000 – 2003). Injury Control Centre, Kampala. 4.

  16. Exploring older driver crash trend: New Jersey case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanvi Trieu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers age 65 and above are known to experience greater risk on the roadway as well as increasing the risk to other roadway users. Within the next 20 years, their population is expected to increase from 41 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2030. To address this foreseeable change, the nation's recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21 act requires state and local governments to examine older drivers and pedestrian risks and implement countermeasures as appropriate. This research was conducted to assist agencies in strategising for future plans, programmes and initiatives to better address the problem presented. This was accomplished by performing a detailed engineering analysis on crash data of older drivers over a 10-year period (2003–2012 from the state of New Jersey to identify crash trends and characteristics. A major finding from this research was the increase in fatal crashes of older drivers as a function of age. Top-ranking collision types with other vehicles and non-vehicles were identified. Crashes as a function of seasonal change, climate and lighting conditions were also examined.

  17. Aircraft-crash-protected roof design for the European SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I.; Rao, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The European utility requirement document (EURD) places significant emphasis on aircraft crash protection of the reactor building - Alternative concepts were evaluated for protecting the dry-well head and the fuel pool from the effect of the spalling concrete for the General Electric Company's European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) designs

  18. A mathematical definition of the financial bubbles and crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-09-01

    We check the validity of the mathematical method of detecting financial bubbles or crashes, which is based on a data fitting with an exponential function. We show that the period of a bubble can be determined nearly uniquely independent of the precision of data. The method is widely applicable for stock market data such as the Internet bubble.

  19. Real time control of restraint systems in frontal crashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griotto, G.; Lemmen, P.P.M.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den; Leijsen, A.C.P. van; Schie, C. van; Cooper, J.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the targets for fatality reduction in car accidents set by Governments in Europe, USA and Japan can only be met by using advanced technologies that will include a broad range of sensors to monitor the crash likelihood and severity, vehicle condition, occupant type and

  20. Mass casualty triage after an airplane crash near Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ingri L. E.; Weel, Hanneke; Heetveld, Martin J.; van der Zande, Ineke; Bijlsma, Taco S.; Bloemers, Frank W.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2013-01-01

    Triage is an important aspect of the management of mass casualty incidents. This study describes the triage after the Turkish Airlines Crash near Amsterdam in 2009. The results of the triage and the injuries of P3 casualties were evaluated. In addition, the role of the trauma mechanism and its

  1. High-frequency Trading, Algorithmic Finance, and the Flash Crash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Flash Crash of 6 May 2010 has an interesting status in discussions of high-frequency trading, i.e. fully automated, superfast computerized trading: it is invoked both as an important illustration of how this field of algorithmic trading operates and, more often, as an example of how fully aut...... about resonance in quantitative finance....

  2. Narrative text analysis to identify technologies to prevent motor vehicle crashes: examples from military vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Yee, Nathan; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Rossen, Lauren; Bachynski, Kathleen E; Baker, Susan P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the leading circumstances of military vehicle crashes to guide prioritization and implementation of crash avoidance and/or warning technologies. A descriptive study using narrative text analysis on 3,944 military vehicle crash narratives. Crash data on drivers, from 2001 to 2006, were assembled from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center. Reviewers collected information on the circumstances of crashes and determined if vehicle technology could have prevented the crash. Nearly 98% of the crashes were nonfatal; 63% occurred in the U.S. and 24% in Iraq. Among crash events where the direction of the impact was recorded, 32% were to the front of the vehicle and 16% involved a vehicle being rear-ended. Rollovers were mentioned in 20% of the narratives. Technology was determined to have the potential to prevent 26% of the crashes, with the forward collision warning system, rear end collision avoidance, emergency brake assistance, and rollover stability control system likely to have the greatest impacts. Some technologies available for civilian vehicles may prevent certain military crash circumstances. The results of this research are significant in light of ongoing global military operations that rely on military vehicles. Improving the preventive technology featured on military vehicles may be an effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of military crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased inequality in mortality from road crashes among Arabs and Jews in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Avi; Leibovitch-Zur, Shalhevet; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in several countries have shown that the economically disadvantaged seem to have a greater risk of being involved in a car crash. The aim of the present study was to compare rates and trends in mortality and injury from road crashes by age among the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel. Data on road crashes with casualties (2003-2011) from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics were analyzed. Age-adjusted road crash injury rates and mortality rates for 2003 to 2011 were calculated and time trends for each age group and population group are presented. Time trend significance was evaluated by linear regression models. Arabs in Israel are at increased risk of injury and mortality from road crashes compared to Jews. Road crash injury rates have significantly decreased in both populations over the last decade, although the rates have been persistently higher among Arabs. Road crash mortality rates have also decreased significantly in the Jewish population but not in the Arab population. This implies an increase in the disparity in mortality between Jews and Arabs. The most prominent differences in road crash injury and mortality rates between Arabs and Jews can be observed in young adults and young children. The reduction in road crashes in the last decade is a positive achievement. However, the reductions are not equal among Arabs and Jews in Israel. Therefore, an increase in the disparities in mortality from road crashes is apparent. Public health efforts need to focus specifically on decreasing road crashes in the Arab community.

  4. COMPARISON OF SEVERITY AFFECTING FACTORS BETWEEN YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS INVOLVED IN SINGLE VEHICLE CRASHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda DISSANAYAKE, Ph.D., P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Single vehicle crashes contribute to a significant amount of fatalities in the United States. At the same time, fatality crash involvement rates of young and older drivers are well above the average and both groups are identified as critical groups when it comes to highway safety. Therefore, the study described in this paper developed separate models to predict crash severity of single vehicle crashes by young and older drivers. By using the models, factors affecting towards increased crash severity were identified for each group and comparisons were made. Almost all the common identified factors influenced both driver groups in the same manner except in the case of alcohol and drug usage, which indicated an interesting finding in the case of crash severity of older drivers. Speeding and non-usage of a restraint device were the two most important factors affecting towards increased crash severity for both driver groups at all severity levels. Additionally, ejection and existence of curve/grade were determinants of higher young driver crash severity at all levels. For older drivers, having a frontal impact point was a severity determinant at all levels. County of residence and weather condition were not effective in making any changes with respect to crash severity at any level, while some other factors had a minimal affect. Findings of this study are beneficial in investigating the potential ways of reducing crash severity, which could also be influential in reducing the occurrence of crashes as well.

  5. FAA Air Traffic Activity, Fiscal Year 1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    CONTROL I(8ERS B1 STATE1*1 ICONIINULD) STATE AN0 LOCATION U AIR AIR GENERAL -ML -" LOCATION NAME INOLN IF ItR 6 a01AL CARRIER TAXI AVIATION MILITAR...I RUC 235 0 0 19 216 RLSEAU P14 N 2 IMP 55 1 I §4 0 RSEBUKG L N 2 SE 718 0 0 78 0 ROSWELL NM N 1 ROW 902 196 66 5,2 96 RUGBY NC h 2 1MP 0 C 5 0...LIT1) LA 301.2 291 P85 2989 22 At0101111 1UNICIPAL 1083) L A b1 0 1 63 0 CkOH~ty It 1.L’S (321 LA 3 0 0 3 0 LUN ICt (E8) LA 50 C 0 52a 0 TNT AC CASTAL

  6. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  7. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic ar...

  8. Activity modes selection for project crashing through deterministic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Mohanty

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The time-cost trade-off problem addressed by CPM-based analytical approaches, assume unlimited resources and the existence of a continuous time-cost function. However, given the discrete nature of most resources, the activities can often be crashed only stepwise. Activity crashing for discrete time-cost function is also known as the activity modes selection problem in the project management. This problem is known to be NP-hard. Sophisticated optimization techniques such as Dynamic Programming, Integer Programming, Genetic Algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization have been used for finding efficient solution to activity modes selection problem. The paper presents a simple method that can provide efficient solution to activity modes selection problem for project crashing.Design/methodology/approach: Simulation based method implemented on electronic spreadsheet to determine activity modes for project crashing. The method is illustrated with the help of an example.Findings: The paper shows that a simple approach based on simple heuristic and deterministic simulation can give good result comparable to sophisticated optimization techniques.Research limitations/implications: The simulation based crashing method presented in this paper is developed to return satisfactory solutions but not necessarily an optimal solution.Practical implications: The use of spreadsheets for solving the Management Science and Operations Research problems make the techniques more accessible to practitioners. Spreadsheets provide a natural interface for model building, are easy to use in terms of inputs, solutions and report generation, and allow users to perform what-if analysis.Originality/value: The paper presents the application of simulation implemented on a spreadsheet to determine efficient solution to discrete time cost tradeoff problem.

  9. The risk of groundling fatalities from unintentional airplane crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K M; Rabouw, R F; Cooke, R M

    2001-12-01

    The crashes of four hijacked commercial planes on September 11, 2001, and the repeated televised images of the consequent collapse of the World Trade Center and one side of the Pentagon will inevitably change people's perceptions of the mortality risks to people on the ground from crashing airplanes. Goldstein and colleagues were the first to quantify the risk for Americans of being killed on the ground from a crashing airplane for unintentional events, providing average point estimates of 6 in a hundred million for annual risk and 4.2 in a million for lifetime risk. They noted that the lifetime risk result exceeded the commonly used risk management threshold of 1 in a million, and suggested that the risk to "groundlings" could be a useful risk communication tool because (a) it is a man-made risk (b) arising from economic activities (c) from which the victims derive no benefit and (d) exposure to which the victims cannot control. Their results have been used in risk communication. This analysis provides updated estimates of groundling fatality risks from unintentional crashes using more recent data and a geographical information system approach to modeling the population around airports. The results suggest that the average annual risk is now 1.2 in a hundred million and the lifetime risk is now 9 in ten million (below the risk management threshold). Analysis of the variability and uncertainty of this estimate, however, suggests that the exposure to groundling fatality risk varies by about a factor of approximately 100 in the spatial dimension of distance to an airport, with the risk declining rapidly outside the first 2 miles around an airport. We believe that the risk to groundlings from crashing airplanes is more useful in the context of risk communication when information about variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is characterized, but we suspect that recent events will alter its utility in risk communication.

  10. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Bae, Hyun Hye

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, personal rapid transit (PRT) has been viewed as one of the most promising ways to provide sustainable, economical, and convenient transportation while reducing reliance on personal automobiles. However, despite concerted efforts around the world, the promise of PRT has yet...... to be realized. This work demonstrates that different physical means, such as the Korean taxi system, can be used to perform the same highest-level functional requirement, satisfy the same constraints, and provide many of the benefits that are expected of a city-scale personal rapid transit system. Thus, Korean...... taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...

  12. SELF-REPORTED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CRASH-INVOLVED AND NON-CRASH-INVOLVED THREE-WHEELER DRIVERS IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. SOMASUNDARASWARAN, Dr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being an important mode of transportation in the developing world, little research has been conducted to understand the factors contributing to crashes involving three wheel vehicles. This study surveyed a convenient sample of 505 professional three-wheeler drivers in Sri Lanka to explore the similarities and differences in the demographic and work characteristics between three-wheeler drivers who reported experiencing at least one collision in the past twelve months and those who reported that they were not involved in any collisions. Our study revealed some interesting results that were quite different from those obtained in the studies on professional drivers in developed countries. In particular, both drivers with less than one year and more than five years of driving experience in our study were found to be associated with higher probability of crash involvement. Also, the number of trips per day and the average travel distance per trip were found to be insignificant in delineating between crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. Moreover, crash-involved drivers, on average, have significantly fewer working days per week and fewer hours per day, suggesting that the conventional approach used in most developed countries to tackle fatigue among professional drivers do not appear to be suitable for solving the road safety problem involving three-wheeler drivers in a developing country. Also, since the age of most drivers falls in a narrow range, this U-shaped relationship is not likely to be a result of youth and ageing but of inexperience in newer drivers and complacency in more experienced drivers. Lastly, since a relatively large proportion of the drivers had driven without a valid driving license, legislation and enforcement interventions are likely to be less effective than education and engineering countermeasures.

  13. Social costs of road crashes: An international analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Wim; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income countries (HICs) and seven low and middle income countries (LMICs). Costs are expressed as a proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP). Differences between countries are described and explained. These are partly a consequence of differences in the road safety level, but there are also methodological explanations. Countries may or may not correct for underreporting of road crashes, they may or may not use the internationally recommended willingness to pay (WTP)-method for estimating human costs, and there are methodological differences regarding the calculation of some other cost components. The analysis shows that the social costs of road crashes in HICs range from 0.5% to 6.0% of the GDP with an average of 2.7%. Excluding countries that do not use a WTP- method for estimating human costs and countries that do not correct for underreporting, results in average costs of 3.3% of GDP. For LMICs that do correct for underreporting the share in GDP ranges from 1.1% to 2.9%. However, none of the LMICs included has performed a WTP study of the human costs. A major part of the costs is related to injuries: an average share of 50% for both HICs and LMICs. The average share of fatalities in the costs is 23% and 30% respectively. Prevention of injuries is thus important to bring down the socio-economic burden of road crashes. The paper shows that there are methodological differences between countries regarding cost components that are taken into account and regarding the methods used to estimate specific cost components. In order to be able to make sound comparisons of the costs of road crashes across countries, (further) harmonization of cost studies is recommended. This can be

  14. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  15. Optimal Fare, Vacancy Rate, and Subsidies under Log-Linear Demand with the Consideration of Externalities for a Cruising Taxi Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsiao Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Externality is an important issue for formulating the regulation policy of a taxi market. However, this issue is rarely taken into account in the current policy-making process, and it has not been adequately explored in prior research. This study extends the model proposed by Chang and Chu in 2009 with the aim of exploring the effect of externality on the optimization of the regulation policy of a cruising taxi market. A closed-form solution for optimizing the fare, vacancy rate, and subsidy of the market is derived. The results show that when the externality of taxi trips is taken into consideration, the optimal vacancy rate should be lower and the subsidy should be higher than they are under current conditions where externality is not considered. The results of the sensitivity analysis on the occupied and vacant distance indicate that the relation of the vacant distance to the marginal external cost is more sensitive than the occupied distance. The result of the sensitivity analysis on the subsidy shows the existence of a negative relationship between the marginal external cost and the optimal subsidy.

  16. Complexities’ day-to-day dynamic evolution analysis and prediction for a Didi taxi trip network based on complex network theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Lu, Jian; Zhou, Jialin; Zhu, Jinqing; Li, Yunxuan; Wan, Qian

    2018-03-01

    Didi Dache is the most popular taxi order mobile app in China, which provides online taxi-hailing service. The obtained big database from this app could be used to analyze the complexities’ day-to-day dynamic evolution of Didi taxi trip network (DTTN) from the level of complex network dynamics. First, this paper proposes the data cleaning and modeling methods for expressing Nanjing’s DTTN as a complex network. Second, the three consecutive weeks’ data are cleaned to establish 21 DTTNs based on the proposed big data processing technology. Then, multiple topology measures that characterize the complexities’ day-to-day dynamic evolution of these networks are provided. Third, these measures of 21 DTTNs are calculated and subsequently explained with actual implications. They are used as a training set for modeling the BP neural network which is designed for predicting DTTN complexities evolution. Finally, the reliability of the designed BP neural network is verified by comparing with the actual data and the results obtained from ARIMA method simultaneously. Because network complexities are the basis for modeling cascading failures and conducting link prediction in complex system, this proposed research framework not only provides a novel perspective for analyzing DTTN from the level of system aggregated behavior, but can also be used to improve the DTTN management level.

  17. Taxi 'sugar daddies' and taxi queens: Male taxi driver attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheryl Potgieter, Anna Strebel, Tamara Shefer, and Claire Wagner

    2012-12-14

    Dec 14, 2012 ... research methodology and is particularly interested in best practice and teaching research ..... A total of 170 were completed in English and 55 in ..... materiality of love amongst South African township youth in the context of.

  18. Assessing the role of pavement macrotexture in preventing crashes on highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Kusam, Prasanna R; Patel, Kuvleshay J

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the role of pavement macrotexture in preventing crashes on highways in the State of North Carolina. Laser profilometer data obtained from the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) for highways comprising four corridors are processed to calculate pavement macrotexture at 100-m (approximately 330-ft) sections according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Crash data collected over the same lengths of the corridors were integrated with the calculated pavement macrotexture for each section. Scatterplots were generated to assess the role of pavement macrotexture on crashes and logarithm of crashes. Regression analyses were conducted by considering predictor variables such as million vehicle miles of travel (as a function of traffic volume and length), the number of interchanges, the number of at-grade intersections, the number of grade-separated interchanges, and the number of bridges, culverts, and overhead signs along with pavement macrotexture to study the statistical significance of relationship between pavement macrotexture and crashes (both linear and log-linear) when compared to other predictor variables. Scatterplots and regression analysis conducted indicate a more statistically significant relationship between pavement macrotexture and logarithm of crashes than between pavement macrotexture and crashes. The coefficient for pavement macrotexture, in general, is negative, indicating that the number of crashes or logarithm of crashes decreases as it increases. The relation between pavement macrotexture and logarithm of crashes is generally stronger than between most other predictor variables and crashes or logarithm of crashes. Based on results obtained, it can be concluded that maintaining pavement macrotexture greater than or equal to 1.524 mm (0.06 in.) as a threshold limit would possibly reduce crashes and provide safe transportation to road users on highways.

  19. Comparison of four statistical and machine learning methods for crash severity prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranitalab, Amirfarrokh; Khattak, Aemal

    2017-11-01

    Crash severity prediction models enable different agencies to predict the severity of a reported crash with unknown severity or the severity of crashes that may be expected to occur sometime in the future. This paper had three main objectives: comparison of the performance of four statistical and machine learning methods including Multinomial Logit (MNL), Nearest Neighbor Classification (NNC), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forests (RF), in predicting traffic crash severity; developing a crash costs-based approach for comparison of crash severity prediction methods; and investigating the effects of data clustering methods comprising K-means Clustering (KC) and Latent Class Clustering (LCC), on the performance of crash severity prediction models. The 2012-2015 reported crash data from Nebraska, United States was obtained and two-vehicle crashes were extracted as the analysis data. The dataset was split into training/estimation (2012-2014) and validation (2015) subsets. The four prediction methods were trained/estimated using the training/estimation dataset and the correct prediction rates for each crash severity level, overall correct prediction rate and a proposed crash costs-based accuracy measure were obtained for the validation dataset. The correct prediction rates and the proposed approach showed NNC had the best prediction performance in overall and in more severe crashes. RF and SVM had the next two sufficient performances and MNL was the weakest method. Data clustering did not affect the prediction results of SVM, but KC improved the prediction performance of MNL, NNC and RF, while LCC caused improvement in MNL and RF but weakened the performance of NNC. Overall correct prediction rate had almost the exact opposite results compared to the proposed approach, showing that neglecting the crash costs can lead to misjudgment in choosing the right prediction method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of time and weather effects on crash types using full Bayesian multivariate Poisson lognormal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Barua, Sudip; Islam, Md Tazul

    2014-12-01

    Previous research shows that various weather elements have significant effects on crash occurrence and risk; however, little is known about how these elements affect different crash types. Consequently, this study investigates the impact of weather elements and sudden extreme snow or rain weather changes on crash type. Multivariate models were used for seven crash types using five years of daily weather and crash data collected for the entire City of Edmonton. In addition, the yearly trend and random variation of parameters across the years were analyzed by using four different modeling formulations. The proposed models were estimated in a full Bayesian context via Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The multivariate Poisson lognormal model with yearly varying coefficients provided the best fit for the data according to Deviance Information Criteria. Overall, results showed that temperature and snowfall were statistically significant with intuitive signs (crashes decrease with increasing temperature; crashes increase as snowfall intensity increases) for all crash types, while rainfall was mostly insignificant. Previous snow showed mixed results, being statistically significant and positively related to certain crash types, while negatively related or insignificant in other cases. Maximum wind gust speed was found mostly insignificant with a few exceptions that were positively related to crash type. Major snow or rain events following a dry weather condition were highly significant and positively related to three crash types: Follow-Too-Close, Stop-Sign-Violation, and Ran-Off-Road crashes. The day-of-the-week dummy variables were statistically significant, indicating a possible weekly variation in exposure. Transportation authorities might use the above results to improve road safety by providing drivers with information regarding the risk of certain crash types for a particular weather condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysing the Severity and Frequency of Traffic Crashes in Riyadh City Using Statistical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Altwaijri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic crashes in Riyadh city cause losses in the form of deaths, injuries and property damages, in addition to the pain and social tragedy affecting families of the victims. In 2005, there were a total of 47,341 injury traffic crashes occurred in Riyadh city (19% of the total KSA crashes and 9% of those crashes were severe. Road safety in Riyadh city may have been adversely affected by: high car ownership, migration of people to Riyadh city, high daily trips reached about 6 million, high rate of income, low-cost of petrol, drivers from different nationalities, young drivers and tremendous growth in population which creates a high level of mobility and transport activities in the city. The primary objective of this paper is therefore to explore factors affecting the severity and frequency of road crashes in Riyadh city using appropriate statistical models aiming to establish effective safety policies ready to be implemented to reduce the severity and frequency of road crashes in Riyadh city. Crash data for Riyadh city were collected from the Higher Commission for the Development of Riyadh (HCDR for a period of five years from 1425H to 1429H (roughly corresponding to 2004-2008. Crash data were classified into three categories: fatal, serious-injury and slight-injury. Two nominal response models have been developed: a standard multinomial logit model (MNL and a mixed logit model to injury-related crash data. Due to a severe underreporting problem on the slight injury crashes binary and mixed binary logistic regression models were also estimated for two categories of severity: fatal and serious crashes. For frequency, two count models such as Negative Binomial (NB models were employed and the unit of analysis was 168 HAIs (wards in Riyadh city. Ward-level crash data are disaggregated by severity of the crash (such as fatal and serious injury crashes. The results from both multinomial and binary response models are found to be fairly consistent but

  2. Sir Hugh Cairns: The neurosurgeon who introduced crash helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsivadhanan Sundaravadhanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.

  3. Response of equipment in nuclear power plants to airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalk, M.; Woelfel, H.

    1975-01-01

    The question has been posed concerning the effect of airplane crash on the safety of the equipment (pipes, vessels, etc.) mounted on the floors and walls inside the outer structure. This equipment is set into vibration by the crash-induced shaking of the outer building; the resulting stresses may be quite appreciable. The following questions arise: a) how large are these stresses. Can they, for example, be larger than the stresses produced by earthquake loading. b) What are the significant response parameters. c) Which methods of analysis and design criteria are reasonable. To what extent is it possible to apply the techniques which have become generally accepted for earthquake loading. The paper presents a preliminary answer to these questions pending further work in this area. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Thermal characterization of QSH crashes in RFX-mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, Alessandro; Gobbin, Marco; Franz, Paolo; Marrelli, Lionello; Ruzzon, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    QSH (Quasi Single Helicity) states have gained a growing interest in RFP research since they show improved confinement and transport features with respect to standard discharges. However, ITBs associated with QSH states can be obtained only in a transient way, and in general with a shorter lifetime with respect to that of the QSH phase [1]. In this work the analysis has essentially the purpose of confirming, with TS data, the Te dynamics seen with the double filter, multichord SXR spectrometer in [1]: TS data allow a better spatial definition of temperature profile and a more reliable description of plasma edge. Te profile features in rising and crashing phases are determined via ensemble averaging, possible precursors of thermal crashes are identified, while q(r) behavior is studied identifying the thermal structures associated with rational surfaces. [4pt] [1] Ruzzon et al, 39th EPS Conference, P2.023

  5. Relationship of Worldwide Rocket Launch Crashes with Geophysical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical comparison of launch crashes at different worldwide space ports with geophysical factors has been performed. A comprehensive database has been compiled, which includes 50 years of information from the beginning of the space age in 1957 about launch crashes occurring world-wide. Special attention has been paid to statistics concerning launches at the largest space ports: Plesetsk, Baikonur, Cape Canaveral, and Vandenberg. In search of a possible influence of geophysical factors on launch failures, such parameters as the vehicle type, local time, season, sunspot number, high-energy electron fluxes, and solar proton events have been examined. Also, we have analyzed correlations with the geomagnetic indices as indirect indicators of the space weather condition. Regularities found in this study suggest that further detailed studies of space weather effects on launcher systems, especially in the high-latitude regions, should be performed.

  6. Identifying the Bottom Line after a Stock Market Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, B. M.

    In this empirical paper we show that in the months following a crash there is a distinct connection between the fall of stock prices and the increase in the range of interest rates for a sample of bonds. This variable, which is often referred to as the interest rate spread variable, can be considered as a statistical measure for the disparity in lenders' opinions about the future; in other words, it provides an operational definition of the uncertainty faced by economic agents. The observation that there is a strong negative correlation between stock prices and the spread variable relies on the examination of eight major crashes in the United States between 1857 and 1987. That relationship which has remained valid for one and a half century in spite of important changes in the organization of financial markets can be of interest in the perspective of Monte Carlo simulations of stock markets.

  7. Simulations of Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using the CRASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Matthew; Kuranz, Carolyn; Fein, Jeff; Wan, Willow; Young, Rachel; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations can assist in the design and analysis of laboratory astrophysics experiments. The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) at the University of Michigan developed a code that has been used to design and analyze high-energy-density experiments on OMEGA, NIF, and other large laser facilities. This Eulerian code uses block-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with implicit multigroup radiation transport, electron heat conduction and laser ray tracing. This poster will demonstrate some of the experiments the CRASH code has helped design or analyze including: Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, magnetized flows, jets, and laser-produced plasmas. This work is funded by the following grants: DEFC52-08NA28616, DE-NA0001840, and DE-NA0002032.

  8. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2017-01-01

    at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web....../value This study advances the knowledge about police service quality with a novel expert-based decision support tool based on SERVQUAL, MCDA and LCA, demonstrates its applicability in countries with a high-police service, and opportunities and barriers for increasing the crash reporting rate....... participated in the survey that yielded 86 complete responses. Findings The novel approach was successfully applied and its implementation demonstrated the usefulness of the tool even in countries with a high police service. Results showed that the participating stakeholders perceived human factors as more...

  9. Response of equipment in nuclear power plants to airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalk, M.; Woelfel, H.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Germany are to be designed against airplane crash. Two problems arise: first, the local problem of penetration as well as local destruction of the building and secondly the airplane induced vibrations of the whole building which cause loadings for secondary systems (equipment). This paper deals especially with the second problem. Floor response spectra due to airplane crash are presented for two different power plant buildings. The influence of various parameters (time history of excitation, direction and location of impact, mathematical model, soil, damping, etc.) are discussed. A comparison with the results of earthquake loading is given. Suggestions are made for developing suitable floor design spectra and using them to analyse multidegree-of-freedom systems. However, the paper gives only a partial answer to the questions arising because of some important restrictions which had to be made. Studies concerning these restrictions are still being conducted and will be presented in a separate paper. (Auth.)

  10. Plane down in the city: Operation Crash and Surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Duane F; Draper, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the experiences gained from the largest full-scale exercise ever conducted in the State of Florida, specifically regarding the Orlando International Airport (MCO) venues. The exercise was centred on an airplane crashing into a hotel just outside of MCO property. The scenario clarified details regarding Incident Command and the unique jurisdictional responsibilities associated with a large-scale mass casualty incident. There were additional challenges with airline operations, walking wounded, and information sharing that provided valuable experiences toward enhancing emergency operations. This article also outlines information gained by the MCO "go team" that traveled to San Francisco following the crash of Asiana flight 214. This real-life incident shone a light on many of the strengths and opportunities found throughout the MCO exercise and this article shows the interrelationship of both of these invaluable experiences.

  11. German taxi drivers' experiences and expressions of driving anger: Are the driving anger scale and the driving anger expression inventory valid measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Stefan; Oehl, Michael; Seigies, Kristin

    2017-11-17

    The objective of this article was 2-fold: firstly, we wanted to examine whether the original Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the original Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) apply to German professional taxi drivers because these scales have previously been given to professional and particularly to nonprofessional drivers in different countries. Secondly, we wanted to examine possible differences in driving anger experience and expression between professional German taxi drivers and nonprofessional German drivers. We applied German versions of the DAS, the DAX, and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) to a sample of 138 professional German taxi drivers. We then compared their ratings to the ratings of a sample of 1,136 nonprofessional German drivers (Oehl and Brandenburg n.d. ). Regarding our first objective, confirmatory factor analysis shows that the model fit of the DAS is better for nonprofessional drivers than for professional drivers. The DAX applies neither to professional nor to nonprofessional German drivers properly. Consequently, we suggest modified shorter versions of both scales for professional drivers. The STAXI applies to both professional and nonprofessional drivers. With respect to our second objective, we show that professional drivers experience significantly less driving anger than nonprofessional drivers, but they express more driving anger. We conclude that the STAXI can be applied to professional German taxi drivers. In contrast, for the DAS and the DAX we found particular shorter versions for professional taxi drivers. Especially for the DAX, most statements were too strong for German drivers to agree to. They do not show behaviors related to driving anger expression as they are described in the DAX. These problems with the original American DAX items are in line with several other studies in different countries. Future investigations should examine whether (professional) drivers from further countries express their anger

  12. Mortality and hospitalization incidence among employees of the Thule air-base 1963-1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juel, K.

    1987-01-01

    January 21th 1968 an American B52 bomber with nuclear weapons aboard crashed close to the Thule air-base on Greenland. This report considers mortality and hospitalization incidence among the 4322 persons employed at the air-base. (EG)

  13. Topological data analysis of financial time series: Landscapes of crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidea, Marian; Katz, Yuri

    2018-02-01

    We explore the evolution of daily returns of four major US stock market indices during the technology crash of 2000, and the financial crisis of 2007-2009. Our methodology is based on topological data analysis (TDA). We use persistence homology to detect and quantify topological patterns that appear in multidimensional time series. Using a sliding window, we extract time-dependent point cloud data sets, to which we associate a topological space. We detect transient loops that appear in this space, and we measure their persistence. This is encoded in real-valued functions referred to as a 'persistence landscapes'. We quantify the temporal changes in persistence landscapes via their Lp-norms. We test this procedure on multidimensional time series generated by various non-linear and non-equilibrium models. We find that, in the vicinity of financial meltdowns, the Lp-norms exhibit strong growth prior to the primary peak, which ascends during a crash. Remarkably, the average spectral density at low frequencies of the time series of Lp-norms of the persistence landscapes demonstrates a strong rising trend for 250 trading days prior to either dotcom crash on 03/10/2000, or to the Lehman bankruptcy on 09/15/2008. Our study suggests that TDA provides a new type of econometric analysis, which complements the standard statistical measures. The method can be used to detect early warning signals of imminent market crashes. We believe that this approach can be used beyond the analysis of financial time series presented here.

  14. Can a stochastic cusp catastrophe model explain stock market crashes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2009), s. 1824-1836 ISSN 0165-1889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic cusp catastrophe * Bifurcations * Singularity * Nonlinear dynamics * Stock market crash Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2009

  15. Post-Crash Neoliberalism in Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Whitham, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Despite the massive state interventions into financial markets following the crash of 2007, the academic literature on the political-economic theory and practice of neoliberalism – a phenomenon often (mis)identified as equivalent to ‘free market’ fundamentalism or a second wave of laissez-faire – has continued to flourish, rather than decline i...

  16. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pizza

    Full Text Available Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, narcolepsy type 2 (NT2 and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population.We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1 and 470 healthy subjects.Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years, a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30-3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26-3.30], as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps. Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56-2.69]. Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects.Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment.

  17. Volvo and Infiniti drivers' experiences with select crash avoidance technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitman, Keli A; McCartt, Anne T; Zuby, David S; Singer, Jeremiah

    2010-06-01

    Vehicle-based crash avoidance systems can potentially reduce crashes, but success depends on driver acceptance and understanding. This study gauged driver use, experience, and acceptance among early adopters of select technologies. Telephone interviews were conducted in early 2009 with 380 owners of Volvo vehicles equipped with forward collision warning with autobrake, lane departure warning, side-view assist, and/or active bi-xenon headlights and 485 owners of Infiniti vehicles with lane departure warning/prevention. Most owners kept systems turned on most of the time, especially forward collision warning with autobrake and side-view assist. The exception was lane departure prevention; many owners were unaware they had it, and the system must be activated each time the vehicle is started. Most owners reported being safer with the technologies and would want them again on their next vehicles. Perceived false or unnecessary warnings were fairly common, particularly with side-view assist. Some systems were annoying, especially lane departure warning. Many owners reported safer driving behaviors such as greater use of turn signals (lane departure warning), increased following distance (forward collision warning), and checking side mirrors more frequently (side-view assist), but some reported driving faster at night (active headlights). Despite some unnecessary or annoying warnings, most Volvo and Infiniti owners use crash avoidance systems most of the time. Among early adopters, the first requirement of effective warning systems (that owners use the technology) seems largely met. Systems requiring activation by drivers for each trip are used less often. Owner experience with the latest technologies from other automobile manufacturers should be studied, as well as for vehicles on which technologies are standard (versus optional) equipment. The effectiveness of technologies in preventing and mitigating crashes and injuries, and user acceptance of interfaces, should be

  18. Aircraft crash survivability from viscous injury in vertical impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated viscous injury from vertical impact loading to determine if it is critical to survivability of aircraft accidents. A unique database was built from autopsy reports and accident investigations combining injury data with the vehicle impact data. Computer models were created and used to assess injury potential. Common design limits and actual crash data from full scale research experiments were used as inputs. The results were analyzed according to publi...

  19. Physics of collapses. Probabilistic occurrence of ELMs and crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Toda, S.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, K.; Fukuyama, A.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical picture for the collapse is proposed. The physics picture of the crash phenomena, which is based on the turbulence-turbulence transition, is extended to include the statistical variance of observables. The dynamics of the plasma gradient and the turbulence level is studied, with the hysteresis nature in the flux-gradient relation. The probabilistic excitation is predicted. The critical condition is described by the statistical probability. (author)

  20. Crisis in the air : An investigation of AirAsia’s crisis-response effectiveness based on frame alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerken, Fynn; van der Land, Sarah; Van der Meer, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of organisational crisis-response strategies and public online response by applying a framing perspective. This has been done to study the crash of AirAsia’s flight QZ8501, in which a three-step methodological case study approach has been employed. First, a